Otañez, M G; Muggli, M. E.; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S. A.
OBJECTIVES: To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. DESIGN: Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. RESULTS: British American Tobacco co-founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US2.3 million dollars over four years. Labour unions and leaf ...
Mackenzie, R.; Collin, J.; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y
Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.
Patel, Preeti; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Collin, Jeff; HUGHES, BELINDA
This article aims to provide a review of music sponsorship to market cigarettes in sub-Saharan Africa. Using analysis of previously secret corporate documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) and focusing on two separate case studies of sponsorship in Africa, Nigeria and South Africa, the paper illustrates how tobacco companies have sought to undermine health legislation from 1990 to 2001. Both case studies suggest that music is an important marketing tool in Africa because it can effectiv...
Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha
In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised. PMID:18304713
Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha
In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.
Lee, K; Kinh, H V; Mackenzie, R; Gilmore, A B; Minh, N T; Collin, J
British American Tobacco (BAT) has made concerted efforts since the late 1980s to establish a major presence in Vietnam, among the world's 10 fastest growing tobacco markets. Until 2000, Vietnam's tight regulation of the industry has been largely driven by trade and investment policy, resulting in a stronger domestic industry but increased production and consumption of tobacco products. BAT gained market access, and achieved a dominant market share among TTCs, through leaf development, licensed manufacturing, and the contraband trade. With impending trade liberalization in Vietnam, the company is now well placed to further expand sales. The ambitious National Tobacco Control Policy, adopted in 2000, signals a shift in political priority towards the protection of public health. Effective implementation and enforcement of its comprehensive measures will depend on the public health community's ability to draw support from regional and global experience, notably the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). PMID:19288356
Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel
Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms. PMID:20799669
'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market
Holden Chris; Lee Kelley
Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy t...
@@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.
Muggli, Monique E.; Kelley Lee; Quan Gan; Jon O Ebbert; Hurt, Richard D.
Editors' Summary Background. Each year, about one million people die in China from tobacco-caused diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease. Although most of these deaths occur among smokers—300 million people smoke in China, accounting for one-third of the global “consumption” of cigarettes—more than 100,000 deaths from tobacco-related causes occur annually among the 540 million Chinese people who are exposed to secondhand smoke. Tobacco smoke contains 4,000 known chemicals...
British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn＇t self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c
A young American entered a compartment on a British train, and discovered that all seats were occupied, including one on which a small dog was seated. To his owner, a middle-aged lady who wore a large hat, he said po-
British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.
English is used as one of the most important languages in the world. As a result of the military, economic, scientific, political, and cultural influence, English has been used in many parts of the world, and the most prominent language in international business and science. It is used extensively as a second language and as an oflacial language in Commonwealth countries and many international organizations, and developed to many forms. This paper compares the differences between the British English and American English.
GODOVANNAYA E; FLEGONTOVA A
The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.
A number of facts spurred President Clinton to make a major confrontation with the American tobacco industry. Being in need of funding for his health care plan, Clinton proposed a tax on cigarettes, a move that immediately set the president on a collision course with tobacco firms. Contact with health groups during the preparation of the plan also called Clinton’s attention to health risks in connection with smoking. The president was also encouraged by revelations that tobacco companies had ...
American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.
With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.
Eichner, June E.; Cravatt, Kymberly; Beebe, Laura A.; Blevins, Kathleen S.; Stoddart, Martha L.; Bursac, Zoran; Yeh, Fawn; Lee, Elisa T.; William E. Moore
OBJECTIVES: With the exception of national surveys that sample the entire U.S. population, little information exists on tobacco habits among American Indians. This study is a comparison of tobacco use findings in the 1990s among American Indians in Oklahoma, a state with a large and diverse American Indian population (39 tribes). METHODS: Data on current tobacco use are presented from two statewide surveys, the Oklahoma Youth Tobacco Survey and the Native American Behavioral Risk Factor Surve...
... html 1 in 5 Americans Uses a Tobacco Product CDC report raises concerns about e-cigarettes, hookahs ... or uses hookahs, e-cigarettes or other tobacco products, U.S. health officials reported Thursday. Cigarettes remain the ...
Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard
Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…
Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S
Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.
Rasmussen, Hilde Fossan
This MA thesis investigates Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes toward British English and American English. To the best of my knowledge no previous language studies have been conducted on both of these groups in Norway. British English had traditionally been the variety taught at European schools (Trudgill & Hannah 2008). On the other hand, Norwegians are arguably exposed to more American English than British English in their daily lives. The results show that British English still h...
Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon
This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836
Menken, M; Hopkins, A; DeFriese, G H
At a Consensus Development Conference on the Scope of Neurological Practice in the United Kingdom, 26 British specialists in the field of neurology constructed norms of care for patients with 11 neurologic disorders. For each disorder, these specialists specified the percentage of all patients who should see a physician, as well as the percentage who should see a consultant neurologist, the appropriate duration of the initial patient encounter, and the appropriate frequency of follow-up visits per annum. When compared with American estimates used in health manpower planning, British neurologists generally make a far greater allowance for patient self-care, as well as care by nonphysician health care providers, allow less time for patient encounters, and see a need for follow-up care less frequently. These marked differences in the perceptions of specialists of a normative character may determine, in part, the different "practice styles" of physicians in different regions that cannot be explained in economic terms. Results suggest that the practice style concept should be broadened to include the use of health personnel of many types, the scope of specialty medicine, and the role definition of primary care.
Within the last few hundred years, English has gone from being a rather small peripheral language to what it is today – a world language, spoken by millions of people worldwide. The best-known dialects to Swedish learners of English are British English (RP, Received Pronunciation) and American English (GA, General American). Traditionally, British English has been the variety taught in Swedish schools, but due to the recent and growing influence of American English, more and more pupils are u...
Under the New Curriculum Reform, the English teaching materials have changed, there are several units involved in British and American drama, British and American poetry in junior school. From these teaching materials, we can see that New Curriculum Standards require students to understand the British and American literature in the process of English learning. To meet the needs of New Curriculum Reform, the introduction of literature become a necessity in English language teaching. This paper systematically analyzes the necessity and meaning of literature infiltration in English teaching. It aims to explore how to per-meate literature knowledge in English class.
Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R.; Joseph, A
Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms.
Bock, K.; Butterfield, S.; Cutler, A.; Cutting, J.C.; Eberhard, K.M.; Hunphreys, K.R.
British and American speakers exhibit different verb number agreement patterns when sentence subjects have collective head nouns. From linguistic and psycholinguistic accounts of how agreement is implemented, three alternative hypotheses can be derived to explain these differences. The hypotheses in
Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael
Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…
Hunter, Carla D.
Cultural worldviews and perceived racial discrimination were examined among Americans (n = 106) and British Caribbean Americans (n = 95), both of African descent, who were recruited through university student organizations, community organizations, and snowball sampling. Consistent with public perceptions of differences in the experience of race…
Extends earlier work with American children to explore British children's application of teleological explanation to artifacts, biological properties, and properties of nonliving natural phenomena, based on the view that because of lower religiosity in Britain, these children might be less inclined than American children to endorse purpose-based…
Due to the outmoded teaching method and the popularity of utilitarianism nowadays, the marginalization of British and American literature courses has become a prominent problem for the education of English majors in colleges and universities, but the American postmodern curriculum theorist, Prof. William E. Doll, Jr.'s pedagogical theory, which…
Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)
Kelton, Max H; Givel, Michael S
From 1980 to 1994, the Canadian government enacted major tax increases on tobacco products. These actions initiated significant tobacco smuggling from the United States into Canada through a few U.S. Native American reservations to undercut the price of Canadian tobacco products. The tobacco industry blamed rampant smuggling on excessive taxation; however, research shows that the tobacco industry had actually promoted smuggling schemes to both increase profits and provide an argument for tobacco taxation reduction. Although the smuggling has resulted in numerous U.S. and Canadian criminal convictions of tobacco industry officials and partners, significant smuggling continues throughout the world. For the few Native Americans involved, the smuggling was lucrative and they were able to avoid criminal prosecution through tribal sovereignty. Industry-supported tobacco smuggling has had a profoundly negative effect on Canadian public health that must be brought to light to prevent future similar occurrences.
Kelton, Max H; Givel, Michael S
From 1980 to 1994, the Canadian government enacted major tax increases on tobacco products. These actions initiated significant tobacco smuggling from the United States into Canada through a few U.S. Native American reservations to undercut the price of Canadian tobacco products. The tobacco industry blamed rampant smuggling on excessive taxation; however, research shows that the tobacco industry had actually promoted smuggling schemes to both increase profits and provide an argument for tobacco taxation reduction. Although the smuggling has resulted in numerous U.S. and Canadian criminal convictions of tobacco industry officials and partners, significant smuggling continues throughout the world. For the few Native Americans involved, the smuggling was lucrative and they were able to avoid criminal prosecution through tribal sovereignty. Industry-supported tobacco smuggling has had a profoundly negative effect on Canadian public health that must be brought to light to prevent future similar occurrences. PMID:18724578
The two major varieties of English are American and British English. In Swedish compulsory school both varieties are taught. This essay examines the preferences and attitudes of pupils in 9th grades towards the two varieties, and if there are any gender differences. Previous research has shown that pupils are becoming more and more positive towards American English than they have been in earlier studies. This essay is based on a quantitative study carried out through questionnaires handed-out...
Finding that British researchers are believed to use qualitative methods while North Americans favor quantitative measurement in adult education enquiry, the author examines substantive research concerns and research publication in the United States, Britain, and Canada and concludes that there is some validity to the stereotype. (Availability:…
Robertson, Robert T.
To encourage the teaching of British Commonwealth literature to American university students, a broad ranging survey course was designed in which the material was thematically organized. A great body of literature from the 13 countries was scrutinized in order to select 147 representative poems and short stories for an anthology. An effective…
Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary
This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…
In China, the current English textbooks cover some topics about British and American literature in high school. From learning the literature, the students can learn English better, at the same time, the teachers are asked to be familiar with literature, thus, they can teach effectively.
Liwander, Anna M.
An estimated 78,000 children are working under hazardous conditions in tobacco production in Malawi. Without access to protective clothing or cleaning facilities, these children are suffering from the effects of pesticides, fertilizers and nicotine whilst working on tobacco farms for 12 hours a day. Two of the main multinational tobacco companies with production interests in Malawi, British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International, have responded to the public demand for ethical opera...
Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G
The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and
Lew, Rod; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
Data on tobacco use among the Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) population remain limited, although existing studies indicate that tobacco use prevalence among males from specific AAPI groups is significantly higher than in the general US male population. This high prevalence of tobacco use and the disparities in use result from social norms, targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, lack of culturally and linguistically tailored prevention and control programs, and limited impact of mainstream tobacco control programs for AAPIs. We review the available literature on tobacco use among AAPI men and women, highlight a national agenda that promotes tobacco prevention and control for AAPI communities, and acknowledge recent trends including the increase of tobacco use among AAPI women and girls. PMID:12721139
Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.
This thesis provides a theory of exceptional sex through close readings of contemporary novels by male British and American writers. I take as my overriding methodological approach Giorgio Agamben’s theory of the state of exception, which is a juridico-political state in which the law has been suspended and the difference between rule and transgression is indistinguishable. Within this state, the spatiotemporal markers inside and outside also become indeterminable, making it impossible to tel...
Full Text Available When it comes to the epistemological basis of British romanticism and American transcendentalism, a traditional approach would certainly refer to Kant’s transcendental philosophy which is commonly considered an antithesis to Locke’s empiricism. A new trend in philosophical research now suggests that romantic theories are an addition to rather than a refutation of empiricism. This essay traces the interdependencies between transcendental thought and empiricism in the writings of Coleridge and Emerson.
Abraham, J; Sheppard, J
This paper presents a case study in the production and interpretation of regulatory science, focusing on the conflicting British and American clinical risk assessments of triazolam (Halcion) - the most controversial sleeping pill in the world. The regulation of triazolam is shown to be more permissive in the USA than in the UK. Six principal socio-political factors are put forward to explain this; differential regulatory trust; regulators' socio-technical data selections; medico-scientific disciplinary influences; organizational and professional interests; conflicts of interest of expert advisers; and the growth of the neo-liberal regulatory state. The risk assessments of both the British and American regulatory agencies are shown to be complacent relative to technical standards which the agencies themselves later accepted. It is suggested that, when the interests of pharmaceutical manufacturers and patients diverge, regulatory assessments are crucially affected by whether regulators are predisposed to award the benefit of the scientific doubts to the manufacturers or patients, and by the balance of such predispositions both within and between regulatory institutions of scientific expertise. The triazolam case indicates that the amount of trust placed in the pharmaceutical industry by the British American regulatory systems may hamper detection of flaws in manufacturers' medical data in a timely manner and, as a consequence, compromise patients' interests. Some policy implications for drug regulation are sketched. PMID:11624110
Abraham, J; Sheppard, J
This paper presents a case study in the production and interpretation of regulatory science, focusing on the conflicting British and American clinical risk assessments of triazolam (Halcion) - the most controversial sleeping pill in the world. The regulation of triazolam is shown to be more permissive in the USA than in the UK. Six principal socio-political factors are put forward to explain this; differential regulatory trust; regulators' socio-technical data selections; medico-scientific disciplinary influences; organizational and professional interests; conflicts of interest of expert advisers; and the growth of the neo-liberal regulatory state. The risk assessments of both the British and American regulatory agencies are shown to be complacent relative to technical standards which the agencies themselves later accepted. It is suggested that, when the interests of pharmaceutical manufacturers and patients diverge, regulatory assessments are crucially affected by whether regulators are predisposed to award the benefit of the scientific doubts to the manufacturers or patients, and by the balance of such predispositions both within and between regulatory institutions of scientific expertise. The triazolam case indicates that the amount of trust placed in the pharmaceutical industry by the British American regulatory systems may hamper detection of flaws in manufacturers' medical data in a timely manner and, as a consequence, compromise patients' interests. Some policy implications for drug regulation are sketched.
Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar
The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…
Hendricks, Peter S; Westmaas, J Lee; Ta Park, Van M; Thorne, Christopher B; Wood, Sabrina B; Baker, Majel R; Lawler, R Marsh; Webb Hooper, Monica; Delucchi, Kevin L; Hall, Sharon M
Research has documented tobacco-related health disparities by race and gender. Prior research, however, has not examined expectancies about the smoking cessation process (i.e., abstinence-related expectancies) as potential contributors to tobacco-related disparities in special populations. This cross-sectional study compared abstinence-related expectancies between American Indian (n = 87), African American (n = 151), and White (n = 185) smokers, and between women (n = 231) and men (n = 270) smokers. Abstinence-related expectancies also were examined as mediators of race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self efficacy. Results indicated that American Indians and African Americans were less likely than Whites to expect withdrawal effects, and more likely to expect that quitting would be unproblematic. African Americans also were less likely than Whites to expect smoking cessation interventions to be effective. Compared with men, women were more likely to expect withdrawal effects and weight gain. These expectancy differences mediated race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Findings emphasize potential mechanisms underlying tobacco-related health disparities among American Indians, African Americans, and women and suggest a number of specific approaches for targeting tobacco dependence interventions to these populations. PMID:23528192
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir
Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…
This Paper mainly focuses on the Differences between American English and British English in Grammar.It discusses ten aspects of their differences with examples(that is,differences in the use ofcertain verbs;differences in the US@ofarticles;differences in the use of prepositiom;the use ofsubjunctive;tense differences;the use of collective nouns;the way of expressing dates;the treatment of a repeated subject after the indefinite pronoun"one":response question;negative form of the first person.).
Carey, Michael E
This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles
Full Text Available In 1982 Allan Peacey published a study in the form of a synthesis of two chronologically separated kilns used in the production of clay tobacco pipes (Peacey 1982, 3-17. The aims of the present work are: ◦to improve upon this framework ◦to establish how these type of structures fit into the broader picture; to fill the gaps, before, between and after these cameo views ◦to improve understanding of the technology employed and see the roots from which such technology developed. The primary objective is to catalogue all relevant material know to exist in museum and private collections. It is hoped that by this means an understanding of the varied physical characteristics will lead to the establishment of object or function categories around which reports may be structured. Contemporary source documents are also examined to shed further light upon the likely function of the archaeological material. Among the results achieved are the compilation of an extensive catalogue of material associated with tobacco pipe kilns; the establishment of type series for pipe kiln furniture and furniture supplements; a proposed development sequence for pipe kiln muffles; a pattern of consistency in kiln design throughout the study area, and details of the methods used for stem tipping. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps, and will be able to explore other aspects of the data through the timeline and site catalogues.
Cherkass Irina Anatolyevna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of ways of expressing joy in the British and American versions of the modern English language. Joy is one of the dominant human emotion, possessing certain characteristics of linguacultural and ethnic specificity, and has specific ways and means of linguistic expression. The aim of the study is a comparison of the complex means nominating the emotion of joy through the analysis of literary texts of American and British authors, followed by the identification of common and specific features.Thetheoretical interestdeterminesthespecificityoflinguistic and cultural aspects of emotional speech. Experience of joy is associated with a range of positive emotions (pleasure, enjoyment, delight, admiration, etc.. Because of this multiplicity of linguistic representation is considered difficult emotions that imply description. Qualitative characteristics of the analyzed language means can be provided in the form of three groups: lexical-semantic, grammatical and stylistic. Lexico-semantic group includes emotive adjectives, interjections, idioms and intensifiers. Grammatical group is clich d emotive structures, participle constructions, parenthesis. Stylistic means group is the most numerous, it includes: metaphor, personification, simile, hyperbole, oxymoron, repetition, anadiplosis, graduation, inversion, parallelism, polisindeton. The studied emotion manifests ethnic mentality, a system of national character representations.
Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.
OBJECTIVE—To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen. METHODS—Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada. RESULTS—Careful and ext...
Today American English and British English are the two most important varieties or national standards of English. Basically they share the same structure. But the differences between them are noticeable. Here a comparison will be made between them in regard to pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar.
The concordance rate for the French-American-British (FAB) reclassification diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined by a group of RERF hematologists and one of the members of the FAB cooperative gruop. The peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 persons with leukemia or related disorder were reviewed. There was 85% agreement in the identification of leukemia types and subtypes. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnosis of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2%. The conclusion from this remarkably high rate of concordance is that it is feasible to accurately apply the FAB classification system to the cases of A-bomb-related leukemia. These preliminary observations suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders should be changed. (author)
Full Text Available Guided under the multimodal teaching theory, the researchers mainly discuss the practice of the computer network-based multimodal teaching of British and American literature. This article emphasizes that the teachers take advantage of pictures, network screenshots, movies, video, sound, and other resources in the classroom lectures to mobilize the coordination operation of the auditory, visual and tactile senses, to enhance the students impression of the writer and his works. By doing so, the students have a good understanding of the original work, instead of having the boring sense of the single text-mode teaching and the distress of comprehension of literary works, and have no difficulties in comprehending the text and then the classroom teaching is improved.
