Sample records for british american tobacco

  1. British American Tobacco ghost-wrote reports on tobacco advertising bans by the International Advertising Association and J J Boddewyn. (United States)

    Davis, R M


    In 1983 and 1986, the International Advertising Association (IAA) published an original version and then a revision of a report entitled "Tobacco Advertising Bans and Consumption in 16 Countries," which were edited by J J Boddewyn, a marketing professor. The reports concluded that tobacco advertising bans have not been accompanied by any significant reduction in tobacco consumption. Opponents of tobacco advertising restrictions trumpeted the IAA reports in print materials, media communications and legislative hearings during the 1980s and beyond. A new analysis of tobacco industry documents and transcripts of tobacco litigation testimony reveals that British American Tobacco ghost-wrote the IAA reports and that the Tobacco Institute (the trade association then representing the major US cigarette manufacturers) helped to arrange for Boddewyn to present the findings to the US Congress and the media. Further research on tobacco industry documents and tobacco litigation transcripts should assess whether tobacco industry sources were responsible for ghost-writing other studies favourable to the industry.

  2. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

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    Kelley Lee


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  3. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia. (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha


    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.

  4. Gaining access to Vietnam's cigarette market: British American Tobacco's strategy to enter 'a huge market which will become enormous'. (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinh, H V; Mackenzie, R; Gilmore, A B; Minh, N T; Collin, J


    British American Tobacco (BAT) has made concerted efforts since the late 1980s to establish a major presence in Vietnam, among the world's 10 fastest growing tobacco markets. Until 2000, Vietnam's tight regulation of the industry has been largely driven by trade and investment policy, resulting in a stronger domestic industry but increased production and consumption of tobacco products. BAT gained market access, and achieved a dominant market share among TTCs, through leaf development, licensed manufacturing, and the contraband trade. With impending trade liberalization in Vietnam, the company is now well placed to further expand sales. The ambitious National Tobacco Control Policy, adopted in 2000, signals a shift in political priority towards the protection of public health. Effective implementation and enforcement of its comprehensive measures will depend on the public health community's ability to draw support from regional and global experience, notably the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).

  5. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation". (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide


    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union.

  6. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

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    Katherine E Smith


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and

  7. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  8. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  9. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking. (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica


    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  10. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  11. Dystopia in British and American literature




    The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.

  12. On Grammatical Features of American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    British English and American English are the two major varieties of English in the world. Due to their independent development with the different historical backgrounds, geography and culture, there are also many differences between them. As the English learners, it is necessary for people to get somewhat acquainted with the differences between them to help people's study and keep people from unnecessary troubles. Because some people who don't know British and American English clearly and have a prejudice about British and American English. This paper makes an analysis and comparison of British and American English in terms of history, pronunciation, spelling and grammar, hoping to help people completely and objectively know the differences between British and American English.

  13. Differences Between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.

  14. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi


    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  15. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid


    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  16. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association


    Neuman, M; Bitton, A.; Glantz, S


    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  17. Smokeless Tobacco Consumption by Mexican-American University Students. (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.

    A modified version of the Illinois Department of Public Health Tobacco Use Survey was used to assess smokeless tobacco consumption among students attending a state university in New Mexico. Respondents included 65 male and 83 female Mexican-Americans, as well as 59 male and 118 female Anglo-Americans. Ages ranged from 16 to 67; subgroup median…

  18. The Evolution of Capitalism: A Comparison of British and American Literature (United States)

    Stanwick, Peter A.


    This paper discusses the evolution of capitalism in British and American literature. The impact of capitalism on the lives of individuals has been well represented in both American and British literature throughout the centuries. The paper will discuss how seminal British authors such as Thomas More, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and George…

  19. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents. (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon


    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  20. British and American History in English Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>In this part,we mainly talk about British and American history in English Extensive Reading.There are some information related to the text"A Useful Stick".London ranks as one of the world’s oldest and most historic cities.It is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.The city was founded about 43A.D.,when the armies of the Roman Empire conquered Britain.

  1. Smokeless Tobacco Consumption by Mexican-American High School Students. (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Hamlin, Penelope A.

    A survey of 208 female and 191 male students attending a public high school in southwestern New Mexico assessed the extent of student use of smokeless tobacco products. The sample included 179 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American females, as well as 152 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American males. The average age of both female and male…

  2. Norms of care in British and American neurologic practice. (United States)

    Menken, M; Hopkins, A; DeFriese, G H


    At a Consensus Development Conference on the Scope of Neurological Practice in the United Kingdom, 26 British specialists in the field of neurology constructed norms of care for patients with 11 neurologic disorders. For each disorder, these specialists specified the percentage of all patients who should see a physician, as well as the percentage who should see a consultant neurologist, the appropriate duration of the initial patient encounter, and the appropriate frequency of follow-up visits per annum. When compared with American estimates used in health manpower planning, British neurologists generally make a far greater allowance for patient self-care, as well as care by nonphysician health care providers, allow less time for patient encounters, and see a need for follow-up care less frequently. These marked differences in the perceptions of specialists of a normative character may determine, in part, the different "practice styles" of physicians in different regions that cannot be explained in economic terms. Results suggest that the practice style concept should be broadened to include the use of health personnel of many types, the scope of specialty medicine, and the role definition of primary care.

  3. British and American Literature Infiltration of English Teaching in Junior School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟超华; 马生仓


    Under the New Curriculum Reform, the English teaching materials have changed, there are several units involved in British and American drama, British and American poetry in junior school. From these teaching materials, we can see that New Curriculum Standards require students to understand the British and American literature in the process of English learning. To meet the needs of New Curriculum Reform, the introduction of literature become a necessity in English language teaching. This paper systematically analyzes the necessity and meaning of literature infiltration in English teaching. It aims to explore how to per-meate literature knowledge in English class.

  4. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael


    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  5. Individualistic and Collectivistic Worldviews: Implications for Understanding Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in African Americans and British Caribbean Americans (United States)

    Hunter, Carla D.


    Cultural worldviews and perceived racial discrimination were examined among Americans (n = 106) and British Caribbean Americans (n = 95), both of African descent, who were recruited through university student organizations, community organizations, and snowball sampling. Consistent with public perceptions of differences in the experience of race…

  6. Doll's Pedagogical Theory and Its Enlightenment on British and American Literature Teaching (United States)

    Gang, Xu


    Due to the outmoded teaching method and the popularity of utilitarianism nowadays, the marginalization of British and American literature courses has become a prominent problem for the education of English majors in colleges and universities, but the American postmodern curriculum theorist, Prof. William E. Doll, Jr.'s pedagogical theory, which…

  7. The British Child Support Agency: did American origins bring failure?


    David P Dolowitz


    In late 1990 the British government published a two-volume White Paper, Children Come First: The Government's Proposals on the Maintenance of Children , announcing its intention to establish a Child Support Agency (CSA). In contrast with most of the literature associated with the British CSA, my main concern in this paper is not with the direct identification of the problems, or the perceived problems, the agency has experienced since its inception in 1993; it is with how the agency was devel...

  8. The Pricing of British Journals for the North American Market. (United States)

    Tuttle, Marcia


    Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given.…

  9. Work ethics through the lens of American and British linguocultures: dominant cultural values

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    Ivanova S.V.


    Full Text Available The article throws light on the peculiarities language consciousness functions and the way it reflects values of a certain linguocultural community. In particular, the article reveals the specificity of the verbalization of work ethics in American and British linguocultures. The language material testifies to deeply rooted discrepancies in the evaluative worldview of the cultures under study. If American culture considers work ethics as an indispensable part of a person’s life, the attitude to work in British culture is more complicated and ambiguous.

  10. Public policy implications of tobacco industry smuggling through Native American reservations into Canada. (United States)

    Kelton, Max H; Givel, Michael S


    From 1980 to 1994, the Canadian government enacted major tax increases on tobacco products. These actions initiated significant tobacco smuggling from the United States into Canada through a few U.S. Native American reservations to undercut the price of Canadian tobacco products. The tobacco industry blamed rampant smuggling on excessive taxation; however, research shows that the tobacco industry had actually promoted smuggling schemes to both increase profits and provide an argument for tobacco taxation reduction. Although the smuggling has resulted in numerous U.S. and Canadian criminal convictions of tobacco industry officials and partners, significant smuggling continues throughout the world. For the few Native Americans involved, the smuggling was lucrative and they were able to avoid criminal prosecution through tribal sovereignty. Industry-supported tobacco smuggling has had a profoundly negative effect on Canadian public health that must be brought to light to prevent future similar occurrences.

  11. On Learning British and American Literature in English Teaching in High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In China, the current English textbooks cover some topics about British and American literature in high school. From learning the literature, the students can learn English better, at the same time, the teachers are asked to be familiar with literature, thus, they can teach effectively.

  12. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary


    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…

  13. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study (United States)

    Boichenko, Maryna


    The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research--talent and talent management--has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement,…

  14. A Planned Survey Course in British Commonwealth Literature for American College Students. Final Report. (United States)

    Robertson, Robert T.

    To encourage the teaching of British Commonwealth literature to American university students, a broad ranging survey course was designed in which the material was thematically organized. A great body of literature from the 13 countries was scrutinized in order to select 147 representative poems and short stories for an anthology. An effective…

  15. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement. (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G


    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  16. Gender violence news in British and American press

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    Sara Bustinduy


    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  17. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language


    Mann, W.; Roy, P; Morgan, G


    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with twenty deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children’s vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of phonological form and meaning of signs. The adaptation from BSL to ASL involved nine stages, which included forming a panel of deaf/hearing exper...

  18. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar


    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  19. A Study of Differences between American English and British English in Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玢; 陈立


    This Paper mainly focuses on the Differences between American English and British English in Grammar.It discusses ten aspects of their differences with examples(that is,differences in the use ofcertain verbs;differences in the US@ofarticles;differences in the use of prepositiom;the use ofsubjunctive;tense differences;the use of collective nouns;the way of expressing dates;the treatment of a repeated subject after the indefinite pronoun"one":response question;negative form of the first person.).

  20. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir


    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  1. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I. (United States)

    Carey, Michael E


    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  2. British Logistics Challenges in the American Revolution: How Logistics was a Critical Vulnerability in the British Effort to Ensure Victor (United States)


    missions. 5 A key issue is the difficulties supplying an army/campaign from a significant distance from the main supply hub, England and Ireland . "The...distance."ix Logistics operations during the 1700s were tested over such a great distance due to unforeseen weather at sea, available packaging Ireland was pointless, the British found it essential to gather supplies from surrounding farms and town stores. This left the British further

  3. The Development of the Clay Tobacco Pipe Kiln in the British Isles

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    Allan Peacey


    Full Text Available In 1982 Allan Peacey published a study in the form of a synthesis of two chronologically separated kilns used in the production of clay tobacco pipes (Peacey 1982, 3-17. The aims of the present work are: ◦to improve upon this framework ◦to establish how these type of structures fit into the broader picture; to fill the gaps, before, between and after these cameo views ◦to improve understanding of the technology employed and see the roots from which such technology developed. The primary objective is to catalogue all relevant material know to exist in museum and private collections. It is hoped that by this means an understanding of the varied physical characteristics will lead to the establishment of object or function categories around which reports may be structured. Contemporary source documents are also examined to shed further light upon the likely function of the archaeological material. Among the results achieved are the compilation of an extensive catalogue of material associated with tobacco pipe kilns; the establishment of type series for pipe kiln furniture and furniture supplements; a proposed development sequence for pipe kiln muffles; a pattern of consistency in kiln design throughout the study area, and details of the methods used for stem tipping. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps, and will be able to explore other aspects of the data through the timeline and site catalogues.

  4. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

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    Boichenko Maryna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.

  5. Joy emotion verbalization means in American and British variants of modern English

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    Cherkass Irina Anatolyevna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of ways of expressing joy in the British and American versions of the modern English language. Joy is one of the dominant human emotion, possessing certain characteristics of linguacultural and ethnic specificity, and has specific ways and means of linguistic expression. The aim of the study is a comparison of the complex means nominating the emotion of joy through the analysis of literary texts of American and British authors, followed by the identification of common and specific features.Thetheoretical interestdeterminesthespecificityoflinguistic and cultural aspects of emotional speech. Experience of joy is associated with a range of positive emotions (pleasure, enjoyment, delight, admiration, etc.. Because of this multiplicity of linguistic representation is considered difficult emotions that imply description. Qualitative characteristics of the analyzed language means can be provided in the form of three groups: lexical-semantic, grammatical and stylistic. Lexico-semantic group includes emotive adjectives, interjections, idioms and intensifiers. Grammatical group is clich d emotive structures, participle constructions, parenthesis. Stylistic means group is the most numerous, it includes: metaphor, personification, simile, hyperbole, oxymoron, repetition, anadiplosis, graduation, inversion, parallelism, polisindeton. The studied emotion manifests ethnic mentality, a system of national character representations.

  6. Tobacco (United States)

    ... countries. Picture warnings work Hard-hitting anti-tobacco advertisements and graphic pack warnings – especially those that include ... in tobacco products poses major health, economic and security concerns around the world. It is estimated that ...

  7. Adapting the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test into American sign language. (United States)

    Enns, Charlotte J; Herman, Rosalind C


    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed language skills. Although researchers have developed some checklists and experimental tests related to American Sign Language (ASL) assessment, at this time a standardized measure of ASL does not exist. There have been tests developed in other signed languages, for example, British Sign Language, that can serve as models in this area. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test for use in ASL in order to begin the process of developing a standardized measure of ASL skills. The results suggest that collaboration between researchers in different signed languages can provide a valuable contribution toward filling the gap in the area of signed language assessment.

  8. White Anglo-Saxon hopes and black Americans' Atlantic dreams: Jack Johnson and the British boxing colour bar. (United States)

    Runstedtler, Theresa


    This article examines the controversy surrounding Jack Johnson's proposed world heavyweight title fight against the British champion Bombardier Billy Wells in London (1911). In juxtaposing African Americans' often glowing discussions of European tolerance with the actual white resistance the black champion faced in Britain, including the Home Office's eventual prohibition of the match, the article explores the period's transnational discourses of race and citizenship. Indeed, as white sportsmen on both sides of the Atlantic joined together in their search for a "White Hope" to unseat Johnson, the boxing ring became an important cultural arena for interracial debates over the political and social divisions between white citizens and nonwhite subjects. Although African Americans had high hopes for their hero's European sojourn, the British backlash against the Johnson-Wells match underscored the fact that their local experiences of racial oppression were just one facet of a much broader global problem. At the same time, the proposed prizefight also made the specter of interracial conflict in the colonies all the more tangible in the British capital, provoking public discussions about the merits of U.S. racial segregation, along with the need for white Anglo-Saxon solidarity around the world. Thus, this article not only exposes the underlying connections between American Jim Crow and the racialized fault lines of British imperialism, but it also traces the "tense and tender ties" linking U.S. and African American history with the new imperial history and postcolonial studies.

  9. 英美文学与大学英语教学%British and American literature and university English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    英语作为一门应用型、交际型的语言,如果想要学习并运用好它,学习英美文学文化知识,拥有正确的英美文学文化意识是必不可少的。因此要将英美文学文化知识渗透到教学过程中,提倡在大学英语教学中从低年级开始增强英美文学教育。%English as an applied, communicative language, if you want to study and make good use of it, learning British and American literature and cultural knowledge, have the right of British and American literature and culture awareness is essential. Therefore the cultural knowledge of British and American literature penetrates into the teaching process, promote to strengthen the education of British and American literature from low grade in the university English teaching.

  10. Computer Network-based Multimodal Teaching of British and American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xucai


    Full Text Available Guided under the multimodal teaching theory, the researchers mainly discuss the practice of the computer network-based multimodal teaching of British and American literature. This article emphasizes that the teachers take advantage of pictures, network screenshots, movies, video, sound, and other resources in the classroom lectures to mobilize the coordination operation of the auditory, visual and tactile senses, to enhance the students impression of the writer and his works. By doing so, the students have a good understanding of the original work, instead of having the boring sense of the single text-mode teaching and the distress of comprehension of literary works, and have no difficulties in comprehending the text and then the classroom teaching is improved.

  11. Designing a tobacco counter-marketing campaign for African American youth

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    Johnson Doris M


    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this qualitative study were to: a identify common marketing themes and tactics used by the tobacco industry to entice African Americans (AA's and youth to initiate and maintain smoking behavior, especially smoking mentholated brands of cigarettes, and b determine AA youths' knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and beliefs about smoking and the tobacco industry. Together, these activities could aid in the development of effective tobacco counter-marketing campaigns for AA youth. Using publicly available tobacco industry documents, computerized searches using standardized keywords were run and results were cataloged and analyzed thematically. Subsequently, 5 focus groups were conducted with n = 28 AA middle school-aged youth. Results suggest that the tobacco industry consistently recruited new AA smokers through a variety of means, including social and behavioral marketing studies and targeted media and promotional campaigns in predominantly AA, urban, and low income areas. AA youth interviewed in this study were largely unaware of these tactics, and reacted negatively against the industry upon learning of them. Youth tended to externalize control over tobacco, especially within the AA community. In designing a counter-marketing campaign for this population, partnering knowledge of tobacco industry practices with youth needs and community resources will likely increase their effectiveness.

  12. Designing a tobacco counter-marketing campaign for African American youth. (United States)

    Johnson, Doris M; Wine, Lauren A; Zack, Sharon; Zimmer, Eric; Wang, Judy H; Weitzel-O'Neill, Patricia A; Claflin, Vickie; Tercyak, Kenneth P


    The objectives of this qualitative study were to: a) identify common marketing themes and tactics used by the tobacco industry to entice African Americans (AA's) and youth to initiate and maintain smoking behavior, especially smoking mentholated brands of cigarettes, and b) determine AA youths' knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and beliefs about smoking and the tobacco industry. Together, these activities could aid in the development of effective tobacco counter-marketing campaigns for AA youth. Using publicly available tobacco industry documents, computerized searches using standardized keywords were run and results were cataloged and analyzed thematically. Subsequently, 5 focus groups were conducted with n = 28 AA middle school-aged youth. Results suggest that the tobacco industry consistently recruited new AA smokers through a variety of means, including social and behavioral marketing studies and targeted media and promotional campaigns in predominantly AA, urban, and low income areas. AA youth interviewed in this study were largely unaware of these tactics, and reacted negatively against the industry upon learning of them. Youth tended to externalize control over tobacco, especially within the AA community. In designing a counter-marketing campaign for this population, partnering knowledge of tobacco industry practices with youth needs and community resources will likely increase their effectiveness.

  13. Conflicting Voices: An analysis of Intralingual translation from British English to American English

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    Linda PILLIÈRE


    Full Text Available Cet article propose une étude de plusieurs éditions américaines et britanniques de romans du vingtième siècle sous l'angle de la traduction intralinguale. On analysera comment les éditions américaines rendent le texte plus compréhensible pour leurs lecteurs, choisissant soit d'enlever toute référence culturelle jugée trop difficile, soit d'ajouter des explications. Cette pratique modifie sensiblement la voix du narrateur et celles des personnages. On montrera que la traduction intralinguale de ces textes britanniques, où s'entremêlent divers registres, voix et dialectes, introduit d'autres voix qui sont souvent en conflit avec les voix d'origine.This article proposes a study of American English editions of British English novels published in the twentieth century from the point of view of intralingual translation. It demonstrates how the American English editions transform the text to make it more easily accessible for their readers either by removing any cultural references that are deemed to be too difficult, or by adding explanations to the text itself. Such a practice inevitably modifies the voice of the narrator and those of the characters. By comparing the two versions of the same text, it will be shown that translating texts where different voices, registers and dialects are present, inevitably introduces other voices which often conflict with those of the original text.

  14. 浅析英美新批评文论%On the new criticism of British and American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在20世纪受语言学转向影响最深的文论是英美新的批评派,它提出了与俄国形式主义类似的概念和方法,倡导一种对文学作品进行细微的、经验主义的阅读方式,一度在英美文坛成为文学批评的基本范式。%In twentieth Century, the influence of linguistic turn to the most profound literary theory is a new criticism of the British and American new criticism, it proposed a similar concept and method of Russian formalism, advocacy of a subtle, empirical approach to the literary works, once in the British and American literary world as a basic form of literary criticism.

  15. Assessing tobacco use by cancer patients and facilitating cessation: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement. (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Brandon, Thomas H; Gritz, Ellen R; Warren, Graham W; Herbst, Roy S


    When diagnosed with cancer, patients can immediately make a meaningful positive impact on their health by stopping their tobacco use. Scientific evidence clearly shows that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to poorer outcomes. The specific biological processes driving tobacco consumption's interference in cancer therapy are the subject of continuing research, but the evidence is clear that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to decreased treatment efficacy and safety, decreased survival, decreased quality of life, increased treatment-related toxicity, and increased risk of cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. Data suggest that tobacco cessation can improve outcomes and survival in patients with cancer, yet full execution of evidence-based cessation interventions is infrequent in oncology settings. Therefore, both improved provision of cessation assistance to all patients with cancer who use tobacco or have recently quit and further study of the deleterious effects of tobacco use and benefits of tobacco cessation on cancer progression and treatment are needed and recommended by the American Association for Cancer Research. Progress on both fronts begins with universal assessment and documentation of tobacco use as a standard of quality cancer care regardless of treatment setting and will be further facilitated through the development of reliable, valid, and standard measures of tobacco use, incorporation of evidence-based procedures into quality and accreditation procedures, and the development of appropriate training, clinical infrastructure, and incentives for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions.

  16. Tobacco Use and Cardiovascular Disease among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

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    Thomas K. Welty


    Full Text Available Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45 and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18. Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58, but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population.

  17. Tobacco Use and Cardiovascular Disease among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study (United States)

    Eichner, June E.; Wang, Wenyu; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T.; Welty, Thomas K.


    Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45) and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18). Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58), but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population. PMID:21139862

  18. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A


    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  19. Perceptions of Asian American men about tobacco cigarette consumption: a social learning theory framework. (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence; Shigaki, Alison; Tu, Shin-Ping


    Little information exists regarding the perceptions that ethnic-specific groups of Asian American men have about tobacco cigarette smoking. Thirty Asian American men of immigrant status living in Seattle, Washington, were stratified by ethnicity (Chinese and Vietnamese), language (Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese) and age to comprise six focus groups (two Mandarin speaking men aged 20-40 years and 10 aged 41-65+ years; three Cantonese men aged 20-40 years and another six aged 41-65+ years; four Vietnamese men aged 20-40 years and another five aged 41-65+ years). All group interviews were audio-taped and six separate hard-copy transcripts were produced, independently theme-coded by three investigators to ensure inter-rater reliability, and analyzed with QRS NUD*IST ethnographic software. Bandura (1969, 1986) categorized emergent contextual themes within the constructs of "predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing" behavioral determinants from Social Learning Theory. Smoking to be sociable emerged as the most salient theme. Awareness of tobacco-related diseases other than lung cancer was less evident, as was a self-perceived lack of will-power to quit. Concerns about side-stream smoking affecting family members, along with smoking to alleviate stress, were key findings. Further tobacco-related research is needed that incorporates considerations for cultural dynamics.

