WorldWideScience

Sample records for british american tobacco

  1. "Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere": British American Tobacco in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, R.; Collin, J.; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC).

  2. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  3. Bringing ‘Light, Life and Happiness’:1 British American Tobacco and musicsponsorship in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Preeti; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Collin, Jeff; HUGHES, BELINDA

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to provide a review of music sponsorship to market cigarettes in sub-Saharan Africa. Using analysis of previously secret corporate documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) and focusing on two separate case studies of sponsorship in Africa, Nigeria and South Africa, the paper illustrates how tobacco companies have sought to undermine health legislation from 1990 to 2001. Both case studies suggest that music is an important marketing tool in Africa because it can effectiv...

  4. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised. PMID:18304713

  5. The invisible hand: how British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Collin, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry documents provide a unique opportunity to explore the role transnational corporations (TNCs) played in shaping the poor outcomes of privatisation in the former Soviet Union (FSU). This paper examines British American Tobacco's (BAT's) business conduct in Uzbekistan where large‐scale smuggling of BAT's cigarettes, BAT's reversal of tobacco control legislation and its human rights abuses of tobacco farmers have been documented previously. This paper focuses, instead, on BAT's attitude to competition, compares BAT's conduct with international standards and assesses its influence on the privatisation process. Methods Analysis of BAT documents released through litigation. Results BAT secured sole negotiator status precluding the Uzbekistan government from initiating discussions with other parties. Recognising that a competitive tender would greatly increase the cost of investment, BAT went to great lengths to avoid one, ultimately securing President Karimov's support and negotiating a monopoly position in a closed deal. It simultaneously secured exclusion from the monopolies committee, ensuring freedom to set prices, on the basis of a spurious argument that competition would exist from imports. Other anticompetitive moves comprised including all three plants in the deal despite intending to close down two, exclusive dealing and implementing measures designed to prevent market entry by competitors. BAT also secured a large number of exemptions and privileges that further reduced the government's revenue both on a one‐off and ongoing basis. Conclusions BAT's corporate misbehaviour included a wide number of anticompetitive practices, contravened Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development's and BAT's own business standards on competition and restricted revenue arising from privatisation. This suggests that TNCs have contributed to the failure of privatisation in the FSU. Conducting open tenders and using enforceable codes to

  6. Gaining access to Vietnam's cigarette market: British American Tobacco's strategy to enter 'a huge market which will become enormous'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinh, H V; Mackenzie, R; Gilmore, A B; Minh, N T; Collin, J

    2008-01-01

    British American Tobacco (BAT) has made concerted efforts since the late 1980s to establish a major presence in Vietnam, among the world's 10 fastest growing tobacco markets. Until 2000, Vietnam's tight regulation of the industry has been largely driven by trade and investment policy, resulting in a stronger domestic industry but increased production and consumption of tobacco products. BAT gained market access, and achieved a dominant market share among TTCs, through leaf development, licensed manufacturing, and the contraband trade. With impending trade liberalization in Vietnam, the company is now well placed to further expand sales. The ambitious National Tobacco Control Policy, adopted in 2000, signals a shift in political priority towards the protection of public health. Effective implementation and enforcement of its comprehensive measures will depend on the public health community's ability to draw support from regional and global experience, notably the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). PMID:19288356

  7. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms. PMID:20799669

  8. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    OpenAIRE

    Holden Chris; Lee Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy t...

  9. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and

  10. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  11. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry

  12. "Efforts to Reprioritise the Agenda" in China: British American Tobacco's Efforts to Influence Public Policy on Secondhand Smoke in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Muggli, Monique E.; Kelley Lee; Quan Gan; Jon O Ebbert; Hurt, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Each year, about one million people die in China from tobacco-caused diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease. Although most of these deaths occur among smokers—300 million people smoke in China, accounting for one-third of the global “consumption” of cigarettes—more than 100,000 deaths from tobacco-related causes occur annually among the 540 million Chinese people who are exposed to secondhand smoke. Tobacco smoke contains 4,000 known chemicals...

  13. American English vs. British English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass

    1997-01-01

    The present study, using a totally direct method, investigates, within the framework of sociolinguistics and foreign language teaching in Iran, whether teachers of English prefer British or American variety of English language, and whether their preference corresponds to their performance on a related test. Thirty Iranian English language teachers…

  14. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-01-01

    In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003), with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001), this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and...

  15. Some Differences Between British And American English

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Ellemina

    2011-01-01

    Kertas karya ini berjudul “Some Differences Between British and American English”. Kertas karya ini memaparkan secara singkat tentang perbedaan antara British and American English baik dalam speling, grammar, maupun vocabulary sehingga akan diketahui secara jelas perbedaan diantara keduanya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kepustakaan dengan membaca beberapa buku bahasa Inggris sebagai bahan referensi yang dapat mendukung topik. Dari pemaparan diatas ada beberapa hasi...

  16. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  17. An American on a British Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大川

    2004-01-01

    A young American entered a compartment on a British train, and discovered that all seats were occupied, including one on which a small dog was seated. To his owner, a middle-aged lady who wore a large hat, he said po-

  18. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章继宁

    2013-01-01

    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  19. The Differences between British and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进

    2012-01-01

    English is used as one of the most important languages in the world. As a result of the military, economic, scientific, political, and cultural influence, English has been used in many parts of the world, and the most prominent language in international business and science. It is used extensively as a second language and as an oflacial language in Commonwealth countries and many international organizations, and developed to many forms. This paper compares the differences between the British English and American English.

  20. Dystopia in British and American literature

    OpenAIRE

    GODOVANNAYA E; FLEGONTOVA A

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.

  1. British or American English? A Survey on Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Svanhildur Sif Halldórsdóttir 1985

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to determine whether Icelanders use more British English or American English in their speech. British English is taught in most compulsory and secondary schools in Iceland but most English input comes from the United States. The research shows that males are more likely to use British English in their speech than females. They are also better at determining whether a sentence is written in British English or American English. The research indicates that older partici...

  2. The Present Perfect and Preterite in British and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Dea Žetko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our article is to present the selected results of the research which was conducted for the purpose of our master’s thesis. We focused on the transfer of the functions of the present perfect into the domain of the preterite in informal British and American English. We put together a British and an American corpus and analysed the differences and similarities between British and American English in this transfer. We examined some factors that may influence this transfer either ...

  3. President Clinton and the American tobacco Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A number of facts spurred President Clinton to make a major confrontation with the American tobacco industry. Being in need of funding for his health care plan, Clinton proposed a tax on cigarettes, a move that immediately set the president on a collision course with tobacco firms. Contact with health groups during the preparation of the plan also called Clinton’s attention to health risks in connection with smoking. The president was also encouraged by revelations that tobacco companies had ...

  4. Differences Between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金苹

    2015-01-01

    American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.

  5. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  6. Tobacco use among American Indians in Oklahoma: an epidemiologic view.

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, June E.; Cravatt, Kymberly; Beebe, Laura A.; Blevins, Kathleen S.; Stoddart, Martha L.; Bursac, Zoran; Yeh, Fawn; Lee, Elisa T.; William E. Moore

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the exception of national surveys that sample the entire U.S. population, little information exists on tobacco habits among American Indians. This study is a comparison of tobacco use findings in the 1990s among American Indians in Oklahoma, a state with a large and diverse American Indian population (39 tribes). METHODS: Data on current tobacco use are presented from two statewide surveys, the Oklahoma Youth Tobacco Survey and the Native American Behavioral Risk Factor Surve...

  7. On Grammatical Differences between Daily British and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhang; Zhaofeng Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The grammatical differences between daily British English and American English are mainly in terms of the usage of prepositions, auxiliary verbs, articles, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, and tense and subjunctive mood. These differences exert influence on English learning and interpersonal communication. This paper tries to illustrate the differences of grammar between British and American daily English based on the authors’ teaching experience and learning experience in the UK. By compari...

  8. British vs American English : Pronunciation in the EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Östlund, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Today English is a world language; it is spoken by millions both as first and second language almost all over the world. The varieties best known to Swedish pupils are the varieties British and American English. Another variety of English, which is spoken by both native and non-native speakers, is a mixture of British English and American English called Mid-Atlantic English. As long as the English language has been a part of the Swedish curriculum, the leading variety taught has been British ...

  9. 1 in 5 Americans Uses a Tobacco Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 1 in 5 Americans Uses a Tobacco Product CDC report raises concerns about e-cigarettes, hookahs ... or uses hookahs, e-cigarettes or other tobacco products, U.S. health officials reported Thursday. Cigarettes remain the ...

  10. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  11. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  12. Britannia still rules the waves. Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes to British English and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Hilde Fossan

    2015-01-01

    This MA thesis investigates Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes toward British English and American English. To the best of my knowledge no previous language studies have been conducted on both of these groups in Norway. British English had traditionally been the variety taught at European schools (Trudgill & Hannah 2008). On the other hand, Norwegians are arguably exposed to more American English than British English in their daily lives. The results show that British English still h...

  13. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  14. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture for Learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Jonathan, Ed.; Kavanagh, Kathryn, Ed.

    The guide to American and British culture, for upper secondary- and university-level students, is intended for use by learners of English as a second language. It is designed to explain specific aspects of British and American life and traditions not generally included in English language dictionaries. The guide has a dictionary format, with terms…

  15. I Say 'tomeydo', You Say 'tomahto': American and British English pronunciation in EFL Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Norlin, Helena

    2006-01-01

    Within the last few hundred years, English has gone from being a rather small peripheral language to what it is today – a world language, spoken by millions of people worldwide. The best-known dialects to Swedish learners of English are British English (RP, Received Pronunciation) and American English (GA, General American). Traditionally, British English has been the variety taught in Swedish schools, but due to the recent and growing influence of American English, more and more pupils are u...

  16. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    OpenAIRE

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R.; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms.