Miller Arthur J
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists. Methods A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors. Results Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 70% were willing to be trained. Less than two-thirds correctly answered any of four tobacco-related knowledge items. Over one-half agreed pediatric dentists should engage in tobacco control behaviors, but identified patient resistance as a barrier. About 24% of respondents reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 73% reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 37% of respondents always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling prepared to perform tobacco control behaviors (ORs = 1.9–2.8, a more positive attitude score (4 points from 11 tobacco-related items (ORs = 1.5–1.8, and a higher statewide tobacco use prevalence significantly predicted performance of tobacco control behaviors. Conclusion Findings suggest thatraining programs on tobacco use and dependence treatment in the pediatric dental setting may be needed to promote tobacco control behaviors for adolescent patients.
探讨了英国英语和美国英语在语法、词汇、拼写和语音方面各自的特点与不同。就两国语言的差别进行了比较。%Analyses the differences between American English and British English and makes a comparisonespecially in grammar, words, spelling and pronunciation.
Stanski, Keith Raymond Russell; Nabulsi, Karma
The renewed interest in empire, particularly in its British and American variants, has brought into sharper relief the difficulties both metropoles faced in projecting order in the global south. Far from cohesive entities, the British and American empires tried to manage territories that defied many of the political, economic, and legal systems, as well as normative and moral understandings, that enabled their imperial ascendancy. Despite a considerable literature about how metropoles compreh...
... users have receding gums, gum disease, cavities and tooth decay (from the high sugar content in the tobacco), ... Tobacco . References American Cancer Society. Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Facts & Figures 2015-2016 . Atlanta, Ga. 2015. Campaign ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokeless tobacco is often referred to as a major contributor to oral cancer. In some regions, especially Southeast Asia, the risk is difficult to quantify due to the variety of products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients and usage practices involved. In Western populations, the evidence of an increased risk in smokeless tobacco users seems unclear, previous reviews having reached somewhat differing conclusions. We report a detailed quantitative review of the evidence in American and European smokeless tobacco users, and compare our findings with previous reviews and meta-analyses. Methods Following literature review a meta-analysis was conducted of 32 epidemiological studies published between 1920 and 2005 including tests for homogeneity and publication bias. Results Based on 38 heterogeneous study-specific estimates of the odds ratio or relative risk for smokeless tobacco use, the random-effects estimate was 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.40–2.48. The increase was mainly evident in studies conducted before 1980. No increase was seen in studies in Scandinavia. Restricting attention to the seven estimates adjusted for smoking and alcohol eliminated both heterogeneity and excess risk (1.02; 0.82–1.28. Estimates also varied by sex (higher in females and by study design (higher in case-control studies with hospital controls but more clearly in studies where estimates were unadjusted, even for age. The pattern of estimates suggests some publication bias. Based on limited data specific to never smokers, the random-effects estimate was 1.94 (0.88–4.28, the eight individual estimates being heterogeneous and based on few exposed cases. Conclusion Smokeless tobacco, as used in America or Europe, carries at most a minor increased risk of oral cancer. However, elevated risks in specific populations or from specific products cannot definitely be excluded.
Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Trinidad, Susan B; Avey, Jaedon P; Robinson, Renee F
American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. As part of a formative research project investigating stakeholder understandings, preferences, and needs surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment, we sought to characterize sociocultural issues related to tobacco use and cessation. We used the PEN-3 cultural model to frame the research question and analysis of stakeholder interviews with 20 AI/AN patients, 12 health care providers, and 9 tribal leaders. Our study found high knowledge levels of the negative health effects of tobacco use; however, most patient participants ascribed negative health effects only to regular, heavy tobacco use and not to light use, which is more common in the population. The majority of patient participants did not endorse use of tobacco cessation treatment despite evidence of efficacy among AI/AN adults. Health promotion messaging to target low-tobacco consuming AI/AN people is needed. Additionally, messaging to promote tobacco cessation treatment using successful AI/AN former tobacco users to improve community perception of tobacco cessation treatment is recommended. PMID:27178836
As an international medical society dedicated to cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates a fundamental reform of United States and international policy toward addictive tobacco products. ASCO's goal is the immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world. The centerpiece of ASCO's policy is the recommendation for an independent commission to study the tobacco problem in all of its dimensions: social, medical, legal, and economic (both domestically and globally). The commission membership should include broad-based representation and expertise on tobacco issues. In ASCO's view, tobacco control efforts to date have been less than successful because they are too fragmented and incremental, leaving many important issues unaddressed. A more comprehensive solution could flow from this study, including input from a variety of government agencies involved with public health, agriculture, First Amendment and other legal considerations, and international trade. The study, within defined time limits, should culminate in a report that outlines a strategy for achieving immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world, including explicit plans and a timetable for implementation. Although this comprehensive approach to tobacco control will take many years to implement even under the best of circumstances, there are certain measures that could be undertaken immediately with meaningful impact on tobacco usage. These include: Increasing efforts to discourage tobacco use, particularly among the young Raising federal excise taxes by at least $2 per pack and encouraging states to consider tobacco taxes as a first resort in revenue enhancement Ensuring that tobacco settlement funds be devoted only to health-related projects, including medical treatment, biomedical research, and tobacco prevention efforts Requiring disclosure of all ingredients in tobacco products Comprehensively
Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A
Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079
This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view that…
Ellis, G A; Reed, D F; Scheider, H
A statewide tobacco control campaign in California has been highly successful in reducing public exposure to the health hazards of secondhand smoke. Over 250 cities and counties in California have enacted local ordinances to regulate smoking in public places and workplaces. Although low-income people of color are disproportionately affected by the use of tobacco, the issue of regulating secondhand smoke tends to be a lower priority in communities that are confronted by other, more immediately pressing social justice issues, such as high rates of violence and lack of economic opportunity. This article describes the process undertaken by a county health department to mobilize a low-income African American community in a San Francisco Bay Area city to support a local ordinance mandating 100% smoke-free workplaces and restaurants. These efforts are more likely to succeed if health advocates (1) reframe issues in a context that acknowledges the political, economic, and social justice realities and strengths of the community; (2) organize within existing local networks and foster the integration of tobacco issues into the group's existing work; and (3) can defer their own agendas during times of community grieving and healing. PMID:8550369
作为英美文学的三支伏流之一，希腊罗马神话对于英美文学的影响不可小觑。本文将从希腊罗马神话的产生及其文学特点出发，阐述希腊罗马神话对英美文学所产生的巨大影响。%As one of the three underground streams of British and American literature, the influence of Greece and Rome myths for British and American literature is big. This paper from the perspective of the origin and characteristic of the literature of Greek Rome myth, to elaborate the great influence of Greek Rome myth of British and American literature.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines for re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy after drug-induced liver injury, and to assess the ease of administration of each guideline on a scale of 1-10. Methods: The randomised prospective interventional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine and Pulmonology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Patients with anti-tuberculous therapy drug-induced liver injury were selected. Hepatotoxic anti-tuberculous therapy was stopped and modified anti-tuberculous therapy was started. Patients were followed weekly till clinical and biochemical parameters got stabilised. After stabilisation, the patients were randomised to one of the two groups to receive re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy under the guidelines of British Thoracic Society (Group I) or those of American Thoracic Society (Group II). Means of the groups were analysed by Student's t test and proportions were compared by chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was done for age, body mass index and serum albumin for recurrence of drug-induced liver injury after the re-introduction. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Of the total 325 patients, 163(50.15%) were in Group I, while 162(49.84%) were in Group II. The frequency of recurrence of drug-induced liver injury in Group I was 16 (9.8%) and in Group II it was 18 (11.1%). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.7). Age was positively related with drug-induced liver injury, while body mass index and serum albumin were negatively associated. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the two major guidelines though the American Thoracic Society guideline was easier to follow. (author)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) emerged from a realisation among transnational corporations of the need to account for and redress their adverse impact on society: specifically, on human rights, labour practices, and the environment. Two transnational tobacco companies have recently adopted CSR: Philip Morris, and British American Tobacco. This report explains the origins and theory behind CSR; examines internal company documents from Philip Morris showing the company's deliberations on the matter, and the company's perspective on its own behaviour; and reflects on whether marketing tobacco is antithetical to social responsibility.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) emerged from a realisation among transnational corporations of the need to account for and redress their adverse impact on society: specifically, on human rights, labour practices, and the environment. Two transnational tobacco companies have recently adopted CSR: Philip Morris, and British American Tobacco. This report explains the origins and theory behind CSR; examines internal company documents from Philip Morris showing the company's deliberations on the matter, and the company's perspective on its own behaviour; and reflects on whether marketing tobacco is antithetical to social responsibility. PMID:15564636
McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.
Objective: To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural'' and American smokers' views of the "naturalness'' (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods: Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results: Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural'' since at least 1910, but it was not until th...
Full Text Available Abstract Background American Indians (AI have the highest smoking rates of any ethnic group in the US (40.8%, followed most closely by African Americans (24.3% and European Americans (23.6%. AI smokers also have more difficulty quitting smoking compared to other ethnic groups, evidenced by their significantly lower quit ratios, and are among the least successful in maintaining long term abstinence. While health disparities like these have existed for years among AI, the epidemiology of smoking and nicotine dependence has not been optimally described among this underserved population. Our overarching hypothesis is that the susceptibility of AI to cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence and its consequences has both an underlying nicotine metabolism component as well as psychosocial, cultural, and environment causes. We are well-positioned to explore this issue for the first time in this population. Our objective is to establish a cohort of AI tribal college/university students to determine the predictors of smoking initiation (non-use to experimentation, progression (experimentation to established use, and cessation (established use to cessation. Much of what is known about the process of smoking initiation and progression comes from quantitative studies with non-Native populations. Information related to smoking use among AI tribal college/university (TCU students is entirely unknown and critically needs further investigation. This study will be the first of its kind among AI college students who are at the highest risk among all ethnic groups for tobacco dependence. Methods/design First year students at Haskell Indian Nations University in Kansas will be recruited over four consecutive years and will be surveyed annually and repeatedly through year 5 of the study. We will use both longitudinal quantitative surveys and qualitative focus group methods to examine key measures and determinants of initiation and use among this high risk group.
Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.
DeBon, M.; Klesges, R. C.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). DESIGN: Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; ti...
Sudarshana, M R; Berger, P H
The complete sequence of a North American tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolate, 'Oregon yellow' (ORY), was determined from cDNA and RT-PCR clones derived from the two genomic RNAs of this isolate. The RNA-1 is 6790 bases and RNA-2 is 3261 bases. The sequence of TRV-ORY RNA-1 was similar to RNA-1 to TRV isolate SYM, and differs in 48 nucleotides. TRV-ORY RNA-1 was one base shorter than--SYM, and had 47 base substitutions resulting in 12 amino acid substitutions of which 4 were conservative. The RNA-2 of TRV-ORY was distinct from RNA-2 of other characterized TRV isolates and contained three open reading frames (ORFs) that could potentially code for proteins of MW 22.4 kDa, 37.6 kDa and 17.9 kDa. Based on the homology of the predicted amino acid sequence with those of other tobraviruses. ORF1 of RNA-2 encodes the coat protein (CP). The protein sequence of ORF2 had regions of limited similarity with those of ORF2 of two other TRV isolates and pea early browning tobravirus. The ORF3 was unique to TRV-ORY. Phylogenetic analysis of tobravirus CPs indicated that TRV-ORY was most closely related to pepper ringspot tobravirus and TRV-TCM. The relationship of tobravirus CPs to other rod-shaped tubular plant viruses is also discussed. PMID:9739332
Morley, Christopher M
Abstract This paper looks at both Porters Generic strategies theory and the newer resource based view of strategy and applies these theories to the Airline industry using four focus cases. The companies looked at are British Airways, EasyJet, Southwest Airlines and American Airlines. The study of these cases allows for an overview of the role of strategy in the airline industry and enables a comparison regarding the effects of the current economic recession on the chosen airlines and the m...
The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure. (author)
Northrup, Herbert R.; Ash, Robert I.
The tobacco industry has employed Negroes since its inception in Colonial Virginia. This study is primarily concerned with the course of Negro employment and industry racial policies in the industry processing, manufacturing, selling, and distributing of cigarettes and manufactured tobacco, as distinct from the cigar industry which involves quite…
Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J
Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308
英语国家的文化知识是英语语言的不可缺少组成部分.因为它会直接影响对英语文本的正确理解.然而在中国,受几十年传统教学方法的影响,很少有英语老师可以将语言教学和文化教学结合起来.基于目前中国学生学习英语的现状和已有的英语交际水平,本文简要分析了英美文化教学的重要性并提出了相应的解决策略以提高学生对于英美文化和本族文化差异的敏感性.使学生积累大量英美文化知识,让学生准确使用语言,提高跨文化交际能力.%The culture of English-speaking countries knowledge is an indispensable part of the English language. Because it will directly affect the correct understanding of the English text. In China, however, affected by decades of traditional teaching methods, there are very few English teachers can combine language teaching and culture teaching. Based on the current situation of Chinese students learning English and English communication level, this paper analyzes the importance of British and American culture teaching and puts forward the corresponding solution strategies in order to improve the students for the sensitivity of the differences in British and American culture and native culture. To make the students accumulate a large number of British and American cultural knowledge, let the students use language accurately, improve the ability of cross-cultural communication.
This research paper concentrates on the differences between American English and British English in pronunciation, spelling, vocabulary, grammar and usages. It also analyzes the origin of the differences in terms of American history, and presets the author's own attitude on how to look upon the differences by taking exception against some other existing views%本文阐述美式英语与英式英语在发音、拼写、词汇和语法等方面的区别,并从美国历史的角度分析了这些区别的起源,还阐述了当前看待这些区别的几种不同观点,并陈述了自己的观点供英语学习者参考.
Smith, Katherine E; Gary Fooks; Jeff Collin; Heide Weishaar; Sema Mandal; Gilmore, Anna B.
Editors' Summary Background The primary goal of public health, the branch of medicine concerned with the health of communities, is to improve lives by preventing disease. Public-health groups do this by assessing and monitoring the health of communities, by ensuring that populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective health care, and by helping to formulate public policies that safeguard human health. Until recently, most of the world's major public-health concerns related to infec...
Filippi, Melissa K; McCloskey, Charlotte; Williams, Chandler; Bull, Julia White; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M
Information concerning American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) Internet use and health information needs is dearth. Our research team explored Internet use among AI/AN college students to determine Internet use in relation to health information seeking behaviors. We used a tobacco site example for participants to describe what they desired in a health site designed specifically for AI/AN. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted 14 focus groups with AI/AN college students (N = 108), to better understand their perceptions of and attitudes toward Internet use and health information needs. Daily Internet use was reported across strata yet health topics investigated differed among groups. Participants in all strata desired a health website that was easy to navigate and interactive. Respectful representation of Native culture was a concern, yet no consensus was reached for a multi-tribal audience. Participants felt a website should use caution with cultural depictions due to the possible misinterpretation. Overall, participants agreed that recreational and traditional tobacco use should be differentiated and the variation of traditional use among tribes acknowledged. Data concerning Internet use for health information among AI/AN college students are needed to establish baseline indicators to effectively address disparities.
张月华; 李建林; 杨海波
The Anglo‐American nuclear cooperation between the Second World War and after the Second World War is given, and the development for ballistic missile of England is expatiated. Also the formation of security strategy between the two nations is introduced here. The tendency of British sea base nuclear force is analyzed.%介绍了英国二战期间及战后与美国的核合作关系，阐述了英国弹道导弹的独立研制情况以及与美国结为战略核同盟的过程，概括了英国海基核力量的发展及装备情况，分析了英国海基核力量发展趋势。
精神生态研究是在人类社会面临愈来愈严重的精神问题的背景下提出的。它倡导达到一种人类精神世界的平衡、稳定、和谐的境界。精神生态批评是生态批评的一个次域，也是生态批评向人类精神领域的拓展。目前国内学界从精神生态批评的角度对英美文学作品进行的研究尚处于探索阶段，但它却为英美文学研究提供了新视角，也丰富了生态批评的理论内涵。%The study of spiritual ecology has been put forward with more and more serious spiritual problems faced by human society. It advocates the acheivement of a state of being where the human spiritual world achieves balance, stability and harmony. Spiritual ecocriticism is a sub-field of ecocriti-cism, and an extension of ecocriticism into the field of human spirit. Currently in China the study of British and American literature from sprirtual ecocritical approach is still in its explorative stage, but it provides a new perspective in the study of British and American literature, and will certainly enrich the theory of ecocriticism.
It's often dangerous to generalize, but under threat,I would say that Americans are more "*down the line2." They don't hide their hopes and fears. They applaud ambition and openly reward success. Brits are more comfortable with life's losers. We embrace the underdog3 until it's no longer the underdog. We like to *bring authority down a peg or two4. *Just for the hell of it5. Americans say, "*have a nice day6" whether they mean it or not. Brits are terrified to say this.
Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelly
This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response – a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and from AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate that tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: 1) During the 1990s Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the US, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; 2) In both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in Sub-Sahara Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist. This demonstrates the
Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelley
This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response - a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate how tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: (1) During the 1990s, Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the USA, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; (2) In both Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high-profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist
针对英美文学的教学现状及问题,探讨了建构主义理论指导下英美文学研究性教学的改革与实践,并对改革实践效果做出了初步的总结与分析。%In View of the existing problems in the British and American literature teaching,under the guidance of the constructivism theory,this thesis aims to explore the reform and practice of the research-oriented teaching in the British and American literature course.It also gives a preliminary analysis of its reform and practice effect.
Balayan A. V.
Full Text Available The phenomenon of the special relationship in BritishAmerican politics of the second part of the XX century also received intensive development in the early XXI century. In fact, according to conditions of modern processes of globalization, cooperation between the United States and Great Britain, as within framework of NATO and in other international organizations, became increasingly close. Both States played a significant role in the international policy, working on various issues of economy, politics, environment, culture, etc. Attention is drawn to the forms of cooperation between the studied States in the implementation of military initiatives in the Balkans (1998 and Iraq (2003. These events allowed characterizing the first and final stages of the development of relations between the United States and Britain in the form of «special» in the period of late XX – early XXI centuries. In the beginning of XXI century the cooperation between the U.S. and the UK in reforming NATO, taking into account national foreign policy strategy of the USA, was an example of favorable development of bilateral “special relationship”. For London, the following external course of the US has remained a higher priority than for Washington
Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin
Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of
Abraham-Silver, Linda M.