  20. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko


    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view…

  1. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko


    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view that…

  2. Influence of Greek Rome myth on British and American Literature%浅析希腊罗马神话对英美文学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    作为英美文学的三支伏流之一,希腊罗马神话对于英美文学的影响不可小觑。本文将从希腊罗马神话的产生及其文学特点出发,阐述希腊罗马神话对英美文学所产生的巨大影响。%As one of the three underground streams of British and American literature, the influence of Greece and Rome myths for British and American literature is big. This paper from the perspective of the origin and characteristic of the literature of Greek Rome myth, to elaborate the great influence of Greek Rome myth of British and American literature.

  3. An Evaluation of Native-speaker Judgements of Foreign-accented British and American English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, W.Z. van den


    This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and

  4. Corporate social responsibility and the tobacco industry: hope or hype? (United States)

    Hirschhorn, N


    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) emerged from a realisation among transnational corporations of the need to account for and redress their adverse impact on society: specifically, on human rights, labour practices, and the environment. Two transnational tobacco companies have recently adopted CSR: Philip Morris, and British American Tobacco. This report explains the origins and theory behind CSR; examines internal company documents from Philip Morris showing the company's deliberations on the matter, and the company's perspective on its own behaviour; and reflects on whether marketing tobacco is antithetical to social responsibility.

  5. Biodiversity Risk and Opportunity Assessment in BAT Cooperative Tobacco-growing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long XU; Jingming WANG; Kun FENG; Yanfa CAI; Bin LI; Honghui YIN; Dafei LI; Lianchuan ZHOU; Ying MA; Gang WANG; Pengcheng LIU; Runtao LI; Changhua ZHOU; Ke YANG; Jian CHEN


    Using the method in Biodiversity Risk and Opportunity Assessment Handbook of British American Tobacco Biodiversity Partnership,we assess biodiversity risks and opportunities in BAT and China’s cooperative tobacco-growing areas. The assessment results indicate that there are 8 risks and 1 opportunity. Action and monitoring plans have been made for medium and high risks as well as opportunity,to reduce impact on biodiversity.

  6. Stomach contents from invasive American bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jancowski


    Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.

  7. Neutralisation patterns among recent British and North American feline calicivirus isolates from different clinical origins. (United States)

    Knowles, J O; Dawson, S; Gaskell, R M; Gaskell, C J; Harvey, C E


    The neutralisation patterns of 103 recent isolates of feline calicivirus from cats with chronic stomatitis or acute feline calicivirus disease, and from cats with neither oral nor respiratory disease were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the proportions of isolates from each clinical source neutralised by individual feline calicivirus cat antisera. Different antisera showed widely differing degrees of cross reactivity; antisera to the most widely used vaccine strain F9 being the most cross reactive, neutralising 54 per cent of all the field isolates, and antisera to a field isolate LS015 the next most cross reactive, neutralising 29 per cent of the field isolates. However, the cross reactivity of antisera to early British isolates (A4, 68/40 and 69/1112) was much reduced (overall less than 10 per cent) whereas in the early 1970s 65 per cent of 117 field isolates from clinically normal cats were neutralised by A4 antiserum, and 40 per cent by each of 68/40 and 69/1112 antisera. This suggests a change in the spectrum of antigenicity among feline calicivirus isolates over the past 15 years. However, the cross reactivity of F9 antisera appeared to be similar to that in earlier studies. The relevance of these findings to vaccination is discussed.

  8. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program

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    León Chica César Julio


    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students’ needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial tests, the University’s (specifically, the one where the study was conducted literature programs, several anthologies, and competences required in the education program were all taken into consideration. Then the tests were developed, piloted, and validated with a focus group composed of ten students of said program. The results indicated that students require previous knowledge, literary competence, and command of the English language because those are determining factors in successfully passing the tests. Key words: Previous knowledge, proficiency tests, American and British literature, competences Este artículo busca identificar un modelo óptimo para un examen de literatura americana y británica que se puede diseñar para que los estudiantes que inician el programa de educación bilingüe de una universidad privada en Colombia puedan acreditar el conocimiento previo en estas dos materias, mediante un examen de suficiencia. Para el diseño de los exámenes se tuvieron en cuenta las necesidades y opiniones de los estudiantes, así como exámenes comerciales existentes, los programas de literatura de la universidad, varias antologías y las competencias requeridas por el programa de educación. Los exámenes diseñados se pilotearon y se validaron con un grupo de 10 estudiantes del programa en mención. Se determinó que los estudiantes requieren un conocimiento previo, competencia en literatura y un nivel competitivo en inglés, para aprobar satisfactoriamente los exámenes. Palabras clave: conocimiento previo, acreditación, exámenes de literatura americana y británica, competencias

  9. Against All Odds—“Sam Hall” and “The Man in Black”: From British Social Disparagement to American Defiant Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Sabine Zehelein


    Full Text Available This article traces the development of the “Sam Hall” topos from its 18th or 17th century British origins to William Blake, to the Dubliners’ version of a Celtic traditional, to Hayes’ Harvard version, and finally to Johnny Cash. As an expression of socio-cultural criticism, the outlaw Sam Hall has been formed into a prototype of American defiant individualism “against all odds.”

  10. The Negro in the Tobacco Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry. (United States)

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Ash, Robert I.

    The tobacco industry has employed Negroes since its inception in Colonial Virginia. This study is primarily concerned with the course of Negro employment and industry racial policies in the industry processing, manufacturing, selling, and distributing of cigarettes and manufactured tobacco, as distinct from the cigar industry which involves quite…

  11. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J


    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  12. Cross-national comparison of capitation funding: the American, British and Dutch experience. (United States)

    Persaud, D; Narine, L


    In this paper we review the performance of the capitation payment systems of three countries--the Adjusted Average Per Capita Cost (AAPCC) system used in the United States to reimburse Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) for insuring Medicare recipients, a somewhat similar system in the Netherlands which reimburses third-party payers for insuring the entire population and a weighted system utilized in Britain for regional funding. Our review revealed significant problems with the current version of the AAPCC formula as there is evidence of the biased selection of beneficiaries and actual losses to Medicare through its use. Furthermore, several studies show that the demographic adjusters utilized in the AAPCC formula are extremely poor predictors of future healthcare utilization relative to the potential of direct and indirect health status measures. The Dutch experience with capitated funding has been similar to that of the United States. While Dutch researchers have built on the work of their American counterparts they acknowledge that further work is needed before a fully functional system is implemented. Britain's weighted system has fulfilled its original mandate to redistribute healthcare resources based on population need but recent changes giving increased influence to age weighting could reverse some of these gains. A number of proposed improvements to these risk adjustment problems were reviewed including the development of diagnostic cost groups, the coexisting hierarchical conditions model and the use of community-rated high-risk pooling. The findings from this study can help others narrow the alternatives they need to consider when thinking of introducing capitation funding or refining already existing systems.

  13. The importance of British and American culture in English teaching%英美文化在英语教学中的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    英语国家的文化知识是英语语言的不可缺少组成部分.因为它会直接影响对英语文本的正确理解.然而在中国,受几十年传统教学方法的影响,很少有英语老师可以将语言教学和文化教学结合起来.基于目前中国学生学习英语的现状和已有的英语交际水平,本文简要分析了英美文化教学的重要性并提出了相应的解决策略以提高学生对于英美文化和本族文化差异的敏感性.使学生积累大量英美文化知识,让学生准确使用语言,提高跨文化交际能力.%The culture of English-speaking countries knowledge is an indispensable part of the English language. Because it will directly affect the correct understanding of the English text. In China, however, affected by decades of traditional teaching methods, there are very few English teachers can combine language teaching and culture teaching. Based on the current situation of Chinese students learning English and English communication level, this paper analyzes the importance of British and American culture teaching and puts forward the corresponding solution strategies in order to improve the students for the sensitivity of the differences in British and American culture and native culture. To make the students accumulate a large number of British and American cultural knowledge, let the students use language accurately, improve the ability of cross-cultural communication.

  14. Perceptions, barriers, and suggestions for creation of a tobacco and health website among American Indian/Alaska Native college students. (United States)

    Filippi, Melissa K; McCloskey, Charlotte; Williams, Chandler; Bull, Julia White; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M


    Information concerning American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) Internet use and health information needs is dearth. Our research team explored Internet use among AI/AN college students to determine Internet use in relation to health information seeking behaviors. We used a tobacco site example for participants to describe what they desired in a health site designed specifically for AI/AN. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted 14 focus groups with AI/AN college students (N = 108), to better understand their perceptions of and attitudes toward Internet use and health information needs. Daily Internet use was reported across strata yet health topics investigated differed among groups. Participants in all strata desired a health website that was easy to navigate and interactive. Respectful representation of Native culture was a concern, yet no consensus was reached for a multi-tribal audience. Participants felt a website should use caution with cultural depictions due to the possible misinterpretation. Overall, participants agreed that recreational and traditional tobacco use should be differentiated and the variation of traditional use among tribes acknowledged. Data concerning Internet use for health information among AI/AN college students are needed to establish baseline indicators to effectively address disparities.

  15. Why Packaging Is Commercially Vital for Tobacco Corporations. (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Gleeson, Deborah


    This study analyses what British American Tobacco (BAT) and its 4 publicly listed Asian subsidiary companies have told their shareholders about the commercial value of tobacco packaging. The discourse on packaging in BAT annual reports was analyzed, revealing themes of modernization, rejuvenation, internationalism, heritage, innovation, value for money, and competitive edge. Packaging was credited with providing existing brands with a competitive edge and enabling the successful "launch" of new ones. Since advertising, sponsorship, and free samples were prohibited in many countries, packaging has become more important for advertising. New brands and brand variants have proliferated. BAT companies have allocated considerable resources to regularly altering packaging for marketing purposes. Clearly, restrictions on packaging will substantially detract from the promotion of the company's brands. The findings provide further evidence from industry sources of the vital function of packaging and further justify plain packaging as an essential part of any comprehensive tobacco control policy.

  16. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907-1940. (United States)

    Baker, Graham J


    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics.

  17. The Biblical Culture and the teaching of British and American Literature%《圣经》文化与英美文学教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 何轶男


    There is a close relationship between language and culture .It is impossible for students to learn British and American literature without learning its culture .Bible has a far-reaching to the western culture , so it is important for the teachers to introduce and teach the related knowledge dur -ing the class.%语言和文化之间有着极为密切的关系。离开了文化学习英美文学就是不可行的。《圣经》对英美文学作品又是非常具有影响力的,所以在英美文学教学过程中对《圣经》文化的导入与讲解是很重要的。

  18. 精神生态与英美文学批评实践%Spiritual Ecology and Its Application in British and American Literary Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      精神生态研究是在人类社会面临愈来愈严重的精神问题的背景下提出的。它倡导达到一种人类精神世界的平衡、稳定、和谐的境界。精神生态批评是生态批评的一个次域,也是生态批评向人类精神领域的拓展。目前国内学界从精神生态批评的角度对英美文学作品进行的研究尚处于探索阶段,但它却为英美文学研究提供了新视角,也丰富了生态批评的理论内涵。%The study of spiritual ecology has been put forward with more and more serious spiritual problems faced by human society. It advocates the acheivement of a state of being where the human spiritual world achieves balance, stability and harmony. Spiritual ecocriticism is a sub-field of ecocriti-cism, and an extension of ecocriticism into the field of human spirit. Currently in China the study of British and American literature from sprirtual ecocritical approach is still in its explorative stage, but it provides a new perspective in the study of British and American literature, and will certainly enrich the theory of ecocriticism.

  19. Results of the application of the American Diabetes Association guidelines regarding tobacco dependency in subjects with diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Albareda, Mercè; Sánchez, Lucinda; González, Joana; Viguera, Jaume; Mestrón, Antonio; Vernet, Angels; Vila, Lluís


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the stages of change for cessation in smoking after the application of American Diabetes Association recommendations in diabetic patients who smoke. This longitudinal descriptive study involved smokers with diabetes mellitus (DM) who were attended for their DM between September 2003 and December 2006. Intervention used was dependent on the stage of change for cessation (according to Prochaska and Di Clemente). For precontemplation subjects, a brief session was carried out where information regarding the risks of smoking in conjunction with DM was given. Patients at the contemplation stage of smoking cessation were offered the chance to participate in a cessation program. Later evaluation was carried out after a follow-up of more than 6 months. Seven hundred thirty-three subjects with DM were evaluated, including 156 smokers (21.28%): 103 (66.02%) in the precontemplation stage, 25 (16.02%) in the contemplation stage, 12 (7.69%) in the preparation stage, 12 (7.69%) in the action stage, and 4 (2.56%) in the maintenance stage. By the last follow-up, 65 (41.6%) subjects had quit smoking (36 ex-smokers), of whom 20 (30.77%) had subsequently relapsed. The use of the American Diabetes Association recommendations for the treatment of tobacco dependence in diabetes treatment results in an increased change of smoking cessation stages in subjects with DM as well as a higher overall percentage in abstinence.

  20. Competing with kreteks: transnational tobacco companies, globalisation, and Indonesia (United States)

    Lawrence, S; Collin, J


    Objective: To examine the strategies employed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to compete more effectively compete with the dominant kretek manufacturers in Indonesia, and to consider implications of their failure. Methods: Systematic analysis of corporate documents obtained from British American Tobacco's (BAT's) Guildford depository and from industry and tobacco control websites document collections. Results: The limited progress of the TTCs in Indonesia is best explained by the distinctive political economy of its tobacco industry. Though effective when collaborating on regulatory issues of mutual interest, TTCs have been less able than kretek manufacturers to exercise political influence where their interests conflict. Global strategies of TTCs have undergone significant local adaptation in attempting to compete in this distinctive environment. While maintaining uniformity in core brand attributes, TTCs have sought to reconcile international imagery with local norms, particularly to appeal to women. BAT unsuccessfully attempted to develop clove based products that imitated the appeal of kreteks, withdrawn following concerns about exposing the company to charges of operating double standards. Conclusions: The documents presented highlight the complexity of the global tobacco industry. Tobacco control efforts need to address more effectively the ongoing impact of kreteks while recognising the distinctive threats posed by TTCs. PMID:15564227

  1. The Difference Between American And British Humour%美式幽默与英式幽默之差别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It's often dangerous to generalize, but under threat,I would say that Americans are more "*down the line2." They don't hide their hopes and fears. They applaud ambition and openly reward success. Brits are more comfortable with life's losers. We embrace the underdog3 until it's no longer the underdog. We like to *bring authority down a peg or two4. *Just for the hell of it5. Americans say, "*have a nice day6" whether they mean it or not. Brits are terrified to say this.

  2. Chromosome 7q Region Associated with Female Rheumatoid Arthritis in a British Population Fails to Replicate in a North American Case-Control Series (United States)

    Korman, Benjamin D; Seldin, Michael F; Taylor, Kimberly E; Le, Julie M; Lee, Annette T; Plenge, Robert M; Amos, Christopher I; Criswell, Lindsey A; Gregersen, Peter K; Kastner, Daniel L; Remmers, Elaine F


    Objective The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11761231 on chromosome 7q has been reported as a sexually dimorphic marker for rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in a British population. We sought to replicate this finding and better characterize susceptibility alleles in the region in a North American population. Methods DNA from two North American collections of RA patients and controls (1605 cases and 2640 controls) was genotyped for rs11761231 and 16 additional chromosome 7q tag SNPs using Sequenom iPlex assays. Association tests were performed for each collection and also separately contrasting male cases versus male controls and female cases versus female controls. Principal components analysis (EIGENSTRAT) was used to determine association with RA before and after adjusting for population stratification in the subset of the samples (772 cases and 1213 controls) with whole genome SNP data. Results We failed to replicate association of the 7q region with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially, rs11761231 showed evidence for association with RA in the NARAC collection (p=0.0076) and rs11765576 showed association with RA in both the NARAC (p = 0.019) and RA replication (p = 0.0013) collections. These markers also exhibited sexual differentiation. However, in the whole genome subset, neither SNP showed significant association with RA after correction for population stratification. Conclusion While two SNPs on chromosome 7q appeared to be associated with RA in a North American cohort, the significance of this finding did not withstand correction for population substructure. Our results emphasize the need to carefully account for population structure to avoid false positive disease associations. PMID:19116934

  3. The view from above (and below): a comparison of American, British, and Arab news coverage of US drones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheets, P.; Rowling, C.M.; Jones, T.M.


    In recent years, the United States has significantly expanded its use of drone warfare. Experts are divided: some defend drones as a legal, effective way to target terrorists while others suggest drones are inaccurate and contribute to anti-Americanism. In addition, international public opinion diff

  4. Exploration on the Research-oriented Teaching of the British and American Literature Course Guided by the Constructivism Theory%基于建构主义的英美文学研究性教学探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文良; 马晓颖


    针对英美文学的教学现状及问题,探讨了建构主义理论指导下英美文学研究性教学的改革与实践,并对改革实践效果做出了初步的总结与分析。%In View of the existing problems in the British and American literature teaching,under the guidance of the constructivism theory,this thesis aims to explore the reform and practice of the research-oriented teaching in the British and American literature course.It also gives a preliminary analysis of its reform and practice effect.

  5. ‘Public Enemy No. 1’: Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelly


    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response – a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and from AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate that tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: 1) During the 1990s Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the US, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; 2) In both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in Sub-Sahara Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist. This demonstrates the

  6. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balayan A. V.


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the special relationship in BritishAmerican politics of the second part of the XX century also received intensive development in the early XXI century. In fact, according to conditions of modern processes of globalization, cooperation between the United States and Great Britain, as within framework of NATO and in other international organizations, became increasingly close. Both States played a significant role in the international policy, working on various issues of economy, politics, environment, culture, etc. Attention is drawn to the forms of cooperation between the studied States in the implementation of military initiatives in the Balkans (1998 and Iraq (2003. These events allowed characterizing the first and final stages of the development of relations between the United States and Britain in the form of «special» in the period of late XX – early XXI centuries. In the beginning of XXI century the cooperation between the U.S. and the UK in reforming NATO, taking into account national foreign policy strategy of the USA, was an example of favorable development of bilateral “special relationship”. For London, the following external course of the US has remained a higher priority than for Washington

  8. 面向高校非英语专业学生的英美文学课程教学策略%Non-English Majors-Oriented British-American Literature Course Teaching Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the deepening of College English Teaching Reform,the opening of British-American Literature course towards non-English majors has become a new tendency in Universities.Facing new teaching object under new circumstances,the teaching strategy of British-American Literature course should be improved accordingly.This paper aims to have a discussion on the application of task-based teaching approach into actual British-American Literature course towards non-English majors.%在当前大学英语教学改革日益深化的形势下,开设面向高校非英语专业学生的英美文学课程已成为一个新的趋势。新的形势下面对新的授课对象,英美文学的传统教学策略有待改进和完善。本文探讨如何将任务型教学法落实到面对非英语专业学生的英美文学课程的教学中去。

  9. 英美文化在高职英语教学中的运用研究%Application of British and American culture in higher vocational English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章通过对英美文化教学的含义和作用的阐述,认为应该把英美文化教学渗透到高职院校的英语教学中,并阐述了几点做法:即正确了解英美文化价值取向、适当运用视频资料、注重师生的交流互动以及定期邀请专家讲授英美文化。%Through the meaning and function of British and American culture teaching, the author thinks that we should put the culture teaching into English teaching in higher vocational colleges and some practices are also discussed:understanding the British and American cultural value orientation, the proper use of video data, paying attention to the interaction between teachers and students and regularly inviting some experts to teach British and American culture.

  10. 1861年的美英关系研究%Studies on American and British Relations in 1861

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1861年美国内战开始时,美英在林肯政府对南部封锁、英国颁布的《中立宣言》和“特伦特”号事件上产生矛盾和冲突,一度诱发战争。为了维护联邦的统一,取得内战的最终胜利,美国采取了灵活机动的外交政策,避免了英国对美国内战的直接干涉。%In the beginning of the American Civil War, 1861, the U.S and Britain governments arose contradictions and conflicts on issues besides Lincoln Government's blockade on the south, Declaration of Neutrality published by Britain, and The Trent Affair, which once triggered war. In order to maintain the unity of the federal and get the final victory of the Civil War, the U.S government adopted a flexible foreign policy, and avoided Britain's direct interference in the American Civil War.

  11. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova. (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  12. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang


    The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010. ...

  13. Beyond Ignorance: Using the Cultural Stereotypes of Americans Studying in the UK as a Resource for Learning and Teaching about British Culture (United States)

    Janes, Dominic


    A course introducing British culture is a standard component of many study abroad programmes running in this country that are aimed at international students who will be spending a limited amount of time in the United Kingdom. However, it is not often acknowledged that such students possess a range of strong pre-conceptions about British culture…

  14. Avances y puntos pendientes en la agenda latinoamericana para el control del tabaco Progress and pending issues in the Latin American agenda for tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydel Valdés-Salgado


    Full Text Available El estudio de la Carga Mundial de la Enfermedad proyecta que el incremento en la prevalencia de fumadores en países de ingresos medios y bajos contribuirá a incrementar las muertes cardiovasculares, por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y algunos cánceres. Para reducir estas consecuencias del tabaquismo, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS recomienda un conjunto de acciones reunidas en el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT y los informes MPOWER. En este artículo se revisó el más reciente de estos informes y sintetizamos las principales intervenciones que estaban vigentes en los países latinoamericanos y también revisamos algunas medidas implementadas durante 2009 y 2010. En los últimos años se ha avanzado considerablemente en materia de control del tabaco. Sin embargo, todavía queda por avanzar para acercarnos a lo sugerido por la OMS. De mantenerse el nivel de consumo entre los adolescentes de la región actualmente, observaremos en las décadas futuras un incremento en el número de muertes prematuras y evitables causadas por el tabaco.Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be

  15. 美国烟叶流通体制新特点对我国的启示%Enlightenment of the New Characteristics of American Tobacco Circulation System to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚金龙; 金萍


    The paper introduces the development status of global tobacco and the new characteristics of American tobacco circulation system, then analyzes the enlightenment of those new characteristics to China tobacco industry, based on which the paper further proposes the suggestions about improving the development of our tobacco industry, such as, changing the planned planting into market regulated planting, regulating the planting structure of tobacco, focusing on the management of tobacco production, purchase and sale, making sure the rational production and sales of tobacco according to market laws..%介绍了目前全球烟叶发展情况与美国烟叶流通体制的新特点,分析了美国烟叶流通体制新特点对我国烟叶产业的启示,在此基础上提出改良我国烟叶产业发展的意见,即:由计划种植变为市场调节,实现烟叶种植结构的调整,国家应重点加强烟叶产、购、销方面的管理,使烟叶的生产与销售能按市场规律合理运行.