  17. A Common Language: British and American English, Conversations Between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph

    This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…

  18. Nineteenth Century British and American Chemistry Textbook Writers: Some Differences of Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some themes that I have discussed before at this seminar in previous years, namely the different perceptions of the best ways to teach chemistry in the nineteenth and early twentieth century between British and American chemists. In this paper I will examine the biographies of a number of nineteenth century British and…

  19. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  20. The Ethical Perspective of British and American Preservice Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of responses from 38 U.S. and 27 British preservice teachers on the Ethics Position Questionnaire indicated that both groups had high idealism. U.S. teachers had lower relativism scores. (SK)

  1. British and American Children's Preferences for Teleo-Functional Explanations of the Natural World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Extends earlier work with American children to explore British children's application of teleological explanation to artifacts, biological properties, and properties of nonliving natural phenomena, based on the view that because of lower religiosity in Britain, these children might be less inclined than American children to endorse purpose-based…

  2. Doll's Pedagogical Theory and Its Enlightenment on British and American Literature Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Due to the outmoded teaching method and the popularity of utilitarianism nowadays, the marginalization of British and American literature courses has become a prominent problem for the education of English majors in colleges and universities, but the American postmodern curriculum theorist, Prof. William E. Doll, Jr.'s pedagogical theory, which…

  3. The Pricing of British Journals for the North American Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1986-01-01

    Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)

  4. British or American English? : A survey of some upper secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Thörnstrand, Åsa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find out what variety of English pupils in upper secondary schools are using, British English or American English, but also to see if there are any difference between boys and girls and if they are aware of their usage. British English used to be the only variety allowed in school, but now other varieties are taught as well and American English is gaining ground in Swedish schools. According to the curriculum, it is a part of the subject of English in upper seconda...

  5. Gender violence news in British and American press

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspa...

  6. Child labour in tobacco production: children's experiences and tobacco companies' corporate social responsibility initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liwander, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    An estimated 78,000 children are working under hazardous conditions in tobacco production in Malawi. Without access to protective clothing or cleaning facilities, these children are suffering from the effects of pesticides, fertilizers and nicotine whilst working on tobacco farms for 12 hours a day. Two of the main multinational tobacco companies with production interests in Malawi, British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International, have responded to the public demand for ethical opera...

  7. American or British English? : Attitudes towards English dialects among Swedish pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Lenart, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The two major varieties of English are American and British English. In Swedish compulsory school both varieties are taught. This essay examines the preferences and attitudes of pupils in 9th grades towards the two varieties, and if there are any gender differences. Previous research has shown that pupils are becoming more and more positive towards American English than they have been in earlier studies. This essay is based on a quantitative study carried out through questionnaires handed-out...

  8. Adult Education Research: A Comparison of North American and British Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Finding that British researchers are believed to use qualitative methods while North Americans favor quantitative measurement in adult education enquiry, the author examines substantive research concerns and research publication in the United States, Britain, and Canada and concludes that there is some validity to the stereotype. (Availability:…

  9. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…

  10. The Most Frequently Used English Phrasal Verbs in American and British English: A Multicorpus Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dilin

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, and Finegan's (1999) and Gardner and Davies' (2007) informative studies as a starting point and reference. The study offers a cross-English variety and cross-register examination of the use of English phrasal…

  11. Slowing the Epidemic of Tobacco Use Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Rod; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2003-01-01

    Data on tobacco use among the Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) population remain limited, although existing studies indicate that tobacco use prevalence among males from specific AAPI groups is significantly higher than in the general US male population. This high prevalence of tobacco use and the disparities in use result from social norms, targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, lack of culturally and linguistically tailored prevention and control programs, and limited impact of mainstream tobacco control programs for AAPIs. We review the available literature on tobacco use among AAPI men and women, highlight a national agenda that promotes tobacco prevention and control for AAPI communities, and acknowledge recent trends including the increase of tobacco use among AAPI women and girls. PMID:12721139

  12. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  13. Exceptional intercourse : sex, time and space in contemporary novels by male British and American writers

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This thesis provides a theory of exceptional sex through close readings of contemporary novels by male British and American writers. I take as my overriding methodological approach Giorgio Agamben’s theory of the state of exception, which is a juridico-political state in which the law has been suspended and the difference between rule and transgression is indistinguishable. Within this state, the spatiotemporal markers inside and outside also become indeterminable, making it impossible to tel...

  14. The Romantic Veil (of Perception: American Transcendentalism and British Romanticism as a Continuation of Lockean Empiricism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knirsch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to the epistemological basis of British romanticism and American transcendentalism, a traditional approach would certainly refer to Kant’s transcendental philosophy which is commonly considered an antithesis to Locke’s empiricism. A new trend in philosophical research now suggests that romantic theories are an addition to rather than a refutation of empiricism. This essay traces the interdependencies between transcendental thought and empiricism in the writings of Coleridge and Emerson.

  15. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boichenko Maryna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or...

  16. The Romantic Veil (of Perception): American Transcendentalism and British Romanticism as a Continuation of Lockean Empiricism

    OpenAIRE

    Knirsch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to the epistemological basis of British romanticism and American transcendentalism, a traditional approach would certainly refer to Kant’s transcendental philosophy which is commonly considered an antithesis to Locke’s empiricism. A new trend in philosophical research now suggests that romantic theories are an addition to rather than a refutation of empiricism. This essay traces the interdependencies between transcendental thought and empiricism in the writings of Coleridge and ...

  17. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  18. The Development of the Clay Tobacco Pipe Kiln in the British Isles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Peacey

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 Allan Peacey published a study in the form of a synthesis of two chronologically separated kilns used in the production of clay tobacco pipes (Peacey 1982, 3-17. The aims of the present work are: ◦to improve upon this framework ◦to establish how these type of structures fit into the broader picture; to fill the gaps, before, between and after these cameo views ◦to improve understanding of the technology employed and see the roots from which such technology developed. The primary objective is to catalogue all relevant material know to exist in museum and private collections. It is hoped that by this means an understanding of the varied physical characteristics will lead to the establishment of object or function categories around which reports may be structured. Contemporary source documents are also examined to shed further light upon the likely function of the archaeological material. Among the results achieved are the compilation of an extensive catalogue of material associated with tobacco pipe kilns; the establishment of type series for pipe kiln furniture and furniture supplements; a proposed development sequence for pipe kiln muffles; a pattern of consistency in kiln design throughout the study area, and details of the methods used for stem tipping. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps, and will be able to explore other aspects of the data through the timeline and site catalogues.

  19. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichenko Maryna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.

  20. ARM AND LEG IDIOMS IN THE BNC AND COCA CORPORA: VIEWS ON THE CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Tanasić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phraseological units, primarily idioms are those types of linguistic units which reveal to a great extent how certain linguistic community copes with its surroundings. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate how idioms in English language are actually differently used across different genres in British and American linguistic communities, and try to explain those results in light of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. The study was conducted on the basis of the idioms that have the same body part, namely arm and/or leg, and those idioms were then compared in two corpora – the BNC (British National Corpus and COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English.

  1. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents

    OpenAIRE

    Pollay, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen.
METHODS—Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada.
RESULTS—Careful and ext...

  2. Patterns and correlates of tobacco control behavior among american association of pediatric dentistry members: a cross-sectional national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Arthur J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists. Methods A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors. Results Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 70% were willing to be trained. Less than two-thirds correctly answered any of four tobacco-related knowledge items. Over one-half agreed pediatric dentists should engage in tobacco control behaviors, but identified patient resistance as a barrier. About 24% of respondents reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 73% reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 37% of respondents always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling prepared to perform tobacco control behaviors (ORs = 1.9–2.8, a more positive attitude score (4 points from 11 tobacco-related items (ORs = 1.5–1.8, and a higher statewide tobacco use prevalence significantly predicted performance of tobacco control behaviors. Conclusion Findings suggest thatraining programs on tobacco use and dependence treatment in the pediatric dental setting may be needed to promote tobacco control behaviors for adolescent patients.

  3. 美式英语与英式英语的差异%Differences Between American And British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正明; 公丽艳

    2002-01-01

    Today American English and British English are the two most important varieties or national standards of English. Basically they share the same structure. But the differences between them are noticeable. Here a comparison will be made between them in regard to pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar.

  4. Computer Network-based Multimodal Teaching of British and American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xucai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guided under the multimodal teaching theory, the researchers mainly discuss the practice of the computer network-based multimodal teaching of British and American literature. This article emphasizes that the teachers take advantage of pictures, network screenshots, movies, video, sound, and other resources in the classroom lectures to mobilize the coordination operation of the auditory, visual and tactile senses, to enhance the students impression of the writer and his works. By doing so, the students have a good understanding of the original work, instead of having the boring sense of the single text-mode teaching and the distress of comprehension of literary works, and have no difficulties in comprehending the text and then the classroom teaching is improved.

  5. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors by French-American-British (FAB) classification, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concordance rate for the French-American-British (FAB) reclassification diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined by a group of RERF hematologists and one of the members of the FAB cooperative gruop. The peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 persons with leukemia or related disorder were reviewed. There was 85% agreement in the identification of leukemia types and subtypes. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnosis of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2%. The conclusion from this remarkably high rate of concordance is that it is feasible to accurately apply the FAB classification system to the cases of A-bomb-related leukemia. These preliminary observations suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders should be changed. (author)

  6. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... users have receding gums, gum disease, cavities and tooth decay (from the high sugar content in the tobacco), ... Tobacco . References American Cancer Society. Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Facts & Figures 2015-2016 . Atlanta, Ga. 2015. Campaign ...

  7. 英国英语和美国英语的比较%Comparison between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐云英

    2000-01-01

    探讨了英国英语和美国英语在语法、词汇、拼写和语音方面各自的特点与不同。就两国语言的差别进行了比较。%Analyses the differences between American English and British English and makes a comparisonespecially in grammar, words, spelling and pronunciation.

  8. ‘Warlord’: a discursive history of the concept in British and American imperialism, 1815-1914 and 1989-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Stanski, Keith Raymond Russell; Nabulsi, Karma

    2012-01-01

    The renewed interest in empire, particularly in its British and American variants, has brought into sharper relief the difficulties both metropoles faced in projecting order in the global south. Far from cohesive entities, the British and American empires tried to manage territories that defied many of the political, economic, and legal systems, as well as normative and moral understandings, that enabled their imperial ascendancy. Despite a considerable literature about how metropoles compreh...