The study was designed to identify the beliefs held by visitors to natural history museums with respect to evolution and its mechanism. Visitors' levels of rejection and acceptance of evolutionary theory, their associated explanatory frameworks, and understanding of the nature of biological evolution were examined to determine whether differences existed between populations of museum visitors in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Great Britain. Data were collected at three natural history museums located outside of the United States and compared with existing data from previous studies conducted using the same methodology in American natural history museums. One hundred sixty-one museum visitors were interviewed in person in the non-U.S. sites; their interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed (using primarily chi-square) to identify similarities, patterns, and relationships among the data sets. Museum visitors outside of the United States demonstrated much lower levels of rejection of evolutionary theory when compared with data collected in the U.S. museums (an overall 2% rate of rejection was observed in the non-U.S. sample, while a 9.5% rejection rate was observed in the American sample). Surprising results included the finding that non-U.S. individuals held similar levels of naive conceptions with regard to the nature of evolutionary theory and the sequence of geologic time when compared with their American counterparts. Less than half of all museum visitors interviewed outside of the United States were able to describe natural selection, the mechanism by which evolution is thought to operate. Study participants showed consistent and deeply held tendencies to apply teleological or Lamarkian explanations to describe the mechanism for evolutionary change. Significant correlations between participants' age, their level of education, and their rejection or acceptance of evolution were not found among the data derived from these non
A course introducing British culture is a standard component of many study abroad programmes running in this country that are aimed at international students who will be spending a limited amount of time in the United Kingdom. However, it is not often acknowledged that such students possess a range of strong pre-conceptions about British culture…
Humphrey, H H
Three years ago, the state of Minnesota became the second state to sue the tobacco industry for wrongdoing and the first to charge consumer fraud and conspiracy. Together with our co-plaintiff, Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Minnesota, we filed a lawsuit against the six major U.S. cigarette manufacturers, two tobacco trade organizations, and British American Tobacco Industries (BAT), the parent company of Brown and Williamson. Specifically, the lawsuit alleges that the industry defrauded consumers and engaged in false advertising, deceptive practices, and anti-trust violations, including conspiracy to stifle development of safer cigarettes and to conceal information on smoking and health. Many later-filing states patterned complaints after Minnesota's, and virtually all have incorporated some or all of the claims first pled in the Minnesota complaint. PMID:9323388
Jeff Niederdeppe, MA; Drew Lindsey, BA; Maria E. Girlando, BA; Alec Ulasevich, PhD; Matthew C. Farrelly, PhD
The purpose fo this report is to summarize awareness of and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing influences from three national samples of teens and young adults following the MSA. The report addresses 4 key research questions. 1)How frequently are young teens (age 12 to 14), older teens (aged 15 to 17), and young adults (age 18 to 24) exposed to pro-tobacco marketing? 2)How frequently are teens and young adults exposed to smoking portrayals in television and films? 3)Have reports of exposure...
Full Text Available El estudio de la Carga Mundial de la Enfermedad proyecta que el incremento en la prevalencia de fumadores en países de ingresos medios y bajos contribuirá a incrementar las muertes cardiovasculares, por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y algunos cánceres. Para reducir estas consecuencias del tabaquismo, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS recomienda un conjunto de acciones reunidas en el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT y los informes MPOWER. En este artículo se revisó el más reciente de estos informes y sintetizamos las principales intervenciones que estaban vigentes en los países latinoamericanos y también revisamos algunas medidas implementadas durante 2009 y 2010. En los últimos años se ha avanzado considerablemente en materia de control del tabaco. Sin embargo, todavía queda por avanzar para acercarnos a lo sugerido por la OMS. De mantenerse el nivel de consumo entre los adolescentes de la región actualmente, observaremos en las décadas futuras un incremento en el número de muertes prematuras y evitables causadas por el tabaco.Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be
分析和研究中国女性的主体意识受英美文学中新女性形象的影响，及其在构建和谐社会中所体现的作用，并阐述了深度发展女性主体意识的途径。%The profound influence of the new women＇s image in British and American literature on Chinese women＇s subjective consciousness are analyzed and studied, as well as its role in construction of harmonious society. The ways to accelerate the development of such a society are expounded.
The paper introduces the development status of global tobacco and the new characteristics of American tobacco circulation system, then analyzes the enlightenment of those new characteristics to China tobacco industry, based on which the paper further proposes the suggestions about improving the development of our tobacco industry, such as, changing the planned planting into market regulated planting, regulating the planting structure of tobacco, focusing on the management of tobacco production, purchase and sale, making sure the rational production and sales of tobacco according to market laws..%介绍了目前全球烟叶发展情况与美国烟叶流通体制的新特点,分析了美国烟叶流通体制新特点对我国烟叶产业的启示,在此基础上提出改良我国烟叶产业发展的意见,即:由计划种植变为市场调节,实现烟叶种植结构的调整,国家应重点加强烟叶产、购、销方面的管理,使烟叶的生产与销售能按市场规律合理运行.
Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang
The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010...... guidelines and governance practices. The case captures the intricacies of corporate management and provides a realistic overview of the complexities that often surround leadership approaches and executive decisions. Hence, it can be used in various graduate and executive courses in strategic management......, leadership development and corporate governance that all grapple with issues of responsible ethical behaviour. This case is part of the CBS free case collection (visit www.thecasecentre.org/CBSfreecases for more information on the collection). This case can be downloaded by educators as a clean pdf...
Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.
Selected Readings of British and American Newspapers and Magazines is one of the courses cultivating profession skills for English majors in colleges and universities in China,aiming at training the students'ability to read British and Ameri-can newspapers and magazines,improving students'English level and comprehensive qualities.Yet,the current teaching of this course is still lack of systematic teaching strategies.Given this situation,this paper focuses on the course characteristics, teaching objectives and teaching methods,with the expectation to improve the teaching level and help students progress.%英美报刊选读是我国高校英语专业的英语专业技能课程之一，旨在培养学生阅读英美报刊杂志的能力，提高学生的英语水平和综合素养。目前国内高校英美报刊选读的教学还缺乏系统的教学策略。本文着重探讨英美报刊选读的课程特点、教学目标和教学方式，以切实提高教学水平，帮助学生成长。
The author begins by arguing that in order to understand imperialism it is necessary to have a conceptual awareness of the concepts of racism and racialisation. He then considers how the British Empire impacted on schools during the imperial era. He goes on to examine the nature of the New Imperialism. Calls are currently being made by notable…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: European Union (EU legislation bans the sale of snus, a smokeless tobacco (SLT which is considerably less harmful than smoking, in all EU countries other than Sweden. To inform the current review of this legislation, this paper aims to explore transnational tobacco company (TTC interests in SLT and pure nicotine in Europe from the 1970s to the present, comparing them with TTCs' public claims of support for harm reduction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Internal tobacco industry documents (in total 416 documents dating from 1971 to 2009, obtained via searching the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, were analysed using a hermeneutic approach. This library comprises documents obtained via litigation in the US and does not include documents from Imperial Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International, or Swedish Match. To help overcome this limitation and provide more recent data, we triangulated our documentary findings with contemporary documentation including TTC investor presentations. The analysis demonstrates that British American Tobacco explored SLT opportunities in Europe from 1971 driven by regulatory threats and health concerns, both likely to impact cigarette sales negatively, and the potential to create a new form of tobacco use among those no longer interested in taking up smoking. Young people were a key target. TTCs did not, however, make SLT investments until 2002, a time when EU cigarette volumes started declining, smoke-free legislation was being introduced, and public health became interested in harm reduction. All TTCs have now invested in snus (and recently in pure nicotine, yet both early and recent snus test markets appear to have failed, and little evidence was found in TTCs' corporate materials that snus is central to their business strategy. CONCLUSIONS: There is clear evidence that BAT's early interest in introducing SLT in Europe was based on the potential for creating an alternative form of tobacco use in light of
Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)
León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela
This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing…
Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...
Taking World Link Student Book I as a case, this paper analyzes the vocabulary differences be- tween British English and American English in five respects, polysemant, synonyms, peculiar words, loanwords and spelling, then it illustrates the significance of understanding the differences in English vo- cabulary teaching.%以《环球英语》第一册为例，就英、美英语词汇差异的五类表现形式，即同词异义、同义异词、特有词、外来词和拼写差异作初步论述，最后指出这些差异在英语词汇教学上的意义。
College English education should include the develop-ment of critical thinking skills in its goals. Beginning from ana-lyzing the current situation of college English teaching, this paper explores the strategies to develop critical thinking skills in the course of Readings from British and American Press.%大学的英语教育应该将思辨能力作为培养目标之一。在分析我国高校英语教学思辨能力现状的基础上，探索在英美报刊选读课中培养学生思辨能力的策略。
为了进一步探索浪漫主义文学的奥秘，运用比较文学平行研究中的类型学、主题学、文类学以及影响研究中的流传学等方法对18世纪末19世纪初的英、美两国浪漫主义文学进行溯源，发现两者产生的时间有先后之别，作品形式也有所不同，但导致它们产生的根源是一样的，两者所表现的主题也相似，而且在本质上是相同的。浪漫主义文学是一定社会发展阶段的产物，英国浪漫主义对美国浪漫主义的影响有限。%With the aim to further explore the magic power of literary romanticism , this paper , by using the approa-ches in comparative literature , offers some analyses of the similarity and difference between British Romantic literature and American Romantic literature .The paper finds that the former appears earlier than the latter , with the former tak-ing the form of poetry while the later the form of fiction .But they are similar in terms of root and theme and they are the same in essence .Romantic literature is a product of social development , and the influence of British romanticism on American romanticism is limited .
Li, Shijian; Kwon, Simona C.; Weerasingh, Isha; Rey, Mariano J.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
New York City (NYC) has experienced significant decline in smoking prevalence since its antismoking campaign; however, the rates among NYC’s Asian communities have persisted since 2002. Using combined data from the REACH US Risk Factor Survey (2009-2011), this article examined ethnic- and gender-specific smoking behaviors and the effects of acculturation and location of residence on cigarette smoking behavior among Chinese, Korean, Asian Indians, and other Asian Americans. Results indicated t...
Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel
Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…
Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia
Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13–17 years, young adults aged 18–24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups wit...
OBJECTIVE—To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen. METHODS—Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada. RESULTS—Careful and extensive research has been employed in all stages of the process of conceiving, developing, refining, and deploying cigarette advertising. Two segments commanding much management attention are "starters" and "concerned smokers". To recruit starters, brand images communicate independence, freedom and (sometimes) peer acceptance. These advertising images portray smokers as attractive and autonomous, accepted and admired, athletic and at home in nature. For "lighter" brands reassuring health concerned smokers, lest they quit, advertisements provide imagery conveying a sense of well being, harmony with nature, and a consumer's self image as intelligent. CONCLUSIONS—The industry's steadfast assertions that its advertising influences only brand loyalty and switching in both its intent and effect is directly contradicted by their internal documents and proven false. So too is the justification of cigarette advertising as a medium creating better informed consumers, since visual imagery, not information, is the means of advertising influence. Keywords: advertising; brand imagery; market research; youth targeting; "concerned" smokers; corporate documents PMID:10841849
America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?
China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-
The Cline Mining Corporation has proposed an open-pit mine to extract 2 million tonnes of coal annually in the Flathead Valley of British Columbia (BC). The Flathead Valley is known internationally for the richness of its flora and fauna. After the Flathead River crosses the border into Montana, it is managed under the most restrictive environmental protection laws available in the United States. The project is expected to be the first in a series of energy projects that will ravage the valley in the near future. Major energy companies are planning to open mines at sites within the Flathead River flood plain. The low quality coal obtained from the valley will be used to supply the unregulated economies of China, India, and Brazil. The valley is situated at the convergence of several biogeoclimatic zones and is home to a rich mix of plants and animals, including the highest concentration of grizzly bears in North America. The BC government's regulatory mechanism is not able to prevent exploitation of the region. Scientists from around the world have unanimously agreed that the mine should not be opened. Tailings from other mines currently draining into the Flathead River are now beginning to alter the river's chemistry. The federal government has been unsuccessful in its bid to create a national park in the region. It was concluded that unless land use regulations for the area are changed, the valley will inevitably be developed. 13 figs.
Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.
We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, mos...
Gary J Fooks
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764 were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.
接受反应理论对战后英美当代学者小说创作产生了很大影响。学者小说中对文学传统中某些叙事结构及文学经典的再创造，关注日常生活、关注族裔问题与身体写作等是对接受反应理论框架中读者期待视野、隐在读者、读者反应等的积极回应。%Reception‐response Theory has a great influence on the creation of contemporary British and American academic novels .In the academic novels ,some narrative structure and literature classics have been recreated ,everyday life and ethnic conflicts have been narrated through body w riting as w ell as“indeterminacy” principle ,all of w hich are the active reaction to the readers'expectation ,implied readers and the readers'response .
留学生流动规模的增加及结构层次的优化不仅有助于提升经济竞争力，同时能够促进教育理念的多元化并带动学术交流和科技发展，因此世界各国都致力于完善海外招生制度。通过对英美高校海外招生制度的分析，为我国持续发展来华留学教育提供借鉴意义。%Students are the main carriers of profound knowledge of cross-border flow , the increase of its scales and optimization of the structure can enhance the economic competitiveness, promote the diversification of the country's educational philosophy, develop academic communications and advance the scientific and technological progress, so most countries are committed to improving overseas recruitment system to release the enormous economic and social benefits.This paper summarize the experience of American and British to provide reference for China's sustainable development in overseas recruitment systems.
Based on Constructivist Teaching Theory, this paper discusses the necessity of the teaching reform of British and American literature and believes that how to optimize its teaching through network technology lies in taking advantages of self-determination, interactivity and individuation of the on-line teaching platform to improve comprehensive cultural qualities of college English majors and their ability of applying the language efficiently.%随着时代的发展,传统的英美文学教学模式已经越来越不适应时代发展对人才的要求,对传统的教学模式进行改革已势在必行。在建构主义学习论的基础上,深入探讨了英美文学课程改革的理论基础和实践意义,并提出了利用网络教学的自主性,交互性和个性化的特点来深化网络教学,实现师生互动式的＂教＂＂学＂结合;在具体的网络教授英美文学课程时,可以利用网络创建情景式教学、增强教与学的交互性、激发学生的个性化发展等方式。
The traditional teaching of British and American Literature cannot activate the students ’ en-thusiasm and originality ,so the writer thinks it is necessary to construct the new patterns .The students gain the dual development in emotion and mentality in the process of individual presentation ,movie appre-ciation ,group discussion ,teacher’s lecture and after-class reflection .% 传统的英美文学课堂在主客二元对立的教学模式主导下不能激发学生内在的热情，也不能给予学生创造的机会和展示的平台。因此有必要在主体间性理论指导下构建新的课堂教学模式。学生在个人展示，影视欣赏，小组研讨，课堂听讲以及课后反思的几个环节中逐步获得了情感和心智的双重成长，同时达到了师生之间，以及生生之间的共同融合及共同发展。
如何将思辨能力的培养有效融入英语专业课程的教学中，是当前英语专业教学改革的重要课题之一。本研究参照文秋芳教授提出的思辨能力层级理论模型，从英美文学课程与思辨能力的关系入手，构建了英美文学思辨教学培养模式。该模式通过对英美文学课程在教学内容、教学方式、教学评价上的改革，旨在为英语专业学生思辨能力培养探索有效的路径。%How to incorporate critical thinking development into teaching for English majors is an important topic in current English teaching reformation .Referring to the conceptual framework of critical thinking skills set by Professor Wen Qiufang ,this study analyses the relationship of British and American Literature and critical thinking to propose a critical thinking teaching mo‐dal .This modal entails reformation in teaching content ,teaching methods and teaching evalua‐tion and is expected to provide an effective way to critical skills development for English ma‐jors .
In British and American law of contract, the price theory has experienced from scratch, from benefit damage theory to the development of the theory of transaction process. The price system becomes the core content of contract law, playing an important role in the history of the development of contract law. This paper expounds the origin of the principle of consideration and the historical development course of price theory, which concludes the superiority of the price system, and puts forward the principle of consideration for China's current contract law of the development of the influence and significance.%在英美合同法中，对价理论经历了从无到有、从获益受损理论到交易过程理论的发展。对价制度成为合同法的核心内容，在合同法的发展史上有着举足轻重的作用。本文阐述了对价原则的起源，对价理论的历史发展历程，得出对价制度的优越性，并提出了对价原则对于中国现今合同法发展的影响和意义。
Although a major fiscal revenue source, the tobacco industry is always under a watchful eye while many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.
DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented. METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the...
Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S.
The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the ...
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Chen, Yilu; Britton, John
BACKGROUND Tobacco promotion is now tightly restricted in the UK and many other countries, but tobacco imagery including brand appearances in the media remain potentially powerful drivers of smoking uptake among children and young people. The extent to which tobacco imagery and specific products have appeared in the most popular films viewed in the UK over 20 years has been measured, in relation to year of release, the age certification allocated to the film by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), country of origin and other characteristics. METHODS Occurrence of tobacco intervals (tobacco use, implied use or appearance of smoking paraphernalia) and brand appearances were measured by 5 min interval coding in the 15 most commercially successful films in the UK each year from 1989 to 2008. RESULTS Tobacco intervals occurred in 70% of all films. Over half (56%) of those that contained tobacco intervals were rated by the BBFC as suitable for viewing by children aged Marlboro and Silk Cut, appeared in 9% of all films, and most brand appearances (39%) were in films with BBFC 15 classification. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco imagery in the most popular films shown in the UK has declined substantially over the past 20 years but continues to occur, particularly in UK films, and predominantly in films categorised as suitable for viewing by children and young people. Specific brand appearances are now rare but occur repeatedly in some films. The BBFC is not currently protecting children and young people from exposure to tobacco imagery in film. PMID:20435863
This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)
Underner, M; Perriot, J
Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.
Houtkamp, J.A.; Laan, van der H.L.
It has proved possible and worthwhile to organize regular auctions for a few African export crops, namely tea, tobacco and coffee. Such auctions were first introduced in British East Africa in the 1930s and today, East Africa and the former British territories (Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Malawi)
Global financial crisis has a profound impact on the reformation and development of higher education in countries around the world. In the case of less government funding on higher education, both Britain and the United States have taken positive measures according to their national circumstances, and have widened the financial channels for higher education in response to the challenges of the financial crisis. These effective measures have not only alleviated the Britain and the United States financial dilem-ma of higher education, but also expanded the sources of higher education finance and maintained their status as world-class higher ed-ucation. Comparing the similarities and differences between British and American higher education in response to the financial crisis can provide a reference and inspiration to Chinese higher education which based on national conditions.%全球性的经济危机对世界各国高等教育的改革与发展都产生了深刻的影响.在政府减少对高等教育拨款的情况下,英美两国都根据各国国情采取了积极的措施,拓宽高等教育的筹资渠道,应对财政危机的挑战.这些卓有成效的举措,既缓解了英美高等教育财政困境,又拓宽了高等教育的财政来源,维持了其世界一流大学的地位.比较英美高等教育应对财政危机的异同,对我国高等教育依据国情办学与治理提供了借鉴与启示.