  16. A Brief Study on Teaching Strategies of Selected Readings of British and American Newspapers and Magazines%浅谈英美报刊选读的教学策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Selected Readings of British and American Newspapers and Magazines is one of the courses cultivating profession skills for English majors in colleges and universities in China,aiming at training the students'ability to read British and Ameri-can newspapers and magazines,improving students'English level and comprehensive qualities.Yet,the current teaching of this course is still lack of systematic teaching strategies.Given this situation,this paper focuses on the course characteristics, teaching objectives and teaching methods,with the expectation to improve the teaching level and help students progress.%英美报刊选读是我国高校英语专业的英语专业技能课程之一,旨在培养学生阅读英美报刊杂志的能力,提高学生的英语水平和综合素养。目前国内高校英美报刊选读的教学还缺乏系统的教学策略。本文着重探讨英美报刊选读的课程特点、教学目标和教学方式,以切实提高教学水平,帮助学生成长。

  17. A Preliminary Exploration on Modular Teaching and Learning Approach in the Course of British and Ameri-can Literature%英美文学模块教学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Modular teaching and learning approach in the course of British and American Literature is to classify the literature into four modules: poem, essay, novel and drama. According to the characteristics of each module, the teacher applies different teaching modes and evaluation methods, which is expected to ac-commodate students' better understanding of British and Ameri-can Literature.%英美文学模块教学是模块教学在文学课堂的应用探索。该教学模式兼顾英美文学的整体性和系统性,将英美文学分为诗歌、散文、小说和戏剧等四个模块,根据各模块相对独立的内在特点设计不同的教学方法和评价方式。英美文学模块教学有利于教师因材施教,加强学生各体裁学习的连贯性和深入性。

  18. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  19. Transnational tobacco company interests in smokeless tobacco in Europe: analysis of internal industry documents and contemporary industry materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvy Peeters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: European Union (EU legislation bans the sale of snus, a smokeless tobacco (SLT which is considerably less harmful than smoking, in all EU countries other than Sweden. To inform the current review of this legislation, this paper aims to explore transnational tobacco company (TTC interests in SLT and pure nicotine in Europe from the 1970s to the present, comparing them with TTCs' public claims of support for harm reduction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Internal tobacco industry documents (in total 416 documents dating from 1971 to 2009, obtained via searching the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, were analysed using a hermeneutic approach. This library comprises documents obtained via litigation in the US and does not include documents from Imperial Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International, or Swedish Match. To help overcome this limitation and provide more recent data, we triangulated our documentary findings with contemporary documentation including TTC investor presentations. The analysis demonstrates that British American Tobacco explored SLT opportunities in Europe from 1971 driven by regulatory threats and health concerns, both likely to impact cigarette sales negatively, and the potential to create a new form of tobacco use among those no longer interested in taking up smoking. Young people were a key target. TTCs did not, however, make SLT investments until 2002, a time when EU cigarette volumes started declining, smoke-free legislation was being introduced, and public health became interested in harm reduction. All TTCs have now invested in snus (and recently in pure nicotine, yet both early and recent snus test markets appear to have failed, and little evidence was found in TTCs' corporate materials that snus is central to their business strategy. CONCLUSIONS: There is clear evidence that BAT's early interest in introducing SLT in Europe was based on the potential for creating an alternative form of tobacco use in light of

  20. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe) (United States)

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela


    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial…

  1. Developing Critical Thinking Skills in the Course of Read-ings from British and American Press%英美报刊选读课中思辨能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    College English education should include the develop-ment of critical thinking skills in its goals. Beginning from ana-lyzing the current situation of college English teaching, this paper explores the strategies to develop critical thinking skills in the course of Readings from British and American Press.%大学的英语教育应该将思辨能力作为培养目标之一。在分析我国高校英语教学思辨能力现状的基础上,探索在英美报刊选读课中培养学生思辨能力的策略。

  2. 18世纪末19世纪初的英、美浪漫主义文学探源%On the Origin of British and American Literary Romanticism in the Late 18 th and Early 19 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了进一步探索浪漫主义文学的奥秘,运用比较文学平行研究中的类型学、主题学、文类学以及影响研究中的流传学等方法对18世纪末19世纪初的英、美两国浪漫主义文学进行溯源,发现两者产生的时间有先后之别,作品形式也有所不同,但导致它们产生的根源是一样的,两者所表现的主题也相似,而且在本质上是相同的。浪漫主义文学是一定社会发展阶段的产物,英国浪漫主义对美国浪漫主义的影响有限。%With the aim to further explore the magic power of literary romanticism , this paper , by using the approa-ches in comparative literature , offers some analyses of the similarity and difference between British Romantic literature and American Romantic literature .The paper finds that the former appears earlier than the latter , with the former tak-ing the form of poetry while the later the form of fiction .But they are similar in terms of root and theme and they are the same in essence .Romantic literature is a product of social development , and the influence of British romanticism on American romanticism is limited .

  3. British Sign Name Customs (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel


    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  4. A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture Since 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Jacob


    Full Text Available This essay traces the thought processes behind the composition of artists for the exhibition A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture since 1965 (1987-88. The exhibition introduced American museum audiences to the burgeoning activity in London in the 1980s and which foreshadowed even greater intensity in the following decade.

  5. The Studies of American and British Political Parties' System and Revelations from the Perspective of History and Culture%从历史和文化的视角看英美政党制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    政党不是从来就有的,它是一定历史阶段的产物,同时,政党制度受到一定社会的文化的影响而打上了深深的文化烙印,两党制是西方社会最典型的政党制度,而两党制最典型的代表又是英美两国,因此,首先从历史和文化的角度对英美政党制度进行研究,不仅有利于了解英美政党制度的起源和发展,而且还有助于了解一个国家选择什么样的政党制度是由以文化和历史为基础的政治生态环境决定的。然后通过从历史和文化的视角对比英美政党制度与我国现在的政党制度,指出我国现在的政党制度不仅是由我国历史条件决定的,而且更是由我国传统文化中的文化基因决定的,这对坚持我国现在的政党制度,培养理论自信和制度自信以及对我国政党制度的建设具有深远和重要的意义。%The political party is not always there, it is the product of a certain historic stage. At the same time, political party system is influenced by certain social culture with deep cultural imprint. The two-party system is the most typical western society's political party system, and the most typical representatives of the two-party system are Britain and America. So taking an analysis of British and American political party system from the perspective of history and culture is not only beneficial to understand the origin and development of American and British political party systems, but also contributes to the understanding that a country's political system is mainly determined by the political environment on the basis of the culture and history of the country. By taking a contrast and comparison between British and American political party systems and our political party system, we can make a conclusion that our current political party system is not only decided by the historic conditions of our country, but also by the cultural gene of Chinese traditional culture

  6. A river to ruin : why are Americans fighting so hard to protect British Columbia's Flathead River from a strip mine?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.


    The Cline Mining Corporation has proposed an open-pit mine to extract 2 million tonnes of coal annually in the Flathead Valley of British Columbia (BC). The Flathead Valley is known internationally for the richness of its flora and fauna. After the Flathead River crosses the border into Montana, it is managed under the most restrictive environmental protection laws available in the United States. The project is expected to be the first in a series of energy projects that will ravage the valley in the near future. Major energy companies are planning to open mines at sites within the Flathead River flood plain. The low quality coal obtained from the valley will be used to supply the unregulated economies of China, India, and Brazil. The valley is situated at the convergence of several biogeoclimatic zones and is home to a rich mix of plants and animals, including the highest concentration of grizzly bears in North America. The BC government's regulatory mechanism is not able to prevent exploitation of the region. Scientists from around the world have unanimously agreed that the mine should not be opened. Tailings from other mines currently draining into the Flathead River are now beginning to alter the river's chemistry. The federal government has been unsuccessful in its bid to create a national park in the region. It was concluded that unless land use regulations for the area are changed, the valley will inevitably be developed. 13 figs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  8. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy elites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764 were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.

  9. Classroom Teaching of British and American Literature in the Perspective of Inter-subjective Theory%主体间性理论视野下的英美文学课堂教学模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The traditional teaching of British and American Literature cannot activate the students ’ en-thusiasm and originality ,so the writer thinks it is necessary to construct the new patterns .The students gain the dual development in emotion and mentality in the process of individual presentation ,movie appre-ciation ,group discussion ,teacher’s lecture and after-class reflection .%  传统的英美文学课堂在主客二元对立的教学模式主导下不能激发学生内在的热情,也不能给予学生创造的机会和展示的平台。因此有必要在主体间性理论指导下构建新的课堂教学模式。学生在个人展示,影视欣赏,小组研讨,课堂听讲以及课后反思的几个环节中逐步获得了情感和心智的双重成长,同时达到了师生之间,以及生生之间的共同融合及共同发展。

  10. A Research on the Practice System of the Course British and American Culture and Etiquette%《英美文化与礼仪》课程实践体系建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    该文以高校课程《英美文化与礼仪》为研究对象,梳理了《英美文化与礼仪》课程实践体系的理论基础,包括语用行为及其效果理论、社会交往理论以及共同场景理论。同时本文分析了该教学体系建设的文化基础,涉及全球化及文化多元性、教育国际化视野下的文化研究及跨文化传播。最后本文探讨了英美文化教学体系实践优化的路径与方法。%This article offers an empirical study on the practice system of the course British and American Culture and Etiquette, based on the theoretical review, which covers pragmatic act theory, communication action theory, and common scenario theory. Fur⁃thermore, it analyzes the cultural foundations of the course, including the trend of globalization and multi-culture, cultural research from the perspective of international education, and intercultural communication. Finally, it presents the optimized approaches of the teaching methods and practice of the course.

  11. 建构主义下的英美文学网络教学%On the web-based teaching of British and American literature based on the constructivism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on Constructivist Teaching Theory, this paper discusses the necessity of the teaching reform of British and American literature and believes that how to optimize its teaching through network technology lies in taking advantages of self-determination, interactivity and individuation of the on-line teaching platform to improve comprehensive cultural qualities of college English majors and their ability of applying the language efficiently.%随着时代的发展,传统的英美文学教学模式已经越来越不适应时代发展对人才的要求,对传统的教学模式进行改革已势在必行。在建构主义学习论的基础上,深入探讨了英美文学课程改革的理论基础和实践意义,并提出了利用网络教学的自主性,交互性和个性化的特点来深化网络教学,实现师生互动式的"教""学"结合;在具体的网络教授英美文学课程时,可以利用网络创建情景式教学、增强教与学的交互性、激发学生的个性化发展等方式。

  12. 浅议大学英语教学中实施英美文学教育%Analysis of How to Implement British and American Literature Education in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      英美文学教育在大学英语教学中长期以来没有得到充分的重视,如何在大学英语教学中实施文学教育也一直是困扰着众多教育者的问题。本文从文学教育的意义出发,分析了引起这一问题的原因和现状,阐述了进行文学教育的必要性,并以个人教学实践为根据,就如何加强非英语专业大学生的文学教育提出了自己的策略方法。%Most col ege English teachers in China do not attach importance to British and American literature in their col ege English teaching, which is also a universal problem perplexed them for long. This paper analyzes the cause of this problem and its current situation from the perspective of the meaning of literature education. The author elaborates her own strategies on this issue on the basis of her own experiences of English teaching.

  13. Shallow of British and American Law of Contract of Value Principles and Its Enlightenment to China%浅析英美合同法对价原则及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In British and American law of contract, the price theory has experienced from scratch, from benefit damage theory to the development of the theory of transaction process. The price system becomes the core content of contract law, playing an important role in the history of the development of contract law. This paper expounds the origin of the principle of consideration and the historical development course of price theory, which concludes the superiority of the price system, and puts forward the principle of consideration for China's current contract law of the development of the influence and significance.%在英美合同法中,对价理论经历了从无到有、从获益受损理论到交易过程理论的发展。对价制度成为合同法的核心内容,在合同法的发展史上有着举足轻重的作用。本文阐述了对价原则的起源,对价理论的历史发展历程,得出对价制度的优越性,并提出了对价原则对于中国现今合同法发展的影响和意义。

  14. On Construction of British and American Literature Teaching Model Based on Critical Thinking Development%基于思辨能力导向的英美文学教学模式构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天戍; 夏蓓洁


    如何将思辨能力的培养有效融入英语专业课程的教学中,是当前英语专业教学改革的重要课题之一。本研究参照文秋芳教授提出的思辨能力层级理论模型,从英美文学课程与思辨能力的关系入手,构建了英美文学思辨教学培养模式。该模式通过对英美文学课程在教学内容、教学方式、教学评价上的改革,旨在为英语专业学生思辨能力培养探索有效的路径。%How to incorporate critical thinking development into teaching for English majors is an important topic in current English teaching reformation .Referring to the conceptual framework of critical thinking skills set by Professor Wen Qiufang ,this study analyses the relationship of British and American Literature and critical thinking to propose a critical thinking teaching mo‐dal .This modal entails reformation in teaching content ,teaching methods and teaching evalua‐tion and is expected to provide an effective way to critical skills development for English ma‐jors .

  15. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study (United States)

    Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula


    Background Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients’ smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. Methods This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants’ attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. Results To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students’ training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative

  16. Smokeless Tobacco (United States)

    ... toothpick-sized sticks. Some of these also contain sweeteners or flavoring and look a lot like candy. ... Still, tobacco companies often market these products as alternatives to smoking in places where smoking isn’t ...

  17. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Although a major fiscal revenue source, the tobacco industry is always under a watchful eye while many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  18. The Royal Navy and British Security Policy. (United States)


    SCHOOL December 1983 Author Approved by: Tesis Avisor s" econd R e r Chafrman, Department of National Security Affairs -- and Policy Sciences " Dean of...8217s based on the 14 VULCAN , VICTOR and VALIANT bombers. Although cooperation with the American SAC was envisioned from the begining, the force did...British strategic nuclear deterrent. This responsibility was once the domain of the Royal Air Force and its VULCAN , VICTOR, and VALIANT bombers, but after

  19. Commodity auctions in tropical Africa : a survey of the African tea, tobacco and coffee auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, J.A.; Laan, van der H.L.


    It has proved possible and worthwhile to organize regular auctions for a few African export crops, namely tea, tobacco and coffee. Such auctions were first introduced in British East Africa in the 1930s and today, East Africa and the former British territories (Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Malawi)

  20. [Smokeless tobacco]. (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J


    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.

  1. 英美高等教育应对财政危机的异同与启示%Similarities and Differences between British and American Higher Education in Response to Financial Crisis and their Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Global financial crisis has a profound impact on the reformation and development of higher education in countries around the world. In the case of less government funding on higher education, both Britain and the United States have taken positive measures according to their national circumstances, and have widened the financial channels for higher education in response to the challenges of the financial crisis. These effective measures have not only alleviated the Britain and the United States financial dilem-ma of higher education, but also expanded the sources of higher education finance and maintained their status as world-class higher ed-ucation. Comparing the similarities and differences between British and American higher education in response to the financial crisis can provide a reference and inspiration to Chinese higher education which based on national conditions.%全球性的经济危机对世界各国高等教育的改革与发展都产生了深刻的影响.在政府减少对高等教育拨款的情况下,英美两国都根据各国国情采取了积极的措施,拓宽高等教育的筹资渠道,应对财政危机的挑战.这些卓有成效的举措,既缓解了英美高等教育财政困境,又拓宽了高等教育的财政来源,维持了其世界一流大学的地位.比较英美高等教育应对财政危机的异同,对我国高等教育依据国情办学与治理提供了借鉴与启示.

  2. An Introduction to Ethical Dilemmas of British and American Medical Students and Their Medical Ethics Education%英美医学生伦理困境及教育问题研究简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜刚; 罗肖泉


    英美学者研究认为,医学生在医学院校学习和临床培训期间,由于其身份地位、文化冲突以及医疗管理等方面的原因而经历的种种伦理困境,易于使他们陷入情感和心理的困扰、信仰和行为的冲突、理想和现实的矛盾之中,并最终导致其价值观和伦理原则的损害。他们呼吁教育工作者应当承担起帮助学生应对复杂的矛盾问题以及学习职业伦理困境的处理经验的责任。这些成果对深入研究和积极探索我国医学伦理教育的有效路径具有重要的借鉴意义。%British and American researchers hold the fact that medical students incline to be haunted with emotional and mental problems ,religion and behavior conflicts ,as well as the ideal and realistic contradictions .All these problems are resulted from all kinds of ethical dilemmas they experienced during their studies and clinical trainings in medical schools , due to their different identities ,status ,cultural backgrounds and medical managements .These problems can destroy the values and ethical principles of these medical students . To solve the problems , the researchers appeal to educators to shoulder on the responsibility to help the students to deal with the complicated problems and learn how to compromise in ethical dilemmas .The author believed these conclusions could be taken as an important reference to further study medical ethical education in China .

  3. Tobacco as Cultural Signifier: A Cultural History of Masculinity and Nationality in Habsburg Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maxwell


    Full Text Available Since tobacco smoking acquired important patriotic symbolism in nineteenth century, the history of tobacco sheds light on Hungarian nationalism. Hungarian tobacco growers found the Austrian tobacco tariff policy harmful to their interests, particularly when war disrupted the supply of American tobacco in potential export markets. Pushing for a different tariff, Hungarian patriots turned smoking into a marker of Hungarian patriotism. Tobacco symbolism was prominent during Hungary’s 1848 Revolution, not least because tobacco acquired revolutionary symbolism in Italy and Germany as well. The culture of patriotic tobacco corresponded to revolutionary national ideas in that it mostly transcended class barriers but excluded women.

  4. Tobacco industry success in Costa Rica: the importance of FCTC article 5.3 El éxito de la industria tabacalera en Costa Rica: la importancia del artículo 5.3 del CMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Crosbie


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the tobacco industry influenced tobacco control policymaking in Costa Rica. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles, and interviewing of key informants. RESULTS: During the mid-to-late 1980s, Health Ministry issued several advanced (for their time smoking restriction decrees causing British American Tobacco (BAT and Philip Morris International (PMI to strengthen their political presence there, resulting in passage of a weak 1995 law, which, as of August 2011, remained in effect. Since 1995 the industry has used Costa Rica as a pilot site for Latin American programs and has dominated policymaking by influencing the Health Ministry, including direct private negotiations with the tobacco industry which violate Article 5.3's implementing guidelines of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. CONCLUSIONS: The Costa Rica experience demonstrates the importance of vigorous implementation of FCTC Article 5.3 which insulates public health policymaking from industry interference.OBJETIVO: Analizar cómo la industria tabacalera influyó en la formulación de las políticas de control del tabaco en Costa Rica. MATERIALS Y MÉTODOS: Revisión de documentos de la industria tabacalera, de la legislación costarricense de control del tabaco y de periódicos y entrevistas con informantes clave. RESULTADOS: Durante los años ochenta, el Ministerio de Salud aprobó varios decretos para restringir el consumo de tabaco, lo que causó que British American Tobacco y Philip Morris International fortalecieran su presencia política, cuyo resultado fue la promulgación de una ley débil en 1995 todavía vigente. Desde 1995 la industria tabacalera ha utilizado a Costa Rica como piloto para los programas latinoamericanos y ha dominado la formulación de políticas influenciando al Ministerio de Salud, incluyendo negociaciones privadas con la

  5. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ While many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  6. Chronocentrism and British criminology. (United States)

    Rock, Paul


    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  7. British Sign Language. (United States)

    Kyle, Jim; Woll, Bencie


    The author reports on the use of British Sign Language in the United Kingdom and dispels some myths that surround the language. It is pointed out that there is a low level of interest in deaf people and their method of communication. Research needs in the area of sign language systems are briefly considered. (SB)

  8. 1927: a British eclipse (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.


    The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.

  9. Brit Crit: Turning Points in British Rock Criticism 1960-1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur; Lindberg, U.; Michelsen, M.


    The article examines the development of rock criticism in the United Kingdom from the perspective of a Bourdieuan field-analysis. Early British rock critics, like Nik Cohn, were international pioneers, a few years later there was a strong American influence, but British rock criticism has always...

  10. Teaching Professors to Teach. Case Studies and Methods of Faculty Development in British Universities Today. (United States)

    Seldin, Peter

    The problems that turn up while trying to improve teaching and learning are rarely exclusive to one higher education system or one nation. British efforts at faculty development go back many years, and an examination of them may be helpful to members of other systems. Although British universities differ from American ones in ethos, history, and…

  11. 试论“以文本为中心”的英美文学教学观%On "Text-Centered" Concept of Teaching British and American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "以文本为中心"的文学教学观是高校英语专业英美文学教学和全国语文教育改革的一个重要方向。本文所建构的"以文本为中心"的英美文学教学观认为文学教学的基础是正确把握文学教学的本质,关键在于文本的选择,核心是微观解码、由文本之"内"转向文本之"外"以及师生互动交流,具体措施有借鉴文学理论、文学教学与生活、创作和现代技术相结合,最后的归宿是道德教诲。%"Text-centered" concept is one of the leading trends in reforming the teaching of British and American literature for English Majors in the college as well as Chinese in all levels of schools of China. The constructed "Text- centered" concept of teaching literature in this paper can be interpreted as follows: first, it is founded on the correct understanding of what literature teaching essentially is ; second, texts should be well-selected for the course, which is the key to making the concept come true; third, the core of this concept is embodied in "shifting" from the inside to the outside of the text in three steps -decoding the text closely, analyzing its external factors and exchanging feelings between the teacher and students; forth, in the process of teaching, the teacher may take some effective measures, such as applying literary theories, referring to life experience, assigning creative writings and using modern technologies; finally, the sole purpose in this concept is educating students morally, to which all the above-mentioned methods contribute.