  9. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitkunat Rolf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokeless tobacco is often referred to as a major contributor to oral cancer. In some regions, especially Southeast Asia, the risk is difficult to quantify due to the variety of products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients and usage practices involved. In Western populations, the evidence of an increased risk in smokeless tobacco users seems unclear, previous reviews having reached somewhat differing conclusions. We report a detailed quantitative review of the evidence in American and European smokeless tobacco users, and compare our findings with previous reviews and meta-analyses. Methods Following literature review a meta-analysis was conducted of 32 epidemiological studies published between 1920 and 2005 including tests for homogeneity and publication bias. Results Based on 38 heterogeneous study-specific estimates of the odds ratio or relative risk for smokeless tobacco use, the random-effects estimate was 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.40–2.48. The increase was mainly evident in studies conducted before 1980. No increase was seen in studies in Scandinavia. Restricting attention to the seven estimates adjusted for smoking and alcohol eliminated both heterogeneity and excess risk (1.02; 0.82–1.28. Estimates also varied by sex (higher in females and by study design (higher in case-control studies with hospital controls but more clearly in studies where estimates were unadjusted, even for age. The pattern of estimates suggests some publication bias. Based on limited data specific to never smokers, the random-effects estimate was 1.94 (0.88–4.28, the eight individual estimates being heterogeneous and based on few exposed cases. Conclusion Smokeless tobacco, as used in America or Europe, carries at most a minor increased risk of oral cancer. However, elevated risks in specific populations or from specific products cannot definitely be excluded.

  10. Application of the PEN-3 Model to Tobacco Initiation, Use, and Cessation Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Trinidad, Susan B; Avey, Jaedon P; Robinson, Renee F

    2016-07-01

    American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. As part of a formative research project investigating stakeholder understandings, preferences, and needs surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment, we sought to characterize sociocultural issues related to tobacco use and cessation. We used the PEN-3 cultural model to frame the research question and analysis of stakeholder interviews with 20 AI/AN patients, 12 health care providers, and 9 tribal leaders. Our study found high knowledge levels of the negative health effects of tobacco use; however, most patient participants ascribed negative health effects only to regular, heavy tobacco use and not to light use, which is more common in the population. The majority of patient participants did not endorse use of tobacco cessation treatment despite evidence of efficacy among AI/AN adults. Health promotion messaging to target low-tobacco consuming AI/AN people is needed. Additionally, messaging to promote tobacco cessation treatment using successful AI/AN former tobacco users to improve community perception of tobacco cessation treatment is recommended. PMID:27178836

  11. Perceptions of Asian American men about tobacco cigarette consumption: a social learning theory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence; Shigaki, Alison; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2005-10-01

    Little information exists regarding the perceptions that ethnic-specific groups of Asian American men have about tobacco cigarette smoking. Thirty Asian American men of immigrant status living in Seattle, Washington, were stratified by ethnicity (Chinese and Vietnamese), language (Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese) and age to comprise six focus groups (two Mandarin speaking men aged 20-40 years and 10 aged 41-65+ years; three Cantonese men aged 20-40 years and another six aged 41-65+ years; four Vietnamese men aged 20-40 years and another five aged 41-65+ years). All group interviews were audio-taped and six separate hard-copy transcripts were produced, independently theme-coded by three investigators to ensure inter-rater reliability, and analyzed with QRS NUD*IST ethnographic software. Bandura (1969, 1986) categorized emergent contextual themes within the constructs of "predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing" behavioral determinants from Social Learning Theory. Smoking to be sociable emerged as the most salient theme. Awareness of tobacco-related diseases other than lung cancer was less evident, as was a self-perceived lack of will-power to quit. Concerns about side-stream smoking affecting family members, along with smoking to alleviate stress, were key findings. Further tobacco-related research is needed that incorporates considerations for cultural dynamics. PMID:19813295

  12. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: tobacco control--reducing cancer incidence and saving lives. 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-15

    As an international medical society dedicated to cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates a fundamental reform of United States and international policy toward addictive tobacco products. ASCO's goal is the immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world. The centerpiece of ASCO's policy is the recommendation for an independent commission to study the tobacco problem in all of its dimensions: social, medical, legal, and economic (both domestically and globally). The commission membership should include broad-based representation and expertise on tobacco issues. In ASCO's view, tobacco control efforts to date have been less than successful because they are too fragmented and incremental, leaving many important issues unaddressed. A more comprehensive solution could flow from this study, including input from a variety of government agencies involved with public health, agriculture, First Amendment and other legal considerations, and international trade. The study, within defined time limits, should culminate in a report that outlines a strategy for achieving immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world, including explicit plans and a timetable for implementation. Although this comprehensive approach to tobacco control will take many years to implement even under the best of circumstances, there are certain measures that could be undertaken immediately with meaningful impact on tobacco usage. These include: Increasing efforts to discourage tobacco use, particularly among the young Raising federal excise taxes by at least $2 per pack and encouraging states to consider tobacco taxes as a first resort in revenue enhancement Ensuring that tobacco settlement funds be devoted only to health-related projects, including medical treatment, biomedical research, and tobacco prevention efforts Requiring disclosure of all ingredients in tobacco products Comprehensively

  13. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  14. Patterns and correlates of tobacco control behavior among american association of pediatric dentistry members: a cross-sectional national study

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Arthur J; Isong Umo; Ellison James A; Ryan Jennifer L; Gansky Stuart A; Walsh Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists. Methods A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors. Results Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior...

  15. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  16. Comparison of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society reintroduction guidelines for anti-tuberculous therapy induced liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines for re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy after drug-induced liver injury, and to assess the ease of administration of each guideline on a scale of 1-10. Methods: The randomised prospective interventional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine and Pulmonology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Patients with anti-tuberculous therapy drug-induced liver injury were selected. Hepatotoxic anti-tuberculous therapy was stopped and modified anti-tuberculous therapy was started. Patients were followed weekly till clinical and biochemical parameters got stabilised. After stabilisation, the patients were randomised to one of the two groups to receive re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy under the guidelines of British Thoracic Society (Group I) or those of American Thoracic Society (Group II). Means of the groups were analysed by Student's t test and proportions were compared by chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was done for age, body mass index and serum albumin for recurrence of drug-induced liver injury after the re-introduction. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Of the total 325 patients, 163(50.15%) were in Group I, while 162(49.84%) were in Group II. The frequency of recurrence of drug-induced liver injury in Group I was 16 (9.8%) and in Group II it was 18 (11.1%). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.7). Age was positively related with drug-induced liver injury, while body mass index and serum albumin were negatively associated. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the two major guidelines though the American Thoracic Society guideline was easier to follow. (author)

  17. Corporate social responsibility and the tobacco industry: hope or hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, N

    2004-12-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) emerged from a realisation among transnational corporations of the need to account for and redress their adverse impact on society: specifically, on human rights, labour practices, and the environment. Two transnational tobacco companies have recently adopted CSR: Philip Morris, and British American Tobacco. This report explains the origins and theory behind CSR; examines internal company documents from Philip Morris showing the company's deliberations on the matter, and the company's perspective on its own behaviour; and reflects on whether marketing tobacco is antithetical to social responsibility. PMID:15564636

  18. A longitudinal study of tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska Native tribal college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American Indians (AI have the highest smoking rates of any ethnic group in the US (40.8%, followed most closely by African Americans (24.3% and European Americans (23.6%. AI smokers also have more difficulty quitting smoking compared to other ethnic groups, evidenced by their significantly lower quit ratios, and are among the least successful in maintaining long term abstinence. While health disparities like these have existed for years among AI, the epidemiology of smoking and nicotine dependence has not been optimally described among this underserved population. Our overarching hypothesis is that the susceptibility of AI to cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence and its consequences has both an underlying nicotine metabolism component as well as psychosocial, cultural, and environment causes. We are well-positioned to explore this issue for the first time in this population. Our objective is to establish a cohort of AI tribal college/university students to determine the predictors of smoking initiation (non-use to experimentation, progression (experimentation to established use, and cessation (established use to cessation. Much of what is known about the process of smoking initiation and progression comes from quantitative studies with non-Native populations. Information related to smoking use among AI tribal college/university (TCU students is entirely unknown and critically needs further investigation. This study will be the first of its kind among AI college students who are at the highest risk among all ethnic groups for tobacco dependence. Methods/design First year students at Haskell Indian Nations University in Kansas will be recruited over four consecutive years and will be surveyed annually and repeatedly through year 5 of the study. We will use both longitudinal quantitative surveys and qualitative focus group methods to examine key measures and determinants of initiation and use among this high risk group.

  19. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural'' and American smokers' views of the "naturalness'' (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods: Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results: Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural'' since at least 1910, but it was not until th...

  20. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute

    OpenAIRE

    DeBon, M.; Klesges, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). DESIGN: Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; ti...

  1. Stomach contents from invasive American bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jancowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of both genomic RNAs of a North American tobacco rattle virus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshana, M R; Berger, P H

    1998-01-01

    The complete sequence of a North American tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolate, 'Oregon yellow' (ORY), was determined from cDNA and RT-PCR clones derived from the two genomic RNAs of this isolate. The RNA-1 is 6790 bases and RNA-2 is 3261 bases. The sequence of TRV-ORY RNA-1 was similar to RNA-1 to TRV isolate SYM, and differs in 48 nucleotides. TRV-ORY RNA-1 was one base shorter than--SYM, and had 47 base substitutions resulting in 12 amino acid substitutions of which 4 were conservative. The RNA-2 of TRV-ORY was distinct from RNA-2 of other characterized TRV isolates and contained three open reading frames (ORFs) that could potentially code for proteins of MW 22.4 kDa, 37.6 kDa and 17.9 kDa. Based on the homology of the predicted amino acid sequence with those of other tobraviruses. ORF1 of RNA-2 encodes the coat protein (CP). The protein sequence of ORF2 had regions of limited similarity with those of ORF2 of two other TRV isolates and pea early browning tobravirus. The ORF3 was unique to TRV-ORY. Phylogenetic analysis of tobravirus CPs indicated that TRV-ORY was most closely related to pepper ringspot tobravirus and TRV-TCM. The relationship of tobravirus CPs to other rod-shaped tubular plant viruses is also discussed. PMID:9739332

  3. Study of the products of liquefaction of some American and British coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudamburi, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The value of products of liquefying coals depends on their composition. Accordingly, this work sought to determine key compositional features of products from coal liquefaction and to relate them to the characteristics of the feedstock coals. A set of bituminous coals which included six rich in vitrinite, two rich (>50%) in algal remains (boghead coals), and nine maceral concentrates from British coals was studied. The samples were characterized by FTIR and aromaticities determined by /sup 13/C NMR. The coals were liquefied in tetraline under hydrogen (1400 psi) at 400/sup 0/C for 1 hour. The hexane-soluble products were separated by chromatogrphy into fractions: 1) alkanes, 2) aromatic hydrocarbons, 3) neutral heteroatomic compounds, 4) bases and conjugated ketones, and 5) phenols, which were analyzed by GC/MS, with much reliance on regeneration of single ion chromatograms. The hexane-soluble products were qualitatively similar but differed in quantitative distributions. Homologs of biphenyl, diphenyl-methane, naphthalene, and polycyclic structures were common, but extensive homologous series of long-chain alkyl-naphthalenes dominated the aromatic distribution from several coals. The results shed light on current ideas of coal structure, which consider coal to consist of an immobile macromolecular network and a mobile phase of small trapped molecules.