英美学者研究认为，医学生在医学院校学习和临床培训期间，由于其身份地位、文化冲突以及医疗管理等方面的原因而经历的种种伦理困境，易于使他们陷入情感和心理的困扰、信仰和行为的冲突、理想和现实的矛盾之中，并最终导致其价值观和伦理原则的损害。他们呼吁教育工作者应当承担起帮助学生应对复杂的矛盾问题以及学习职业伦理困境的处理经验的责任。这些成果对深入研究和积极探索我国医学伦理教育的有效路径具有重要的借鉴意义。%British and American researchers hold the fact that medical students incline to be haunted with emotional and mental problems ,religion and behavior conflicts ,as well as the ideal and realistic contradictions .All these problems are resulted from all kinds of ethical dilemmas they experienced during their studies and clinical trainings in medical schools , due to their different identities ,status ,cultural backgrounds and medical managements .These problems can destroy the values and ethical principles of these medical students . To solve the problems , the researchers appeal to educators to shoulder on the responsibility to help the students to deal with the complicated problems and learn how to compromise in ethical dilemmas .The author believed these conclusions could be taken as an important reference to further study medical ethical education in China .
Full Text Available Since tobacco smoking acquired important patriotic symbolism in nineteenth century, the history of tobacco sheds light on Hungarian nationalism. Hungarian tobacco growers found the Austrian tobacco tariff policy harmful to their interests, particularly when war disrupted the supply of American tobacco in potential export markets. Pushing for a different tariff, Hungarian patriots turned smoking into a marker of Hungarian patriotism. Tobacco symbolism was prominent during Hungary’s 1848 Revolution, not least because tobacco acquired revolutionary symbolism in Italy and Germany as well. The culture of patriotic tobacco corresponded to revolutionary national ideas in that it mostly transcended class barriers but excluded women.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the tobacco industry influenced tobacco control policymaking in Costa Rica. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles, and interviewing of key informants. RESULTS: During the mid-to-late 1980s, Health Ministry issued several advanced (for their time smoking restriction decrees causing British American Tobacco (BAT and Philip Morris International (PMI to strengthen their political presence there, resulting in passage of a weak 1995 law, which, as of August 2011, remained in effect. Since 1995 the industry has used Costa Rica as a pilot site for Latin American programs and has dominated policymaking by influencing the Health Ministry, including direct private negotiations with the tobacco industry which violate Article 5.3's implementing guidelines of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. CONCLUSIONS: The Costa Rica experience demonstrates the importance of vigorous implementation of FCTC Article 5.3 which insulates public health policymaking from industry interference.OBJETIVO: Analizar cómo la industria tabacalera influyó en la formulación de las políticas de control del tabaco en Costa Rica. MATERIALS Y MÉTODOS: Revisión de documentos de la industria tabacalera, de la legislación costarricense de control del tabaco y de periódicos y entrevistas con informantes clave. RESULTADOS: Durante los años ochenta, el Ministerio de Salud aprobó varios decretos para restringir el consumo de tabaco, lo que causó que British American Tobacco y Philip Morris International fortalecieran su presencia política, cuyo resultado fue la promulgación de una ley débil en 1995 todavía vigente. Desde 1995 la industria tabacalera ha utilizado a Costa Rica como piloto para los programas latinoamericanos y ha dominado la formulación de políticas influenciando al Ministerio de Salud, incluyendo negociaciones privadas con la
... number of high school girls use smokeless tobacco. Peer pressure is just one of the reasons for starting the habit. After you start, the addictive quality of nicotine kicks in: With each use, you need a little more of the drug to get the same feeling. So serious users ...
@@ While many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.
In his article, "British Travel Writing about the Americas, 1820-1840: Different and Differentiating Views," Frank Lauterbach analyzes representations of the United States and South America in British travel writing of the post-Monroe years. His analysis rests on examples from two travelogues by Basil Hall, written in 1824 and 1829, respectively. Lauterbach discusses three related points: 1) Intent on overcoming the colonial affiliation with Anglo-American culture, British travelers try to es...
This thesis examines the shifts within mainstream British television animation between 1997 and 2010 and it discusses how British animation’s close relationship with live-action television comedy reveals a map of contemporary attitudes and tastes. The British animated texts in this period reacted to their shifting industrial and broadcasting landscape. The historical moment of the late 1990s was determined by the successes of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, which profoundly affecte...
＂以文本为中心＂的文学教学观是高校英语专业英美文学教学和全国语文教育改革的一个重要方向。本文所建构的＂以文本为中心＂的英美文学教学观认为文学教学的基础是正确把握文学教学的本质,关键在于文本的选择,核心是微观解码、由文本之＂内＂转向文本之＂外＂以及师生互动交流,具体措施有借鉴文学理论、文学教学与生活、创作和现代技术相结合,最后的归宿是道德教诲。%＂Text-centered＂ concept is one of the leading trends in reforming the teaching of British and American literature for English Majors in the college as well as Chinese in all levels of schools of China. The constructed ＂Text- centered＂ concept of teaching literature in this paper can be interpreted as follows： first, it is founded on the correct understanding of what literature teaching essentially is ; second, texts should be well-selected for the course, which is the key to making the concept come true; third, the core of this concept is embodied in ＂shifting＂ from the inside to the outside of the text in three steps -decoding the text closely, analyzing its external factors and exchanging feelings between the teacher and students; forth, in the process of teaching, the teacher may take some effective measures, such as applying literary theories, referring to life experience, assigning creative writings and using modern technologies; finally, the sole purpose in this concept is educating students morally, to which all the above-mentioned methods contribute.
本研究主要目的在于评价税收理论课程的教学中，以教材为主的美式教学方法与以泛读文献为主要方式的英式教学，在课堂应用中的实际效果与各自的优缺点。我们的研究方法是在两个平行的税收经济学课程中采用两种教学方法，并通过对学生在课程论文、考试环节中反映的技术分析能力与阅读水平的考察，结合学生的问卷来比较两类教学效果的不同。实验结果显示，以教材为主的授课方式也许更具综合优势，但充分吸收泛读教学的优点更有利于学生个体化学习方式的形成。%The main aim of this research is to evaluate the text-book-oriented American teaching method and the extensive reading-oriented British teaching method, and their practical ef-fects and advantages as well as disadvantages in classroom appli-cation in the teaching of tax theory courses. The research method is to compare the different effects of the two methods through adopting two teaching methods respectively for two parallel"Eco-nomics of Tax" course, and the survey on students' technical analysis skills and reading ability reflected in their curriculum papers and examinations, as well as the questionnaire investiga-tion on students. The experiment results show that the former possesses more comprehensive advantages, but it will be more conducive to the formation of students' individualized learning styles if it fully absorbs the advantages of the latter.
Boudreau, Gina; Hernandez, Carol; Hoffer, Donna; Preuss, Kathleen Starlight; Tibbetts-Barto, Linda; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Scott, Sheryl
As successes mount in reducing commercial tobacco use, an alarming disparity has taken shape in Minnesota. Recent studies revealed that overall smoking rates have dropped to 14%, whereas American Indians' rates remain higher than 50%. With support from ClearWay Minnesota, the organization created from the state's tobacco settlement, advocates working within sovereign tribal governments to create smoke-free policies came together to discuss effective strategies within tribal Nations. We discussed the history behind mainstream tobacco control's failure to resonate with Native audiences and the need to reframe the movement to a goal of restoring traditional tobacco practices. We share our insights on this critical area for achieving health equity and provide recommendations for tribes, non-Indian advocates, and funders, with a plea for tribal inclusion in commercial tobacco "end-game" strategies. PMID:27077360
Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.
Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet
At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.
Marriott, R. A.
The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.
Dany García Callejas
Estudios realizados por la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Centro de Antioquia (Corantioquia) concluyen que los bosques y páramos localizados en el noroccidente del departamento de Antioquia constituyen un ecosistema estratégico, al actuar como oferentes de bienes y servicios ambientales. Además, el sistema natural garantiza la provisión de agua para el desarrollo de actividades recreativas en el Parque de las Aguas, localizado en el Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (Antioquia, Colomb...
Lowe, Benjamin; Walsh, Joseph
By the turn of the 20th century, research had begun dealing with the subject of sport psychology in America. In the early 1900's, Coleman Griffin, the father of sport psychology, led the way in researching sport psychology. It was not until the 1960's that research in this field became popular in Great Britain. In 1967, in both America and Great…
... from Tobacco Regulations Restricting the Sale, Distribution, and Marketing of Cigarettes, Cigarette Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco. Preventing ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...
<正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.
Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl
Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...
Giovino, Gary A
Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes and exposure to tobacco smoke pollution, has caused the premature deaths of more than 14 million Americans since 1964. The major diseases caused by tobacco and tobacco smoke include lung cancer, other cancers, coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, pregnancy complications, and respiratory diseases in children. Per capita consumption of various tobacco products has declined substantially since 1950, with current consumption at approximately 3.7 pounds per capita. Whereas approximately two in five adults smoked cigarettes in 1965, approximately one in five did so in 2005. Several factors can influence initiation and cessation, including product factors (e.g., ventilation holes, additives, and flavorings); host factors (intention to use, level of dependence); tobacco company activities (e.g., marketing strategies, efforts to undermine public health activities); and environmental factors (e.g., peer and parental smoking, smoke-free air laws and policies). Efforts to prevent initiation, promote quitting, and protect nonsmokers should reduce exposure to pro-tobacco marketing and increase (1) the price of tobacco products, (2) protection from tobacco smoke pollution, (3) effective mass media strategies, (4) provision of effective cessation support, (5) effective regulation, and (6) litigation that holds the industry responsible for its misdeeds. Adequate implementation of effective tobacco-control strategies and useful scientific advances will help to ensure that per capita consumption decreases to the lowest level possible. The economic benefits of tobacco in our society are replaceable and they pale in comparison to the extent of human life lost. PMID:18021906
Evaluación de las políticas contra el tabaquismo en países latinoamericanos en la era del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
James Francis Thrasher
. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. RESULTS: ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. CONCLUSIONS: Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Chen, Yilu; Britton, John
BACKGROUND Tobacco promotion is now tightly restricted in the UK and many other countries, but tobacco imagery including brand appearances in the media remain potentially powerful drivers of smoking uptake among children and young people. The extent to which tobacco imagery and specific products have appeared in the most popular films viewed in the UK over 20 years has been measured, in relation to year of release, the age certification allocated to the film by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), country of origin and other characteristics. METHODS Occurrence of tobacco intervals (tobacco use, implied use or appearance of smoking paraphernalia) and brand appearances were measured by 5 min interval coding in the 15 most commercially successful films in the UK each year from 1989 to 2008. RESULTS Tobacco intervals occurred in 70% of all films. Over half (56%) of those that contained tobacco intervals were rated by the BBFC as suitable for viewing by children aged Brand appearances were nearly twice as likely to occur in films originating wholly or in part from the UK (UK films). Specific brands, particularly Marlboro and Silk Cut, appeared in 9% of all films, and most brand appearances (39%) were in films with BBFC 15 classification. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco imagery in the most popular films shown in the UK has declined substantially over the past 20 years but continues to occur, particularly in UK films, and predominantly in films categorised as suitable for viewing by children and young people. Specific brand appearances are now rare but occur repeatedly in some films. The BBFC is not currently protecting children and young people from exposure to tobacco imagery in film.
Journal of American College Health, 2012
The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…
Halperin, Abigail C.; Rigotti, Nancy A.
To address the rise in tobacco use among college students, several national health organizations, including the American College Health Association,recommend that colleges enact smoking bans in and around all campus buildings, including student housing, and prohibit the sale, advertisement, and promotion of tobacco products on campus. Key…
Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L
Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546
During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.
World Health Organization,
A large body of evidence demonstrates that tobacco companies use a wide range of tactics to interfere with tobacco control. Such strategies include direct and indirect political lobbying and campaign contributions, financing of research, attempting to affect the course of regulatory and policy machinery and engaging in social responsibility initiatives as part of public relations campaigns. Although more and more is known about tobacco industry tactics, a systematic, comprehensive gu...
Gilmore, A; McKee, M
Objectives: To identify British American Tobacco's (BAT) reasons for targeting the former Soviet Union following its collapse in 1991 and the initial strategies BAT used to enter the region. Design: Analysis of tobacco industry documents held at the Guildford BAT archive. Results: Desire to expand to new markets was based in part on the decline in old markets. The large population, proximity to China, scope to expand sales to women and, in Central Asia, a young population with high growth rates made the former Soviet Union particularly attractive. High consumption rates and unfilled demand caused by previous shortages offered potential for rapid returns on investment. A series of steps were taken to penetrate the markets with the initial focus on establishing imports. The documents suggest that BAT encouraged the use of aid money and barter trade to fund imports and directed the smuggling of cigarettes which graduated from an opportunistic strategy to a highly organised operation. In establishing a market presence, promotion of BAT's brands and corporate image were paramount, and used synonymously to promote both the cigarettes and the company. The tobacco industry targeted young people and women. It used the allure of western products to promote its brands and brand stretching and corporate imagery to pre-empt future marketing restrictions. Conclusions: BAT used the chaotic conditions in the immediate post-transition period in the former Soviet Union to exploit legislative loopholes and ensure illegal cigarette imports. Governments of countries targeted by the tobacco industry need to be aware of industry tactics and develop adequate tobacco control policies in order to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable populations. Marketing restrictions that focus on advertising without restricting the use of brand or company promotions will have a limited impact. PMID:15175531
随着影像时代的到来和多媒体技术在教学中的广泛运用，英美文学课程教学应坚持其教学目标和本质为主，重视经典英美文学作品阅读；教师可采取课堂内与课堂外、传统阅读与数字阅读相结合的自主学习策略、体验式英美文学课堂教学设计、文本阅读与写作训练相结合的教学策略和多样化的课程评价模式，让英语专业学生感受到经典文学作品阅读带来的璀璨光芒和深刻意义。%With the approach of Image Era and wide application of multimedia technology on teaching,teachers of British and American Literature should hold its teaching objective and essence as their main task,and emphasize the importance of reading classic British and American literary works. Teachers can adopt autonomous learning strategies in and outside classroom by using traditional text reading and digital reading,experiential teaching design,the combination of text reading and writing training strategy,and diverse curriculum evaluation model. This can make English majors feel bright and dazzling lights of classic literary works reading movement,and know its profound significance.
Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E
Deployment of young Americans in military engagements places them at increased risk for not only war hazards but also tobacco addiction and disease. Tobacco use diminishes troop health and readiness, and increases medical and training costs. Military tobacco control efforts began in 1986, yet tobacco use remains high. To determine whether and how the tobacco industry targets military personnel in wartime, we analyzed internal industry documents about the Gulf War (1990-1991) and constructed a historical case study. During this conflict, tobacco companies targeted troops with free cigarettes, direct advertising, branded items, ways to communicate with family, and "welcome home" events. Military authorities sometimes restricted this activity, but frequently enabled it; tobacco companies were regarded as benefactors. Considering tobacco use a benefit undermines military health priorities. Stronger policy is needed to reframe tobacco use as incompatible with military ideals. PMID:19608945
... music, and TV, parents can be the GREATEST INFLUENCE in their kids' lives. Talk directly to children about the risks of tobacco use; if friends or relatives died from tobacco-related illnesses, let ...
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Gudmundsson, Gestur; Lindberg, U.; Michelsen, M.;
The article examines the development of rock criticism in the United Kingdom from the perspective of a Bourdieuan field-analysis. Early British rock critics, like Nik Cohn, were international pioneers, a few years later there was a strong American influence, but British rock criticism has always...... had national specific traits and there have been more profound paradigm shifts than in American rock criticism. This is primarily explained by the fact that American rock criticism is more strongly connected to general cultural history, while the UK rock criticism has been more alienated from dominant...
This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...
... Tobacco Use Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Lung Cancer National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Youth and Tobacco Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Background Estimates of Current Tobacco Use Among Youth ...
Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow
Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…
British “continental balance of power”policy and U.S.rebalancing strategy not only refer to the common origins,but also have many different elements.From the point of geopolitics,the British intends to control the European continent through sea power;the US attempts to hold the Asia -Pacific area with its rebal-ancing.From the point of the goal of their strategies,the British intends to maintain its own security;on the oth-er hand,the US intends to keep its leading role in the area.From the point of the means of balancing,Great Britain mainly adopts military means;the US uses military,economic and various other means such as “rules”. Compared to UK,U.S.balance strategy presents new characteristics.According to these characteristics,China should determine the basic ideas of counter -balance:make flexible counters according to different objects, grasp the scale of counter -measures,and seek cooperations in competition.%英国“大陆均势政策”与美国“亚太再平衡战略”具有共同的思想渊源，但两者也存在着差异。从地缘政治看，英国以海权控制大陆；美国则以海权控制海域。从战略目标看，英国推行“大陆均势政策”主要是为了维护本国的安全；美国推行“亚太再平衡战略”主要是为了维持在亚太地区的霸权。从制衡手段看，英国主要采用单一的军事手段，美国采用军事、经济和规则等多种手段。相对于英国来说，美国的平衡战略呈现出新的特点。中国应根据这些特点确定反制衡的思路，针对不同对象进行灵活反制；把握好反制衡的尺度，并在斗争中积极进行合作。
Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.
Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...
<正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"（GDUFS211- 1-005）,supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences
Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.
Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E
GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906
British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.
Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs
Full Text Available It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the ′American India′ to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.
Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.
This study examines how to reduce the harms and enhance the benefits that are produced by cannabis legislation in British Columbia. Criminalization of recreational cannabis aims to decrease demand. However, prior research reveals that this approach has little effect on usage rates. Although there are hazards associated with cannabis use, studies suggest that alcohol and tobacco consumption are more dangerous, yet it is legal to possess those drugs. Furthermore, the status quo allows criminal ...
Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed. in chief
Full Text Available Proceedings of the Sixth North American Caribou Workshop (NACW and the proceedings of the George River Caribou Workshop (GRCW. The Sixth NACW was attended by over 200 people. Papers from the GRCW (with asterix are interspersed where appropriate with the papers from NACW.