  12. [Smokeless tobacco]. (United States)

    Underner, Michel; Perriot, Jean; Peiffer, Gérard


    The use of snus (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Containing carcinogenic nitrosamines (Swedish snus do not contain nitrosamine). Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to dependence. It do not induce bronchial carcinoma differently smoked tobacco. Lesions usually develop in the area of the mouth where the snus is placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leukoedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. The most frequently occurring premalignant lesion is leukoplakia. Studies reveal conflicting evidence about the risk of oral and gastroesophageal cancer with regard to snus users. However, the use of snus has proved to be a risk factor in developing pancreatic cancer and increases the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, snus is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and premature delivery. Nicotine substitution therapy and bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have not been shown to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential hazards of using snus products must be incorporated into health educational programmes in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help in stopping to smoke.

  13. Comparative Sports Psychology: British and American Developments. (United States)

    Lowe, Benjamin; Walsh, Joseph

    By the turn of the 20th century, research had begun dealing with the subject of sport psychology in America. In the early 1900's, Coleman Griffin, the father of sport psychology, led the way in researching sport psychology. It was not until the 1960's that research in this field became popular in Great Britain. In 1967, in both America and Great…

  14. Tobacco industry marketing, population-based tobacco control, and smoking behavior. (United States)

    Pierce, John P


    Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong.

  15. At the margin: continuing crisis in British environmental history? (United States)

    Luckin, Bill


    An understanding of historical relations between gender and nature, whether within the context of 'untouched wilderness' or the pulsating vibrancy of the industrial city, is central to collective self-knowledge in the world in which we all live. However, have British historians been less successful than their American counterparts in engaging with key aspects of the environmental past?

  16. Differences Between British and Americans’ Cultures in Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘巍巍; 戴立黎


    <正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.

  17. 高校图书馆发展趋势研究——基于英美10所知名高校图书馆战略规划的考察%Study on the Development Trend of British and American University Libraries ---Based on 10 Famous University Libraries' Strategic Plans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕敏; 叶杭庆; 赵美娣


    The style of British and American famous academic libraries' strategic plans which were revised regularly has become increasingly mature. Through the analysis of ten British and American famous university libraries' strategic plans, the long-term development change trend of these libraries has been proposed, which has important reference meanings for university libraries to make strategic plans in China.%英美知名高校图书馆战略规划的制定体例已日趋成熟,并定期进行修订。通过对10所英美知名高校图书馆战略规划的剖析研究,提出英美知名高校图书馆中长期发展的变革趋势,对国内高校图书馆战略规划的制定具有重要的借鉴意义。

  18. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada


    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl


    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  19. Tobacco and tobacco branding in films most popular in the UK from 1989 to 2008. (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Chen, Yilu; Britton, John


    BACKGROUND Tobacco promotion is now tightly restricted in the UK and many other countries, but tobacco imagery including brand appearances in the media remain potentially powerful drivers of smoking uptake among children and young people. The extent to which tobacco imagery and specific products have appeared in the most popular films viewed in the UK over 20 years has been measured, in relation to year of release, the age certification allocated to the film by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), country of origin and other characteristics. METHODS Occurrence of tobacco intervals (tobacco use, implied use or appearance of smoking paraphernalia) and brand appearances were measured by 5 min interval coding in the 15 most commercially successful films in the UK each year from 1989 to 2008. RESULTS Tobacco intervals occurred in 70% of all films. Over half (56%) of those that contained tobacco intervals were rated by the BBFC as suitable for viewing by children aged Brand appearances were nearly twice as likely to occur in films originating wholly or in part from the UK (UK films). Specific brands, particularly Marlboro and Silk Cut, appeared in 9% of all films, and most brand appearances (39%) were in films with BBFC 15 classification. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco imagery in the most popular films shown in the UK has declined substantially over the past 20 years but continues to occur, particularly in UK films, and predominantly in films categorised as suitable for viewing by children and young people. Specific brand appearances are now rare but occur repeatedly in some films. The BBFC is not currently protecting children and young people from exposure to tobacco imagery in film.

  20. Evaluación de las políticas contra el tabaquismo en países latinoamericanos en la era del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis Thrasher


    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. RESULTS: ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. CONCLUSIONS: Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.

  1. US Public Universities' Compliance with Recommended Tobacco-Control Policies (United States)

    Halperin, Abigail C.; Rigotti, Nancy A.


    To address the rise in tobacco use among college students, several national health organizations, including the American College Health Association,recommend that colleges enact smoking bans in and around all campus buildings, including student housing, and prohibit the sale, advertisement, and promotion of tobacco products on campus. Key…

  2. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2012


    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  3. Love British Books 2012


    Middleton, Paul; Puzzovio, Carolyn


    The book is a catalogue of an exhibition of British books to be held in Armenia in June 2012 at the 'Armenian Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries'. This is an event arranged with the Armenian Ministry of Culture as part of the UNESCO: 'Yerevan, International Book Capital 2012' & the Armenian 2012 celebrations to mark the 500th anniversary of the first printed book in the Armenian language. The catalogue describes all the books in the exhibition, with a photograph of each and...

  4. Modeling Psychological Empowerment among Youth Involved in Local Tobacco Control Efforts (United States)

    Holden, Debra J.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hinnant, Laurie W.; Messeri, Peter


    The American Legacy Foundation funded 13 state health departments for their Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use in September 2000. Its goal was to create statewide tobacco control initiatives implemented with youth leadership. The underlying theory behind these initiatives was that tobacco control efforts can best be accomplished by…

  5. Regress to the Essence of Language Focus on Reading Classic Literature---Several Creative Teaching Strategies on British and American Literature Teaching%回归语言纯粹重视经典阅读--关于英美文学教学的几点创新性教学策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the approach of Image Era and wide application of multimedia technology on teaching,teachers of British and American Literature should hold its teaching objective and essence as their main task,and emphasize the importance of reading classic British and American literary works. Teachers can adopt autonomous learning strategies in and outside classroom by using traditional text reading and digital reading,experiential teaching design,the combination of text reading and writing training strategy,and diverse curriculum evaluation model. This can make English majors feel bright and dazzling lights of classic literary works reading movement,and know its profound significance.%随着影像时代的到来和多媒体技术在教学中的广泛运用,英美文学课程教学应坚持其教学目标和本质为主,重视经典英美文学作品阅读;教师可采取课堂内与课堂外、传统阅读与数字阅读相结合的自主学习策略、体验式英美文学课堂教学设计、文本阅读与写作训练相结合的教学策略和多样化的课程评价模式,让英语专业学生感受到经典文学作品阅读带来的璀璨光芒和深刻意义。

  6. History of British Space Science (United States)

    Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. O.


    1. The scientific background; 2. The technical background; 3. The initiation of the Skylark rocket programme; 4. Post IGY developments; 5. The Ariel programme; 6. The European Space Research Organisation; 7. Commonwealth co-operation in space research; 8. Smaller rockets for scientific purposes - Skua and Petrel; 9. Attitude controlled Skylark rockets; 10. The Trend Committee and the Science Research Council; 11. The transformation of ESRO into ESA; 12. The Space Science Committee for Europe; 13. Scientific studies by British space scientists I; 14. Scientific studies by British space scientists II; 15. The contribution from British space scientists to astronomy; 16. Concluding remarks; Appendices; Annexes.

  7. Risks of tobacco (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. Menu ... tobacco URL of this page: // Risks of tobacco To use the sharing features ...

  8. Tobacco and Pregnancy (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  9. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow


    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  10. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  11. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown


    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  12. The Reflection of the Comparison of American and British Balance Strategy and China's Counter Strategies%英美均势战略的比较与中国应对制衡的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸿柳; 杨守明


    British “continental balance of power”policy and U.S.rebalancing strategy not only refer to the common origins,but also have many different elements.From the point of geopolitics,the British intends to control the European continent through sea power;the US attempts to hold the Asia -Pacific area with its rebal-ancing.From the point of the goal of their strategies,the British intends to maintain its own security;on the oth-er hand,the US intends to keep its leading role in the area.From the point of the means of balancing,Great Britain mainly adopts military means;the US uses military,economic and various other means such as “rules”. Compared to UK,U.S.balance strategy presents new characteristics.According to these characteristics,China should determine the basic ideas of counter -balance:make flexible counters according to different objects, grasp the scale of counter -measures,and seek cooperations in competition.%英国“大陆均势政策”与美国“亚太再平衡战略”具有共同的思想渊源,但两者也存在着差异。从地缘政治看,英国以海权控制大陆;美国则以海权控制海域。从战略目标看,英国推行“大陆均势政策”主要是为了维护本国的安全;美国推行“亚太再平衡战略”主要是为了维持在亚太地区的霸权。从制衡手段看,英国主要采用单一的军事手段,美国采用军事、经济和规则等多种手段。相对于英国来说,美国的平衡战略呈现出新的特点。中国应根据这些特点确定反制衡的思路,针对不同对象进行灵活反制;把握好反制衡的尺度,并在斗争中积极进行合作。

  13. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy


    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  14. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy


    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  15. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S


    Full Text Available It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the ′American India′ to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.

  16. 6th North American Caribou Workshop 1-4 March 1994, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada and George River Caribou Workshop, 27-29 January 1994, Labrador City, Labrador, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed. in chief


    Full Text Available Proceedings of the Sixth North American Caribou Workshop (NACW and the proceedings of the George River Caribou Workshop (GRCW. The Sixth NACW was attended by over 200 people. Papers from the GRCW (with asterix are interspersed where appropriate with the papers from NACW.

  17. The Development Path of Chinese Legislation of Charity and Collection Looking from American and British Legislation Rules of Charity and Collection%从英美慈善募捐立法规制看我国慈善募捐立法的发展路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    英美国家在慈善募捐立法方面取得了一些成功经验,主要体现在宽松的慈善组织准入机制、完善的慈善募捐监督法律机制、充分的税收慈善募捐激励机制等。针对当前我国慈善募捐立法存在法律制度结构不健全、双重监管模式缺乏有效性、公众参与度不够、募捐激励性法律规定有待完善等问题,借鉴英美立法经验,我国需要适当放宽慈善组织的准入门槛,加强慈善募捐的评级与公示,建立更为有效的慈善募捐激励制度,以此构建出我国慈善募捐立法的未来可持续发展路径。%American and British legislation rules of charity and collection have got some successful experi-ences,which are mainly reflected in its loose admittance mechanism of charity organization,faultless legal supervi-sion mechanism of charity and collection,sufficient tax revenue incentive mechanism and so on.According to the problems such as current imperfect legal system of charity legislation,lack of effectiveness of the double supervision modes,insufficient public participation and imperfect incentive laws,we should use the experiences of American and British,legislation relax the barriers to entry of charitable organizations,strengthen the rating and public chari-ty,establish an effective charity incentive system,in order to build the sustainable development path for charity legislation in China.

  18. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer (United States)

    ... range of risks, including nicotine addiction, from smokeless tobacco products may vary extensively because of differing levels of nicotine, carcinogens, and other toxins in different products” ( 6 ). Should ...

  19. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (United States)

    ... Smoke-Free Laws Do Not Harm Business at Restaurants and Bars Stay Connected Twitter @TobaccoFreeKids Facebook Read ... Not Your Grandfather's Cigar Deadly Alliance: Big Tobacco & Convenience Stores Tobacco Ad Gallery U.S. Racketeering Verdict The ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜


    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  1. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation. (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V


    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted.

  2. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-


    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  3. Dam safety in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, H.M.; Round, R.P.D.


    Many dams in British Columbia were built before 1900, and a comprehensive inspection and surveillance program has been developed. The background and implementation of this program are described. Topics discussed include program responsibilities, classification of dams, organization, the dam safety program, and coordination with other agencies. (PMA)

  4. 美国话语与美国文化%American Words and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is a key component part of culture. It reflects culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words reflect American culture, including their custom, their view of value, their character traits. Being a melting pot, American words melt a lot of loanwords. The exaggerated use of words shows Americans are self-confidence. They also use beautified words to show their wish to life, to future. They can use common words, usually slang to express special ideas. By doing so, they create something new and original. Learning American English, especially studying American words, we can see some typical traits of American culture.

  5. Tobacco documents research methodology. (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B


    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  6. The politics of being Muslim and being British in the British Christian print media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau


    Full Text Available There have been a significant number of published studies in recent years on the British media representation of Muslims. These studies have tended to focus only on the British mainstream media, and to my knowledge, there is no significant research on the discursive construction of British Muslims in alternative media outlets. This paper attempts to fill this gap, focusing on the representations of British Muslims in the British Christian print media. Drawing on empirical data relating to four British Christian print media, Church Times, The Tablet, Evangelicals Now and Evangelical Times, this paper investigates how the questions of being Muslim and being British are dealt with in the British Christian print media, and the extent to which the politics of being Muslim and being British inform us about identity formation and affirmation.

  7. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control]. (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan


    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  8. Multinational Corporations and British Labour: A Review of Attitudes and Responses. (United States)

    Gennard, John

    Multinational corporations operating in Great Britain, specifically American industry, are arousing fears on the part of British labor, which can be grouped into these categories: (1) a threat to the job security of union members, (2) a change in the balance of power at the collective bargaining table in favor of the employers, (3) a clash of…

  9. British Telecom and Project Universe (United States)

    Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.


    Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.

  10. Noncigarette forms of tobacco use. (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis


    There are many preparations for tobacco use, which can be classified as smoking or smokeless tobacco. Among the noncigarette preparations that produce smoke, we cite cigars, pipes and narghiles. Smokeless tobacco can be found in preparations for chewing or for being absorbed by nasal and oral mucosae (snuff). However, all tobacco products deliver nicotine to the central nervous system and there is a confirmed risk of dependence. In addition, there is no safe form of tobacco use, and tobacco users have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to tobacco-related diseases.

  11. On the role of Lend-Lease Act in the transfer of British and American economic hegemony%试析《租借法案》在英美经济霸权转移中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    《租借法案》是二战期间美国为援助英国及其他反法西斯国家而出台的一项重要法规。据此法规,英国从美国得到了巨额的租借援助,也付出了高昂的代价。一方面,美国以租借援助为杠杆不断向英国施压,迫使其接受美国所倡导的重塑战后国际经济新秩序的要求。该要求不仅意味着英国在战后将失去保护其脆弱经济的屏障,也预示着将世界经济霸权之位拱手让与美国。为此,英美双方在第一阶段租借补偿谈判中展开了激烈的较量。另一方面,根据《租借补偿协议》,美国对英国的美元储备及出口做了严格限制。这使得英国出口急剧萎缩,财政赤字不断加剧,经济严重依赖美国,为了战后经济和平转型及重建,英国再次向美求援,是为第二阶段租借谈判。二战结束后,美国停止了租借援助并与英国就租借物资展开了总清算。%The Lend-Lease Act was an important program under which the United States supplied Great Britain and other Anti-Fascist Nations with materials between 1941 and 1945. According to the agreement on loan, the United Kingdom received a huge amount of loan aid from the United States and paid a high price. On the one hand, the U.S. kept on putting the pressure on Britain by loan aid, forcing it to accept to reshape the Post-War international economic orders advocated by the United States, which not only meant that the UK would lose barrier to protect its weak economy after the War, also indicated that the economic hegemony of the world would be handed over to the United States. Therefore, both sides engaged in a fierce battle at the first stage of the Lend-Lease compensation negotiations. On the other hand, in accordance with the compensation agreement on loan, the U.S. limited the United Kingdom’s dollar reserves and trade strictly, which made British exports decline sharply and fiscal deficit rise seriously

  12. The Institutional Logic of Images of the Poor and Welfare Recipients. A Comparative Study of British, Swedish and Danish Newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Dejgaard, Thomas Engel


    The article investigates how the poor and welfare recipients are depicted in British, Danish and Swedish newspapers. The study was inspired by American media studies that have documented a negative stereotypic way of portraying the poor and welfare recipients; especially in the case they are Afri......-white, especially in Denmark. The empirical analyses are based on a sample of 1750 British, 1750 Danish and 1750 Swedish newspapers covering the period from 2004 to 2009....

  13. 3 in 4 Teens Think E-Cigarettes Safer Than Tobacco: Survey (United States)

    ... fullstory_161665.html 3 in 4 Teens Think E-Cigarettes Safer Than Tobacco: Survey But devices deliver as ... Close to three-quarters of American teenagers believe e-cigarettes are less harmful or addictive than real cigarettes, ...

  14. Pirates and Piracy in American Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Richard R. E.


    Full Text Available Piracy is both an ancient and a modern social ill. Yet in American popular culture pirates have emerged as dashing heroic figures and Robin Hoods of the Sea. Some examples of this transformation of the pirate image from criminal to popular hero are explored in British and American fiction, cinema and other forms of popular culture.

  15. Motor racing, tobacco company sponsorship, barcodes and alibi marketing (United States)

    Britton, John


    Background Sponsorship of Formula One (F1) motor racing, which has been used as an indirect medium of tobacco advertising for several decades, was prohibited by the 2005 European Union Tobacco Advertising Directive. Most F1 tobacco sponsorship of motor racing in the EU has since ceased, with the exception of the Scuderia Ferrari team, which continues to be funded by Philip Morris. In 2007, the Marlboro logo on Ferrari cars and other race regalia was replaced by an evolving ‘barcode’ design, which Ferrari later claimed was part of the livery of the car, and not a Marlboro advertisement. Objective To determine whether the ‘barcode’ graphics used by Ferrari represent ‘alibi’ Marlboro advertising. Methods Academic and grey literature, and online tobacco industry document archives, were searched using terms relevant to tobacco marketing and motorsport. Results Tobacco sponsorship of F1 motor racing began in 1968, and Philip Morris has sponsored F1 teams since 1972. Phillip Morris first used a ‘barcode’ design, comprising red vertical parallel lines below the word Marlboro on the British Racing Motors F1 car in 1972. Vertical or horizontal ‘barcode’ designs have been used in this way, latterly without the word Marlboro, ever since. The modern ‘barcode’ logos occupied the same position on cars and drivers' clothing as conventional Marlboro logos in the past. The shared use of red colour by Marlboro and Ferrari is also recognised by Philip Morris as a means of promoting brand association between Marlboro and Ferrari. Conclusion The Ferrari ‘barcode’ designs are alibi Marlboro logos and hence constitute advertising prohibited by the 2005 EU Tobacco Advertising Directive. PMID:21821820

  16. 运用英美文学教学启迪大学生思辨能力%On Cultivating College Students’ Critical Thinking in the British-American Literature Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅蜜; 方静; 田双


    Nowadays, the absence of college students ’ critical thinking is common.It is because of language barriers that it is more serious when teaching English.Therefore, improving college English learners ’ critical thinking has become an important subject of English teaching and research.The teaching forms of critical thinking can be divided into two kinds.One is independent teaching;the other is content-based instruction.Content-based instruction can effectively combine Cultivating College Students ’ Critical Thinking with teach-ing one course.This teaching form , while teaching English-American literature , can train college students ’ ability to analyze and solve the problem independently in order to gradually improve college English learners ’ critical thinking.This paper , after analyzing the reasons why critical thinking of college English learners has been absent , tries to train college English learners ’ critical thinking from improving teaching object , teaching method and evaluation system of English American Literature course.%当代大学生思辨能力缺失的现象普遍存在。而且由于语言的障碍,在英语的教学中,教师发现学习者思辨能力缺失的现象更加突出。如何在教学中培养和提高学生的思辨能力是目前极为重要的一个课题。思辨能力的教学形式分为两类:一是独立式,二是依托式。依托式教学法可以将思辨能力的培养与某学科的学习有机结合。在大学英语教学中,以讲授英美文学知识为载体,培养学生独立分析问题和解决问题的能力,通过潜移默化的教学来提高学生的思辨能力,是一种行之有效的方法。因此,本文在充分分析学生思辨能力缺失的成因后,尝试通过改进英美文学的教学目标,教学方法和评价体系来培养和提高大学生的思辨能力。

  17. Tobacco and cancer (image) (United States)

    Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases ...

  18. Tobacco and chemicals (image) (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  19. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  20. [Evaluating tobacco dependance]. (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François


    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  1. Social forces and tobacco in society. (United States)

    Eriksen, M P


    The continued widespread use of tobacco is one of the greatest paradoxes of the 20th century. The cigarette was introduced to society early in this century, received a broad public acceptance in response to massive marketing and distribution efforts, and survives--or, more accurately, thrives--in a complex and controversial social, medical, and legal environment. Today, over 50 million Americans continue to use tobacco regularly, despite the fact that it is almost universally known that use of the product as intended is likely to result in ultimate death and disability for one out of two regular users. The latest statistics tell us that over 400,000 Americans die each year, accounting for over 5 million years of lost life, $50 billion in medical expenditures, and another $50 billion in indirect costs. We estimate that 10 million Americans have died from smoking since the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964, and another 25 million Americans alive today will ultimately die, including 5 million children, as a result of a fundamentally adolescent decision. Clearly, a unique mix of social and political forces have combined to result in a deadly and addicting product being sold and marketed like candy, resulting in 90% of users acknowledging the addictive nature of the product, 70% of whom would like to quit and wish they had never started. But despite near-universal knowledge of the harm and addictive nature of the product and widespread public support for changes in the status quo, the status quo has not changed. Despite a consistent belief that tobacco should be treated commensurate with the harm that it causes, changes in public policy have been surprisingly recalcitrant. This introduction briefly examines the social, cultural, economic, and public policy forces that have contributed to maintaining the status quo for nearly 100 years, the barriers to meaningful change, and the research needs that could result in profound improvements in public health.

  2. Point-of-sale tobacco marketing in rural and urban Ohio: Could the new landscape of Tobacco products widen inequalities? (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K


    Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities.

  3. The Indigenous, Nonracist Origins of the American Skinhead Subculture. (United States)

    Wood, Robert T.


    Reports researchers' claim that American skinhead subculture is a largely racist phenomenon that emerged as the result of social network connections between organized American racists and British skinheads. Challenges these claims, noting the influence of an indigenous and nonracist American subculture, "hardcore" music. Concludes that…

  4. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Julio León Chica


    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial tests, the University's (specifically, the one where the study was conducted literature programs, several anthologies, and competences required in the education program were all taken into consideration. Then the tests were developed, piloted, and validated with a focus group composed of ten students of said program. The results indicated that students require previous knowledge, literary competence, and command of the English language because those are determining factors in successfully passing the tests.Este artículo busca identificar un modelo óptimo para un examen de literatura americana y británica que se puede diseñar para que los estudiantes que inician el programa de educación bilingüe de una universidad privada en Colombia puedan acreditar el conocimiento previo en estas dos materias, mediante un examen de suficiencia. Para el diseño de los exámenes se tuvieron en cuenta las necesidades y opiniones de los estudiantes, así como exámenes comerciales existentes, los programas de literatura de la universidad, varias antologías y las competencias requeridas por el programa de educación. Los exámenes diseñados se pilotearon y se validaron con un grupo de 10 estudiantes del programa en mención. Se determinó que los estudiantes requieren un conocimiento previo, competencia en literatura y un nivel competitivo en inglés, para aprobar satisfactoriamente los exámenes.