  4. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weitkunat Rolf; Sanders Edward; Lee Peter N

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Smokeless tobacco is often referred to as a major contributor to oral cancer. In some regions, especially Southeast Asia, the risk is difficult to quantify due to the variety of products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients) and usage practices involved. In Western populations, the evidence of an increased risk in smokeless tobacco users seems unclear, previous reviews having reached somewhat differing conclusions. We report a detailed quantitative review of th...

  5. How have the strategies of Airlines been affected by the 2008 economic recession? A study focusing on British Airways, American Airlines, Southwest Airlines and EasyJet.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper looks at both Porters Generic strategies theory and the newer resource based view of strategy and applies these theories to the Airline industry using four focus cases. The companies looked at are British Airways, EasyJet, Southwest Airlines and American Airlines. The study of these cases allows for an overview of the role of strategy in the airline industry and enables a comparison regarding the effects of the current economic recession on the chosen airlines and the m...

  6. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  8. 'Working the System'—British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and Its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, KE; Fooks, G.; Collin, J.; Weishaar, H; Mandal, S.; Gilmore, AB

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The primary goal of public health, the branch of medicine concerned with the health of communities, is to improve lives by preventing disease. Public-health groups do this by assessing and monitoring the health of communities, by ensuring that populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective health care, and by helping to formulate public policies that safeguard human health. Until recently, most of the world's major public-health concerns related to infec...

  9. “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Katherine E; Gary Fooks; Jeff Collin; Heide Weishaar; Sema Mandal; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The primary goal of public health, the branch of medicine concerned with the health of communities, is to improve lives by preventing disease. Public-health groups do this by assessing and monitoring the health of communities, by ensuring that populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective health care, and by helping to formulate public policies that safeguard human health. Until recently, most of the world's major public-health concerns related to infec...

  10. The Differences--Between American English and British English%美国英语与英国英语的区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈春芳

    2003-01-01

    This research paper concentrates on the differences between American English and British English in pronunciation, spelling, vocabulary, grammar and usages. It also analyzes the origin of the differences in terms of American history, and presets the author's own attitude on how to look upon the differences by taking exception against some other existing views%本文阐述美式英语与英式英语在发音、拼写、词汇和语法等方面的区别,并从美国历史的角度分析了这些区别的起源,还阐述了当前看待这些区别的几种不同观点,并陈述了自己的观点供英语学习者参考.

  11. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-05-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics. PMID:24778464

  12. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907–1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over ‘mainline’ versus ‘reform’ eugenics. PMID:24778464

  13. 精神生态与英美文学批评实践%Spiritual Ecology and Its Application in British and American Literary Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世存

    2013-01-01

      精神生态研究是在人类社会面临愈来愈严重的精神问题的背景下提出的。它倡导达到一种人类精神世界的平衡、稳定、和谐的境界。精神生态批评是生态批评的一个次域,也是生态批评向人类精神领域的拓展。目前国内学界从精神生态批评的角度对英美文学作品进行的研究尚处于探索阶段,但它却为英美文学研究提供了新视角,也丰富了生态批评的理论内涵。%The study of spiritual ecology has been put forward with more and more serious spiritual problems faced by human society. It advocates the acheivement of a state of being where the human spiritual world achieves balance, stability and harmony. Spiritual ecocriticism is a sub-field of ecocriti-cism, and an extension of ecocriticism into the field of human spirit. Currently in China the study of British and American literature from sprirtual ecocritical approach is still in its explorative stage, but it provides a new perspective in the study of British and American literature, and will certainly enrich the theory of ecocriticism.

  14. 'Public enemy no. 1': Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response - a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate how tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: (1) During the 1990s, Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the USA, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; (2) In both Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high-profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist

  15. A comparative study of American, Australian, British, and Canadian museum visitors' understanding of the nature of evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham-Silver, Linda M.

    2005-11-01

    The study was designed to identify the beliefs held by visitors to natural history museums with respect to evolution and its mechanism. Visitors' levels of rejection and acceptance of evolutionary theory, their associated explanatory frameworks, and understanding of the nature of biological evolution were examined to determine whether differences existed between populations of museum visitors in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Great Britain. Data were collected at three natural history museums located outside of the United States and compared with existing data from previous studies conducted using the same methodology in American natural history museums. One hundred sixty-one museum visitors were interviewed in person in the non-U.S. sites; their interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed (using primarily chi-square) to identify similarities, patterns, and relationships among the data sets. Museum visitors outside of the United States demonstrated much lower levels of rejection of evolutionary theory when compared with data collected in the U.S. museums (an overall 2% rate of rejection was observed in the non-U.S. sample, while a 9.5% rejection rate was observed in the American sample). Surprising results included the finding that non-U.S. individuals held similar levels of naive conceptions with regard to the nature of evolutionary theory and the sequence of geologic time when compared with their American counterparts. Less than half of all museum visitors interviewed outside of the United States were able to describe natural selection, the mechanism by which evolution is thought to operate. Study participants showed consistent and deeply held tendencies to apply teleological or Lamarkian explanations to describe the mechanism for evolutionary change. Significant correlations between participants' age, their level of education, and their rejection or acceptance of evolution were not found among the data derived from these non

  16. Winning against big tobacco. Let's take the time to get it right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, H H

    1997-01-01

    Three years ago, the state of Minnesota became the second state to sue the tobacco industry for wrongdoing and the first to charge consumer fraud and conspiracy. Together with our co-plaintiff, Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Minnesota, we filed a lawsuit against the six major U.S. cigarette manufacturers, two tobacco trade organizations, and British American Tobacco Industries (BAT), the parent company of Brown and Williamson. Specifically, the lawsuit alleges that the industry defrauded consumers and engaged in false advertising, deceptive practices, and anti-trust violations, including conspiracy to stifle development of safer cigarettes and to conceal information on smoking and health. Many later-filing states patterned complaints after Minnesota's, and virtually all have incorporated some or all of the claims first pled in the Minnesota complaint. PMID:9323388

  17. American Legacy Foundation, First Look Report 12. Exposure to Pro-tobacco Messages among Teens and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Niederdeppe, MA; Drew Lindsey, BA; Maria E. Girlando, BA; Alec Ulasevich, PhD; Matthew C. Farrelly, PhD

    2003-01-01

    The purpose fo this report is to summarize awareness of and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing influences from three national samples of teens and young adults following the MSA. The report addresses 4 key research questions. 1)How frequently are young teens (age 12 to 14), older teens (aged 15 to 17), and young adults (age 18 to 24) exposed to pro-tobacco marketing? 2)How frequently are teens and young adults exposed to smoking portrayals in television and films? 3)Have reports of exposure...

  18. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  19. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. PMID:26504135

  20. "Rule Britannia" and the New American Empire: A Marxist Analysis of the Teaching of Imperialism, Actual and Potential, in the British School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The author begins by arguing that in order to understand imperialism it is necessary to have a conceptual awareness of the concepts of racism and racialisation. He then considers how the British Empire impacted on schools during the imperial era. He goes on to examine the nature of the New Imperialism. Calls are currently being made by notable…

  1. A resposta da indústria do tabaco à criação de espaços livres de fumo no Brasil Response of the tobacco industry to the creation of smoke-free environments in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Aguinaga Bialous; Sabrina Presman; Analice Gigliotti; Monique Muggli; Richard Hurt

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Documentar a reação da indústria do cigarro à regulamentação do fumo em locais públicos no Brasil, iniciada com legislação em 1996 MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisados os bancos de dados Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) e British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/). Utilizaram-se as palavras-chave Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/c...

  2. Transnational tobacco company interests in smokeless tobacco in Europe: analysis of internal industry documents and contemporary industry materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvy Peeters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: European Union (EU legislation bans the sale of snus, a smokeless tobacco (SLT which is considerably less harmful than smoking, in all EU countries other than Sweden. To inform the current review of this legislation, this paper aims to explore transnational tobacco company (TTC interests in SLT and pure nicotine in Europe from the 1970s to the present, comparing them with TTCs' public claims of support for harm reduction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Internal tobacco industry documents (in total 416 documents dating from 1971 to 2009, obtained via searching the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, were analysed using a hermeneutic approach. This library comprises documents obtained via litigation in the US and does not include documents from Imperial Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International, or Swedish Match. To help overcome this limitation and provide more recent data, we triangulated our documentary findings with contemporary documentation including TTC investor presentations. The analysis demonstrates that British American Tobacco explored SLT opportunities in Europe from 1971 driven by regulatory threats and health concerns, both likely to impact cigarette sales negatively, and the potential to create a new form of tobacco use among those no longer interested in taking up smoking. Young people were a key target. TTCs did not, however, make SLT investments until 2002, a time when EU cigarette volumes started declining, smoke-free legislation was being introduced, and public health became interested in harm reduction. All TTCs have now invested in snus (and recently in pure nicotine, yet both early and recent snus test markets appear to have failed, and little evidence was found in TTCs' corporate materials that snus is central to their business strategy. CONCLUSIONS: There is clear evidence that BAT's early interest in introducing SLT in Europe was based on the potential for creating an alternative form of tobacco use in light of

  3. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...

  4. Smoking among Asian Americans: Acculturation and Gender in the Context of Tobacco Control Policies in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shijian; Kwon, Simona C.; Weerasingh, Isha; Rey, Mariano J.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2013-01-01

    New York City (NYC) has experienced significant decline in smoking prevalence since its antismoking campaign; however, the rates among NYC’s Asian communities have persisted since 2002. Using combined data from the REACH US Risk Factor Survey (2009-2011), this article examined ethnic- and gender-specific smoking behaviors and the effects of acculturation and location of residence on cigarette smoking behavior among Chinese, Korean, Asian Indians, and other Asian Americans. Results indicated t...