Tobacco has been a common commodity in Africa for over three centuries. By 1993, some 500 000 tons of tobacco were being grown in 33 African countries, with only two countries exporting more than they import. Attempts to measure the current and potential impact of the tobacco business on health, society and the environment are still in their early stages, but the need for preventive action is already inescapably clear. Comprehensive control strategies are urgently required to prevent a major epidemic of tobacco-related disease in Africa. PMID:8820139
Park, Kiljun; Kim, Dae Soon; Park, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seon Kui
The Tobacco Business Act and the National Health Promotion Act coexist in Korea, causing conflicts. While the Tobacco Business Act mainly emphasizes the state's financial and economic aspects by describing the operation and control of tobacco business, the National Health Promotion Act states the measures on warnings on the harmful effects of tobacco, prohibition of advertising, and sales limitation for the public's health. In addition to these legal problems, it is not acceptable to continue the Tobacco Business Act, which is completely opposite to the establishment of active social welfare policies for the quality improvement of people's lives. The Tobacco Business Act, whose objective is tobacco business promotion, should be abolished to meet and follow such a desire for health, international trend, and WHO (World Health Organization) FCTC (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). It would be most proper to ratify the FCTC and abolish the Tobacco Business Act. Also, revision of the National Health Promotion Act is necessary to secure the enforcement and implementation of FCTC in Korea.
英美从第二次世界大战起形成了所谓“特殊关系”，这一关系在苏伊士运河战争中遭到损害，有人甚至断言这一关系已告结束。本文从战后英国外交的大致活动得出英美外交关系中的特殊性非但没有结束，反而进一步得到强化的结论。%Since the Second World War, the so called "special relationship"has been formed between Britain and America, but it was impaired during the Suez Canal War and it has even been claimed that it is the end of such relationship. Based on the British diplomatic activities, however, it can be seen that the relationship is far from end, but has been further strengthened since the war.
The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.
Channer, K S
The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...
Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth
Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a 'smoking epidemic' in developing countries. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations. PMID:17347536
Full Text Available Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a ′smoking epidemic′ in developing countries. India′s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations.
Cristina Mae Wood
Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.
Marshall, Margaret R.
British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)
Soans, Hanno, 1974-
1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).
Language is a key component part of culture. It reflects culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words reflect American culture, including their custom, their view of value, their character traits. Being a melting pot, American words melt a lot of loanwords. The exaggerated use of words shows Americans are self-confidence. They also use beautified words to show their wish to life, to future. They can use common words, usually slang to express special ideas. By doing so, they create something new and original. Learning American English, especially studying American words, we can see some typical traits of American culture.
Todt, Donn L
This paper identifies the types of locations where coyote tobacco (Nicotiana attenuataj has been found along the Upper Klamath River and demonstrates how that information illuminates the regional ethnographic record of Native American tobacco use and culture. Locations where coyote tobacco has appeared within the Upper Klamath River vicinity were documented during a fourteen-year period. These data are supplemented by observations from the surrounding region. The aggregate of these observatio...
Thomas, Janet L.; Renner, Caroline C.; Patten, Christi A.; Paul A Decker; Utermohle, Charles J.; Ebbert, Jon O.
Objectives. Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and contributes to increased incidence, morbidity and mortality from cancer, heart disease, stroke, complications of pregnancy and respiratory illness. Tobacco use rates are highest among American Indians and Alaska Natives. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among youth residing in rural western Alaska. Study design. Data were analysed from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey ...
University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center
The purpose of this report by the Monitoring and Evaluation Program of the University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center is to assist policy makers and tobacco control advocates in understanding the role of the tobacco industry in forming state and local policies on tobacco in Wisconsin. These activities in policy-making play an integral role in the level of tobacco use in the state. The late John Slade formulated a public health model of tobacco addiction where the agent (of the diseas...
The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.
British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring
Singh, Tushar; Arrazola, René A; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Homa, David M; King, Brian A
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged Tobacco use and addiction mostly begin during youth and young adulthood. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2015 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of seven tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], hookahs [water pipes used to smoke tobacco], pipe tobacco, and bidis [small imported cigarettes wrapped in a tendu leaf]) among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths. Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all
... fullstory_161665.html 3 in 4 Teens Think E-Cigarettes Safer Than Tobacco: Survey But devices deliver as ... Close to three-quarters of American teenagers believe e-cigarettes are less harmful or addictive than real cigarettes, ...
Multinational corporations operating in Great Britain, specifically American industry, are arousing fears on the part of British labor, which can be grouped into these categories: (1) a threat to the job security of union members, (2) a change in the balance of power at the collective bargaining table in favor of the employers, (3) a clash of…
Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.
Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.
陈雅蜜; 方静; 田双
Nowadays, the absence of college students ’ critical thinking is common.It is because of language barriers that it is more serious when teaching English.Therefore, improving college English learners ’ critical thinking has become an important subject of English teaching and research.The teaching forms of critical thinking can be divided into two kinds.One is independent teaching;the other is content-based instruction.Content-based instruction can effectively combine Cultivating College Students ’ Critical Thinking with teach-ing one course.This teaching form , while teaching English-American literature , can train college students ’ ability to analyze and solve the problem independently in order to gradually improve college English learners ’ critical thinking.This paper , after analyzing the reasons why critical thinking of college English learners has been absent , tries to train college English learners ’ critical thinking from improving teaching object , teaching method and evaluation system of English American Literature course.%当代大学生思辨能力缺失的现象普遍存在。而且由于语言的障碍，在英语的教学中，教师发现学习者思辨能力缺失的现象更加突出。如何在教学中培养和提高学生的思辨能力是目前极为重要的一个课题。思辨能力的教学形式分为两类：一是独立式，二是依托式。依托式教学法可以将思辨能力的培养与某学科的学习有机结合。在大学英语教学中，以讲授英美文学知识为载体，培养学生独立分析问题和解决问题的能力，通过潜移默化的教学来提高学生的思辨能力，是一种行之有效的方法。因此，本文在充分分析学生思辨能力缺失的成因后，尝试通过改进英美文学的教学目标，教学方法和评价体系来培养和提高大学生的思辨能力。
Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). PolicyâTobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). PolicyâTobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...
Full Text Available Abstract The worldwide prevalence of tobacco use is widespread, resulting in nearly 4.5 million deaths every year. Nicotine is addictive and has psychopharmacological effects that maintain the use of tobacco products. Several studies have documented a strong hereditary component to tobacco use. The present article reviews results from twin and adoption studies and proceeds to present association studies of specific genes that may be involved in tobacco use. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta polypeptide 2, serotonin receptor and transporter genes, dopamine receptor and transporter genes, and the cytochrome P450A6 gene are reviewed. Linkage studies help to identify regions of the genome that may be worth further investigation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of genetic research and the future of genetic epidemiology in this domain.
Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases ...
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Full Text Available Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance (with and without glucose intolerance, pro-inflammatory state, and pro-thrombotic state. Tobacco use is associated with various core components of metabolic syndrome. It has been found to play a causal role in various pathways leading on to development this condition, the current article discusses various facets of this association.
Eriksen, M P
The continued widespread use of tobacco is one of the greatest paradoxes of the 20th century. The cigarette was introduced to society early in this century, received a broad public acceptance in response to massive marketing and distribution efforts, and survives--or, more accurately, thrives--in a complex and controversial social, medical, and legal environment. Today, over 50 million Americans continue to use tobacco regularly, despite the fact that it is almost universally known that use of the product as intended is likely to result in ultimate death and disability for one out of two regular users. The latest statistics tell us that over 400,000 Americans die each year, accounting for over 5 million years of lost life, $50 billion in medical expenditures, and another $50 billion in indirect costs. We estimate that 10 million Americans have died from smoking since the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964, and another 25 million Americans alive today will ultimately die, including 5 million children, as a result of a fundamentally adolescent decision. Clearly, a unique mix of social and political forces have combined to result in a deadly and addicting product being sold and marketed like candy, resulting in 90% of users acknowledging the addictive nature of the product, 70% of whom would like to quit and wish they had never started. But despite near-universal knowledge of the harm and addictive nature of the product and widespread public support for changes in the status quo, the status quo has not changed. Despite a consistent belief that tobacco should be treated commensurate with the harm that it causes, changes in public policy have been surprisingly recalcitrant. This introduction briefly examines the social, cultural, economic, and public policy forces that have contributed to maintaining the status quo for nearly 100 years, the barriers to meaningful change, and the research needs that could result in profound improvements in public health.
Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K
Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities. PMID:26363447
Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K
Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities.
Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.
Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533
Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A
Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147
Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A
Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) â Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...
Full Text Available Before World War II, the British and Americans had been fierce rivals in the international airline business. Their wartime alliance muted this rivalry, yet it still simmered, manifesting itself in a variety of global incidents and issues. As the war progressed, the Americans gained tremendous advantages in the field, raising British fears about American dominance of the world’s airways. In turn, American policymakers worried about British control of key areas of the world. The mutual suspicion grew, and the rivalry resurfaced in the last months of the war. The conflict had merely subsumed the differences, and made the two powers rivals of a kind.
In March 2011, the British film The King’s Speech, the story of King George VI’s courageous fight against his stammering, was awarded 12 Oscars, including best film, and several acting honours. This came as a surprise to those who thought Americans did not care about British Royalties. Yet journalist Sarah Sands wrote in the Evening Standard of Tuesday 1st March 2011 an interesting article entitled “Royals are still our Best Sign of Being British”. She states that “The King’s Speech celebrate...
... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to clarify, consistent with current practice and as required by the Fair and Equitable...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...
Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina
Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490
Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E
The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284
Reed, T. David
Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of growing tobacco transplants in greenhouses. Examines concerns such as sanitation, proper chemical usage, ventilation, temperature control, and fertilization. For hydroponic growth of tobacco seedlings, discusses water quality, clipping and other concerns.
I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,
Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo
This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.
... gives the FDA authority to regulate the manufacturing, marketing and sale of tobacco products National Tobacco Control Strategy Learn more about the Administration's plan to reinvigorate efforts to reduce tobacco use Health Care Reform New law bolsters disease prevention and expands coverage for ...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following...
Dodson, Charles Brooks
The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…
Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney
Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…
Linkin, Harriet Kramer
Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…
Full Text Available The paper examines the way the Falklands War of 1982 was reflected in the creation of British playwrights. Officially, the war was seen as a heroic act, as another glorious page in the book of British history. But for many writers it contained nothing heroic; it was just noisy brandishing of weapons and useless loss of human lives.
Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham
In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space. PMID:16998172
Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.
Jacobson, P D; Banerjee, A
After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission.
R A Kireev; A.I.Popovsky; M.V. Ershova; L.G. Bochkova
The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.
Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.
The emission of radioactive substances with the effluents and the exhaust air of nuclear installations may result in the contamination of tobacco plants. This in turn may - via the exposition pathway ''tobacco smoking'' - cause a radiation exposure to smoking people. In the present paper, ecological parameters from site and literature investigations are listed which are necessary for the determination of the degrees of exposure to radiation. Using a model calculation, based on the airborne aerosol type releases of a nuclear PWR poer plant, the potential radiation exposures by tobacco smoking are compared to those by inhalation of radioactive aerosols from the air near the ground and by ingestion of contaminated foodstuff. According to this calculation, the radiation exposures by tobacco smoking amount to less than 0.1x10-5 Sv/a. This means they are far below the potential radiation exposures via the ingestion paths. Therefore, they are comparable only to those radiation doses that result from the inhalation of radioactive aerosols as contained in air near the ground. (orig.)
... Every week, month, and year without tobacco further improves your health. Within 20 minutes of quitting: Your blood pressure ... that of a person who still smokes. Other health benefits of quitting ... may travel to the lungs Lower risk of erectile dysfunction ...
The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.
Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).
Sullivan BA, Sarah; Barnes, Richard L JD; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in South Carolina. Smoking-related medical costs amount to $1.1 billion each year, including $393 million for Medicaid. Tobacco growing in South Carolina declined by over 50 percent from 1997 to 2008. Tobacco accounted for less than 10% of the state's cash receipts from all crops in 2007. Despite the low levels of actual tobacco growing and the small role tobacco played in the state's economy in 2008, the cultural construct of bei...
Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole
It's reported that the British House of Commons passed a bill February 14 to ban smoking in every pub, club and indoor public space in England. The legislation is now submitted to the upper House of Lords. If passed, it will become law by mid-2007. With the ban, Britain joins Ireland, Finland, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sweden and several U.S. states and cities, all of which have restricted smoking in public places in recent years.
Piha, T; Besselink, E; Lopez, A D
Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS. Reliable information on smoking prevalence and tobacco use is scarce, but the overall evidence points to two different patterns: a traditional and a high prevalence pattern. The traditional pattern dominates in the NIS and some of the CCEE, and is characterized by a high smoking rate in men (about 50%) and a low rate in women (10%). Smoking by women, however, is increasing, starting with the younger age groups. The high prevalence pattern found in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, shows a high smoking prevalence in women (about 25%) in addition to a high prevalence in men. Predictions made in 1990 indicated further increases or stable tobacco consumption in the CCEE/NIS by the year 2000, in contrast with the steady decrease in western European countries. When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world. This situation has caused severe concern in public health professionals in many of the affected countries, but not in the public and policy-makers. The fundamental changes in social and economic structures have both improved and decreased opportunities to promote nonsmoking. In the short term, the negative influences seem to dominate, although some countries, such as Lithuania and Poland, are now introducing their first realistic policies on tobacco. In most countries, however, tobacco control has to compete with other issues for priority on a crowded public health agenda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Washington, Michelle; Barnes, Richard L.; Glantz, Stanton
North Carolina, the top U.S. tobacco producing state and home to RJ Reynolds and Lorillard tobacco companies, has a historic, economic, and social legacy tied to tobacco, creating particular resistance to tobacco control efforts. The tobacco manufacturers historically relied on tobacco grower organizations, which had more influence on political and public opinion than tobacco manufacturers, to act on their behalf to shape policy in North Carolina. To influence policymakers, between 1996 and 2...
From 1950s to 1970s , the mainstream of American and British education philosophy is the so-called “analytic education philosophy” . Analytic education philosophy emerged in 1950s , and reached its zenith in 1960s , but declined in the 1970s . Although it was a flash in the pan , it went through the ebbs and flows . There exists a “ blood” relationship between analytic education philosophy and analytic philosophy . The characteristics of the analytic philosophy of education are closely related to the application of analytic philosophy in the field of education . When analytic education philosophy suffered criticism ,analytic philosophy was criticized too - so called the gates fish stirred . The rise and fall of the further is echoed with the later . The “blood” relationship is an important factor which impacts the rise and fall of analytic education philosophy . After the flocking of analytic education philosophy through the field of education philosophy , its influence does not disappear . It still exerts subtle influence on modern education philosophy in the form of changing new names for old ways of thinking ” or “old wine in new bottle” .%20世纪50-70年代，英美教育哲学的主流是“分析教育哲学”。分析教育哲学在50年代异军突起，60年代盛极一时，70年代日渐式微。分析教育哲学与分析哲学存在“血缘”关系：分析教育哲学的特征与分析哲学在教育领域中的运用息息相关，分析教育哲学遭受诟病与分析哲学受到批评息息相关，分析教育哲学的涨落与分析哲学的兴衰势呈呼应。这种“血缘”关系是影响分析教育哲学涨落的一个重要因素。分析教育哲学之潮在教育哲学领域涌过之后，并非遗产全无。分析教育哲学或改头换面，或新瓶旧酒，对现代教育哲学产生潜移默化的影响。
Eric D. Duke
Full Text Available [Second and third pragraph] While much has been written on the significance of British Caribbean activists in various movements associated with black diaspora politics in the twentieth century, particularly their important roles in Pan-African struggles, little has been written on how the various British Caribbean colonies themselves were envisioned among diaspora activists and within the scope of black diaspora politics. Did such Caribbean activists, especially those interested in and connected to diasporic movements beyond the British Caribbean, and their African American and African counterparts forsake the British West Indies as a focus of political engagement for other lands and causes? If not, what was the place of “West Indian liberation” and nation building in the British Caribbean in relation to black diasporic struggles in the early twentieth century? This article address these questions through an examination of how the idea of a united “West Indian nation” (via a federation or closer union among British Caribbean colonies was envisioned within black diaspora politics from the turn of the twentieth century through the 1920s, and the ways in which racial consciousness and motivations informed conceptualizations of such a nation among black political activists of the British Caribbean and other parts of the diaspora. This study argues that efforts to create a federation in the Anglophone Caribbean were much more than simply imperial or regional nation-building projects. Instead, federation was also a diasporic, black nation-building endeavor intricately connected to notions of racial unity, racial uplift, and black self-determination.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S
Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.
I want to explain the differences in the following aspects:pronunciation,spelling,vocabulary and usage.I will compare these two languages in theory and use some examples.I think we can learn more through this kind of research.
I want to explain the differences in the following aspects: pronunciation,spelling,vocabulary and usage.I will compare these two languages in theory and use some examples.I think we can learn more through this kind of research.
Joe Gfroerer, BA
Full Text Available IntroductionU.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002–2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1 use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes during the 30 days before each survey and 2 cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey.ResultsThe prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites.ConclusionThese results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.
... health. Here's why: Smokeless tobacco is still tobacco. Tobacco contains cancer-causing chemicals, including nitrosamines, a family of chemicals ... cigarettes. Nicotine addiction can make quitting difficult. Smokeless tobacco causes mouth cancer, pancreatic cancer, and other health problems, such as ...
Králíková, Eva; Češka, Richard; Pánková, Alexandra; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Zvolský, Miroslav
Tobacco dependence causes every sixth death in the Czech Republic and is associated with diseases of the whole body. Treatment of tobacco dependence should be a standard part of clinical care to the extent of time available--from brief intervention at each clinical contact with patients up to intensive treatment. It includes psycho-socio-behavioural support and pharmacotherapy. It should apply to all professions in clinical medicine--as recommended by WHO mainly doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists, and should be covered within health care systems. Economically, it is one of the most cost-effective interventions in medicine. In our population over 15 years about 30% smokes (about 2.2 million people), diagnosis F17 relates to approximately 1.75 million people (about 80% of smokers). PMID:26955915
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...
Simpson, William A.
A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)
the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen reconstructs...
The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)
Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.
Lakin, S. J.
This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...
A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer
There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views u...
Baillie, L. E.; Lovato, C. Y.; Taylor, E.; Rutherford, M. B.; Smith, M.
Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant…
Godshall William T
Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in
Lourenco Grant; Brauer Gerhard; Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl; Georges Karla
Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant intervi...
Chen, T T; Winder, A E
The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking.
Health economics took off in 1970 or thereabouts, just after the take-off date for the economics of education. Although early health economics made use of human capital theory as did the economics of education, it soon took a different route inspired by Arrow's work on medical insurance. The economics of education failed to live up to its promising start in the 1960s and gradually ran out of steam. The economics of health, however, has made steady theoretical and empirical progress since 1970, principally in coming to grips with the implications of supplier-induced demand and the difficulties of evaluating health care outcomes. Some of the best work on British health economics has been in the area of normative welfare economics, defining more precisely what is meant by equity in the delivery of health care and measuring the degree of success in achieving equity. Recent efforts to reform the NHS by the introduction of 'quasi markets' have improved the quantity and quality of health care in Britain. In short, British health economics has been characterised by the use of Pigovian piecemeal rather than Paretian global welfare economics, retaining a distinctive style that sets it apart from American health economics.