  5. Wind energy on the horizon in British Columbia. A review and evaluation of the British Columbia wind energy planning framework (United States)

    Day, Jason

    This study examines the wind energy planning frameworks from ten North American jurisdictions, drawing important lessons that British Columbia could use to build on its current model which has been criticized for its limited scope and restriction of local government powers. This study contributes to similar studies conducted by Kimrey (2006), Longston (2006), and Eriksen (2009). This study concludes that inclusion of wind resource zones delineated through strategic environmental assessment, programme assessment, and conducting research-oriented studies could improve the current British Columbia planning framework. The framework should also strengthen its bat impact assessment practices and incorporate habitat compensation. This research also builds upon Rosenberg's (2008) wind energy planning framework typologies. I conclude that the typology utilized in Texas should be employed in British Columbia in order to facilitate utilizing wind power. The only adaptation needed is the establishment of a cross-jurisdictional review committee for project assessment to address concerns about local involvement and site-specific environmental and social concerns.

  6. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don


    Full Text Available Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted tobacco production and midrib parts which used for expanded stem manufacturing and added into cigarette for nicotine decreasing. Little tobacco scraps is not used for recycling and thus utilized. In the laboratory of technologies for tobacco products manufacturing possibility for utilizing little tobacco scraps for manufacturing new tobacco products: hookah blends and non-smoking products has been studied. Fractional composition of little tobacco scraps from cigarette industry has been defined. Samples of hookah blends and non-smoking products have been manufactured. New tobacco products manufactured from burley leaves were used as comparison. Tasting of these products has been done, utilizing methods developed in the laboratory. As the result, it has been found that samples made of wastes have better tasting score because of rich taste and tobacco aroma. Utilizing wastes instead of expensive leaf tobacco greatly decreases final cost of the product. As the result possibility and expediency of utilizing cigarette’s manufacturing wastes for hookah blends and non-smoking products manufacturing has been proved.

  7. Tibetans' Fight Against British Invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Late in the 19th century, the Qing Central Governmentwas in a state of permanent decline, and its control oversome southwestern and northwestern areas suffered accordingly,making possible British and Russian incursions. In order to expand its sphereof influence and occupy all of Tibet,Britain clandestinely sent nominal preachers, tourists and explorers to explore for minerals in Tibet. Later,they managed to encroach on some of the adjacent countries of Tibet including Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, paving the way for invading Tibet.

  8. RIVALS OF A KIND: the Anglo-American Commercial Aviation Rivalry, 1939-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson


    Full Text Available Before World War II, the British and Americans had been fierce rivals in the international airline business. Their wartime alliance muted this rivalry, yet it still simmered, manifesting itself in a variety of global incidents and issues. As the war progressed, the Americans gained tremendous advantages in the field, raising British fears about American dominance of the world’s airways. In turn, American policymakers worried about British control of key areas of the world. The mutual suspicion grew, and the rivalry resurfaced in the last months of the war. The conflict had merely subsumed the differences, and made the two powers rivals of a kind.

  9. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  10. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  11. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing


    T. A. Don; A. G. Mirgorodskaya; O. K. Bedritskaya


    Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted toba...

  12. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments (United States)


    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to clarify, consistent with current practice and as required by the Fair and Equitable...

  13. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  14. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond


    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  15. British African Caribbean Women and Depression (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney


    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  16. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia (United States)

    Johnston, Julie


    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  17. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies. (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer


    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  18. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata


    of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory....

  19. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen


    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  20. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey. (United States)

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  1. The Falklands War and the British Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Adrian


    Full Text Available The paper examines the way the Falklands War of 1982 was reflected in the creation of British playwrights. Officially, the war was seen as a heroic act, as another glorious page in the book of British history. But for many writers it contained nothing heroic; it was just noisy brandishing of weapons and useless loss of human lives.

  2. Tobacco Workers in 1916

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,

  3. Price and consumption of tobacco


    Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal


    Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...



    Čavlek, M.; Boić, M.; Kristina Gršić; V. Kozumplik


    Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11%) and, energy for bulk-curing (89%)....

  5. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo


    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  6. 夹缝中的昙花:论抗战胜利后武汉中小卷烟厂的发展%Narrow Survival and Transient Prosperity: Development of Small and Medium-sized Tobacco Company after Sino-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paper sets out to review on the development of SMS tobacco companies in Wuhan around 1945.After the Sino-Japanese war(1937-1945),the British and American tobacco companies which used to dominate the tobacco market of Wuhan city suffered from great loss and could hardly recover.At the same time,the native tobacco companies like Nanyang Brother could not recover their capacity despite their great effort.Seeing the great shortage of supply of tobacco in Wuhan market,many tobaccos companies entered Wuhan from other provinces.They set up factories and tried their best to take up market share.Meanwhile,some native small and medium-sized tobacco companies of Wuhan rise rapidly,managed to survive and became one of three powers in the market.However,owing to the turbulent political environment,impact of over-commercialization and many other influences,the SMS tobacco companies were soon trapped into predicament of development after transient prosperity.%抗战胜利后,以往占据武汉卷烟市场的外资企业英美烟公司由于战时损失惨重一时难以恢复元气,民族企业南洋兄弟烟草公司虽竭力恢复生产,但短期内也很难达到战前水平。随之出现的市场缺口一方面导致了湖北省外的烟草公司积极在汉开设分厂抢占市场份额,另一方面武汉本地的中小烟厂也在大型烟厂的夹缝中迅速崛起,武汉机制卷烟行业呈现出"三足鼎立"的态势。然而由于局势动荡、过度商业化的影响和其它各种原因,在经过如昙花般夹缝中的短暂繁荣后,武汉中小烟厂很快就陷入了发展的困境。

  7. Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2011-2015. (United States)

    Singh, Tushar; Arrazola, René A; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Homa, David M; King, Brian A


    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths. Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among U.S. youths.

  8. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey. (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D


    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  9. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents. (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham


    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  10. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh


    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  11. Social movements and human rights rhetoric in tobacco control. (United States)

    Jacobson, P D; Banerjee, A


    After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission.

  12. Smoked Tobacco Products (United States)

    ... United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf—plants native to Asia—that may be tied with colorful string at one or both ends. Bidis can be flavored—such as chocolate, cherry, or mango—or unflavored. Flavored bidis, however, ...


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  14. Grappling With Tobacco Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It's reported that the British House of Commons passed a bill February 14 to ban smoking in every pub, club and indoor public space in England. The legislation is now submitted to the upper House of Lords. If passed, it will become law by mid-2007. With the ban, Britain joins Ireland, Finland, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sweden and several U.S. states and cities, all of which have restricted smoking in public places in recent years.

  15. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice


    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  16. The Diasporic Dimensions of British Caribbean Federation in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Duke


    Full Text Available [Second and third pragraph] While much has been written on the significance of British Caribbean activists in various movements associated with black diaspora politics in the twentieth century, particularly their important roles in Pan-African struggles, little has been written on how the various British Caribbean colonies themselves were envisioned among diaspora activists and within the scope of black diaspora politics. Did such Caribbean activists, especially those interested in and connected to diasporic movements beyond the British Caribbean, and their African American and African counterparts forsake the British West Indies as a focus of political engagement for other lands and causes? If not, what was the place of “West Indian liberation” and nation building in the British Caribbean in relation to black diasporic struggles in the early twentieth century? This article address these questions through an examination of how the idea of a united “West Indian nation” (via a federation or closer union among British Caribbean colonies was envisioned within black diaspora politics from the turn of the twentieth century through the 1920s, and the ways in which racial consciousness and motivations informed conceptualizations of such a nation among black political activists of the British Caribbean and other parts of the diaspora. This study argues that efforts to create a federation in the Anglophone Caribbean were much more than simply imperial or regional nation-building projects. Instead, federation was also a diasporic, black nation-building endeavor intricately connected to notions of racial unity, racial uplift, and black self-determination.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek


    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  18. Tobacco or health. (United States)

    Piha, T; Besselink, E; Lopez, A D


    Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS. Reliable information on smoking prevalence and tobacco use is scarce, but the overall evidence points to two different patterns: a traditional and a high prevalence pattern. The traditional pattern dominates in the NIS and some of the CCEE, and is characterized by a high smoking rate in men (about 50%) and a low rate in women (10%). Smoking by women, however, is increasing, starting with the younger age groups. The high prevalence pattern found in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, shows a high smoking prevalence in women (about 25%) in addition to a high prevalence in men. Predictions made in 1990 indicated further increases or stable tobacco consumption in the CCEE/NIS by the year 2000, in contrast with the steady decrease in western European countries. When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world. This situation has caused severe concern in public health professionals in many of the affected countries, but not in the public and policy-makers. The fundamental changes in social and economic structures have both improved and decreased opportunities to promote nonsmoking. In the short term, the negative influences seem to dominate, although some countries, such as Lithuania and Poland, are now introducing their first realistic policies on tobacco. In most countries, however, tobacco control has to compete with other issues for priority on a crowded public health agenda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK


    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  20. The Rise and Fall of the British and American Analytic Education Philosophy--- Based on the Relationship between Analytic Philosophy and Analytic Education Philosophy%英美分析教育哲学的涨落--基于分析哲学与分析教育哲学关系的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    From 1950s to 1970s , the mainstream of American and British education philosophy is the so-called “analytic education philosophy” . Analytic education philosophy emerged in 1950s , and reached its zenith in 1960s , but declined in the 1970s . Although it was a flash in the pan , it went through the ebbs and flows . There exists a “ blood” relationship between analytic education philosophy and analytic philosophy . The characteristics of the analytic philosophy of education are closely related to the application of analytic philosophy in the field of education . When analytic education philosophy suffered criticism ,analytic philosophy was criticized too - so called the gates fish stirred . The rise and fall of the further is echoed with the later . The “blood” relationship is an important factor which impacts the rise and fall of analytic education philosophy . After the flocking of analytic education philosophy through the field of education philosophy , its influence does not disappear . It still exerts subtle influence on modern education philosophy in the form of changing new names for old ways of thinking ” or “old wine in new bottle” .%20世纪50-70年代,英美教育哲学的主流是“分析教育哲学”。分析教育哲学在50年代异军突起,60年代盛极一时,70年代日渐式微。分析教育哲学与分析哲学存在“血缘”关系:分析教育哲学的特征与分析哲学在教育领域中的运用息息相关,分析教育哲学遭受诟病与分析哲学受到批评息息相关,分析教育哲学的涨落与分析哲学的兴衰势呈呼应。这种“血缘”关系是影响分析教育哲学涨落的一个重要因素。分析教育哲学之潮在教育哲学领域涌过之后,并非遗产全无。分析教育哲学或改头换面,或新瓶旧酒,对现代教育哲学产生潜移默化的影响。

  1. The Difference between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    I want to explain the differences in the following aspects: pronunciation,spelling,vocabulary and usage.I will compare these two languages in theory and use some examples.I think we can learn more through this kind of research.

  2. The Difference between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    I want to explain the differences in the following aspects:pronunciation,spelling,vocabulary and usage.I will compare these two languages in theory and use some examples.I think we can learn more through this kind of research.

  3. Unchained Interests: American-British-Dutch-Australian Command 1942 (United States)


    KNIL Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (Royal Netherlands East Indies Army) ABDAfloat ABDACOM combined naval forces ABDAair ABDACOM combined and...20Willmott, Empires in the Balance, 15. 21G. Teitler and P. J. Drooglever, De Val van Nederlands -Indië (Dieren: Bataafsche Leeuw, 1982), 82...military presence in the Netherlands East Indies. The armed forces were composed of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands

  4. American and British Mental Health Workers Look at Rehabilitation (United States)

    Askenasy, Alexander R.


    Study supported by funds from the Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, the Research Institute for the Study of Man, the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, and Smith Kline & French Laboratories.

  5. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems. (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S


    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  6. Analytical studies on tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in tobacco and tobacco smoke. (United States)

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D


    Chemical-analytical studies have led to the identification of approximately 3000 compounds in tobacco and 4000 in tobacco smoke. These include carcinogens in processed tobacco as well as tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens, and organ-specific carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The latter group includes N-nitrosamines, in particular those that derive from nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids, the TSNA. In vitro nitrosation of nicotine yields NNN, NNA, and NNK. Nitrosation of other tobacco alkaloids leads to the formation of NAT, and NAB. Our analytical studies using GC-TEA have led to the identification of seven TSNA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. In addition to NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK, we also identified NNAL, iso-NNAL, and, most recently, iso-NNAC. Their levels range from 0.01 to 92 ppm in tobacco and from 6 to 530 ng/cigarette in tobacco smoke. The high levels observed in snuff are primarily due to fermentation and aging. Technological methods exist today to reduce the levels of TSNA in both tobacco and cigarette smoke.

  7. Adult Tobacco Use Among Racial and Ethnic Groups Living in the United States, 2002–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Gfroerer, BA


    Full Text Available IntroductionU.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002–2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1 use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes during the 30 days before each survey and 2 cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey.ResultsThe prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites.ConclusionThese results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.

  8. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... health. Here's why: Smokeless tobacco is still tobacco. Tobacco contains cancer-causing chemicals, including nitrosamines, a family of chemicals ... cigarettes. Nicotine addiction can make quitting difficult. Smokeless tobacco causes mouth cancer, pancreatic cancer, and other health problems, such as ...

  9. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for... (United States)


    ... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen (CA), respiratory toxicant (RT), cardiovascular toxicant (CT... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  10. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market. (United States)

    Firth, Michael


    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  11. Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry. (United States)

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel


    Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)

  12. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Simpson, William A.


    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  13. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... this page: Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  14. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions. (United States)

    Sizer, John


    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  15. Failure in Campaign Design: The British Defeat at New Orleans December 1814 - January 1814 (United States)


    GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY. REFERENCES TO THIS STUDY SHOULD INCLUDE THE FOREGOING STATEMENT. QUOTATION FROM, ABSTRACTION FROM, OR REPRODUCTION OF ALL OR ANY...hated French emperor .21 The British cabinet worked out a plan of victory to bring the American nation to heel. The goal was “to destroy and lay...Indian Allies. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010), 413 22 Robert V. Remini, The Battle of New Orleans. (New York: Viking Penguin , 1999

  16. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  17. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products. (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S


    New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.

  18. Where are we now in British health economics? (United States)

    Blaug, M


    Health economics took off in 1970 or thereabouts, just after the take-off date for the economics of education. Although early health economics made use of human capital theory as did the economics of education, it soon took a different route inspired by Arrow's work on medical insurance. The economics of education failed to live up to its promising start in the 1960s and gradually ran out of steam. The economics of health, however, has made steady theoretical and empirical progress since 1970, principally in coming to grips with the implications of supplier-induced demand and the difficulties of evaluating health care outcomes. Some of the best work on British health economics has been in the area of normative welfare economics, defining more precisely what is meant by equity in the delivery of health care and measuring the degree of success in achieving equity. Recent efforts to reform the NHS by the introduction of 'quasi markets' have improved the quantity and quality of health care in Britain. In short, British health economics has been characterised by the use of Pigovian piecemeal rather than Paretian global welfare economics, retaining a distinctive style that sets it apart from American health economics.

  19. The Pit and the Pendulum: The Impact on Teen Smokers of Including a Designated Smoking Area in School Tobacco Control Policy (United States)

    Baillie, L. E.; Lovato, C. Y.; Taylor, E.; Rutherford, M. B.; Smith, M.


    Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant…

  20. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  1. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T


    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  2. The opium wars revisited as US forces tobacco exports in Asia. (United States)

    Chen, T T; Winder, A E


    The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking.

  3. Tobacco advertising in retail stores. (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J


    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  4. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill


    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  5. Book Review: The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR


    Full Text Available This book is highly recommended as an indispensable reference source for tobacco and smoke chemists as well as other scientists involved in the study of tobacco and its products. The compilation of proper chemical names, common names, Chemical Abstract Service numbers (CAS No., and structures is alone worth the purchase price.

  6. WHO Technical Manual on Tobacco Tax Administration



    This technical manual aims to help governments maximize the benefits that they can receive from higher tobacco taxes by identifying a set of best practices for tobacco taxation. This is one of several available or forthcoming products that focus on tobacco taxation, including: the forthcoming monograph on the economics of tobacco and tobacco control being jointly produced by WHO and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI); the handbook on the effectiveness of tobacco tax and price policies for...

  7. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users. (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton


    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  8. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  9. A General Tank Test of a Model of the Hull of the British Singapore IIC Flying Boat (United States)

    Dawson, John R; Truscott, Starr


    A general test was made in the N.A.C.A. tank of a 1/12-size model of the hull of the British Singapore IIC flying boat loaned by the Director of Research, British Air Ministry. The results are given in charts and are compared with the results of tests of a model of an American flying-boat hull, the Sikorsky S-40. The Singapore hull has a greater hump resistance but a much lower high-speed resistance than the S-40.

  10. Tobacco Use and Oral Health. (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove


    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  11. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  12. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth


    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  13. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinants. (United States)

    Rodu, Brad; Jansson, Christer


    Smokeless tobacco has been associated with oral cancer for many decades. The purpose of this article is to review research relevant to this association, including epidemiologic studies, studies of putative carcinogens such as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and other contaminants, and possible cancer inhibitors. Epidemiologic studies addressing this issue primarily consist of case-control studies. They show that the use of chewing tobacco and moist snuff is associated with very low risks for cancers of the oral cavity and related structures (relative risks [RR] from 0.6 to 1.7). The use of dry snuff is associated with higher RRs, ranging from 4 to 13, while the RRs from smokeless tobacco, unspecified as to type, are intermediate (RR = 1.5 to 2.8). With regard to TSNAs, historical levels in American moist snuff products were higher than those in their Swedish counterparts, but levels in contemporary products are uniformly low. TSNA levels in chewing tobacco have always been low, but levels in dry snuff have been higher, including some very high levels in current products. In general, smokeless tobacco users are not exposed to significant levels of cadmium, lead, benzo(a)pyrene, polonium-210, and formaldehyde, when compared with concentrations of these compounds in foods. Finally, low oral cancer risk from smokeless tobacco use may be influenced by the presence of cancer inhibitors, mainly anti-oxidants, in smokeless tobacco products.

  14. Study on the Ecological Adaptability of Flue-cured Tobacco Variety NC297 from American in Different Altitude%美引烤烟品种NC297不同海拔生态适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐益群; 田育天; 张留臣; 普云飞; 常剑; 胡保文; 瞿兴; 李迪秦


      为探究美引烤烟品种NC297不同海拔高度的生态适应性,展开连续多年多点的试验示范研究。结果表明,NC297在不同海拔的适应性广,烟叶产量(其产量为2016~2562 kg/hm2)、抗性、品质等主要农艺性状较为协调兼顾,与其原生地表现相似。该品种具有耐肥性较好、抗病性较强、优质适产和易烘烤等特点,烟叶外观质量综合评分高,糖碱比和两糖差值较为合理。在香气的甜韵感和丰富性方面表现优于对照品种K326和‘云烟87’,吸食品质彰显清香型风格,是适宜于在1600~1800 m中海拔地区的中等肥力以上土壤种植和大面积推广的优良品种,最适宜种植密度为15000~16500株/hm2,最佳施肥比例为N:P2O5:K2O=1:1:3,施氮量田烟N 105~135 kg/hm2、地烟N 75~105 kg/hm2。%In order to explore the ecological adaptability of the variety tobacco NC297 in different altitude, the continuous many years of the demonstration experiments with multiple spots were carried. The results showed that the NC297 had an extensive ecological adaptability in different altitude, and it had only better tobacco coordination with its leaves output from 2016 to 2562 kg/hm2, resistance, quality and other agronomic traits similar to the performance of their original habitat, but a better resistance to fertilizers, strong disease resistance, high quality and appropriate output, easy to baking, high synthetic score of the appearance quality, a ratio of sugar and nicotine and a better radio of total sugar and reducing sugar also. It had better aroma of sweet rhyme and richness than that of the check varieties K326 and‘Yunyan 87’. It was a better suck quality with its qing scent style deserving to popularization in the medium or above fertility soil from altitude 1600 to 1800 m. The most suitable planting density was from 15000 to 16500 plants/hm2, the suitable fertilizer ratio of N, P2O5 and K2O was one to one to

  15. American method and comparison of the different methods of internal ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Patnaik


    Full Text Available Le Duc's method gave good results in almost all cases. But in all cases American ammunition was used in American guns and it is doubtful if the method would give equally good results when applied to British guns or British propellants. The advantage of Le Duc's method, however, in its simplicity compared with the other theoretical methods and the quickness with which results can be calculated by this method.

  16. Real/Life: New British Art and the Reception of Contemporary British Art in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajiya Kenji


    Full Text Available This essay explores the ways in which the exhibition Real/Life: New British Art was conceived and received in Japan, where contemporary British art has been shown since the 1960s. Taking place at five museums in the country between 1998 and 1999, the exhibition aimed to showhow British artists in the 1990s struggled with realities, internal and external, but its response was not as satisfactory as was expected. The essay examines the exhibition as a turning point for the transformation of exhibition culture in Japan from nationally themed exhibitions to showcases of contemporary art in the global context.

  17. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  18. Tobacco socialization and anti-tobacco ad effectiveness among children. (United States)

    Khalbous, Slim; Bouslama, Heifa


    In order to prevent smoking onset among children, it is essential to know the process of smoking socialization and its various dimensions before being able to design any effective anti-tobacco advertisements. This research aims to conceptualize this process and to test the effectiveness of certain styles of anti-tobacco advertising addressed to children. The results show that both attitudinal and behavioral smoking socialization influence anti-tobacco advertisements effectiveness and that the least offensive and humoristic are most effective in Tunisia.

  19. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer. (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S


    The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?

  20. Monitoring Epidemic of Tobacco Use, Promote Tobacco Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Huan YANG


    @@ Tobacco use is a major cause of preventable disease and premature death. The tobacco epidemic is responsible for 5.4 million deaths annually and killed 100 million people worldwide in the last century. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be more than 8 million deaths every year attributable to tobacco use and that more than 80% of these will occur in developing countries. By the end of the 21st century,1 billion people will have died from cigarette smoke[1].