  5. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing…

  6. 英美报刊选读课中思辨能力的培养%Developing Critical Thinking Skills in the Course of Read-ings from British and American Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙宇

    2014-01-01

    College English education should include the develop-ment of critical thinking skills in its goals. Beginning from ana-lyzing the current situation of college English teaching, this paper explores the strategies to develop critical thinking skills in the course of Readings from British and American Press.%大学的英语教育应该将思辨能力作为培养目标之一。在分析我国高校英语教学思辨能力现状的基础上,探索在英美报刊选读课中培养学生思辨能力的策略。

  7. 英国英语与美国英语词汇在《环球英语》中的比较%Differences in Vocabulary between British English and American English in World Link Student Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦

    2012-01-01

    Taking World Link Student Book I as a case, this paper analyzes the vocabulary differences be- tween British English and American English in five respects, polysemant, synonyms, peculiar words, loanwords and spelling, then it illustrates the significance of understanding the differences in English vo- cabulary teaching.%以《环球英语》第一册为例,就英、美英语词汇差异的五类表现形式,即同词异义、同义异词、特有词、外来词和拼写差异作初步论述,最后指出这些差异在英语词汇教学上的意义。

  8. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13–17 years, young adults aged 18–24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups wit...

  9. 18世纪末19世纪初的英、美浪漫主义文学探源%On the Origin of British and American Literary Romanticism in the Late 18 th and Early 19 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭家海

    2015-01-01

    为了进一步探索浪漫主义文学的奥秘,运用比较文学平行研究中的类型学、主题学、文类学以及影响研究中的流传学等方法对18世纪末19世纪初的英、美两国浪漫主义文学进行溯源,发现两者产生的时间有先后之别,作品形式也有所不同,但导致它们产生的根源是一样的,两者所表现的主题也相似,而且在本质上是相同的。浪漫主义文学是一定社会发展阶段的产物,英国浪漫主义对美国浪漫主义的影响有限。%With the aim to further explore the magic power of literary romanticism , this paper , by using the approa-ches in comparative literature , offers some analyses of the similarity and difference between British Romantic literature and American Romantic literature .The paper finds that the former appears earlier than the latter , with the former tak-ing the form of poetry while the later the form of fiction .But they are similar in terms of root and theme and they are the same in essence .Romantic literature is a product of social development , and the influence of British romanticism on American romanticism is limited .

  10. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  11. Tobacco Control in Florida 1999-2011: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Allison; Sullivan, Sarah; Hendlin, Yogi; Barnes, Richard L.; Stanton A Glantz

    2011-01-01

    · From the 1970s through 2011, tobacco control advocacy in Florida was led by the local divisions of the American Cancer Society, American Lung Association, and American Heart Association (tri-agencies), with the American Cancer Society as the dominant player. · The tobacco industry used an extensive group of allies, campaign contributions and lobbying to try to block tobacco strong control policy in Florida through 2011. Between the 1987 and 2008 election cycles the tobacco industry...

  12. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollay, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen.
METHODS—Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada.
RESULTS—Careful and extensive research has been employed in all stages of the process of conceiving, developing, refining, and deploying cigarette advertising. Two segments commanding much management attention are "starters" and "concerned smokers". To recruit starters, brand images communicate independence, freedom and (sometimes) peer acceptance. These advertising images portray smokers as attractive and autonomous, accepted and admired, athletic and at home in nature. For "lighter" brands reassuring health concerned smokers, lest they quit, advertisements provide imagery conveying a sense of well being, harmony with nature, and a consumer's self image as intelligent.
CONCLUSIONS—The industry's steadfast assertions that its advertising influences only brand loyalty and switching in both its intent and effect is directly contradicted by their internal documents and proven false. So too is the justification of cigarette advertising as a medium creating better informed consumers, since visual imagery, not information, is the means of advertising influence.


Keywords: advertising; brand imagery; market research; youth targeting; "concerned" smokers; corporate documents PMID:10841849

  13. TOBACCO TIGHTROPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  14. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  15. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  16. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13–17 years, young adults aged 18–24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups with high smoking prevalence or smoking risk. Using nine graphic labels, this study collected participant data in the field via an iPad-administered survey and card sorting of graphic warning labels. This paper reports on findings for AI/AN participants. Results After viewing graphic warning labels, participants rated their likelihood of talking about smoking risks to friends, parents and siblings higher than their likelihood of talking to teachers and doctors. Further, this study found that certain labels (eg, the label of the toddler in the smoke cloud) made them think about their friends and family who smoke. Conclusions Given the influence of community social networks on health beliefs and attitudes, health communication using graphic warning labels could effect change in the smoking habits of AI/AN community members. Study findings suggest that graphic labels could serve as stimuli for conversations about the risks of smoking among AI/AN community members, and could be an important element of a peer-to-peer smoking cessation effort. PMID:27009143

  17. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, mos...

  18. Corporate social responsibility and access to policy elites: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent attempts by large tobacco companies to represent themselves as socially responsible have been widely dismissed as image management. Existing research supports such claims by pointing to the failings and misleading nature of corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives. However, few studies have focused in depth on what tobacco companies hoped to achieve through CSR or reflected on the extent to which these ambitions have been realised. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Iterative searching relating to CSR strategies was undertaken of internal British American Tobacco (BAT documents, released through litigation in the US. Relevant documents (764 were indexed and qualitatively analysed. In the past decade, BAT has actively developed a wide-ranging CSR programme. Company documents indicate that one of the key aims of this programme was to help the company secure access to policymakers and, thereby, increase the company's chances of influencing policy decisions. Taking the UK as a case study, this paper demonstrates the way in which CSR can be used to renew and maintain dialogue with policymakers, even in ostensibly unreceptive political contexts. In practice, the impact of this political use of CSR is likely to be context specific; depending on factors such as policy élites' understanding of the credibility of companies as a reliable source of information. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that tobacco company CSR strategies can enable access to and dialogue with policymakers and provide opportunities for issue definition. CSR should therefore be seen as a form of corporate political activity. This underlines the need for broad implementation of Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Measures are needed to ensure transparency of interactions between all parts of government and the tobacco industry and for policy makers to be made more aware of what companies hope to achieve through CSR.

  19. Health issues in the Arab American community. Commentary on the global epidemic of tobacco, a manufactured disease. What it looks like today and what's to come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 1.2 billion citizens of the world are smokers. In developing countries, half the males smoke. WHO projects a global smoking population of 1.6 billion by the end of the next two decades. Collectively, today the world's smokers annually consume nearly 1,000 cigarettes for every man, woman and child on the planet. Almost 5 million people die as a result of smoking, half during their productive working years, with half occurring in developing countries. Two decades hence, tobacco products will kill an estimated 10 million people every year, 70% of them in the world's poor nations. During the 20th century, smoking killed 100 million people. Without significant public health progress, cigarettes will claim the lives of an estimated one billion during the 21st century. Progress can be achieved, however, through the adoption and enforcement of effective tobacco control policies. Such policies are embedded in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first international health treaty. They include protecting nonsmokers from the hazards of secondhand smoke in all indoor workplaces and public places, banning tobacco advertising and sponsorship, raising tobacco taxes and eliminating the smuggling of untaxed cigarettes. The future health of the world's population rests on the success that will be achieved in global tobacco control. PMID:17985440

  20. Smokeless tobacco in Canada: deterring market development

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckham, R.

    1999-01-01

    DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented.
METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the...

  1. 基于思辨能力导向的英美文学教学模式构建%On Construction of British and American Literature Teaching Model Based on Critical Thinking Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天戍; 夏蓓洁

    2015-01-01

    How to incorporate critical thinking development into teaching for English majors is an important topic in current English teaching reformation .Referring to the conceptual framework of critical thinking skills set by Professor Wen Qiufang ,this study analyses the relationship of British and American Literature and critical thinking to propose a critical thinking teaching mo‐dal .This modal entails reformation in teaching content ,teaching methods and teaching evalua‐tion and is expected to provide an effective way to critical skills development for English ma‐jors .%如何将思辨能力的培养有效融入英语专业课程的教学中,是当前英语专业教学改革的重要课题之一。本研究参照文秋芳教授提出的思辨能力层级理论模型,从英美文学课程与思辨能力的关系入手,构建了英美文学思辨教学培养模式。该模式通过对英美文学课程在教学内容、教学方式、教学评价上的改革,旨在为英语专业学生思辨能力培养探索有效的路径。

  2. 英美高校海外招生制度的分析及其启示%The Comparison and Experience of the Universities’ Overseas Recruitment System in American and British

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怡菲; 赵哲

    2016-01-01

    留学生流动规模的增加及结构层次的优化不仅有助于提升经济竞争力,同时能够促进教育理念的多元化并带动学术交流和科技发展,因此世界各国都致力于完善海外招生制度。通过对英美高校海外招生制度的分析,为我国持续发展来华留学教育提供借鉴意义。%Students are the main carriers of profound knowledge of cross-border flow , the increase of its scales and optimization of the structure can enhance the economic competitiveness, promote the diversification of the country's educational philosophy, develop academic communications and advance the scientific and technological progress, so most countries are committed to improving overseas recruitment system to release the enormous economic and social benefits.This paper summarize the experience of American and British to provide reference for China's sustainable development in overseas recruitment systems.

  3. English Language Proficiency and Smoking Prevalence among California's Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the ...

  4. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  5. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number of high school girls use smokeless tobacco. Peer pressure is just one of the reasons for starting the habit. After you start, the addictive quality of nicotine kicks in: With each use, you need a little more of the drug to get the same feeling. So serious users ...

  6. The Relationships of Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, and Other Illegal Drug Use to Delinquency among Mexican-American, Black, and White Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W. David; Wright, Loyd S.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between drug use and delinquent behavior among 348 high school males and 89 adjudicated delinquent males in maximum-security facility for violent and repeat offenders. Self-reported alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other illegal drug use were all significantly related to minor and violent delinquency for all 3 racial groups…

  7. Tobacco as Cultural Signifier: A Cultural History of Masculinity and Nationality in Habsburg Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maxwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since tobacco smoking acquired important patriotic symbolism in nineteenth century, the history of tobacco sheds light on Hungarian nationalism. Hungarian tobacco growers found the Austrian tobacco tariff policy harmful to their interests, particularly when war disrupted the supply of American tobacco in potential export markets. Pushing for a different tariff, Hungarian patriots turned smoking into a marker of Hungarian patriotism. Tobacco symbolism was prominent during Hungary’s 1848 Revolution, not least because tobacco acquired revolutionary symbolism in Italy and Germany as well. The culture of patriotic tobacco corresponded to revolutionary national ideas in that it mostly transcended class barriers but excluded women.