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.
Heterogeneous classes of comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use were examined in order to determine how they are related to subsequent antisocial behavior, poor self control and internalizing behavior. Data are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American (n=243) and Puerto Rican (n=232) adolescents and adults in the community. Logistic regression analyses were employed to measure the association between the comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use and the psy...
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The study of sport initiations is in its infancy. So far, the North American-centric research has focussed on ‘exposing and condemning’ morally unacceptable initiation activities, which are referred to as hazing. Hazing moral panics in North America has resulted in universities utilising sport initiation empirical research to construct anti-hazing policies; policies proven to be ineffective i...
Lerman, Caryn; Patterson, Freda; Berrettini, Wade
Despite almost two decades of intensive tobacco control efforts, nearly one quarter of Americans continue to smoke. The two United States Food and Drug Administration-approved medications used to treat tobacco dependence, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy, are effective for only a fraction of smokers. Investigations of medications approved for affective disorders and other forms of substance abuse, such as fluoxetine and naltrexone, have yielded mixed results as tobacco dependence treatments. A particular challenge in tobacco dependence treatment is the development of effective approaches for smokers with unique needs, such as cancer patients and pregnant women. Despite new developments in these areas, significant gaps in knowledge and practice remain. Basic research in the neurobiologic and genetic basis of nicotine dependence offers promise for the development of novel and more effective treatment approaches. For example, emerging research in pharmacogenetics explores how genetic variation in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug targets modifies response to pharmacotherapy. These discoveries could someday help practitioners to individualize the type, dosage, and duration of tobacco dependence treatment based on genotype, and maximize the efficacy. PMID:15637394
Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill
Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…
Homutova S. A.
Full Text Available The review of the latest tobacco selection researches is given in the article. The basic aim of these researches is creation of new sort material, which is ecologically stable, and corresponding to energy conservation demands. New tobacco sorts are presented
Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton
Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.
Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove
Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)
Ray, Saibal; Nath Biswas, Sudhindra; Mukhopadhyay, Utpal
In the present paper we have presented some documents to reveal the longstanding relationship of Indian amateur astronomer R.G. Chandra with the British Astronomical Association and American Association of Variable Star Observers.
Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.
Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.
Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.
In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first
Full Text Available Le Duc's method gave good results in almost all cases. But in all cases American ammunition was used in American guns and it is doubtful if the method would give equally good results when applied to British guns or British propellants. The advantage of Le Duc's method, however, in its simplicity compared with the other theoretical methods and the quickness with which results can be calculated by this method.
Михаил Алексеевич Есипов
Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students.The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-13
Full Text Available Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...
The purpose of this tool is to help the reader understand the structure, design, and administration of tobacco taxes. There is no doubt about the adverse health impacts of tobacco use. In both developed and developing countries, the Ministries of health, tobacco interest groups, academia, and advocates against tobacco strongly believe that tobacco consumption should be reduced, and that to...
Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A
The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...
<正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence
Singh, Tushar; Arrazola, René A; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Homa, David M; King, Brian A
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged addiction mostly begin during youth and young adulthood (1,2). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2015 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of seven tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], hookahs [water pipes used to smoke tobacco], pipe tobacco, and bidis [small imported cigarettes wrapped in a tendu leaf]) among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths (1,3). Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco
This chapter assesses the principal components of an effective tobacco control programme in relation to efficacy, reach (i.e. numbers of smokers influenced) and cost-effectiveness. National targets for the reduction of prevalence are most likely to be achieved through the use of high reach interventions such as fiscal policy and mass communications. Restrictions on smoking at work may contribute to declines in consumption, but advice from health professionals, though effective, has limited impact owing to low reach. Measures aimed primarily at youth can delay, but not prevent, recruitment to smoking. Media publicity not only reduces smoking, but also creates a climate of opinion in favour of effective measures such as fiscal policy. In the long run, health professionals can achieve more for their patients through the media than through personal advice. PMID:8746300
Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim
Scientific expeditions have played an important role in the development of Western Science, but have received far less attention than theory-making or experiment. This is a cultural and social history of British solar eclipse expeditions and observing practices. An introductory chapter outlines the historiography of scientific practice, imperialism and science, and scientific expeditions, and explains the importance of solar eclipses to nineteenth-century science. The chapters follow expeditions from their planning, through their execution, and into the publication of results. Chapter 2 is an institutional and social history of British and American eclipse planning. British expeditions were organized by national societies, while American expeditions were planned by individual observatories and colleges. Chapters 3 and 4 move into the field. They show how the evolution of tourist culture, the expansion of imperial spheres of political control, the transfer of Western technological systems to colonial territories shaped the experience of going on an expedition, and even made accurate astrophysical observation possible. They also examine the roles women played on eclipse expeditions. Chapters 5 and 6 examine spectroscopic and visual observation. They study the effects of intellectual shifts, the introduction of photography, and the scaling up of instruments on observing practices. Chapter 6 shows how visual and photographic observations of the solar corona were made. Chapter 7 follows those pictures out of the field, and examines how they were copied and shared with other astronomers.
Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.
This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…
This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…
This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…
Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…
In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
The nature and impact of reforms since 1988 in British education, both compulsory and postsecondary, are examined, focusing on changes in organizational structure and financing mechanisms. The success of these changes in meeting their objectives is assessed, and unresolved issues are identified. (MSE)
Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…
Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.
The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth century
Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen
We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…
Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.
Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly
This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...
Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten;
BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is a...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...
The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your... TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25a Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own...
In the period since 2001, cinema has witnessed what David Butler refers to as a ‘golden age’ of fantasy film production. The majority of fantasy films released during this time have originated from British literature, and have to some extent been produced and located within Britain, showcasing a wealth of national characters, acting talent, and landscapes on screen. Yet, despite vital revisionist work conducted on British horror, science fiction and melodrama, there remains a hesitancy to emb...
Posluszna, Joanna; Burtowy, Agnieszka; Palusinski, Robert
This study investigated the association of music preferences with tobacco smoking in a group of 152 high school and college students. Both the questionnaire and the listening survey indicated a higher preference for music associated with anxiety and depressed mood among smokers. These findings may reflect a common etiology of tobacco addiction and a specific type of music preferences. To elucidate this phenomenon further studies are needed. PMID:15077771
Chan, Yiu Man
Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)
Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka
Full Text Available Background: American Indian (AI and Alaska Native (AN communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods: This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results: Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion: Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes.
It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.
Boehm, Matthew A.; Lei, Quinmill M.; Lloyd, Robin M.; Prichard, J. Roxanne
Objectives: To examine how tobacco use and depression/anxiety disorders are related to disturbed sleep in college students. Participants: 85,138 undergraduate respondents (66.3% female, 74.5% white, non-Hispanic, ages 18-25) from the Spring 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II database. Methods:…
Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.
The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…
...., ``Volume of Tobacco Advertising in African American Markets: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,'' Public... communicating messages to consumers. FDA is aware that messages can be conveyed through a variety of visual cues... ethnic minority populations. 2. In the Federal Register of March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13225), FDA...
Nadal, Kevin L.
The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the unique experiences of Filipino Americans in relation to alcohol and tobacco use. Commentary is offered for potential methods of treatment for this ethnic group. The distinction between Filipino Americans and other Asian Americans is drawn to illustrate a need for ethnocentric therapeutic…
Jeannette O. Andrews; Tingen, Martha S.; Jarriel, Stacey Crawford; Caleb, Maudesta; Simmons, Alisha; Brunson, Juanita; Mueller, Martina; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Newman, Susan D.; Cox, Melissa J.; Magwood, Gayenell; Hurman, Christina
African American women in urban, high poverty neighborhoods have high rates of smoking, difficulties with quitting, and disproportionate tobacco-related health disparities. Prior research utilizing conventional “outsider driven” interventions targeted to individuals has failed to show effective cessation outcomes. This paper describes the application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to inform a culturally situated, ecological based, multi-level tobacco cessation in...
Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory
To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929
Bateman, M. D.
Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.
Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir
Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.
Parliamentary parties in the British House of Commons tend to experience high levels of voting unity with individual MPs only occasionally dissenting from party policy. Although constituency influence has been used extensively to predict legislative behaviour in candidate-centred electoral environments, it is argued here that constituency preferences can, under certain circumstances, shape parliamentary behaviour in a strong-party, weak personal-vote, electoral environment such as the United ...
Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...
<正>The 4th Sino-British Local Government Seminar jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Friendship Cities Association, the China-EU Association and the Local Government International Bureau of the UK (LGIB) was held in Beijing on June 29, 2004. He Luli, vice-chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, attended the seminar and delivered a speech. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a keynote speech. Ken Bodfish,
The paper is a brief outline of the first stage of a comparative research project in the role and adequacy of care credits in the British and German pension systems. The provision of care credits has been an essential part of pension reforms around Europe, which significantly changes the prospects of carers to accumulate adequate pension contributions through their life course. But although the policy significance of care credits is due to rise in line with an increasing demand...
Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn
Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...
de Kanter, W
In the Netherlands, every day some 100 adolescents become addicted to cigarettes. These new smokers fill the gap left by the 25% of smokers who die before reaching retirement age. The State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport in the Netherlands, the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG), and the Dutch Cancer Society, Lung Foundation and Heart Foundation all support the concept of a tobacco-free generation. The concept is that, by applying public health interventions and restriction of tobacco accessibility through price hikes, in the near future none of the children in the Netherlands born in 2017 and beyond will take up smoking. This appealing plan can be phased in gradually, reaching full implementation by 2035. That gives politicians time to take evidence-based measures. The roadmap for this 'tobacco endgame' starts today with tobacco-free conception and pregnancy, and will follow the life of a child from then on. In this comment, I discuss the concept of a tobacco-free generation and focus on the responsibility of the government to take effective measures. PMID:27581862
Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua
The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC.
Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua
The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. PMID:25270734
R. M. W. Musson
Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.
In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition
The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...
Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the country.Broomrape (Orobanche ce
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy â Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSAâs Synar...
NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.
Glover, Elbert D.; And Others
This literature review delineates the current status of smokeless tobacco, including prevalence, terminology, periodontal effects, and addiction potential. Also discussed is the possible influence on youth of smokeless tobacco use by popular sports figures. (Author/CB)
Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova
We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.
... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... generous support Make a difference by delivering research, education and advocacy to those impacted by lung disease. ...
This article is devoted to the Summer Olympics in Moscow in 1980, specifically, the issue of participation the team from Great Britain, which was manifested in the "boycott the Olympics". Paid attention to display the main cause of the boycott and study the role of the British and American governments in its organization.The article notes, that boycott the Olympic Games in Moscow was the impetus for a mass protest the countries of the world against the aggressive policy of the USSR in the lat...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...
The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the
Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Dejgaard, Thomas Engel
The article investigates how the poor and welfare recipients are depicted in British, Danish and Swedish newspapers. The study was inspired by American media studies that have documented a negative stereotypic way of portraying the poor and welfare recipients; especially in the case they are Afri......The article investigates how the poor and welfare recipients are depicted in British, Danish and Swedish newspapers. The study was inspired by American media studies that have documented a negative stereotypic way of portraying the poor and welfare recipients; especially in the case...... they are African-Americans. The article argues that there is an institutional welfare-regime logic behind the way the poor and welfare recipients are depicted in the mass media. It is not only a matter of race. This argument is substantiated by showing that the poor and welfare recipients are a) also depicted......-white, especially in Denmark. The empirical analyses are based on a sample of 1750 British, 1750 Danish and 1750 Swedish newspapers covering the period from 2004 to 2009....
Ceass, Tasha; Parsons, Lynn C
Tobacco use contributes to the largest proportion of preventable disease, disability, and death. Use of tobacco products is at epidemic proportions in the United States. Estimates retrieved between 2012 and 2013 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 1 in 5 adults used tobacco products. Tobacco use was greatest among men, young adults, those living in the Midwest and south, and those with less education. Cigarette smoking resulting in inhalation of tobacco and its by-products is the most common form of tobacco use. Tobacco use results in multiple diseases, including numerous cancers and chronic diseases. PMID:26596660
Full Text Available In 2008 it was closed and dismantled the spectacular Duke Gardens near Princeton University. They were created by the famous heiress Doris Duke, in honor of her father, James Buchanan Duke. This last gentleman caused 100-million deaths during the 20th century. The gardens mentioned demonstrated, perhaps trivially, what was stated by philosopher Walter Benjamin: There has never been a document of culture, which is not simultaneously one of barbarism”. “Buck” Duke was the inventor of the modern cigarette. By the end of the 20th century, this astute manufacturer entered the instantly ready-to-smoke tobacco market (without having to roll in small pieces of paper or cut off the cigarette tips with the automated production of cigarettes. Without a cigarette maker like Carmen from opera by Bizet who rolled a maximum of 200 cigarettes per day, the machine he perfected with a mechanic named Bonsack produced 120,000 “cigarettes” during the same time. Thereby, reaching a oversupply that had to be sold – creating a demand for it. The solution was cigarette marketing and advertising. These were placed in restaurants, bars, and cigar stores; thus, making them an important part of the worker’s period of rest and dining. Although, in principle, they were associated to women of free morals (“Smoking is a great sensual pleasure. While smoking, I a wait for the man I love …” sang Sarita Montiel in the 1950s in a stroke of clever advertising these were transformed into symbols of women’s liberation. Toward the late 1920s, young women were seen marching and brandishing their freedom torches, the cigarettes. During the two world wars, cigarettes were distributed to hundreds of thousands of soldiers as part of their daily nutritional ration. During the immediate post-war, packs of Camel and Lucky Strike were the most used Exchange currency in Europe. With all these publicity maneuvers, Mr. Duke and his partners have caused, as we al
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...
Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana
The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...
After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008, a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area. On the roof of the school building stands the signboard "Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School." A slogan engraved on another board reads, "Tobacco helps your success."
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...
@@ After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008.a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area.On the roof of the school building stands the signboard"Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School."A slogan engraved on another board reads,"Tobacco heIps your Success."
Burak, Lydia J.
Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…
Norris John W
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.
... swallow tobacco juice when they chew or dip benefit most from nicotine replacement. Find an oral substitute for smokeless tobacco that you enjoy. This may be sugarless gum, hard candy, beef jerky or sunflower seeds. Don't substitute cigarette smoking for smokeless tobacco. ...
This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...
The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs
Ernesto M Sebrie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...
Forster, Jean; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Lamont, Genelle; D'Silva, Joanne; Erickson, Darin
In 2013, it was estimated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indians was 36.5%, the highest of all racial/ethnic groups in the continental United States (1). Among American Indians, considerable cultural and geographic variation in cigarette smoking exists. Smoking prevalence among American Indians is lowest in the Southwest and highest in the Upper Midwest/Northern Plains (2). Little information is available about tobacco use among urban American Indians, who might not have ever lived on a reservation or be enrolled in or affiliated with a tribe. In Minnesota, a significant proportion of American Indians reside in urban areas. Among Minnesota's residents who identify as American Indian alone or in combination with another race, 30% live in Hennepin County and Ramsey County, which encompass Minneapolis and St. Paul, respectively (collectively known as the Twin Cities). The predominant tribes (Ojibwe [Chippewa] and Dakota/Lakota/Nakota [Sioux]) traditionally have used locally grown tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), red willow, and other plants for religious ceremonies, although nonceremonial tobacco is often substituted for traditional plants. To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking among this population, it is important to distinguish ceremonial tobacco use (smoked or used in other ways) from nonceremonial tobacco use. To obtain estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among American Indians in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey was administered to 964 American Indian residents in 2011, using respondent-driven sampling. Among all participants, 59% were current smokers, 19% were former smokers, and 22% had never smoked. Approximately 40% of employed participants reported that someone smoked in their workplace area during the preceding week. High prevalences of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among urban American Indians in Minnesota underscores the need for a comprehensive and culturally
Maxwell, Annette E.; Crespi, Catherine M; Alano, Ryan E.; Sudan, Madhuri; Bastani, Roshan
This analysis assessed the prevalence of excess body weight, physical inactivity and alcohol and tobacco use in Asian American subgroups. Using 2005 California Health Interview Survey data, we estimated the prevalence of body mass index (BMI) categories using both standard and World Health Organization-proposed Asian-specific categories, physical inactivity, and alcohol and tobacco use for Chinese (n=1285), Japanese (n=421), Korean (n=620), Filipino (n=659) and Vietnamese (n=480) Americans in...
Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac
Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...
Leeuwen, Evert Jan van
The dissertation Anarchic Alchemists: Dissident Androgyny in Anglo-American Gothic Fiction from Godwin to Melville investigates the close generic links between British and American Gothic fictions from the late eighteenth-century up to the middle of the nineteenth century, including studies on Willi
Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z
Tobacco-related health problems are among the most preventable forms of illness. By assuming proactive tobacco use counseling roles, dental professionals can help reduce the number of people who use tobacco. Minimum standards for intervention by dental care providers were established more than a decade ago by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The goal of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry in its tobacco-cessation efforts is to move beyond those standards towards more effective interventions. The school conducted a study to determine the formal education of the faculty, evaluate the current state of tobacco dependence education (TDE) delivered to students, identify topics that dental faculty members wanted to further their education, promote tobacco dependence education among the dental faculty, and enhance teaching moments on the clinic floor. A fifty-seven question survey was e-mailed to all faculty members with >0.4 FTE (full-time equivalent) during the 2007-08 school year. The response rate was 80 percent (101 out of 126). The results revealed that faculty members have limited formal training; however, 73.1 percent agreed that TDE would be beneficial to them. They also believed that, upon graduation, dental professionals should be able to perform at least a ten-minute moderate intervention program and discuss options for tobacco dependence treatments with patients. This project was designed to establish a 2008-09 baseline of TDE clinical practices, knowledge, and attitudes and to assess the effects of faculty development, curricular didactic, and clinical changes.
Hatao; YANG; Ke; SUN; Feng; ZHU
Sustainable development of high quality characteristic tobacco is the only path for future development of China’s tobacco industry.In combination with realities of tobacco development in Ankang tobacco growing area,this paper made analysis on factors restricting sustainable development of Ankang tobacco growing area.On the basis of actual situations,it came up with recommendations including establishing scientific basic tobacco field protection system,gradually cultivating professional tobacco farmers and strengthening tobacco technician team construction,improving scientific and technological innovation,implementing standardized technologies,improving tobacco production organization mode,and improving tobacco production security mechanism.