  1. Tobacco and health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rao


    Full Text Available Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  2. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  5. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  6. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle


    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  7. Diglossia and British Sign Language. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 46. (United States)

    Deuchar, Margaret

    A study of the nature and function of British Sign Language (BSL) as used in the British deaf community is described. The study examined two hypotheses: (1) that the notion of diglossia applies to the British deaf signing community, and (2) that the low variety of BSL will exploit the visual medium in its grammar to a greater extent than the high…

  8. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku Israel


    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  9. The British Council's Global Cataloguing Service. (United States)

    Magalhaes, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Madalena Sa


    The British Council Global Cataloging Service was initiated in 1980 to reduce duplication of cataloging same titles in council libraries abroad. Each of 56 council libraries participating in system receives list of new accessions and updated microfiche catalog. Portugal was one of the first six countries chosen to test the system. (EJS)

  10. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective. (United States)

    Christian, Mark


    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  11. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen


    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  12. The Discourses of British Domestic Sitcom. (United States)

    Bee, Jim

    This analysis of the British domestic situation comedy (sitcom) as a genre begins by noting that it is considered basically taxonomical, using the categories of character, narrative, and theme to develop understanding of its discursive strategies. Considered to be preliminary and tentative, the results of this analysis suggest that: (1) the sitcom…

  13. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review). (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  14. The British Novel: Conrad to the Present. (United States)

    Wiley, Paul L.

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who desire a useful research tool, this bibliography cites the works of and about British novelists, beginning with Joseph Conrad and terminating in 1950. The listings are selective with proper emphasis given to less celebrated but distinctive writers. A preface explaining the numerous…

  15. The British Experience of Reform in Education. (United States)

    Johnes, Geraint


    The nature and impact of reforms since 1988 in British education, both compulsory and postsecondary, are examined, focusing on changes in organizational structure and financing mechanisms. The success of these changes in meeting their objectives is assessed, and unresolved issues are identified. (MSE)

  16. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens


    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New i

  17. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia


    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  18. British theatre and performance 1900-1950


    D’Monté, R.


    British theatre from 1900-1950 has been subject to radical re-evaluation with plays from the period setting theatres alight and gaining critical acclaim once again; this book explains why, presenting a comprehensive survey of the theatre and how it shaped the work that followed.

  19. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon (United States)


    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  20. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps. (United States)

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  1. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  2. Did Senior British Officers Effectively Lead Change? (United States)


    performs well, without moral blemish.”7 Any change to the Army must be led in a moral fashion or it risks alienating swathes of the Army, which in...facing the British Army as it sought to change . Subsequently, the key changes during this period will be highlighted. First, however, the organizational ...

  3. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon


    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  4. The British Southern Campaign 1778-1781: The Impact of Strategic Level Assessments and Assumptions on British Decision Making (United States)


    Georgi ~ and the Carolinas against the British, driving Campbell (the British commander) out of the backcountry." 31 Few Georgians joined the British...64 Wilson, 30-35. 65 Ibid, 101-102. 66 Shy, 296. 67 Wilson, 63-64. 29 68 Smith, 98. 30 Bibliography Babits, Lawrence E. and Joshua Howard

  5. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues? (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly


    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  6. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  7. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  8. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... these products. Smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and nicotine gel strips are not safe substitutes for cigarettes. Why ... during pregnancy? Medicines sold over the counter, including herbal supplements and vitamins, can cause problems during pregnancy. ...

  9. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  10. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten


    General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic......BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...

  11. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...

  12. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company. (United States)

    Stotlar, David


    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  13. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States. (United States)

    Gardiner, Phillip S


    Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.

  14. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits (United States)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  15. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  16. Depression, Anxiety, and Tobacco Use: Overlapping Impediments to Sleep in a National Sample of College Students (United States)

    Boehm, Matthew A.; Lei, Quinmill M.; Lloyd, Robin M.; Prichard, J. Roxanne


    Objectives: To examine how tobacco use and depression/anxiety disorders are related to disturbed sleep in college students. Participants: 85,138 undergraduate respondents (66.3% female, 74.5% white, non-Hispanic, ages 18-25) from the Spring 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II database. Methods:…

  17. Fourth Sino-British Local Government Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The 4th Sino-British Local Government Seminar jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Friendship Cities Association, the China-EU Association and the Local Government International Bureau of the UK (LGIB) was held in Beijing on June 29, 2004. He Luli, vice-chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, attended the seminar and delivered a speech. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a keynote speech. Ken Bodfish,

  18. Where is the British national press? (United States)

    MacInnes, John; Rosie, Michael; Petersoo, Pille; Condor, Susan; Kennedy, James


    Although globalization has highlighted the danger of conflating state, society and nation, sociologists remain insufficiently alert to such banal nationalism. Newspapers offer a strong test case of the extent of diversity in the construction of state, national and social boundaries, since Billig and Anderson have argued they comprise a special case where their orientation to an audience simultaneously located in a state, society and nation allows them to reproduce a sense of national identity. However, despite the commonsense obviousness of the term, it proves remarkably difficult to define what the 'British national press' might comprise. Circulation density of titles varies substantially across different parts of the UK and editorial copy is altered to address diverse 'national' readerships. 'British' newspapers also circulate in other states, especially the Republic of Ireland. After reviewing how newspapers might be defined as 'national' and/or 'British', we conclude that both Anderson and Billig over-estimate the congruence, relevance and obviousness of state, society and national boundaries. If the conceptualization of such boundaries is problematic in the case of the press, it follows that it must be still more so for most other objects of sociological analysis, including that of 'society' itself.

  19. Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America (United States)

    ... tobacco-report/ftc_smokeless_tobacco_report_2014.pdf [Data for top 5 manufacturers only]. See, also Campaign factsheet, Trends in Tobacco Industry Marketing . Tobacco marketing studies. Pollay, R, et al., “The ...

  20. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco. (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir


    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  1. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China. (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua


    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC.

  2. The Southern Campaign of the American Revolution: A Comparative Analysis of British and American Approaches (United States)


    the interior.67 Greene knew Cornwallis would view his newly assembled army as the prime target and would make every effort to smash him as quickly...Bricks Without Straw: Nathanael Greene’s Southern Campaign and Mao Tse- Tung’s Mobile War. Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 1983. Edgar

  3. Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Athletes. (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others


    This literature review delineates the current status of smokeless tobacco, including prevalence, terminology, periodontal effects, and addiction potential. Also discussed is the possible influence on youth of smokeless tobacco use by popular sports figures. (Author/CB)

  4. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  5. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  6. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  7. Tobacco Use in Racial and Ethnic Populations (United States)

    ... Smoking Facts Tobacco Use in Racial and Ethnic Populations Tobacco use is much higher in some communities ... disparities. Adult Smoking Rates among Racial and Ethnic Populations 1 Race/Ethnicity Total Men Women Whites 19. ...

  8. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the country.Broomrape (Orobanche ce

  9. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  10. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  11. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  12. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  14. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  15. Study on Poverty Alleviation and Tobacco Control in Myanmar


    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Perucic, Anne-Marie; Rahman, Khalilur


    This paper looks at tobacco consumption among low-income groups and assesses the level of tobacco-related expenditure among households using tobacco and the opportunity cost of their tobacco expenditure. A survey among tobacco users from low-income groups was conducted to collect data for the analysis. The survey found that households consuming tobacco were spending many times more on toba...

  16. Development of a model of the tobacco industry's interference with tobacco control programmes


    Trochim, W; Stillman, F; Clark, P; Schmitt, C.(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany)


    Objective: To construct a conceptual model of tobacco industry tactics to undermine tobacco control programmes for the purposes of: (1) developing measures to evaluate industry tactics, (2) improving tobacco control planning, and (3) supplementing current or future frameworks used to classify and analyse tobacco industry documents.

  17. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  18. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995


    Kershen, Anne


    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  19. Stephen Poliakoff: another icon of contemporary British drama


    Idrissi, Nizar


    This thesis is an attempt to portray the birth of British modern drama and the most important figures breaking its new ground; more to the point, to shed light on the second generation of British dramatists breaking what G.B. Shaw used to call ‘middle-class morality’. The focal point here is fixed on Stephen Poliakoff, one of the distinctive dramatists in contemporary British theatre, his work and the dramatic tinge he adds to the new drama.

  20. Recent Works Published: Contemporary World Literature and British Literature


    Gonzalez, Madelena


    Angelaki, Vicky (ed), Contemporary British Theatre: Breaking New Ground, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013 (224 pages), ISBN-13: 978-1137010124. Aragay, Mireia and Enric Monforte (eds), Ethical Speculations in Contemporary British Theatre, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 (232 pages), ISBN-13: 978-1137297563. Beaumont, Alexander, Contemporary British Fiction and the Cultural Politics of Disenfranchisement: Freedom and the City, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (248 pages), ISBN-13:...

  1. The tobacco gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rovetto


    Full Text Available In 2008 it was closed and dismantled the spectacular Duke Gar­dens near Princeton University. They were created by the famous heiress Doris Duke, in honor of her father, James Buchanan Duke. This last gentleman caused 100-million deaths during the 20th century. The gardens mentioned demonstrated, perhaps trivially, what was stated by philosopher Walter Benjamin: There has never been a document of culture, which is not simultaneously one of barbarism”. “Buck” Duke was the inventor of the modern cigarette. By the end of the 20th century, this astute manufacturer entered the instantly ready-to-smoke tobacco market (without having to roll in small pieces of paper or cut off the cigarette tips with the automated production of cigarettes. Without a cigarette maker like Carmen from opera by Bizet who rolled a maximum of 200 cigarettes per day, the machine he perfected with a mechanic named Bonsack produced 120,000 “cigarettes” during the same time. Thereby, rea­ching a oversupply that had to be sold – creating a demand for it. The solution was cigarette marketing and advertising. These were placed in restaurants, bars, and cigar stores; thus, making them an important part of the worker’s period of rest and dining. Although, in principle, they were associated to women of free morals (“Smo­king is a great sensual pleasure. While smoking, I a wait for the man I love …” sang Sarita Montiel in the 1950s in a stroke of clever advertising these were transformed into symbols of women’s libe­ration. Toward the late 1920s, young women were seen marching and brandishing their freedom torches, the cigarettes. During the two world wars, cigarettes were distributed to hundreds of thou­sands of soldiers as part of their daily nutritional ration. During the immediate post-war, packs of Camel and Lucky Strike were the most used Exchange currency in Europe. With all these publi­city maneuvers, Mr. Duke and his partners have caused, as we al

  2. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  3. Smokeless Tobacco Education for College Athletes. (United States)

    Burak, Lydia J.


    Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…

  4. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  5. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  7. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  8. Should Tobacco Sponsorship Of Education Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008, a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area. On the roof of the school building stands the signboard "Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School." A slogan engraved on another board reads, "Tobacco helps your success."

  9. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  11. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  12. Tobacco control policies of oncology nursing organizations. (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga


    Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.

  13. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana


    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  14. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbloom Judith


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD; time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p Conclusions Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  15. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005


    Ernesto M Sebrie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.


    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  16. An analysis of tobacco industry marketing to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations: strategies for mainstream tobacco control and prevention. (United States)

    Stevens, Perry; Carlson, Lisa M; Hinman, Johanna M


    Research on adult tobacco use consistently shows a higher prevalence among lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) populations than among the general population-reasons why are largely unknown, and counterstrategies are critical. Tobacco industry marketing, uncovered when the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) forced companies to share its internal documents, provided insight. The American Legacy Foundation uncovered the industry campaign Project SCUM (Sub-Culture Urban Marketing) aimed at gays and the homeless. The formerly secret documents revealed specific marketing toward LGBT, whose rates increased when the MSA banned youth (but not other population) advertising. The industry reaches out to LGBT persons through direct and indirect advertising, community outreach, and sponsorships. Messages to LGBT have been relatively absent from advertising until recently, creating receptivity to such overtures. Reducing LGBT smoking rates is a public health challenge that will require exceeding the sense of validation tobacco advertising has created in LGBT communities.

  17. Anarchic alchemists : dissident androgyny in Anglo-American gothic fiction from Godwin to Melville

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Evert Jan van


    The dissertation Anarchic Alchemists: Dissident Androgyny in Anglo-American Gothic Fiction from Godwin to Melville investigates the close generic links between British and American Gothic fictions from the late eighteenth-century up to the middle of the nineteenth century, including studies on Willi

  18. Improving tobacco dependence education among the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry faculty. (United States)

    Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z


    Tobacco-related health problems are among the most preventable forms of illness. By assuming proactive tobacco use counseling roles, dental professionals can help reduce the number of people who use tobacco. Minimum standards for intervention by dental care providers were established more than a decade ago by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The goal of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry in its tobacco-cessation efforts is to move beyond those standards towards more effective interventions. The school conducted a study to determine the formal education of the faculty, evaluate the current state of tobacco dependence education (TDE) delivered to students, identify topics that dental faculty members wanted to further their education, promote tobacco dependence education among the dental faculty, and enhance teaching moments on the clinic floor. A fifty-seven question survey was e-mailed to all faculty members with >0.4 FTE (full-time equivalent) during the 2007-08 school year. The response rate was 80 percent (101 out of 126). The results revealed that faculty members have limited formal training; however, 73.1 percent agreed that TDE would be beneficial to them. They also believed that, upon graduation, dental professionals should be able to perform at least a ten-minute moderate intervention program and discuss options for tobacco dependence treatments with patients. This project was designed to establish a 2008-09 baseline of TDE clinical practices, knowledge, and attitudes and to assess the effects of faculty development, curricular didactic, and clinical changes.

  19. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN


    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  20. Recommendations for Sustainable Development of Ankang Tobacco Growing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatao; YANG; Ke; SUN; Feng; ZHU


    Sustainable development of high quality characteristic tobacco is the only path for future development of China’s tobacco industry.In combination with realities of tobacco development in Ankang tobacco growing area,this paper made analysis on factors restricting sustainable development of Ankang tobacco growing area.On the basis of actual situations,it came up with recommendations including establishing scientific basic tobacco field protection system,gradually cultivating professional tobacco farmers and strengthening tobacco technician team construction,improving scientific and technological innovation,implementing standardized technologies,improving tobacco production organization mode,and improving tobacco production security mechanism.

  1. Exploring Use of Nontraditional Tobacco Products Through Focus Groups with Young Adult Smokers, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Pederson, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2002, 16 focus groups with young adult smokers who used or had tried nontraditional tobacco products (e.g., bidis, shisha, herbal cigarettes, kreteks, cigars, herbal smokeless products were conducted in Dallas, Texas, and Chattanooga, Tennessee, to gain an understanding of the appeal of these products. MethodsIn each city, groups were segmented by race or ethnicity and by educational status. ResultsMany consistent themes emerged across the groups. Nontraditional tobacco use is not common among young adult smokers. Although some products such as Black & Mild and Swisher Sweets cigars are used frequently by some groups, other products such as shisha, kreteks, and herbal cigarettes are less well known and infrequently used. Among focus group participants, use of nontraditional tobacco products tends to occur in clubs, during social gatherings, or at times when cigarettes are unavailable. More college students than those who were not in college cited cost and inconvenience of purchasing nontraditional tobacco products as reasons for not using them. All focus group participants agreed that African Americans use cigars more than any other racial or ethnic group. ConclusionOverall, findings suggest that the reasons for trying nontraditional tobacco products did not differ by race or ethnicity. Family members and peers were mentioned as the source of nontraditional tobacco products when first used. Cost, convenience, taste, smell, and strength were given as reasons both for using these products and for discontinuing their use.

  2. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest is rising in smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to smoking, but published reviews on smokeless tobacco and cancer are limited. We review North American and European studies and compare effects of smokeless tobacco and smoking. Methods We obtained papers from MEDLINE searches, published reviews and secondary references describing epidemiological cohort and case-control studies relating any form of cancer to smokeless tobacco use. For each study, details were abstracted on design, smokeless tobacco exposure, cancers studied, analysis methods and adjustment for smoking and other factors. For each cancer, relative risks or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were tabulated. Overall, and also for USA and Scandinavia separately, meta-analyses were conducted using all available estimates, smoking-adjusted estimates, or estimates for never smokers. For seven cancers, smoking-attributable deaths in US men in 2005 were compared with deaths attributable to introducing smokeless tobacco into a population of never-smoking men. Results Eighty-nine studies were identified; 62 US and 18 Scandinavian. Forty-six (52% controlled for smoking. Random-effects meta-analysis estimates for most sites showed little association. Smoking-adjusted estimates were only significant for oropharyngeal cancer (1.36, CI 1.04–1.77, n = 19 and prostate cancer (1.29, 1.07–1.55, n = 4. The oropharyngeal association disappeared for estimates published since 1990 (1.00, 0.83–1.20, n = 14, for Scandinavia (0.97, 0.68–1.37, n = 7, and for alcohol-adjusted estimates (1.07, 0.84–1.37, n = 10. Any effect of current US products or Scandinavian snuff seems very limited. The prostate cancer data are inadequate for a clear conclusion. Some meta-analyses suggest a possible effect for oesophagus, pancreas, larynx and kidney cancer, but other cancers show no effect of smokeless tobacco. Any possible effects are not evident in Scandinavia. Of 142

  3. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I


    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...

  4. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H


    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  5. Electrical disturbance in heart by smokeless tobacco. (United States)

    Puri, Aniket; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rohit; Tiwari, Sunita


    Smokeless tobacco use in the form of chewed tobacco or snuff is common in various parts of the world, including India. It is well known that smokeless tobacco consumption is responsible for cancer but less is known about its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nicotine, the main constituent of tobacco smoke is responsible for the elevated risk of the cardiovascular disease and sudden coronary death associated with smoking, presumably by provoking cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses some of the acute and chronic cardiac effects of smokeless tobacco on cardiovascular disease with special reference to the electrical disturbance as well as comparing nicotine kinetics between smoking and smokeless tobacco. It would further enhance the clamor to urge people to quit all forms of tobacco consumption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV


    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  7. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer


    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  8. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate

  9. Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males

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    Abdulaziz A Albrithen


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12 is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12 and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD. Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality or Factor 3 (compulsiveness increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness is an indicator of physical dependence.

  10. The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation. (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu


    South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  11. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.


    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  12. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda


    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British" (read…

  13. Sign Language and Integration in the British Deaf Community. (United States)

    Deuchar, Margaret

    This paper deals with the integrative function of sign language in the British deaf community. Sign language communities exhibit a special case of diglossia in that they exist within a larger, hearing community not necessarily characterized by diglossia itself. British Sign Language includes at least two diglossic varieties, with different…

  14. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other" (United States)

    Smith, Heather Jane


    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  15. British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone: A Case Study (United States)


    BRITISH MILITARY INTERVENTION INTO SIERRA LEONE : A CASE STUDY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone : A Case Study 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d...

  16. The British Library Big Data Experiment: Experimental Interfaces, Experimental Teaching



    The British Library Big Data Experiment is an ongoing collaboration between British Library Digital Research and UCL Department of Computer Science (UCLCS), facilitated by UCL Centre for Digital Humanities (UCLDH), engaging computer science students with humanities research and digital libraries as part of their core assessed work.

  17. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption. (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli


    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  18. What's in Tobacco Smoke? Many Americans Don't Know (United States)

    ... That makes nicotine easier to absorb. This increases addiction." In addition, 61 percent and 72 percent of ... people think additives -- which can include things like sugar, ammonia and flavorings -- are the source of dangerous ...

  19. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service. (United States)

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam


    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution.

  20. Cognitive development: no stages please--we're British. (United States)

    Goswami, U


    British cognitive developmental psychology is characterized by its interest in philosophical questions, its preference for linking basic research to applied issues in education and cognitive disorders, and its willingness to learn both methodologically and theoretically from work in animal psychology and in physiology more generally. It has also been influenced profoundly by Jean Piaget's cognitive stage theory although in general British work has focused on demonstrating early strengths, rather than early deficits, in infant and child cognition. Following an overview of British work that encompasses past and present interests, issues and challenges for the future are highlighted. While the perspectives of the founding members of the British Psychological Society (BPS), as outlined by Edgell (1947), are still apparent in British research in cognitive developmental psychology today, it is argued that future cognitive work must become even more interdisciplinary and that the symbiotic relationship between research in adult cognition and in cognitive development needs greater recognition.

  1. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products. (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K


    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  2. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K


    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products). PMID:23591505

  3. The Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Pattern in Modern Tobacco Agriculture in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua


    This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.

  4. Culturally Tailored Smoking Cessation for Arab American Male Smokers in Community Settings: A Pilot Study


    Haddad, Linda; Corcoran, Jacqueline


    Tobacco use is a serious public health problem among Arab Americans with limited English proficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop a culturally-tailored and linguistically-sensitive Arabic-language smoking cessation program. A secondary goal was to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting Arab Americans through a faith-based community organization which serves as a neighborhood social center for the city of Richmond’s Arab Americans. Eight first-generation Arab American men aged 2...

  5. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Somatunga


    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.


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    Donal P McCrachen


    Full Text Available This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military intelligence operation. In particular, the article looks at the problem issues relating to the relationship: licensing correspondents, censorship, monitoring journalists’ activities, as well as the successful attempt of the intelligence sector to bring the press into their campaign to spread pro-British propaganda. The role of the press in the saga of the attempt to make British Military Intelligence a scapegoat for British initial failures is also mentioned.

  7. The Role of Intertextuality in Neil Gaiman’s American Gods


    Irina RAȚĂ


    The American cultural identity and the essence of modern America are concepts difficult to describe and define. Neil Gaiman, a highly acclaimed British writer, tried to capture, in his award-winning novel, American Gods, the “real” America, and its elusive cultural identity. This article aims to uncover the intertextual references in American Gods, since Gaiman’s work is renowned for its extensive intertextuality. It also attempts to analyse the role and the importance of references in the cr...

  8. Public health and agenda setting: determinants of state attention to tobacco and vaccines. (United States)

    Pacheco, Julianna; Boushey, Graeme


    What determines government attention to emerging health issues? We draw on research in agenda setting and policy diffusion to explore the determinants of public health attention in the fifty American states. We find that intergovernmental influence has a strong and consistent influence over state attention to tobacco and vaccines from 1990 to 2010. While national attention to tobacco or vaccines also sparks attention in the states, this effect is smaller than the internal impact of gubernatorial attention and the horizontal influence of neighboring state attention. We find some support that problem severity matters; however, these results are highly dependent on the measures used. Finally, we find no evidence that interest groups influence the attention that states pay to tobacco or vaccines. Our results suggest that institutions play a critical role in explaining government attention to health policy.