  8. Tobacco industry success in Costa Rica: the importance of FCTC article 5.3 El éxito de la industria tabacalera en Costa Rica: la importancia del artículo 5.3 del CMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Crosbie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the tobacco industry influenced tobacco control policymaking in Costa Rica. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles, and interviewing of key informants. RESULTS: During the mid-to-late 1980s, Health Ministry issued several advanced (for their time smoking restriction decrees causing British American Tobacco (BAT and Philip Morris International (PMI to strengthen their political presence there, resulting in passage of a weak 1995 law, which, as of August 2011, remained in effect. Since 1995 the industry has used Costa Rica as a pilot site for Latin American programs and has dominated policymaking by influencing the Health Ministry, including direct private negotiations with the tobacco industry which violate Article 5.3's implementing guidelines of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. CONCLUSIONS: The Costa Rica experience demonstrates the importance of vigorous implementation of FCTC Article 5.3 which insulates public health policymaking from industry interference.OBJETIVO: Analizar cómo la industria tabacalera influyó en la formulación de las políticas de control del tabaco en Costa Rica. MATERIALS Y MÉTODOS: Revisión de documentos de la industria tabacalera, de la legislación costarricense de control del tabaco y de periódicos y entrevistas con informantes clave. RESULTADOS: Durante los años ochenta, el Ministerio de Salud aprobó varios decretos para restringir el consumo de tabaco, lo que causó que British American Tobacco y Philip Morris International fortalecieran su presencia política, cuyo resultado fue la promulgación de una ley débil en 1995 todavía vigente. Desde 1995 la industria tabacalera ha utilizado a Costa Rica como piloto para los programas latinoamericanos y ha dominado la formulación de políticas influenciando al Ministerio de Salud, incluyendo negociaciones privadas con la

  9. Why the World Will Never Be Tobacco-Free: Reframing "Tobacco Control" Into a Traditional Tobacco Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Gina; Hernandez, Carol; Hoffer, Donna; Preuss, Kathleen Starlight; Tibbetts-Barto, Linda; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Scott, Sheryl

    2016-07-01

    As successes mount in reducing commercial tobacco use, an alarming disparity has taken shape in Minnesota. Recent studies revealed that overall smoking rates have dropped to 14%, whereas American Indians' rates remain higher than 50%. With support from ClearWay Minnesota, the organization created from the state's tobacco settlement, advocates working within sovereign tribal governments to create smoke-free policies came together to discuss effective strategies within tribal Nations. We discussed the history behind mainstream tobacco control's failure to resonate with Native audiences and the need to reframe the movement to a goal of restoring traditional tobacco practices. We share our insights on this critical area for achieving health equity and provide recommendations for tribes, non-Indian advocates, and funders, with a plea for tribal inclusion in commercial tobacco "end-game" strategies. PMID:27077360

  10. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-08-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  11. ‘Drawing comic traditions': British television animation from 1997 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Norris,, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the shifts within mainstream British television animation between 1997 and 2010 and it discusses how British animation’s close relationship with live-action television comedy reveals a map of contemporary attitudes and tastes. The British animated texts in this period reacted to their shifting industrial and broadcasting landscape. The historical moment of the late 1990s was determined by the successes of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, which profoundly affecte...

  12. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from Tobacco Regulations Restricting the Sale, Distribution, and Marketing of Cigarettes, Cigarette Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco. Preventing ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  13. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks ... Tobacco is a plant. Its leaves are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. Tobacco contains the chemical nicotine, which is ...

  14. The outlook for the natural gas industry in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During most of the 1980s, the natural gas industry in British Columbia languished. In 1980, a total of 218 natural gas wells were drilled in the portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin lying in northeastern British Columbia. By 1983, this number had fallen to only 19. In fact, the average number of gas wells drilled in British Columbia in the nine years following 1980 was only 48 per year. Yearly production during most of the 1980s was also far below levels seen in the previous decade. The outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry was developed making use of the analytical framework provided in the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model. Using the NARG model enables one to investigate flows of British Columbia natural gas to various markets as a component of the overall North American natural gas market. This paper reviews the appropriate background necessary to familiarize the reader with the natural gas industry in British Columbia and, following a brief description of the NARG model, provides preliminary results from the current research effort

  15. Prevent and "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  16. Comparative Sports Psychology: British and American Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Benjamin; Walsh, Joseph

    By the turn of the 20th century, research had begun dealing with the subject of sport psychology in America. In the early 1900's, Coleman Griffin, the father of sport psychology, led the way in researching sport psychology. It was not until the 1960's that research in this field became popular in Great Britain. In 1967, in both America and Great…

  17. Inertial growth : The British and American Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Dany García Callejas

    2002-01-01

    Estudios realizados por la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Centro de Antioquia (Corantioquia) concluyen que los bosques y páramos localizados en el noroccidente del departamento de Antioquia constituyen un ecosistema estratégico, al actuar como oferentes de bienes y servicios ambientales. Además, el sistema natural garantiza la provisión de agua para el desarrollo de actividades recreativas en el Parque de las Aguas, localizado en el Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (Antioquia, Colomb...

  18. Dictionaries: British and American. The Language Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, James Root

    An account of the dictionaries, great and small, of the English-speaking world is given in this book. Subjects covered include the origin of English dictionaries, early dictionaries, Noah Webster and his successors to the present, abridged dictionaries, "The Oxford English Dictionary" and later dictionaries patterned after it, the process of…

  19. The tobacco epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A

    2007-12-01

    Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes and exposure to tobacco smoke pollution, has caused the premature deaths of more than 14 million Americans since 1964. The major diseases caused by tobacco and tobacco smoke include lung cancer, other cancers, coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, pregnancy complications, and respiratory diseases in children. Per capita consumption of various tobacco products has declined substantially since 1950, with current consumption at approximately 3.7 pounds per capita. Whereas approximately two in five adults smoked cigarettes in 1965, approximately one in five did so in 2005. Several factors can influence initiation and cessation, including product factors (e.g., ventilation holes, additives, and flavorings); host factors (intention to use, level of dependence); tobacco company activities (e.g., marketing strategies, efforts to undermine public health activities); and environmental factors (e.g., peer and parental smoking, smoke-free air laws and policies). Efforts to prevent initiation, promote quitting, and protect nonsmokers should reduce exposure to pro-tobacco marketing and increase (1) the price of tobacco products, (2) protection from tobacco smoke pollution, (3) effective mass media strategies, (4) provision of effective cessation support, (5) effective regulation, and (6) litigation that holds the industry responsible for its misdeeds. Adequate implementation of effective tobacco-control strategies and useful scientific advances will help to ensure that per capita consumption decreases to the lowest level possible. The economic benefits of tobacco in our society are replaceable and they pale in comparison to the extent of human life lost. PMID:18021906

  20. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 ). Does smokeless tobacco cause cancer? Yes. Smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, and pancreatic cancer ( 1 ). Does smokeless tobacco cause other diseases? Yes. Using smokeless tobacco may also cause ... other than cancer, such as leukoplakia (precancerous white patches in the ...

  1. Evaluación de las políticas contra el tabaquismo en países latinoamericanos en la era del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis Thrasher

    2006-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. RESULTS: ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. CONCLUSIONS: Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.

  2. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  3. Exposure to tobacco dust in primary tobacco-processing workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous workers are engaged in processing of tobacco in Iran and therefore, their exposures to tobacco dust are likely to be high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the workers' exposure to tobacco dust. Total dusts were collected within the workers' breathing zone using a Personal Air Sampler (PAS) and respirable dusts were measured using a real time monitor (Micro Dust Pro) with a particle size adapter in different parts of the factory. To weigh the filters a microbalance accurate to 5 decimal places was used. The mean total tobacco dust concentrations for personal exposure near breathing zone in this study was 9.32 mgm-3 that was lower than TLV recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In contrast the mean respirable dust concentrations was 3.28 mgm-3 which is higher than Threshold Limit Value (TLV). Dust control methods such as good maintenance of existent dust emission control systems, insulation of dust sources and designing suitable local exhaust ventilation should be applied to maintain workers' health. (author)

  4. Tobacco Industry Interference with Tobacco Control

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization,

    2009-01-01

    A large body of evidence demonstrates that tobacco companies use a wide range of tactics to interfere with tobacco control. Such strategies include direct and indirect political lobbying and campaign contributions, financing of research, attempting to affect the course of regulatory and policy machinery and engaging in social responsibility initiatives as part of public relations campaigns. Although more and more is known about tobacco industry tactics, a systematic, comprehensive gu...

  5. Tobacco control in India.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and prov...

  6. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Pregnancy Text Size: A A A Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Can smokeless tobacco affect my ... tobacco use cause other health problems? Can smokeless tobacco affect my oral health? It may cause tooth ...

  7. RIVALS OF A KIND: the Anglo-American Commercial Aviation Rivalry, 1939-45

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Benson

    2008-01-01

    Before World War II, the British and Americans had been fierce rivals in the international airline business. Their wartime alliance muted this rivalry, yet it still simmered, manifesting itself in a variety of global incidents and issues. As the war progressed, the Americans gained tremendous advantages in the field, raising British fears about American dominance of the world’s airways. In turn, American policymakers worried about British control of key areas of the world. The mutual suspicio...

  8. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... music, and TV, parents can be the GREATEST INFLUENCE in their kids' lives. Talk directly to children about the risks of tobacco use; if friends or relatives died from tobacco-related illnesses, let ...

  9. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... generous support Make a difference by delivering research, education and advocacy to those impacted by lung disease. ...

  10. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  11. British Gas business opportunities overseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the joint British Gas Department of Trade and Industry Seminar cover overseas exploration and production and development projects; an overview of gas transmission, distribution and supply; and power generation. Details of the Oil and Gas Projects and Supplies Office, Projects Export Promotion Division, the Export Credits Guarantee Department, and British Gas Offices Worldwide are given in the Appendix. (UK)

  12. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tobacco Use Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Lung Cancer National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Youth and Tobacco Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Background Estimates of Current Tobacco Use Among Youth ...