Linda L. Pederson, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2002, 16 focus groups with young adult smokers who used or had tried nontraditional tobacco products (e.g., bidis, shisha, herbal cigarettes, kreteks, cigars, herbal smokeless products were conducted in Dallas, Texas, and Chattanooga, Tennessee, to gain an understanding of the appeal of these products. MethodsIn each city, groups were segmented by race or ethnicity and by educational status. ResultsMany consistent themes emerged across the groups. Nontraditional tobacco use is not common among young adult smokers. Although some products such as Black & Mild and Swisher Sweets cigars are used frequently by some groups, other products such as shisha, kreteks, and herbal cigarettes are less well known and infrequently used. Among focus group participants, use of nontraditional tobacco products tends to occur in clubs, during social gatherings, or at times when cigarettes are unavailable. More college students than those who were not in college cited cost and inconvenience of purchasing nontraditional tobacco products as reasons for not using them. All focus group participants agreed that African Americans use cigars more than any other racial or ethnic group. ConclusionOverall, findings suggest that the reasons for trying nontraditional tobacco products did not differ by race or ethnicity. Family members and peers were mentioned as the source of nontraditional tobacco products when first used. Cost, convenience, taste, smell, and strength were given as reasons both for using these products and for discontinuing their use.
Chen, Y Q; Tai, S S; Wang, D W; Ding, A M; Sun, T T; Wang, W F; Sun, Y H
Members of the GRAS gene family are important transcriptional regulators. In this study, 21 GRAS genes were identified from tobacco, and were classified into eight subgroups according to the classification of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we provide a preliminary overview of this gene family in tobacco, describing the gene structure, gene expression, protein motif organization, phylogenetic analysis, and comparative analysis in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice. Using the sequences of 21 GRAS genes in Arabidopsis to search against the American tobacco genome database, 21 homologous GRAS genes in tobacco were identified. Sequence analysis indicates that these GRAS proteins have five conserved domains, which is consistent with their counterparts in other plants. Phylogenetic analyses divided the GRAS gene family into eight subgroups, each of which has distinct conserved domains and biological functions. Furthermore, the expression pattern of these 21 GRAS genes reveals that most are expressed in all six tissues studied; however, some have tissue specificity. Taken together, this comprehensive analysis will provide a rich resource to assist in the study of GRAS protein functions in tobacco. PMID:26634482
Lee Peter N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest is rising in smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to smoking, but published reviews on smokeless tobacco and cancer are limited. We review North American and European studies and compare effects of smokeless tobacco and smoking. Methods We obtained papers from MEDLINE searches, published reviews and secondary references describing epidemiological cohort and case-control studies relating any form of cancer to smokeless tobacco use. For each study, details were abstracted on design, smokeless tobacco exposure, cancers studied, analysis methods and adjustment for smoking and other factors. For each cancer, relative risks or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were tabulated. Overall, and also for USA and Scandinavia separately, meta-analyses were conducted using all available estimates, smoking-adjusted estimates, or estimates for never smokers. For seven cancers, smoking-attributable deaths in US men in 2005 were compared with deaths attributable to introducing smokeless tobacco into a population of never-smoking men. Results Eighty-nine studies were identified; 62 US and 18 Scandinavian. Forty-six (52% controlled for smoking. Random-effects meta-analysis estimates for most sites showed little association. Smoking-adjusted estimates were only significant for oropharyngeal cancer (1.36, CI 1.04–1.77, n = 19 and prostate cancer (1.29, 1.07–1.55, n = 4. The oropharyngeal association disappeared for estimates published since 1990 (1.00, 0.83–1.20, n = 14, for Scandinavia (0.97, 0.68–1.37, n = 7, and for alcohol-adjusted estimates (1.07, 0.84–1.37, n = 10. Any effect of current US products or Scandinavian snuff seems very limited. The prostate cancer data are inadequate for a clear conclusion. Some meta-analyses suggest a possible effect for oesophagus, pancreas, larynx and kidney cancer, but other cancers show no effect of smokeless tobacco. Any possible effects are not evident in Scandinavia. Of 142
Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;
Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...
Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S
Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders. PMID:19283970
Michael B Steinberg
Full Text Available Michael B Steinberg1,2, Jonathan Foulds11University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–School of Public Health, Tobacco Dependence Program, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 2University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Medicine, New Brunswick, NJ, USAAbstract: Tobacco use continues to cause 5 million preventable deaths worldwide each year. Despite effective treatments being available, these are underutilized and cessation rates remain low. As tobacco use has complex physiological effects, there are multiple opportunities for novel pharmacological agents to play a role in a comprehensive treatment plan. The endocannabinoid system has been linked to the nicotine reward pathways in animal models. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid receptor (type 1 blocker, has been shown in some early clinical trials to have some positive effects in increasing abstinence rates of smokers attempting to stop. In addition, smokers who stop smoking with the assistance of rimonabant may gain less weight than those using placebo. However, the results from these few trials have not been entirely consistent and so its role as an aid to smoking cessation remains to be determined.Keywords: rimonabant, tobacco, smoking, cessation, medications, pharmacotherapy
This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22651130
Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H
Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626
In the first quarter of 2013 Ghana reported 7 cases of measles; Britain reported over 900 – the second highest in the EU. Ghana had a 100% vaccination rate; in Britain most reported cases were among 10- 16 year olds in areas where vaccination had fallen to 50%. Last month the British government said it would lobby the European Commission to relax the restrictions on GM food and crops. In 2012, 270 million ha of GM crops were grown in 28 countries; in the EU only 2 such crops have been license...
Kenneth O. MORGAN
Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...
Kay, William K.
There are two main historical works on Assemblies of God in Britain. The first is Donald Gee's Wind and Flame (originally published under the title The Pentecostal Movement in 1941; later revised and enlarged for publication in 1967). Gee was intimately involved in much of AoG's development not only in the British Isles but also overseas, There are, however, three things which Donald Gee fails to do and which I decided to attempt in the history which follows. First, and very properly, Gee und...
Full Text Available Background : The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. Objective : To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India′s comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Materials and Methods : Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. Results : The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco Control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. Conclusion : The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seem to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.
Puri, Aniket; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rohit; Tiwari, Sunita
Smokeless tobacco use in the form of chewed tobacco or snuff is common in various parts of the world, including India. It is well known that smokeless tobacco consumption is responsible for cancer but less is known about its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nicotine, the main constituent of tobacco smoke is responsible for the elevated risk of the cardiovascular disease and sudden coronary death associated with smoking, presumably by provoking cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses some of the acute and chronic cardiac effects of smokeless tobacco on cardiovascular disease with special reference to the electrical disturbance as well as comparing nicotine kinetics between smoking and smokeless tobacco. It would further enhance the clamor to urge people to quit all forms of tobacco consumption.
Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M
Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.
Landels, E C; Green, P.M.; Ellis, I H; Fensom, A H; Kaback, M M; Lim-Steele, J; Zeiger, K; Levy, N; Bobrow, M
In a previous study we found that a Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) causing mutation in the intron 9 donor splice site of the HEXA gene occurs at high frequency in non-Jewish patients and carriers from the British Isles. It was found more frequently in subjects of Irish, Scottish, and Welsh origin compared with English origin (63% and 31% respectively). We have now tested, in a blind study, 26 American TSD carriers and 28 non-carriers who have British ancestry for the intron 9 splice site mutation. S...
South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:26841882
Laugesen, M; Meads, C
Factors affecting tobacco consumption per adult in 22 countries of the OECD between 1960 and 1986, were studied using pooled cross-section time-series analysis. The resulting log-linear model was estimated using Generalized Least Squares. The severity of tobacco advertising restrictions in each country and year was scored from published legislation and information from health agencies. Tobacco advertising restrictions have since 1973 increasingly been associated with lower tobacco consumption. Lower consumption levels were also associated with higher real tobacco prices, and with increased female labour force participation. Higher levels of consumption were associated with higher per capita real income and with a larger fraction of tobacco consumed as manufactured cigarettes. The model explains 99.5% of the variance in the average annual level of tobacco consumption across these countries. Ten-fold differences in purchasing power for tobacco products were found across the countries and years studied. In all countries tobacco products became more affordable between 1960 and 1986. In 1986 either a 36% inflation-indexed increase in real tobacco prices, or legislation to end tobacco promotion in those countries without a total ban, would have lowered average consumption by 6.8% and both together, by 13.5%. Across the OECD, if in 1986 all governments had raised tobacco product prices relative to income to Irish levels, and had banned all tobacco promotion, tobacco products consumption per adult would have fallen by 40% in that year. PMID:1751850
Abdulaziz A Albrithen
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12 is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12 and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD. Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality or Factor 3 (compulsiveness increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness is an indicator of physical dependence.
Nataša Duduk; Aleksandra Bulajić; Janoš Berenji; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić
Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tobacco each virus (TEV) and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV).The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were invest...
Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli
Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.
Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV
Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.
Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K
The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).
WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua
This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K
The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products). PMID:23591505
Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.
Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.
According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…
Smith, Heather Jane
The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…
Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…
action plan for improving the health of all people living in the United States for the first decade of the 21st century (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS] 2000a). Twenty-one specific national health objectives related to tobacco use are listed in Healthy People 2010, including reducing the rates among young people and adults to less than half of the current rate of use. Attaining all of these tobacco-related objectives will almost certainly require significant national commitment to the various successful approaches described in this report. The major conclusions of this report are not formal policy recommendations. Rather, they offer a summary of the scientific literature about what works. In short, this report is intended to offer policymakers, public health professionals, professional and advocacy organizations, researchers, and, most importantly, the American people guidance on how to ensure that efforts to prevent and control tobacco use are commensurate with the harm it causes. PMID:11190114
L C Somatunga
Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.
Babineau, Kate; Clancy, Luke
Objectives To measure young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging according to two current pieces of legislation: The EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) and Ireland's Public Health (Standardisation of Tobacco Products) Act. Design Within-subject experimental cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of secondary school students. School-based pen and paper survey. Setting 27 secondary schools across Ireland, randomly stratified for size, geographic location, gender, religious affi...
One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death s...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...
Keller, Paula A.; Beyer, Eric J.; Baker, Timothy B.; Bailey, Linda A.; Fiore, Michael C.
Tobacco cessation telephone quitlines are an effective population-wide strategy for smoking cessation, but funding for this service varies widely. State-level factors may explain this difference. Data from the 2005 and 2006 North American Quitline Consortium surveys and from publicly available sources were analyzed to identify factors that predict higher levels of per capita quitline funding. The best-fitting multivariate model comprised higher per capita tobacco control funding (2005 p = 0.004, 2006 p=0.000), not securitizing Master Settlement Agreement payments (2005 p = 0.008, 2006 p=0.01), and liberal political ideology (2005 p = 0.002, 2006 p=0.002). Select state-level factors appear to have influenced per capita quitline services funding. These findings can help inform advocates and policymakers as they advocate for quitlines and tobacco control funding. PMID:19440282
Assunta, M; S. Chapman
Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.
Call, Hadyn B.
Careful study of the published history of the American Southwest reveals that historians have not provided a comprehensive analysis of the infrastructure that enabled the fur trade in the American Southwest to thrive. Analysis of that infrastructure unveils an amalgamation of blended characteristics derived from the French, British, and American systems along with characteristics derived from the Southwest’s own evolutionary development over time and space. This paper will detail and explain ...
Donal P McCrachen
Full Text Available This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military intelligence operation. In particular, the article looks at the problem issues relating to the relationship: licensing correspondents, censorship, monitoring journalists’ activities, as well as the successful attempt of the intelligence sector to bring the press into their campaign to spread pro-British propaganda. The role of the press in the saga of the attempt to make British Military Intelligence a scapegoat for British initial failures is also mentioned.
Full Text Available Objectives: There is a lack of awareness regarding the carcinogenicity of Afzal, an illegal smokeless tobacco product (STP widely used among the Omani youth. Previous research has shown that certain types of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs are associated with oral and lung cancers. This study therefore aimed to assess levels of four common TSNAs in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and September 2013. A random sample of Afzal was analysed for four types of TSNAs using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The four types of TSNAs analysed were 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB. As a reference product, a sample of laboratory-manufactured American moist snuff (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA was also used to confirm the accuracy and precision of the analysis. Results: The analysis revealed total TSNA levels of 3.573 μg/g in the Afzal sample. Mean levels of NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB were 1.205, 1.015, 0.809 and 0.545 μg/g, respectively. Conclusion: Levels of the two most abundant TSNAs (NNN and NNK found in the Afzal sample exceeded international regulatory limits. Afzal users therefore need to be educated regarding the potential health risks associated with their STP use. Stricter implementation of current legislation is recommended to reduce the availability and usage of Afzal in Oman.
British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.
FRIEND, KAREN B.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.
Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States, killing over 430,000 people annually. Tobacco initiation and use among youth remains a significant public health concern. Despite declines in U.S. youth tobacco use in recent years, state and national survey results are still cause for alarm. Although traditional school-based curricular programs are the most common strategy to prevent or reduce youth tobacco use, their effectiveness may be limit...
Tenorio Francis; Rosenberg Zale; Heavner Karyn K; Phillips Carl V
Abstract Background Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicotine, for cigarettes. The introduction of a Swedish-style ST product, du Maurier snus (dMS) (Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited), which was marketed as a THR product, provided a unique opportunity to assess retailers' knowledge. This study examined retailers' knowledge of...
Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A
Editors' Summary Background Up to half of tobacco users will die of cancer, lung disease, heart disease, stroke, or another tobacco-related disease. Cigarettes and other tobacco products cause disease because they expose their users to nicotine and numerous other toxic chemicals. Tobacco companies have been working to develop a “safe” cigarette for more than half a century. Initially, their attention focused on cigarettes that produced lower tar and nicotine yields in machine-smoking tests. T...
Nargis, N; AKMG Hussain; Fong, G T
Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand...
Saloojee, Yussuf; Hammond, Ross
This report examines the proposed global standards for tobacco marketing and assesses whether it will lead to the responsible marketing of tobacco products. It concludes that the proposed measures will not lead to any substantive changes in current tobacco advertising practices and will not protect children from tobacco marketing. The report recommends that governments should reject the industry’s overtures, and instead rapidly implement past World Health Assembly resolutions on toba...
Chaudhry S; Chaudhry K
Background : The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. Objective : To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India′s comprehensive...
Miceski, Trajko; Smokvoski, Milan
Improvement of quality management in tobacco industry should be a continuous process if we want to keep up with the latest trends in the world. A starting point in improvement of QM is to introduce the international quality standards ISO-9000. This will help to maintain the current state and to follow the technological development, technical innovations and changes in the market. In addition, international standards specific to this branch (tobacco and tobacco products) must be also con...
L C Somatunga; D N Sinha; P Sumanasekera; K Galapatti; S Rinchen; A Kahandaliyanage; Mehta, F. R.; N L Jayasuriya-Dissanayake
To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT us...
S K Rout; Arora, M.
Background: The role of fiscal policy, especially taxation, though has been proved to be an effective instrument of tobacco control, its application is limited in India due to several reasons. This paper examines the tax structure, price and affordability of SLT products in order to provide evidence on how to strengthen the role of fiscal policy in tobacco control. Method: Secondary data on tax structure and revenue from tobacco products were collected from the Ministry of Finance, Government...
Joossens, L; Raw, M
The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.
Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine
Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…
Committee of Experts on Tobacco Industry Documents, World Health Organization
Evidence from tobacco industry documents reveals that tobacco companies have operated for many years with the deliberate purpose of subverting the efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO) to control tobacco use. The attempted subversion has been elaborate, well financed, sophisticated, and usually invisible.
Hart, Bradley W
Historians of the eugenics movement have long been ambivalent in their examination of the links between British hereditary researchers and Nazi Germany. While there is now a clear consensus that American eugenics provided significant material and ideological support for the Germans, the evidence remains less clear in the British case where comparatively few figures openly supported the Nazi regime and the left-wing critique of eugenics remained particularly strong. After the Second World War British eugenicists had to push back against the accusation that their science was intrinsically dictatorial or totalitarian and, as a result, many of their early perceptions of the Nazis were ignored or rationalised away. Further, historians in recent years have focused more directly on the social reformist elements of eugenics, discussing the links between hereditary science and the birth control and feminist movements in addition to others. While undoubtedly making valuable contributions to the scholarly understanding of the eugenic milieu in the interwar years, these studies have neglected to recontextualize the sentiments of British eugenicists who did indeed view the Nazi government positively in the early years of the 1930s. This article argues that there was a significant, though not numerically sizable, faction in the British eugenics movement, though mostly outside the Eugenics Society itself, in the early 1930s that viewed the Nazi Germany as an admirable state for its implementation of eugenic principles. One of these figures was later interned by his own government for being too closely aligned with the German regime, though he argued that this affinity was driven by the quest for scientific truth rather than politics. Eugenics in Britain thus contained a greater diversity of views toward Germany than scholars have previously assumed, warranting more research into the individuals and organizations harbouring these views.
This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...
Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants Prevalencia de consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en inmigrantes latinoamericanos adultos Prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas em adultos imigrantes latino-americanos
José Rafael González-López
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%. For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices.Con el fin de estimar la prevalencia por autorreporte del consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en la población adulta de inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Sevilla, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra representativa de 190 inmigrantes. Los resultados mostraron que el 61,4% de los sujetos bebió alcohol en el mes anterior a la recolección de datos, y el 13,2% de los participantes mostró tener riesgo de alcoholismo. El 30,0% ya era fumador. El 5,3% de los encuestados ha consumido drogas ilícitas en los últimos seis meses (marihuana: 3,7%, el hachís, la cocaína un 1,1% y 0,5%. Para todas las sustancias investigadas, la prevalencia de consumo fue mayor en hombres de 25-39 años. Se concluye que los inmigrantes tienen una alta prevalencia de consumo de drogas. La enfermera puede prevenir estos comportamientos de riesgo mediante la implementación de prácticas educativas.Para estimar a prevalência de autorrelato de consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas da população adulta de latino
Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States. PMID:26020136
Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie
Objectives To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Methods Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer‐reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Results Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak “share of voice” in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Conclusions Tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries. PMID:17130625
Full Text Available Left to fight alone after France signed the armistice on the 22nd of June 1940, Great Britain became enemy number one in the eyes of the German occupying forces and the Vichy government. This hostility found expression in a considerable quantity of propaganda in the guise of posters, tracts, booklets and brochures meant to denounce British responsibility for the conflict in the eyes of French public opinion. Propaganda was particularly intense from June to December 1940 and from January to June 1944 but the German and French propaganda services waged this psychological warfare against Great Britain throughout the war. In 1940, the anti-British brainwashing campaigns aimed at ridding the defeated French of their guilt by accusing the ex-ally of being the cause of the conflict and of deceit during the Battle of France. In 1941-1942, the Allies’ military setbacks were the subject of tracts and brochures that ridiculed British strategic skills. Propaganda was also based on the painful history of France and Great Britain so as to convince the French that England had always tried to deprive France of her colonies and that it was what she was trying to do by maintaining her presence in Africa. The major part of this propaganda was promoted by the German authorities, only to a lesser degree by the French collaboration parties. Till 1942, the Information Secretariat of the Vichy government distributed few anti-British tracts, concentrating its efforts on the promotion of the National Revolution. On the other hand, the first Anglo-American bombings in the Paris area provoked strong reactions in the Vichy government which then relied on the French population’s confusion and anxiety to denounce British policy. What was the impact of these anti-British speeches on the French population? The prefects’ reports on public opinion show that the plugging of Anglophobic sentiment had little influence on the French who were globally in complete support of the
Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna
Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971
Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna
Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes.