  9. Obesity and Tobacco Cessation Toolkits: Practical Tips and Tools to Save Lives. (United States)

    Crowe, Susan D; Gregg, Laurie C; DeFrancesco, Mark S


    Both obesity and smoking are public health burdens that together contribute to approximately one third of the deaths annually in the United States. In 2015, under the direction of Dr. Mark DeFrancesco, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened two workgroups with the purpose of creating toolkits that bring together information that the obstetrician-gynecologist can use to address these preventable health problems. An Obesity Prevention and Treatment Workgroup and a Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation Workgroup developed toolkits on Obesity Prevention and Treatment ( The toolkits contain specific talking points, counseling methods, and algorithms to address these health concerns in a supportive, efficient, and effective manner. By including these methods in practice, clinicians can help prevent the tragedy of early deaths caused by obesity, tobacco, and nicotine use.

  10. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  11. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  12. Homosexual parents in British custody appeals. (United States)

    Cameron, Paul


    6 British child custody appeal cases including a homosexual parent were compared with 6 randomly drawn appeal cases between heterosexual parents for parental and mental instability, partners' instability, residential instability, criminality, and lying, and having harmed the children and exposing children to harms. In 3 of the 6 cases the homosexual or his associates were recorded as engaging in criminality, in another 2 cases with lying. In one of the 6 homosexual cases the children were recorded as harmed. The 9 recorded harms or probable harms to children in cases involving a homosexual parent were attributed to the homosexual or her associates: children were recorded as harmed and exposed to the harm of neglect in one of the 6 comparison cases.

  13. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Seip


    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  14. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat. (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J


    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  15. Watching the 'eugenic experiment' unfold: the mixed views of British eugenicists toward Nazi Germany in the early 1930s. (United States)

    Hart, Bradley W


    Historians of the eugenics movement have long been ambivalent in their examination of the links between British hereditary researchers and Nazi Germany. While there is now a clear consensus that American eugenics provided significant material and ideological support for the Germans, the evidence remains less clear in the British case where comparatively few figures openly supported the Nazi regime and the left-wing critique of eugenics remained particularly strong. After the Second World War British eugenicists had to push back against the accusation that their science was intrinsically dictatorial or totalitarian and, as a result, many of their early perceptions of the Nazis were ignored or rationalised away. Further, historians in recent years have focused more directly on the social reformist elements of eugenics, discussing the links between hereditary science and the birth control and feminist movements in addition to others. While undoubtedly making valuable contributions to the scholarly understanding of the eugenic milieu in the interwar years, these studies have neglected to recontextualize the sentiments of British eugenicists who did indeed view the Nazi government positively in the early years of the 1930s. This article argues that there was a significant, though not numerically sizable, faction in the British eugenics movement, though mostly outside the Eugenics Society itself, in the early 1930s that viewed the Nazi Germany as an admirable state for its implementation of eugenic principles. One of these figures was later interned by his own government for being too closely aligned with the German regime, though he argued that this affinity was driven by the quest for scientific truth rather than politics. Eugenics in Britain thus contained a greater diversity of views toward Germany than scholars have previously assumed, warranting more research into the individuals and organizations harbouring these views.

  16. Analysis of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Common Smokeless Tobacco Afzal in Oman

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    Nawal Al-Mukhaini


    Full Text Available Objectives: There is a lack of awareness regarding the carcinogenicity of Afzal, an illegal smokeless tobacco product (STP widely used among the Omani youth. Previous research has shown that certain types of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs are associated with oral and lung cancers. This study therefore aimed to assess levels of four common TSNAs in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and September 2013. A random sample of Afzal was analysed for four types of TSNAs using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The four types of TSNAs analysed were 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB. As a reference product, a sample of laboratory-manufactured American moist snuff (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA was also used to confirm the accuracy and precision of the analysis. Results: The analysis revealed total TSNA levels of 3.573 μg/g in the Afzal sample. Mean levels of NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB were 1.205, 1.015, 0.809 and 0.545 μg/g, respectively. Conclusion: Levels of the two most abundant TSNAs (NNN and NNK found in the Afzal sample exceeded international regulatory limits. Afzal users therefore need to be educated regarding the potential health risks associated with their STP use. Stricter implementation of current legislation is recommended to reduce the availability and usage of Afzal in Oman.

  17. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco


    Hecht, Stephen S.


    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International...

  18. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy. (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M


    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  19. Teenagers' Use of Tobacco and Their Perceptions of Tobacco Control Initiatives (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine


    Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…

  20. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira


    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  1. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.


    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  2. Battling Bullying in the British Army 1987 – 2004

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    James K. Wither


    Full Text Available This article explores the attempts by the UK MOD to eradicate bullying in the British Army. Although British recruits are not confronted by mistreatment that compares with the phenomenon of dedovshchina, the Army has struggled to eliminate incidents of bullying from the ranks, which have tarnished the image of the British Army. The article examines the nature and extent of the problem, the efficacy of official policy to combat it, and suggests reasons why bullying persists even in a long- standing professional army. It also seeks to provide instructive insights for those militaries of the successor states of the Soviet Union that are currently blighted by dedovshchina.

  3. La propagande anti-britannique en France pendant l’Occupation Anti-British Propaganda in France during the Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Passera


    Full Text Available Left to fight alone after France signed the armistice on the 22nd of June 1940, Great Britain became enemy number one in the eyes of the German occupying forces and the Vichy government. This hostility found expression in a considerable quantity of propaganda in the guise of posters, tracts, booklets and brochures meant to denounce British responsibility for the conflict in the eyes of French public opinion. Propaganda was particularly intense from June to December 1940 and from January to June 1944 but the German and French propaganda services waged this psychological warfare against Great Britain throughout the war. In 1940, the anti-British brainwashing campaigns aimed at ridding the defeated French of their guilt by accusing the ex-ally of being the cause of the conflict and of deceit during the Battle of France. In 1941-1942, the Allies’ military setbacks were the subject of tracts and brochures that ridiculed British strategic skills. Propaganda was also based on the painful history of France and Great Britain so as to convince the French that England had always tried to deprive France of her colonies and that it was what she was trying to do by maintaining her presence in Africa. The major part of this propaganda was promoted by the German authorities, only to a lesser degree by the French collaboration parties. Till 1942, the Information Secretariat of the Vichy government distributed few anti-British tracts, concentrating its efforts on the promotion of the National Revolution. On the other hand, the first Anglo-American bombings in the Paris area provoked strong reactions in the Vichy government which then relied on the French population’s confusion and anxiety to denounce British policy. What was the impact of these anti-British speeches on the French population? The prefects’ reports on public opinion show that the plugging of Anglophobic sentiment had little influence on the French who were globally in complete support of the

  4. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects (United States)

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  5. An Argument for Change in Tobacco Treatment Options Guided by the ASAM Criteria for Patient Placement. (United States)

    Williams, Jill M; Steinberg, Marc L; Kenefake, Alexandra N; Burke, Michael V


    Tobacco use is a major threat to public health in the United States, and the number one cause of preventable death. Although most smokers try to quit unaided, robust data indicate that pairing behavioral support to US Food Drug Administration-approved cessation medications significantly increase cessation rates. Those who do receive assistance in quitting usually receive very low intensity treatment, regardless of the severity of their dependence or their medical and environmental circumstances. This is in stark contrast to how other substance use disorders are treated, where there are varying levels of care depending on addiction severity and biopsychosocial circumstances. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) developed a formal algorithm for assessing substance use disorders and determining the optimal level of care. The ASAM Patient Placement Criteria are regularly used to determine the appropriate level of care for all substance use disorders except tobacco. This paper will review key aspects of the ASAM dimensions of care and placement levels, with emphasis on how they apply to tobacco use and present case examples of typical smokers who would benefit from a higher intensity of tobacco dependence treatment. We also present current barriers to reimbursing healthcare providers for these services. We conclude with a commentary and discussion regarding recommendations for improvements in tobacco dependence treatment care.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants Prevalencia de consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en inmigrantes latinoamericanos adultos Prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas em adultos imigrantes latino-americanos

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    José Rafael González-López


    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%. For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices.Con el fin de estimar la prevalencia por autorreporte del consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en la población adulta de inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Sevilla, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra representativa de 190 inmigrantes. Los resultados mostraron que el 61,4% de los sujetos bebió alcohol en el mes anterior a la recolección de datos, y el 13,2% de los participantes mostró tener riesgo de alcoholismo. El 30,0% ya era fumador. El 5,3% de los encuestados ha consumido drogas ilícitas en los últimos seis meses (marihuana: 3,7%, el hachís, la cocaína un 1,1% y 0,5%. Para todas las sustancias investigadas, la prevalencia de consumo fue mayor en hombres de 25-39 años. Se concluye que los inmigrantes tienen una alta prevalencia de consumo de drogas. La enfermera puede prevenir estos comportamientos de riesgo mediante la implementación de prácticas educativas.Para estimar a prevalência de autorrelato de consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas da população adulta de latino

  7. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie


    Objectives To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Methods Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive ( from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer‐reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Results Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak “share of voice” in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Conclusions Tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries. PMID:17130625

  8. Cretaceous Apparent Polar Wander Relative to the Major Cratons and Displacement Estimates of Baja British Columbia (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.


    When paleogeographic interpretations derived from independent observations conflict, the methods and results from each discipline come under careful scrutiny, as illustrated by the Baja British Columbia controversy. Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from a large region of the Canadian Cordillera render paleopoles which are far-sided with respect to cratonic North American poles, suggesting this region, designated Baja British Columbia, translated northward during Late Cretaceous - Paleogene time. Criticism of this interpretation based on other geological reasoning prompted me to perform new reviews of Cretaceous to Eocene paleomagnetic results from the Cordillera and from the major cratons of the globe. The global review follows the method of Besse and Courtillot (1991; 2002). One difference between our methods is that I compiled paleomagnetic results from highly studied rock units to single results to balance data weightings spatially and temporally, thus reducing the number of individual results. For the period 160 to 40 Ma, 51 poles were included compared to 92 poles by Besse and Courtillot (2002). Differences between apparent polar wander paths in their and my analyses are never significant at 95% confidence, however mean pole positions differ by up to 500 km, which is important for paleogeographic analysis. The global distribution of sampling localities and the tight clustering of the paleomagnetic poles after plate reconstruction provide invaluable confirmation of plate tectonically derived Euler rotations, the reliability of paleomagnetic remanence directions, and the geocentric dipole geometry of the geomagnetic field. My Cordilleran review shows that paleolatitudes derived from plutons and remagnetized rocks are significantly more scattered than those derived from bedded rocks. Using bedded rocks only, the paleomagnetic record shows that Baja British Columbia sat 2100 ± 500 km south of its present position with respect to cratonic North America during the

  9. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters". (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna


    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes.

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.


    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  11. Sir Charles Ballance: pioneer British neurological surgeon. (United States)

    Stone, J L


    nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.

  12. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  13. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  14. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  15. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  16. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  17. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was...

  18. Tobacco Dependence: Nursing Care Plans

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    Aurora Miguel García


    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence is a major risk factor for health that requires a correct approach by all health workers. Nursing plays a key role both in identifying smokers, as in the systematic advice to quit smoking, or assist in smoking quit. This work presents three standardized care plans that enable the nursing work in accordance with a methodology and using a standardized language that allows both continuity of care such as research and development of knowledge nurse: Care plan to smoker in precontemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in contemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in preparation/action stage.

  19. Malaysia as the Archetypal Garden in the British Creative Imagination


    Siti Nuraishah Ahmad


    European travel writing (1512–1984) represented Malaysia as a tropical Garden of Eden, an image that has also percolated into literary texts concerning the region. This article examines spatial images in British fiction through the framework of archetypal literary criticism and theories of colonial representations of space to reveal the worlding (Spivak 1999) of Malaysia as a garden. In order to ascertain the ways in which the garden archetype has been deployed by the British creative imagina...

  20. The Embodiment of Sublime in British Romantic Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Xuetong


    As a literary term,sublime,for a time,has become one of the leading criteria of literary criticism and a representative characteristic of high art. In British romantic poetry,sub-lime has a very broad embodiment. This paper,with the theoretical foundation of the sublime by Longinus,Burke and Kant,probes into the embodiment of sublime in the works of British Romantic poets,including Blake,Wordsworth,Coleridge,Keats and Shelley.

  1. Availability and estimates of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia



    The amount of antimicrobial use is a significant selection pressure that alters the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. This paper summarizes attempts to estimate the weight of antimicrobial purchases in British Columbia for use in animals. The data reported here do not capture all sources of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. This paper highlights how information deficits on veterinary drug use complicate the development of an evidence-based policy framework for combating a...

  2. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900


    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa


    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  3. Strategic Dissonance: British Middle East Command in World War II (United States)


    Churchill and Martin Gilbert , The Churchill War Papers: At the Admiralty, September 1939 to May 1940 (London: Heinemann, 1993), War Cabinet Paper 52...Kenya ceded some border positions to the Italian assaults. However, the constabulary British forces in British Somaililand wisely retreated before...Churchill War Papers: At the Admiralty, September 1939-May 1940. edited by Martin Gilbert . New York: Norton, 1993. Collins, Robert John and Jan

  4. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience



    Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits). ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC) residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn.) in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraple...

  5. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'. (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade


    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  6. "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Share Tweet ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

  7. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.


    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  8. Agrochemical Management in Production of Tobacco


    Miceski, Trajko; Taskoski, Petre


    Environment protection requires from tobacco growers to secure a good quality and economically justified tobacco production. With respect to this, application of agrochemicals plays a particularly important role. The agrochemicals should be applied in the lowest possible rate, in compliance with the Integral Protection Management(IPM), paying great attention to the use of adequate working clothes and equipment during their use.


    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  10. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA


    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  11. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

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    Mohsen M. Saleh


    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  12. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael


    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  13. Utopianism in the British evolutionary synthesis. (United States)

    Esposito, Maurizio


    In this paper I propose a new interpretation of the British evolutionary synthesis. The synthetic work of J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher and J. S. Huxley was characterized by both an integration of Mendelism and Darwinism and the unification of different biological subdisciplines within a coherent framework. But it must also be seen as a bold and synthetic Darwinian program in which the biosciences served as a utopian blueprint for the progress of civilization. Describing the futuristic visions of these three scientists in their synthetic heydays, I show that, despite a number of important divergences, their biopolitical ideals could be biased toward a controlled and regimented utopian society. Their common ideals entailed a social order where liberal and democratic principles were partially or totally suspended in favor of bioscientific control and planning for the future. Finally, I will argue that the original redefinition of Darwinism that modern synthesizers proposed is a significant historical example of how Darwinism has been used and adapted in different contexts. The lesson I draw from this account is a venerable one: that, whenever we wish to define Darwinism, we need to recognize not only its scientific content and achievements but expose the other traditions and ideologies it may have supported.

  14. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers (United States)

    Henry, H.


    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  15. The psychologist, the psychoanalyst and the 'extraordinary child' in postwar British science fiction. (United States)

    Tisdall, Laura


    A sudden influx of portrayals of 'extraordinary children' emerged in British science fiction after the Second World War. Such children both violated and confirmed the new set of expectations about ordinary childhood that emerged from the findings of developmental psychologists around the same time. Previous work on extraordinary children in both science fiction and horror has tended to confine the phenomenon to an 'evil child boom' within the American filmmaking industry in the 1970s. This article suggests that a much earlier trend is visible in British postwar science fiction texts, analysing a cluster of novels that emerged in the 1950s: Arthur C. Clarke's Childhood's End (1953), William Golding's Lord of the Flies (1954) and John Wyndham's The Midwich Cuckoos (1957). It will be argued that the groups of extraordinary children in these novels both tap into newer child-centred assertions about the threats posed by abnormal childhood, underwritten by psychology and psychoanalysis, and represent a reaction to an older progressive tradition in which children were envisaged as the single hope for a utopian future. This article will ultimately assert that the sudden appearance of extraordinary children in science fiction reflects a profound shift in assessment criteria for healthy childhood in Britain from the 1950s onwards, an issue that had become vitally important in a fledgling social democracy.

  16. Management of primary hypothyroidism: statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive Committee. (United States)

    Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Gilbert, Jackie; Abraham, Prakash; Boelaert, Kristien; Dayan, Colin; Gurnell, Mark; Leese, Graham; McCabe, Christopher; Perros, Petros; Smith, Vicki; Williams, Graham; Vanderpump, Mark


    The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report improved well-being on initiation of treatment. However, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer with symptoms despite achieving adequate biochemical correction. The management of such individuals has been the subject of controversy and of considerable public interest. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. These guidelines have been based on extensive reviews of the medical literature and include sections on the role of combination therapy with L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3) in individuals who are persistently dissatisfied with L-T4 therapy. This position statement by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) summarises the key points in these guidelines and makes recommendations on the management of primary hypothyroidism based on the current literature, review of the published positions of the ETA and ATA, and in line with best principles of good medical practice. The statement is endorsed by the Association of Clinical Biochemistry, (ACB), British Thyroid Foundation, (BTF), Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Society for Endocrinology (SFE).

  17. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  18. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63). (United States)

    Charters, Erica


    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  19. Dual use of tobacco among Bangladeshi men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Zaman


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dual use of tobacco (using smoking and smokeless forms in Bangladesh is uncommon in women but common in men. Dual users are at additional risk of cancers and heart diseases compared with a single form of tobacco use. Knowledge about their socioeconomic background is necessary for planning appropriate interventions. We report here socioeconomic background of the dual users of tobacco from a nationally representative survey. Methods: The study adopted a probability proportionate to size sampling technic of divisional population stratified into urban and rural areas to recruit men aged 25 years or older from their households. A total of 4312 men were recruited. Variables included questions on 20 household assets, tobacco use and other behavioral risk factors, and measurement of body weight and height. Results: The average age of dual users was 46.7 years old compared to 43.4 and 52.3 years for smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Prevalence of "smoking only," "smokeless only" and "dual use" of tobacco was 40.6%, 15.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. Among all tobacco users, dual users constituted 20%. These dual users had lower educational achievement, rural residence, lower intake of fruit, and higher intake of alcohol. They were more undernourished as indicated by a thin body mass index compared to nonusers and smokers. Dual users were of socioeconomically deprived as measured by wealth quartiles constructed out of household assets. Conclusion: Dual use of tobacco is common in Bangladesh, and it is intimately linked with socioeconomic deprivation. Poverty reduction strategy and campaigns should address tobacco control not only tobacco in general, but its dual use in particular.

  20. Anglo-American economic diplomacy during the second world war and the electrification of the Central Brazilian Railway


    Mills, Thomas


    Throughout the Second World War British and American companies competed to gain the contract for the electrification of the central Brazilian railway. The British Foreign Office used this case to establish a broader principle with the US government that the conditions brought about by war would not be used by one country to gain commercial advantage at the expense of the other. While the US government supported this principle in theory, this article argues that they failed to adhere to it in ...

  1. Giuliana Iannaccaro - Giovanni Iamartino (Eds., Enforcing and Eluding Censorship: British and Anglo-Italian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Milani


    Full Text Available Enforcing and Eluding Censorship: British and Anglo-Italian Perspectives is a wide-ranging edited collection offering fourteen contributions on the forms and practices of regulation and reaction connected with censorship. The collection spans several historical periods, media, methodologies and disciplines, from English literature to Linguistics and Translation Studies, thus offering a very broad – yet fragmentary at stages – set of perspectives on the complex and often not overt phenomena of (countercensorship in the Anglo-American culture and Anglo-Italian cultural relationships.  The edited collection is introduced by a preface by one of the editors, Giuliana Iannaccaro, who outlines in rich detail the structure of the book.

  2. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour


    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

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    Nestor TB


    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  4. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Nargis


    Full Text Available Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. Results: The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at −0.64 and of higher priced brands at −0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. Conclusions: This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  5. Genomic screen for loci associated with tobacco usage in Mission Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmsen Kirk C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco usage in Native American adults and adolescents is higher than any other racial or ethnic group, yet biological risk and protective factors underlying tobacco use in this ethnic group remain unknown. A genome scan for loci associated with tobacco use phenotypes was performed with data collected from a community sample of Mission Indians residing in Southwest California. Methods A structured diagnostic interview was used to define two tobacco use phenotypes: 1 any regular tobacco usage (smoked daily for one month or more and 2 persistent tobacco usage (smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day for more than one year. Heritability was determined and a linkage analysis was performed, using genotypes for a panel 791 microsatellite polymorphisms, for the two phenotypes using variance component methods implemented in SOLAR. Results Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores for the two tobacco use phenotypes revealed two scores that exceeded 2.0 for the regular use phenotype: one on chromosomes 6 and one on 8. Four other loci on chromosomes 1,7,13, and 22 were found with LOD scores between 1.0 and 1.5. Two loci of interest were found on chromosomes 1 and 4 for the persistent use phenotype with LOD scores between 1.3–1.5. Bivariate linkage analysis was conducted at the site on chromosome 4 for persistent tobacco use and an alcohol drinking severity phenotype previously identified at this site. The maximum LOD score for the bivariate analysis for the region was 3.4, however, there was insufficient power to exclude coincident linkage. Conclusion While not providing evidence for linkage to specific chromosomal regions these results identify regions of interest in the genome in this Mission Indian population, for tobacco usage, some of which were identified in previous genome scans of non-native populations. Additionally, these data lend support for the hypothesis that cigarette smoking, alcohol

  6. Beyond the limits of neoliberal higher education:global youth resistance and the American/British divide%超越新自由主义高等教育的边界:全球青年的抵抗和美英分裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亨利·吉鲁; 吴万伟(译)


    This paper makes a comparative study of students~ resistance against neoliberal authoritari- anism in the United States and European countries. After a brief account of the neoliberal attack on higher education, it describes students~ resistance against neoliberal authoritarianism, arguing that resistance should be viewed within a broader political landscape. In the end, it explores the negative impact of neoliberalism on American society and its higher education, i.e. the erasure of critical formative cultures.%对比了美国和欧洲尤其是英国青年反抗新自由主义专制的斗争。首先阐述了新自由主义对高等教育的攻击,其次详细描述学生反对新自由主义专制的表现,提出应该在更宽广的视角下分析青年反抗运动,最后指出了新自由主义意识形态对美国社会和高等教育造成的危害,即消除了批判性性格塑造文化。

  7. Arranged Marriages: Relationships Between Regular and Irregular Forces, During the Early American Revolutionary War in Monmouth County, New Jersey (United States)


    logistics, and civil-military relations facing the British.”32 Published in 1975, Ian Hogg and John Batchelor’s Armies of the American Revolution...competing groups and 32 Bilias, George Washington’s Opponents, ix, xv, and 65. 33 Ian V. Hogg and John H. Batchelor, Armies of the American Revolution...America: The Wider Dimensions of Conflict. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1988. Hogg , Ian V., and John H. Batchelor. Armies of the American

  8. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lepofsky


    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  9. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung. (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan


    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  10. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling. (United States)

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D


    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  11. Influence of tobacco type on smoke composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.


    Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for the former and, thus, increased per cigarette deliveries of most smoke constituents. The greater carbohydrate and polyphenolic content of flue-cured tobaccos contributes to an increased yield of acidic constituents in the smoke. The increased nitrogenous component of Burley tobacco leads to a more alkaline smoke and one enriched in oxides of nitrogen. A quantitative elucidation of the relationship between tobacco type and smoke composition from literature results is complicated by the large number of variables influencing smoke composition which are generally unspecified in the reports. Smokes from cigaretts containing straight Burley and straight Bright tobaccos are compared based on analytical results from this laboratory. With few exceptions, smoke composition is often influenced more by processing variables and agronomic practices than by general tobacco ''type.'' 6 tables.

  12. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz


    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  13. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey. (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N


    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India.

  14. The implementation of health care aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov


    Full Text Available The summarizing of the experience of medical care at the cessation of tobacco use and the treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation (RF as well as suggestions for their improvement are presented.For the effective implementation of health care, aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the RF it is necessary to solve the following problems:to include doctors of all specialties in the process of medical care and treatment oftobacco addiction and consequences oftobacco consumption in the RF; to ensure effective implementation of the existing legal documents determining the procedure for providing medical aid, aimed at ending the use of tobacco, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, greater control over their performance and quality of their implementation; to expand of the network of medical offices for cessation of tobacco consumption on the basis of existing structures in primary health care settings (including women's and children’s outpatient clinics, as well as hospitals and health resorts, their provision of personnel and equipment, introduction of group forms of work; to ensure a permanent system of training on assistance at the cessation of tobacco consumption, the treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, including the introduction of medical assistance cycle on cessation of tobacco consumption for student training in medical schools and programs for postgraduate education of health professionals

  15. Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1. (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

    Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

  16. Tobacco Industry Interference in the WHO European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart


    WHO selected tobacco industry interference as the theme of the 2012 World No Tobacco Day, recognizing the serious danger the tobacco industry poses to public health and the need to expose and counter the industry’s increasing attempts to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control...

  17. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart. (United States)

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne


    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged.

  18. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban


    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  19. Countermeasures for Tobacco Branding and Industrial Development in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI


    Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as " Tobacco Kingdom" and " World Capital of Selenium". It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco,burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then,it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and industrial development. Finally,it comes up with several constructive recommendations.

  20. Chewing tobacco use: perceptions and knowledge in rural adolescent youths. (United States)

    Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hudson, Diane Brage; Fleck, Margaret Ofe


    The purposes of this pilot study were to describe the incidence of chewing tobacco use among rural midwestern adolescents and to describe rural midwestern adolescents' perceptions and knowledge about chewing tobacco use. A Smokeless Tobacco Use Survey was administered to 34 adolescent subjects who attended 5th-8th grades in two rural towns. None of the subjects reported trying chewing tobacco products. However, a group of male subjects who stated they may chew tobacco sometime in the future, performed less well on the test about chewing tobacco facts and perceptions of use, indicating some education needs are warranted. Risk factors and deterrent factors to using chewing tobacco are reported.

  1. Engineering triterpene metabolism in tobacco. (United States)

    Wu, Shuiqin; Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Eric Nybo, S; Husodo, Satrio; Williams, Robert; Chappell, Joe


    Terpenes comprise a distinct class of natural products that serve a diverse range of physiological functions, provide for interactions between plants and their environment and represent a resource for many kinds of practical applications. To better appreciate the importance of terpenes to overall growth and development, and to create a production capacity for specific terpenes of industrial interest, we have pioneered the development of strategies for diverting carbon flow from the native terpene biosynthetic pathways operating in the cytosol and plastid compartments of tobacco for the generation of specific classes of terpenes. In the current work, we demonstrate how difficult it is to divert the 5-carbon intermediates DMAPP and IPP from the mevalonate pathway operating in the cytoplasm for triterpene biosynthesis, yet diversion of the same intermediates from the methylerythritol phosphate pathway operating in the plastid compartment leads to the accumulation of very high levels of the triterpene squalene. This was assessed by the co-expression of an avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase and yeast squalene synthase genes targeting metabolism in the cytoplasm or chloroplast. We also evaluated the possibility of directing this metabolism to the secretory trichomes of tobacco by comparing the effects of trichome-specific gene promoters to strong, constitutive viral promoters. Surprisingly, when transgene expression was directed to trichomes, high-level squalene accumulation was observed, but overall plant growth and physiology were reduced up to 80 % of the non-transgenic controls. Our results support the notion that the biosynthesis of a desired terpene can be dramatically improved by directing that metabolism to a non-native cellular compartment, thus avoiding regulatory mechanisms that might attenuate carbon flux within an engineered pathway.

  2. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?]. (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S


    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.

  3. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence. (United States)

    Giovino, G A; Henningfield, J E; Tomar, S L; Escobedo, L G; Slade, J


    Knowledge of the epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence can be used to guide research initiatives, intervention programs, and policy decisions. Both the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among US adults and black adolescents and the decline in per capita consumption are encouraging. These changes have probably been influenced by factors operating at the individual (e.g., school-based prevention programs and cessation programs) and environmental (e.g., mass media educational strategies, the presence of smoke-free laws and policies, and the price of tobacco products) levels (for a discussion of these factors, see, e.g., refs. 2, 48, 52, 183, and 184). The lack of progress among adolescents, especially whites and males, and the high risk for experimenters of developing tobacco dependence present cause for great concern (48, 183-186). In addition to those discussed above, several areas of research can be recommended. 1. Better understanding of the clustering of tobacco use with the use of other drugs, other risk behaviors, and other psychiatric disorders could better illuminate the causal processes involved, as well as the special features of the interventions needed to prevent and treat tobacco dependence. 2. To better understand population needs, trend analyses of prevalence, initiation, and cessation should, whenever possible, incorporate standardized measures of these other risk factors. Future research should compare the effect of socioeconomic status variables on measures of smoking behavior among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. 3. For reasons that may be genetic, environmental, or both, some persons do not progress beyond initial experimentation with tobacco use (2, 48, 183, 187-192), but about one-third to one-half of those who experiment with cigarettes become regular users (48, 193, 194). Factors, both individual and environmental, that can influence the susceptibility of individuals to tobacco dependence need further attention. 4. To

  4. Altria means tobacco: Philip Morris's identity crisis. (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E


    Philip Morris Companies, the world's largest and most profitable tobacco seller, has changed its corporate name to The Altria Group. The company has also embarked on a plan to improve its corporate image. Examination of internal company documents reveals that these changes have been planned for over a decade and that the company expects to reap specific and substantial rewards from them. Tobacco control advocates should be alert to the threat Philip Morris's plans pose to industry focused tobacco control campaigns. Company documents also suggest what the vulnerabilities of those plans are and how advocates might best exploit them.

  5. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline. (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S


    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  6. On the way of tobacco quitting: A VAR approach


    Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; Christian Ben lakhdar; Thérèse Lebrun


    In order to describe the process of tobacco quitting, we perform a VAR model and causality tests both on the monthly sales of tobacco products and nicotine dependence drugs in France, for the period going from February 2004 to April 2009. According to the path of tobacco quitting found out, it results that an upward harmonization of tax policy on the different tobacco products could accelerate the tobacco quitting process.

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards the health effects of tobacco and measures of tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Mohan


    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a major public health threat the world has ever faced. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world. Without the effective implementation of tobacco regulation policy, the risk itself cannot be minimized. The aim of this study is to provide the adolescents knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking, and knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco control measures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive type of study was conducted in December 2013 in one of the government school of Palpa district, one of the rural areas of the Western region. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS 17 version. Microsoft Excel 2007 is also used for the data processing. Results: There is substantial support for the government taking measure towards tobacco control (96%. Furthermore, strong supports are there regarding ban of smoking in public places and public transport (95% followed by increasing price of tobacco products (87%, banning sales of tobacco to and by minors (82% and ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (73%. Conclusion: The study focuses the effective implementation of the Tobacco Control and Regulation Act 2011, Nepal and health education should be provided to the adolescents with the facts and skills that will enable them to protect themselves from the harmful effects of tobacco related exposure.

  8. [Legal framework and strategy of the tobacco industry in relation to tobacco advertising in Spain]. (United States)

    Elder, J; Cortés Blanco, M; Sarriá Santamera, A


    Publicity is legally regulated in Spain, in order to avoid its misuse. Tobacco publicity is also under those regulation, having had the companies operating in this sector to adapt themselves through new strategies. In this work, the legal restrictions existing in Spain regarding publicity are analyzed, together with some of the strategies developed by tobacco companies in order to elude them. In this sense, and despite of the existing legal framework, it should be noticed that tobacco companies are cleverly taking advantage of the existence of legal loopholes in tobacco publicity to promote their products.

  9. Can tobacco control be transformative? Reducing gender inequity and tobacco use among vulnerable populations. (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine


    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure.

  10. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco. (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S


    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as "carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15- to 20-fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States.

  11. Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers. (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K


    Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.

  12. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Results Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Conclusions Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  13. The Study of British Humor in Light of Shakespeare’s Comedies%从莎士比亚喜剧看英式幽默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Humor belongs to the whole world, there are Chinese humor、American humor and French humor. And each kind of humor has its own specific features. But people are unfamiliar with British humor. Because British people are conservative and gentle in impression, we can hardly imag-ine they have belly laugh. We try to analyze British humor from Shakespeare’ s comedies. And give more British humor knowledge to people from personal intelligence、characters comparison and humorous languages three aspects.%幽默是世界的,有中国式幽默、美国式幽默、法国式幽默等等,每个国家的幽默都有各自不同的特点。不过对于英式幽默人们似乎了解不多,因为印象里英国人都是保守而绅士的,很难想象他们捧腹大笑的样子。本文就是通过对英国文学中莎士比亚喜剧的探讨分析,从个人才智、人物对比、诙谐语言三个角度试图从中得出英式幽默的一些特点,让大家对英国人的幽默多一些了解。

  14. Researcher eyeing tobacco for factory of biopharmaceuticals


    Gilbert, Karen


    The economics of producing biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plants such as tobacco is still a roadblock to producing large quantities of urgently needed medicines, especially for people in underdeveloped nations.

  15. Should Tobacco Researchers Be Selected as Academicians?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On Deccmber 8,2011,the Chinese cademy of Engineering (CAE)lected 54 academicians.Xic Jianping,whose research focuses on adding Chinese herbal medicine to cigarettes to reduce tar content,was on the list.Xie,52,is widely known for his research on low-tar cigarettes and serves as the deputy head of a tobacco research institute under China National Tobacco Corp.,China's tobacco monopoly and the world's largest cigarette company.Xie's election has ignited great controversy.Supporters say people shouldn't discriminate against researchers in controversial fields.Xie does not encourage smoking but has done his best to reduce its harm.The tobacco industry is a big one and China cannot eliminate it now.

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses....

  2. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  5. Smokeless tobacco: challenges, products and, cessation. (United States)

    Rankin, K Vendrell; Jones, Daniel L; Benton, Elain


    Tobacco companies continue to develop and aggressively market new products for oral use. Most new products are intended to dissolve in the mouth and swallow rather than spit out the juices. These products effectively circumvent smoke-free policies, decrease tobacco cessation efforts, and create individuals who use both smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes. All ST products contain nicotine, carcinogens, and pose multiple health risks. The cancer and health risks associated with ST use extend well beyond the changes in the oral cavity and the risk of oral cancer. Unlike cigarettes, the contents of ST vary widely by brand and product posing difficulty in the use of the available pharmacotherapy for cessation. Although no uniform guidelines exist for the use of pharmacotherapy for smokeless tobacco cessation, research suggests that use of these drugs is effective. The most important motivator for quitting ST cessation remains in the hands of the dentist.

  6. Chemistry and toxicology of smokeless tobacco. (United States)

    Bhisey, R A


    In most parts of the world, tobacco is used for smoking, whereas, in India, tobacco is used for smoking as well as in diverse smokeless forms. Absorption of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco and other ingredients added to various products are causally associated with several non-communicable diseases including cancer, especially oral cancer, which is the leading cancer among men and the third most common cancer among women in India. This article highlights the toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenic effects of hazardous chemicals present in smokeless tobacco products. This endeavor was based on the extensive review of literature from various sources. The SLT products have influence on cellular metabolism, ability to cause DNA damage, and cancer in experimental animals. It is, therefore, essential to consider the collective role of chemical constituents of SLT products in the causation of adverse effect on human health.

  7. Does High Tobacco Consumption Cause Psychological Distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Petersen, Christina B


    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3......-known to influence individual tobacco consumption-as instrumental variable for tobacco consumption. METHODS: Data from 90 108 participants in the Copenhagen General Population Study was used. Exposures included self-reported cigarettes/day and pack years and the CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype as instrumental...... variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. RESULTS: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress...

  8. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  9. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  11. British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    on their debate character, i.e. the degree to which individual contributions engage with each other. The inaugural Debate Section forthcoming soon is entitled, “British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications”, edited by Graham Butler, Mads Dagnis Jensen and Holly Snaith. The reality of an EU Member...... to the three editors of Graham Butler, Mads Dagnis Jensen, and Holly Snaith, the Debate Section includes contributions from Paul James Cardwell, Adam Łazowski, Daniela Annette Kroll, Dirk Leuffen, and Tim Oliver, that each delivers sharp compact contributions on different perspectives of ‘Brexit’, and wider...... issues of differentiated integration in Europe. British Exit from the EU: Legal and Political Implications  Edited by Graham Butler, Mads Dagnis Jensen, and Holly Snaith  Journal of European Public Policy, 2016, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp. 1278-1328. 1. ‘Slow change may pull us apart’: debating a British...

  12. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Document Server


    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Hall


    In British Council-managed ELT projects in Chinese universities,Chinese project counterparts areselected from among the English-language teaching staff of the University.They work alongside aBritish Council-recruited lecturer(BCL)in developing whatever it is the project has been set up tocreate:a syllabus,teaching materials,a course,etc.During the lifetime of the project eachcounterpart is sent for a year’s postgraduate training(typically an MA in applied Linguistics)at aBritish university,the rationale being that the combination of training on the job and in the UK willequip them to take over the running of the project and ensure its long-term sustainability.This paperlooks at the staff development of the counterparts prior to their UK training.

  14. The British gas market; Le marche gazier britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The tension observed on the British gas market has raised many worries and questions. The last meeting of the French gas association (AFG) aimed at shading light and at supplying some elements of analysis necessary for the correct understanding of the British gas market problem. The volatility of the spot market, its capacity to adjust the supply and demand and the role of long-term contracts in ensuring the security of supplies were explained and debated by a various panel of high level orators: P.W. Wright (Sheffield univ.), J. Harvard (deputy director, Gas Markets, Dept. of trade and industry), S. Caudron (manager business development, Statoil) and P. Vedrenne (managing director, Gaselys). They also examined the trends chosen by the British government to supply corrective measures. (J.S.)

  15. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective? (United States)

    Mackie, Isobel


    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army.

  16. American ginseng (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. ...

  17. Quantifying the influence of tobacco industry on EU governance: automated content analysis of the EU Tobacco Products Directive.


    Costa, H.(Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France); Gilmore, AB; Peeters, S; McKee, M; Stuckler, D


    OBJECTIVE: The tobacco industry spends large sums lobbying the European Union (EU) institutions, yet whether such lobbying significantly affects tobacco policy is not well understood. We used novel quantitative text mining techniques to evaluate the impact of industry pressure on the contested EU Tobacco Products Directive revision. DESIGN: Policy positions of 18 stakeholders including the tobacco industry, health NGOs and tobacco retailers were evaluated using their text submissions to EU co...

  18. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city


    George D′Souza; Dorothy P Rekha; Priya Sreedaran; Srinivasan, K.; Mony, Prem K


    Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Ba...

  19. Going like gangbusters: transnational tobacco companies "making a killing" in South America. (United States)

    Stebbins, K R


    This article reports on the recent growth of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in South America. Although some scholarly attention has been directed toward such growth in Asia and eastern Europe, South America has also been targeted by the TTCs' aggressive expansionist practices in recent years. Fighting "Big Tobacco" is entirely different from combating most public health problems. Unlike cigarettes, most infectious diseases and maternal and child health problems never provide profits to transnational corporations and governments. Also, most public health problems (with alcohol being another notable exception) are not exacerbated by extensive advertising campaigns that promote the cause of the health problems. Supported by data gathered during three months of fieldwork in Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina in 1997, this article suggests that the TTCs' marketing strategies override cultural differences in the choices people make regarding smoking and health. Combining critical medical anthropology and public health, this article concludes that unless dramatic actions are taken, an avoidable outbreak of tobacco-related diseases will eventually reach epidemic proportions on the South American continent. It is also a "call to arms" for more medical anthropologists to investigate tobacco-related matters around the world.

  20. 27 CFR 71.46 - Suspension and revocation of tobacco permits. (United States)


    ... felony violation of any other provision of Federal criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed... criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed tobacco, cigarette paper, or cigarette tubes,...

  1. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sein


    Full Text Available Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  2. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar. (United States)

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O


    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  3. The Self and the Other in the British National Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ROMAN- BARBUTI


    Full Text Available In this article we want to analyze the concepts of identity and multiculturalism, particularly with reference to the British context. In this regard, we present a brief analysis and display on historical view, as being emblematic of the issue exposed.Multiculturalism is considered as the only solution for the reconciliation of the two perspectives: Englishness andBritishness. Multiculturalism tries to solve the old syntagma of “us and the other ” by replacing it with a slightly different approach to this age old relationship. Contemporary multiculturalism appears as a form of cultural or rejuvenation, which is necessary for any given culture to continue existing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The British and the French differed in both the approach and method adopted in governing their overseas subjects during their colonial enterprise in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This had a tremendous impact on the psyche of the colonized and was a determinant factor in shaping the nature of the relationship between the colonizers and colonized before and after independence. Therefore, this paper seeks to juxtapose the colonial behaviour of two colonial powers, French and British, in two major colonies, Algeria and India.

  5. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder


    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  6. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E


    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  7. American Sign Language and Contemporary Deaf Studies in the United States. (United States)

    Reagan, Timothy


    Major works on the history, structure, and teaching of American Sign Language (ASL) in the last quarter-century are reviewed, and studies of the culture of the deaf are outlined. Research on the linguistic nature of ASL is highlighted, and some attention is given to British Sign Language. (Author/MSE)

  8. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.


    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  9. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter


    of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  10. The Rising Tide of Estuary English: The Changing Nature of Oral British Business Communication. (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert


    Defines "Estuary English," a fast-growing accent of British English that is spreading across England. Discusses its usage in the British business community; its acceptability and future; and its implications for business communicators, teachers, and consultants. (SR)

  11. Branding the rodeo: a case study of tobacco sports sponsorship. (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani


    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices.

  12. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺


    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  13. Tobacco control law enforcement and compliance in odisha, India - implications for tobacco control policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panda, B.; Rout, A.; Pati, S.; Chauhan, A.S.; Tripathy, A.; Shrivastava, R.; Bassi, A.


    Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very h

  14. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control]. (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature.

  15. Introducing oral tobacco for tobacco harm reduction: what are the main obstacles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohadana Abraham


    Full Text Available Abstract With the number of smokers worldwide currently on the rise, the regular failure of smokers to give up their tobacco addiction, the direct role of smoke (and, to a much lesser extent, nicotine in most tobacco-related diseases, and the availability of less toxic (but still addictive oral tobacco products, the use of oral tobacco in lieu of smoking for tobacco harm reduction (HR merits assessment. Instead of focusing on the activity itself, HR focuses on the risks related to the activity. Currently, tobacco HR is controversial, generally not discussed, and consequently, poorly evaluated. In this paper, we try to pinpoint some of the main reasons for this lack of interest or reluctance to carry out or fund this type of research. In this paper we deal with the following issues: the status of nicotine in society, the reluctance of the mainstream anti-tobacco lobby toward the HR approach, the absence of smokers from the debate, the lack of information disseminated to the general population and politicians, the need to protect young people, the role of physicians, the future of HR research, and the role of tobacco companies.

  16. 75 FR 41498 - Draft Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability; Agency... (United States)


    ... does provide for lower civil money penalties for violations of access, advertising, and promotion... distribution of a tobacco product, including restrictions on the access to, and the advertising and promotion... to cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products, as well as restrictions on advertising and promotion...

  17. Tobacco consumption among adolescents in rural Wardha: Where and how tobacco control should focus its attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongre A


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to study the pattern of tobacco use among rural adolescents (15-19 years and to find out reasons for use and non use of tobacco products. Materials and Methods : In the present community-based research, triangulation of qualitative (free list, focus group discussions and quantitative methods (survey was undertaken. The study was carried out in surrounding 11 villages of the Kasturba Rural Health Training Centre, Anji during January 2008 where 385 adolescents were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed by house to house visits. After survey, six focus group discussions were undertaken with adolescent boys. Results: About 68.3% boys and 12.4% girls had consumed any tobacco products in last 30 days. Out of boys who had consumed tobacco, 79.2% consumed kharra, and 46.4% consumed gutka. Among boys, 51.2% consumed it due to peer pressure, 35.2% consumed tobacco as they felt better, and five percent consumed tobacco to ease abdominal complaints and dental problem. Among girls, 72% used dry snuff for teeth cleaning, 32% and 20% consumed tobacco in the form of gutka and tobacco & lime respectively. The reasons for non use of tobacco among girls were fear of cancer (59%, poor oral health (37.9%. Among non consuming boys it was fear of cancer (58.6%, poor oral health (44.8% and fear of getting addiction (29.3%. According to FGD respondents, few adolescent boys taste tobacco by 8-10 years of age, while girls do it by 12-13 years. Peer pressure acts as a pro tobacco influence among boys who are outgoing and spend more time with their friends. They prefer to consume freshly prepared kharra which was supposed to be less strong (tej than gutka. Tobacco is being used in treatment of some health problems. Tobacco is chewed after meals for better digestion, given to ease toothache, pain in abdomen and to induce vomiting in suicidal insecticide poisoning. Conclusion: The current consumption of any

  18. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia (United States)

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias


    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  19. The origins of formal education in sub-Saharan Africa: was British rule more benign?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.


    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until 194

  20. Structural Impediments to African Growth? New Evidence from British African Real Wages, 1880-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.


    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until 194