  13. Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union—part I: establishing cigarette imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify British American Tobacco's (BAT) reasons for targeting the former Soviet Union following its collapse in 1991 and the initial strategies BAT used to enter the region. Design: Analysis of tobacco industry documents held at the Guildford BAT archive. Results: Desire to expand to new markets was based in part on the decline in old markets. The large population, proximity to China, scope to expand sales to women and, in Central Asia, a young population with high growth rates made the former Soviet Union particularly attractive. High consumption rates and unfilled demand caused by previous shortages offered potential for rapid returns on investment. A series of steps were taken to penetrate the markets with the initial focus on establishing imports. The documents suggest that BAT encouraged the use of aid money and barter trade to fund imports and directed the smuggling of cigarettes which graduated from an opportunistic strategy to a highly organised operation. In establishing a market presence, promotion of BAT's brands and corporate image were paramount, and used synonymously to promote both the cigarettes and the company. The tobacco industry targeted young people and women. It used the allure of western products to promote its brands and brand stretching and corporate imagery to pre-empt future marketing restrictions. Conclusions: BAT used the chaotic conditions in the immediate post-transition period in the former Soviet Union to exploit legislative loopholes and ensure illegal cigarette imports. Governments of countries targeted by the tobacco industry need to be aware of industry tactics and develop adequate tobacco control policies in order to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable populations. Marketing restrictions that focus on advertising without restricting the use of brand or company promotions will have a limited impact. PMID:15175531

  14. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  15. Regress to the Essence of Language Focus on Reading Classic Literature---Several Creative Teaching Strategies on British and American Literature Teaching%回归语言纯粹重视经典阅读--关于英美文学教学的几点创新性教学策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮

    2015-01-01

    随着影像时代的到来和多媒体技术在教学中的广泛运用,英美文学课程教学应坚持其教学目标和本质为主,重视经典英美文学作品阅读;教师可采取课堂内与课堂外、传统阅读与数字阅读相结合的自主学习策略、体验式英美文学课堂教学设计、文本阅读与写作训练相结合的教学策略和多样化的课程评价模式,让英语专业学生感受到经典文学作品阅读带来的璀璨光芒和深刻意义。%With the approach of Image Era and wide application of multimedia technology on teaching,teachers of British and American Literature should hold its teaching objective and essence as their main task,and emphasize the importance of reading classic British and American literary works. Teachers can adopt autonomous learning strategies in and outside classroom by using traditional text reading and digital reading,experiential teaching design,the combination of text reading and writing training strategy,and diverse curriculum evaluation model. This can make English majors feel bright and dazzling lights of classic literary works reading movement,and know its profound significance.

  16. Tobacco control in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chaly Preetha

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a ′smoking epidemic′ i...

  17. Brit Crit: Turning Points in British Rock Criticism 1960-1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur; Lindberg, U.; Michelsen, M.;

    2002-01-01

    The article examines the development of rock criticism in the United Kingdom from the perspective of a Bourdieuan field-analysis. Early British rock critics, like Nik Cohn, were international pioneers, a few years later there was a strong American influence, but British rock criticism has always...... had national specific traits and there have been more profound paradigm shifts than in American rock criticism. This is primarily explained by the fact that American rock criticism is more strongly connected to general cultural history, while the UK rock criticism has been more alienated from dominant...

  18. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  19. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the a href="http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/series/?sn=200001" UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  20. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  1. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  2. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s.

  3. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the ′American India′ to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.

  4. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  5. Ocean energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  6. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  7. BeTobaccoFree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your ... Proposes New Tobacco Regulations Proposed new rule would cover cigars, e-cigarettes, pipe tobacco and other retail products ...

  8. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  9. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  10. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  11. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    OpenAIRE

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  13. Influence of the Tobacco Industry on Wisconsin Tobacco Control Policies

    OpenAIRE

    University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report by the Monitoring and Evaluation Program of the University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center is to assist policy makers and tobacco control advocates in understanding the role of the tobacco industry in forming state and local policies on tobacco in Wisconsin. These activities in policy-making play an integral role in the level of tobacco use in the state. The late John Slade formulated a public health model of tobacco addiction where the agent (of the diseas...

  14. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  15. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  16. BRITISH ARMY COMMISIONS BY PURCHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Dick Usher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I have before me a copy of a letter dated 12 May, 1814, written by certain Lieutenant-Colonel William Fuller of the King's Dragoon Guards to a British Lord, in which is advised that a commission for His Lordship's son would cost £735. Further on in this article I shall state the prices as they were at the time of the' Crimean War. Only recently did I read a book by a very well-known British author who claims that the British army of the 1850's was small, and that the Crimean War was to prove that it was shockingly organised, but he speaks only well of the navy of that period. I ask that my readers please bear in mind that in earlier days there was no such rank as second-lieutenant nor sub-lieutenant in the British army. The most junior commissioned rank in the infantry was that of ensign. In the cavalry, it was cornet until 1871, when it became sub-lieutenant.

  17. Upriver and Downriver: A Gradient of Tobacco Intensification Along the Klamath River, California and Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Todt, Donn L

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies the types of locations where coyote tobacco (Nicotiana attenuataj has been found along the Upper Klamath River and demonstrates how that information illuminates the regional ethnographic record of Native American tobacco use and culture. Locations where coyote tobacco has appeared within the Upper Klamath River vicinity were documented during a fourteen-year period. These data are supplemented by observations from the surrounding region. The aggregate of these observatio...

  18. A Retrospective Review of FDA v. Brown Williamson Tobacco Corporation and the Issue of Congressional Intent

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Contrary to a tradition of the FDA (Federal Food and Drug Administration) consistently maintaining that it could not assert jurisdiction over tobacco products, the agency issued a determination of jurisdiction over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco and proposed a set of regulations in 1996 in an effort to combat the public health problems caused by tobacco products. Rather than a complete ban, the FDA proposed regulations aimed solely at younger Americans due to its conclusion that such an app...

  19. Insurance revolution within British gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooke, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    With the transformation of the British gas industry from a manufacturing to a distribution role, British Gas Corp. questioned the whole function of insurance within the industry and arrived at a new approach of extended self-insurance. The basic questions posed were whether British Gas really needed insurance protection, what size of loss it could absorb within its own financial resources, and what catastrophic losses might occur that should be covered by insurance. In the past, each area board determined its own insurance requirements and obtained the best coverage available for its needs. With the formation of British Gas, however, insurance was investigated on an industry-wide basis by an insurance committee in which each region was represented by its insurance officer. This enabled the industry to negotiate from a position of strength in what would be a bulk purchase and permit the most flexible coverage to be obtained at the most economic cost. The committee proposed a system that made the figure of $3.6 million (pounds 2 million) the main criterion for self-insurance; risks not considered as having a real potential for a loss exceeding this figure would be borne uninsured. Where such potential existed, only amounts above this figure would be insured. The actual program that was eventually adopted cancelled the employer's liability insurance, retained third-party insurance for claims over $3.6 million, retained full-coverage fire insurance, reduced engineering coverage to an inspection service only, retained motor and personal accident insurance for further consideration, and cancelled all other forms of insurance. To implement this program of greater self-insurance, British Gas strengthened the claims-handling expertise within the regions and has incorporated greater risk management techniques to reduce or eliminate risks with loss-making potential.

  20. 美国话语与美国文化%American Words and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏

    2003-01-01

    Language is a key component part of culture. It reflects culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words reflect American culture, including their custom, their view of value, their character traits. Being a melting pot, American words melt a lot of loanwords. The exaggerated use of words shows Americans are self-confidence. They also use beautified words to show their wish to life, to future. They can use common words, usually slang to express special ideas. By doing so, they create something new and original. Learning American English, especially studying American words, we can see some typical traits of American culture.

  1. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  2. Genetics of Tobacco Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maserejian Nancy

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The worldwide prevalence of tobacco use is widespread, resulting in nearly 4.5 million deaths every year. Nicotine is addictive and has psychopharmacological effects that maintain the use of tobacco products. Several studies have documented a strong hereditary component to tobacco use. The present article reviews results from twin and adoption studies and proceeds to present association studies of specific genes that may be involved in tobacco use. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta polypeptide 2, serotonin receptor and transporter genes, dopamine receptor and transporter genes, and the cytochrome P450A6 gene are reviewed. Linkage studies help to identify regions of the genome that may be worth further investigation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of genetic research and the future of genetic epidemiology in this domain.

  3. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  4. Tobacco and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance (with and without glucose intolerance, pro-inflammatory state, and pro-thrombotic state. Tobacco use is associated with various core components of metabolic syndrome. It has been found to play a causal role in various pathways leading on to development this condition, the current article discusses various facets of this association.

  5. The Tobacco Health Toll

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean

    2005-01-01

    Introduction With the increasing realization of the devastating effects tobacco use has, and the heavy toll it exacts on the health of individuals, the health of the young, the wellbeing of families and societies, and the economies of countries, the need for a clear, comprehensive document covering the full range of the negative effects tobacco and its use has on human health was apparent. This publication sums up and simplifies the answers to the questions that the public, individua...

  6. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets. PMID:22345253

  7. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  8. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  9. Arab Portrayals in U.S. and British News Magazines: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sandra

    A study examined the influence of national political and economic interests, culture, and history on the portrayal of Arabs in two weekly news magazines. Sample articles from the American weekly "Time" magazine and the British weekly "The Economist" were examined for coverage of the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the June 1982 Israeli invasion…

  10. Point-of-sale tobacco marketing in rural and urban Ohio: Could the new landscape of Tobacco products widen inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K

    2015-12-01

    Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities. PMID:26363447

  11. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  12. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  13. PROPOSED TOBACCO QUOTA BUYOUT LEGISLATION: EFFECTS ON TENNESSEE TOBACCO FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Kelly; Brown, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Interest in a tobacco quota buyout is at an all time high with several tobacco quota buyout and transition bills before Congress. This paper reviews major elements of buyout proposals and estimates the economic impacts of proposed buyout legislation on four representative Tennessee tobacco farms.

  14. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to clarify, consistent with current practice and as required by the Fair and Equitable...

  15. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  16. Float Greenhouse Tobacco Transplant Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, T. David

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of growing tobacco transplants in greenhouses. Examines concerns such as sanitation, proper chemical usage, ventilation, temperature control, and fertilization. For hydroponic growth of tobacco seedlings, discusses water quality, clipping and other concerns.