Tiller, Kelly; Starnes, Jane H.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.
The “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” was signed into law on June 22, 2009. The bill grants the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco leaf is not subject to the regulation. As a result, it is not apparent what it does mean to tobacco growers. However, since the demand for tobacco is in large part determined by the demand for cigarettes, a change in demand for cigarettes due to the FDA ...
... (76 FR 3573) proposing to add a number of grape variety names to the list of approved names in Sec. 4... American Wines AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; Treasury... approved for use in designating American wines, and to include in the list several separate entries...
Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…
Richards, J. W.; Tye, J. B.; Fischer, P.M.
The major American tobacco companies developed and agreed to abide by the Cigarette Advertising Code in 1964. The stated aims of the code were to prohibit advertising directed at young people, to prohibit advertising that used fraudulent health claims, and to assure compliance with the code's provisions through the establishment of an administrative arm and enforcement mechanism to prescreen and monitor all cigarette advertising. In the 32 years since the Cigarette Advertising Code's ad...
Law, Audrey D; Fisher, Colin; Jack, Anne; Moe, Luke A
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are carcinogenic N-nitrosamine compounds present at very low levels in freshly harvested tobacco leaves that accumulate during leaf curing. Formation of N-nitrosamine compounds is associated with high nitrate levels in the leaf at harvest, and nitrate is presumed to be the source from which the N-nitrosation species originates. More specifically, nitrite is considered to be a direct precursor, and nitrite is linked with N-nitrosation in many environmental matrices where it occurs via microbial nitrate reduction. Here, we initiate work exploring the role of leaf microbial communities in formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Leaves from burley tobacco line TN90H were air cured under various temperature and relative humidity levels, and 22 cured tobacco samples were analyzed for their microbial communities and leaf chemistry. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and total tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels revealed a strong positive correlation between the three variables, as well as a strong positive correlation with increasing relative humidity during cure conditions. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess microbial communities in each of the samples. In most samples, Proteobacteria predominated at the phylum level, accounting for >90 % of the OTUs. However, a distinct shift was noted among members of the high tobacco-specific nitrosamine group, with increases in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Several OTUs were identified that correlate strongly (positive and negative) with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Copy number of bacterial nitrate reductase genes, obtained using quantitative PCR, did not correlate strongly with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Incomplete denitrification is potentially implicated in tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels. PMID:27023797
Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...
Brook, Judith S.; Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu; Cohen, Patricia
In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between lifetime tobacco use and subsequent health problems by age 30. The authors interviewed a community group of 749 participants from upstate New York at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Daily tobacco use during any of the time periods, as well as the number…
Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar
To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health.
Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.
Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…
Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar
To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. PMID:22257526
Provides an overview of Britain's 565 further education (FE) institutions and a forecast for postsecondary education's future. Suggests that FEs are like American community colleges, providing skills and academic training to enable individuals to reach the next step in their career, and promoting economic development. (VWC)
Stone, J L
nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.
Wong Sabrina T
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Methods Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. Results The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30% of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23 and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22. Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98. Conclusions This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.
Enkin, R. J.
When paleogeographic interpretations derived from independent observations conflict, the methods and results from each discipline come under careful scrutiny, as illustrated by the Baja British Columbia controversy. Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from a large region of the Canadian Cordillera render paleopoles which are far-sided with respect to cratonic North American poles, suggesting this region, designated Baja British Columbia, translated northward during Late Cretaceous - Paleogene time. Criticism of this interpretation based on other geological reasoning prompted me to perform new reviews of Cretaceous to Eocene paleomagnetic results from the Cordillera and from the major cratons of the globe. The global review follows the method of Besse and Courtillot (1991; 2002). One difference between our methods is that I compiled paleomagnetic results from highly studied rock units to single results to balance data weightings spatially and temporally, thus reducing the number of individual results. For the period 160 to 40 Ma, 51 poles were included compared to 92 poles by Besse and Courtillot (2002). Differences between apparent polar wander paths in their and my analyses are never significant at 95% confidence, however mean pole positions differ by up to 500 km, which is important for paleogeographic analysis. The global distribution of sampling localities and the tight clustering of the paleomagnetic poles after plate reconstruction provide invaluable confirmation of plate tectonically derived Euler rotations, the reliability of paleomagnetic remanence directions, and the geocentric dipole geometry of the geomagnetic field. My Cordilleran review shows that paleolatitudes derived from plutons and remagnetized rocks are significantly more scattered than those derived from bedded rocks. Using bedded rocks only, the paleomagnetic record shows that Baja British Columbia sat 2100 ± 500 km south of its present position with respect to cratonic North America during the
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands,...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...
Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G
BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...
Sielecki, Leonard E.
The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...
The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged
This thesis investigates British fictional representations of India in novels, plays and poetry from 1772 to 1823. Rather than simply correlating literary portrayals to shifting colonial context and binary power relationships, the project relates representations to the impact of India on British popular culture, and print capitalism’s role in defining and promulgating national identity and proto-global awareness. The study contends that the internal historical development of th...
Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa
“The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...
This thesis examines the history of British anarchism in the late Victorian and Edwardian era against the background of the movement's popular image. The prevalent image of anarchism assumed the individual to be an unscrupulous criminal and the movement to be a conspiracy intent on unleashing revolutionary violence upon the world. Such a description imparted little of the authentic pursuits and beliefs of British anarchism and proved to be one of the major obstacles ev...
This article explores how the figure of the ambitious young woman is mediated within contemporary female-centred British sports films. The article begins by briefly outlining the relationship between postfeminism and neoliberalism and highlights the relevance of these discourses to contemporary female-centred sports films. It then goes on to explore how postfeminist, neoliberal values are mediated in the construction of the ambitious young woman through an analysis of the British film Chalet ...
Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...
M M Zaman
Full Text Available Introduction: Dual use of tobacco (using smoking and smokeless forms in Bangladesh is uncommon in women but common in men. Dual users are at additional risk of cancers and heart diseases compared with a single form of tobacco use. Knowledge about their socioeconomic background is necessary for planning appropriate interventions. We report here socioeconomic background of the dual users of tobacco from a nationally representative survey. Methods: The study adopted a probability proportionate to size sampling technic of divisional population stratified into urban and rural areas to recruit men aged 25 years or older from their households. A total of 4312 men were recruited. Variables included questions on 20 household assets, tobacco use and other behavioral risk factors, and measurement of body weight and height. Results: The average age of dual users was 46.7 years old compared to 43.4 and 52.3 years for smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Prevalence of "smoking only," "smokeless only" and "dual use" of tobacco was 40.6%, 15.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. Among all tobacco users, dual users constituted 20%. These dual users had lower educational achievement, rural residence, lower intake of fruit, and higher intake of alcohol. They were more undernourished as indicated by a thin body mass index compared to nonusers and smokers. Dual users were of socioeconomically deprived as measured by wealth quartiles constructed out of household assets. Conclusion: Dual use of tobacco is common in Bangladesh, and it is intimately linked with socioeconomic deprivation. Poverty reduction strategy and campaigns should address tobacco control not only tobacco in general, but its dual use in particular.
Hughes, Nym Annie-Elizabeth
The Certificate in Conflict Resolution based at the Justice Institute of British Columbia was a manifestation of a North American conflict resolution movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Its location in a justice and public safety training institution facilitated its emergence and its first decade was marked by exponential growth. This study makes visible the theoretical and contextual bases of this first Canadian post-secondary conflict resolution educational program. A narrative research approa...
Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.
The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs
This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs
Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael
The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...
British Energy has formal succession management arrangements, which have evolved over the years to meet the needs of the company. Whilst they are an ongoing process, the arrangements are most manifest in an annual review which results in an overall succession plan for the company. The process embodies a twin-track approach of reviewing existing managers whilst also identifying younger staff with significant potential. These younger staff members are allocated into one of two groupings: those identified as having director level potential, who have their development managed centrally, and those considered to have management potential, the development of whom is managed by the business unit to which they belong, with support from the center as requested. The staff members in both these groupings are kept under review and, if the circumstances warrant it, there may be movement between the two groupings. The aim of succession management is to ensure the company has sufficient experienced, qualified and tested staff to provide succession to senior and other key posts
Mohsen M. Saleh
Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.
Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.
Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Gilbert, Jackie; Abraham, Prakash; Boelaert, Kristien; Dayan, Colin; Gurnell, Mark; Leese, Graham; McCabe, Christopher; Perros, Petros; Smith, Vicki; Williams, Graham; Vanderpump, Mark
The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report improved well-being on initiation of treatment. However, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer with symptoms despite achieving adequate biochemical correction. The management of such individuals has been the subject of controversy and of considerable public interest. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. These guidelines have been based on extensive reviews of the medical literature and include sections on the role of combination therapy with L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3) in individuals who are persistently dissatisfied with L-T4 therapy. This position statement by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) summarises the key points in these guidelines and makes recommendations on the management of primary hypothyroidism based on the current literature, review of the published positions of the ETA and ATA, and in line with best principles of good medical practice. The statement is endorsed by the Association of Clinical Biochemistry, (ACB), British Thyroid Foundation, (BTF), Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Society for Endocrinology (SFE). PMID:26010808
Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies and British Columbia (Canada. These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC. A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.
Jerram, Dougal A.; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Troll, Valentin R.
The study of volcanic rocks and igneous centres has long been a classic part of geological research. Despite the lack of active volcanism, the British Isles have been a key centre for the study of igneous rocks ever since ancient lava flows and excavated igneous centres were recognized there in the 18th century (Hutton, 1788). This led to some of the earliest detailed studies of petrology. The starting point for many of these studies was the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP; formerly...
Full Text Available Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. Results: The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at −0.64 and of higher priced brands at −0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. Conclusions: This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.
Full Text Available Enforcing and Eluding Censorship: British and Anglo-Italian Perspectives is a wide-ranging edited collection offering fourteen contributions on the forms and practices of regulation and reaction connected with censorship. The collection spans several historical periods, media, methodologies and disciplines, from English literature to Linguistics and Translation Studies, thus offering a very broad – yet fragmentary at stages – set of perspectives on the complex and often not overt phenomena of (countercensorship in the Anglo-American culture and Anglo-Italian cultural relationships. The edited collection is introduced by a preface by one of the editors, Giuliana Iannaccaro, who outlines in rich detail the structure of the book.
This paper describes the introduction and development of intelligence testing in British India. Between 1919 and 1940 experimenters such as C. Herbert Rice, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Venkatrao Vithal Kamat imported a number of intelligence tests, adapting them to suit a variety of South Asian languages and contexts. Charting South Asian psychometry's gradual move from American missionary efforts toward the state, this paper argues that political reforms in the 1920s and 1930s affected how psychometry was "indigenized" in South Asia. Describing how approaches to race and caste shifted across instruments and over time, this paper charts the gradual recession, within South Asian psychometry, of a "race" theory of caste. Describing some of the ways in which this "late colonial" period affected the postcolonial landscape, the paper concludes by suggesting potential lines for further inquiry into the later career of intelligence testing in India and Pakistan. PMID:25183435
Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.
Wilhelmsen Kirk C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco usage in Native American adults and adolescents is higher than any other racial or ethnic group, yet biological risk and protective factors underlying tobacco use in this ethnic group remain unknown. A genome scan for loci associated with tobacco use phenotypes was performed with data collected from a community sample of Mission Indians residing in Southwest California. Methods A structured diagnostic interview was used to define two tobacco use phenotypes: 1 any regular tobacco usage (smoked daily for one month or more and 2 persistent tobacco usage (smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day for more than one year. Heritability was determined and a linkage analysis was performed, using genotypes for a panel 791 microsatellite polymorphisms, for the two phenotypes using variance component methods implemented in SOLAR. Results Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores for the two tobacco use phenotypes revealed two scores that exceeded 2.0 for the regular use phenotype: one on chromosomes 6 and one on 8. Four other loci on chromosomes 1,7,13, and 22 were found with LOD scores between 1.0 and 1.5. Two loci of interest were found on chromosomes 1 and 4 for the persistent use phenotype with LOD scores between 1.3–1.5. Bivariate linkage analysis was conducted at the site on chromosome 4 for persistent tobacco use and an alcohol drinking severity phenotype previously identified at this site. The maximum LOD score for the bivariate analysis for the region was 3.4, however, there was insufficient power to exclude coincident linkage. Conclusion While not providing evidence for linkage to specific chromosomal regions these results identify regions of interest in the genome in this Mission Indian population, for tobacco usage, some of which were identified in previous genome scans of non-native populations. Additionally, these data lend support for the hypothesis that cigarette smoking, alcohol
Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D
The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.
Oppeltz, Richard F; Jatoi, Ismail
The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888
Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.
Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for the former and, thus, increased per cigarette deliveries of most smoke constituents. The greater carbohydrate and polyphenolic content of flue-cured tobaccos contributes to an increased yield of acidic constituents in the smoke. The increased nitrogenous component of Burley tobacco leads to a more alkaline smoke and one enriched in oxides of nitrogen. A quantitative elucidation of the relationship between tobacco type and smoke composition from literature results is complicated by the large number of variables influencing smoke composition which are generally unspecified in the reports. Smokes from cigaretts containing straight Burley and straight Bright tobaccos are compared based on analytical results from this laboratory. With few exceptions, smoke composition is often influenced more by processing variables and agronomic practices than by general tobacco ''type.'' 6 tables.
Richard F. Oppeltz
Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.
S. A. Boytsov
Full Text Available The summarizing of the experience of medical care at the cessation of tobacco use and the treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation (RF as well as suggestions for their improvement are presented.For the effective implementation of health care, aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the RF it is necessary to solve the following problems:to include doctors of all specialties in the process of medical care and treatment oftobacco addiction and consequences oftobacco consumption in the RF; to ensure effective implementation of the existing legal documents determining the procedure for providing medical aid, aimed at ending the use of tobacco, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, greater control over their performance and quality of their implementation; to expand of the network of medical offices for cessation of tobacco consumption on the basis of existing structures in primary health care settings (including women's and children’s outpatient clinics, as well as hospitals and health resorts, their provision of personnel and equipment, introduction of group forms of work; to ensure a permanent system of training on assistance at the cessation of tobacco consumption, the treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, including the introduction of medical assistance cycle on cessation of tobacco consumption for student training in medical schools and programs for postgraduate education of health professionals
Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart
WHO selected tobacco industry interference as the theme of the 2012 World No Tobacco Day, recognizing the serious danger the tobacco industry poses to public health and the need to expose and counter the industry’s increasing attempts to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.75 Section 29.75... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75 Accessibility of tobacco. (a) All tobacco subject to mandatory inspection shall be made readily accessible for inspection. (b)(1)...
National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.
Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…
Since the issue of the Navigation Acts,Britain has always put the control of the sea as the commanding height of the national strategy.Out of this belief,Britain conscribed seamen of American com-mercial marine to retrieve the hopeless situation when Britain lost a number of seamen abroad at the end of the 18th century.The United States believed that this behavior had infringed its sovereignty and expressed its strong protest.This conflict between the two countries became increasingly intense and became a major cause of the war of 1812.%自《航海条例》出台后，英国始终把对于海洋的控制作为国家战略的制高点，直到美国独立之后仍然一以贯之。出于对这一信念的坚持，当18世纪末本国海员流失海外时，英国强行征用在美国商船任职的海员，以此来挽救当时航运业的颓势。美国认为这种行为侵犯了自己的主权，表示强烈不满。美英双方矛盾愈演愈烈，成为1812年战争的一大诱因。
St Claire, Ann W; Boyle, Raymond G
Although the overall smoking rate in Minnesota is now less than 15%, the rates among certain populations are much higher. For example, 60% of American Indian adults smoke. The rates are also higher for people with low incomes and little education, those who have a mental illness or are substance abusers, and those who are transgender or identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer. With more people covered by health insurance and smoking-cessation treatment now included in insurance plans thanks to recent health care reforms, physicians and other members of the health care team have a new opportunity to address tobacco use This article discusses ways they can tailor the discussion as they seek to help patients in populations with the highest smoking rates. PMID:26596076
Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O
Despite public health campaigns discouraging smoking, 1,000 American children every day become smokers, ensuring that tobacco-related health complications will be with us for decades to come. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for both chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. The facts that not every smoker develops chronic lung disease and that lung pathology differs markedly among smokers indicate that individual susceptibility must be a central determinant of lung injury responses to cigarette smoke. Comparative examination of pathogenic mechanisms of smoke-induced lung disease can shed light on the homeostatic pathways critical to maintaining lung health. In this review, we explore common and divergent biological forces tilting the lung homeostatic balance away from health and toward emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis. We emphasize recent insights that highlight the greatest contrasts or similarities in the pathogenesis of these two chronic lung disease phenotypes. PMID:24274738
Young, Robert H
The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible
Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.
Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan
Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162
Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne
Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged.
Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)
Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Greene, Kaylin M; Morgan, Nicole R; Schulenberg, John E
The objective of this study was to identify mother, family, and individual factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use using mother and child self-reports. Adolescents aged 12-15 (N=276) and their mothers who were participants in the British Cohort Study (BCS; born 1970) were both surveyed when mothers were 34 years old. Predictors included mother's substance use as well as characteristics of the child (gender, age, conduct problems) and family (social class, two-parent family, parent-adolescent conflict). Outcome variables were adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Child characteristics were predictive, with older children more likely to engage in all behaviors. After controlling for other predictors, mothers' current drinking frequency and problems (i.e., CAGE 1+) predicted adolescent ever and sometimes/regular drinking; mothers' marijuana use was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent marijuana use. Results suggest that mothers' substance use is an important component of adolescent use, even after accounting for characteristics of the child and the intergenerational family context. PMID:24489608
Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as " Tobacco Kingdom" and " World Capital of Selenium". It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco,burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then,it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and industrial development. Finally,it comes up with several constructive recommendations.
Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L
Tobacco smoke affected both the metabolism and function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM). Phagocytosis of viable Staphylococcus aureus and inert starch particles was minimally but consistently depressed in PAM from rats exposed to tobacco smoke for six months. Oxygen consumption, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity were elevated in cells from smokers. Oxidation of glucose, labelled in the carbon-six position, remained unchanged. All observed effects of tobacco smoke on oxygen metabolism occurred during phagocytosis and did not affect the basal metabolism of the nonstimulated cell. PMID:225267