  17. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  18. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  19. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Industry Watch About Us Media Center Smoke-Free Laws Taxation & Price Warning Labels DONATE Facts & Issues Tobacco Overview ... and Trade U.S. State & Local Issues Smoke-Free Laws State Tobacco Taxes Prevention and Cessation Programs 1998 Tobacco Settlement: Broken ...

  20. Tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kolappan, C.; Gopi, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of tuberculosis in adult men in India is 2–4 times higher than in women. Tobacco smoking is prevalent almost exclusively among men, so it is possible that tobacco smoking may be a risk factor for developing pulmonary tuberculosis. A nested case control study was carried out to study the association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis.

  1. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following...

  2. What should be the elements of any settlement with the tobacco industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D; Benowitz, N; N'Connolly, G N; Cummings, K M; Davis, R M; Henningfield, J E; Shopland, D R; Warner, K E

    1997-01-01

    Litigation and regulatory assaults on the tobacco companies may create a willingness among tobacco manufacturers to bargain resources and acceptance of public policy changes for limitations of liability, as has been seen by the recent settlement with the Liggett Group. Two elements absolutely critical to any plan are the elimination of tobacco advertising and promotion and the removal of addiction as a reason for tobacco use. Minimal components of any settlement should include: (a) acceptance by the tobacco manufacturers of the causal relationship between tobacco use and disease, and the addictive nature of nicotine; (b) a total ban on tobacco advertising and promotion; (c) FDA jurisdiction over tobacco products and their nicotine content, with the intent of removing nicotine as soon as acceptable nicotine substitution products are available; (d) reimbursement to the states for Medicaid and other state expenditures attributable to smoking, to the maximum extent feasible; (e) funding for local, state, and federal programmes and research in tobacco control; (f) acceptance of legislation and regulations protecting the right of non-smokers to breathe air free of tobacco smoke; (g) funding for a large, national, media-led, anti-tobacco campaign; and (h) cessation assistance for addicted smokers. If negotiations toward a settlement proceed, it is essential that the public health community participate in defining the elements of any agreement to ensure that whatever agreement develops is focused on reducing tobacco-related disease rather than continuing the profitability of American tobacco companies. That participation requires articulation of the core elements essential to an acceptable agreement. If resolution of the public health issues surrounding continued sale of tobacco products can be reached in the United States, it may provide a model for similar resolution in other countries. PMID:9176975

  3. Monarchy, Spirituality & Britishness: The Anglican Diaspora in Grasse 1880-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Teulié, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    In March 2011, the British film The King’s Speech, the story of King George VI’s courageous fight against his stammering, was awarded 12 Oscars, including best film, and several acting honours. This came as a surprise to those who thought Americans did not care about British Royalties. Yet journalist Sarah Sands wrote in the Evening Standard of Tuesday 1st March 2011 an interesting article entitled “Royals are still our Best Sign of Being British”. She states that “The King’s Speech celebrate...

  4. RAF Wings Over Florida: Memories of World War II British Air Cadets

    OpenAIRE

    Largent, Willard

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1940s, prior to the United States' entry into World War II, through the joint efforts of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, British soldiers were sent to the United States for flight training. This collection gives first-person accounts of the men who learned the art of flying in a place far from their homeland, Florida. The stories provide a wonderful contrast between the two cultures and are told in the voices of British cadets, American cadet...

  5. RIVALS OF A KIND: the Anglo-American Commercial Aviation Rivalry, 1939-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Before World War II, the British and Americans had been fierce rivals in the international airline business. Their wartime alliance muted this rivalry, yet it still simmered, manifesting itself in a variety of global incidents and issues. As the war progressed, the Americans gained tremendous advantages in the field, raising British fears about American dominance of the world’s airways. In turn, American policymakers worried about British control of key areas of the world. The mutual suspicion grew, and the rivalry resurfaced in the last months of the war. The conflict had merely subsumed the differences, and made the two powers rivals of a kind.

  6. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    R A Kireev; A.I.Popovsky; M.V. Ershova; L.G. Bochkova

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  7. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  8. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  9. Studies on tobacco radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of radioactive substances with the effluents and the exhaust air of nuclear installations may result in the contamination of tobacco plants. This in turn may - via the exposition pathway ''tobacco smoking'' - cause a radiation exposure to smoking people. In the present paper, ecological parameters from site and literature investigations are listed which are necessary for the determination of the degrees of exposure to radiation. Using a model calculation, based on the airborne aerosol type releases of a nuclear PWR poer plant, the potential radiation exposures by tobacco smoking are compared to those by inhalation of radioactive aerosols from the air near the ground and by ingestion of contaminated foodstuff. According to this calculation, the radiation exposures by tobacco smoking amount to less than 0.1x10-5 Sv/a. This means they are far below the potential radiation exposures via the ingestion paths. Therefore, they are comparable only to those radiation doses that result from the inhalation of radioactive aerosols as contained in air near the ground. (orig.)

  10. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Every week, month, and year without tobacco further improves your health. Within 20 minutes of quitting: Your blood pressure ... that of a person who still smokes. Other health benefits of quitting ... may travel to the lungs Lower risk of erectile dysfunction ...

  11. Grappling With Tobacco Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It's reported that the British House of Commons passed a bill February 14 to ban smoking in every pub, club and indoor public space in England. The legislation is now submitted to the upper House of Lords. If passed, it will become law by mid-2007. With the ban, Britain joins Ireland, Finland, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sweden and several U.S. states and cities, all of which have restricted smoking in public places in recent years.

  12. Shifting Attitudes Towards Tobacco Control in Tobacco Country: Tobacco Industry Political Influence and Tobacco Policy Making in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan BA, Sarah; Barnes, Richard L JD; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in South Carolina. Smoking-related medical costs amount to $1.1 billion each year, including $393 million for Medicaid. Tobacco growing in South Carolina declined by over 50 percent from 1997 to 2008. Tobacco accounted for less than 10% of the state's cash receipts from all crops in 2007. Despite the low levels of actual tobacco growing and the small role tobacco played in the state's economy in 2008, the cultural construct of bei...

  13. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  14. Leukaemia near british nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An excess of childhood leukaemia has been seen near some British nuclear installations, especially near the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The same result was found in a more general study including a large number of nuclear sites. Similar studies made in USA, Canada and France have been negative. Moreover, epidemiological studies made in England have discovered other childhood leukaemia clusters in areas far from nuclear facilities, and especially near potential sites of nuclear installations. Several explanations are suggested but no definite conclusion is yet possible. Doses from radioactive releases seem to be too low to account for the additional deaths from leukaemia by environmental contamination. A virus activation, which might be associated with population influx into rural isolated areas, has been considered. The hypothesis of genetic mutation induced by ionising radiation in the fathers of children with leukaemia has been made because a higher risk of leukaemia was observed for children of fathers employed at Sellafield. No firm conclusion is possible considering the small number of observed cases and the lack of excess leukaemias in the offspring of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The possibility of internal contamination, chemicals or even radon is discussed as other causes. Studies in progress might allow to find an answer to the problem of leukaemia in the vicinity of British nuclear installations

  15. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  16. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  17. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  18. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  19. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  20. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. PMID:25524474

  1. Tobacco habit in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Upendra; Bala, Nidhi; Tewar, Varsha; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai

    2006-01-01

    To study tobacco consumption practices in north-Indian population, a community-based, stratified sampling survey using validated interview schedule was performed in rural/urban areas of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. There were 432 tobacco users (385 men, 47 women; 276 urban, 156 rural) taken as subjects. Tobacco use practices ie, chewing/smoking/rubbing/snuffing, frequency, starting age, supply, place/context of use, quid habit, affect, facilitating conditions/barriers, tobacco users' opinion on control measures were all taken into consideration. Single mode of tobacco use was reported by 277 subjects (64.1%) and the rest had a plethora of tobacco practices. Chewing was prevalent in 322(74.5%), smoking in 256(59.3%), rubbing in 32(7.4%) and snuffing in 4 subjects (0.9%). Of the 10 preparations in the questionnaire, the "top 5" preferences ranked as tobacco-betel, gutka, cigarette, bidi and khaini that remained unchanged between sexes, rural/urban people and age groups. Women significantly (palcohol was consumed by 82(19%) and with opium by 33 subjects (7.6%). Social barrier to tobacco use was perceived by 231 subjects (53.5%), especially by smokers. Majority users (355; 82.2%) did not have negative feelings or embarrassment in using tobacco. Most users (351; 81.4%) said they would welcome legislative control on tobacco use. PMID:16850862

  2. Smokeless Tobacco Reduction Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Glidden, L; Whigam, K

    1987-01-01

    To reduce the incidence and prevalence of oral cancer, the Smokeless Tobacco Reduction Program will consist of a mass media campaign, public oral screening, and a week-long school health program for 350 students in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades in Willows, Glenn County, CA. Mass media will include radio, television, newspapers, posters, and literature. The program will use resources of the public health department and junior high school; it will also depend on 8 teachers and 25 peer l...

  3. The power of British Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the power industry in Britain was privatized, British Energy plc (BE), whose head office is in Edingburgh, Scotland, was founded in July 1996. It is the only power utility in the world exclusively operating nuclear power stations. Operative business has remained the responsibility of the two regional supply companies, Nuclear Electric (NE) and Scottish Nuclear (SN) which, in addition to the modern PWR nuclear generating unit of Sizewell B, have included in the new holding company their advanced gas-cooled and gas-moderated reactor (AGR) units. The older gas-graphite reactor (GGR) plants were combined in the new Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley; at some later date, this company is to be merged with another nuclear power plant operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sizewell B, which was commissioned in 1995, is the last nuclear generating unit to be started up in the United Kingdom, for the time being. In times of low raw material prices and the need for a quick return on invested capital, BE is reluctant to run the risk associated with tying up capital for a long time. Instead, the company has backfitted its plants so that the production of electricity from nuclear power in Britain in 1996 of 92,476 GWh was increased by almost 10% over the 1995 level of 84,174 GWh. In addition to modernization and rationalization at home, BE together with Sizewell B vendor Westinghouse is engaged worldwide in the development and commercialization of future advanced reactors. This ensures that the know-how accumulated will be preserved and will be available for new nuclear power plants to be built in Britain in the next century. (orig.)

  4. Adult Tobacco Use Among Racial and Ethnic Groups Living in the United States, 2002–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Gfroerer, BA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionU.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002–2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1 use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes during the 30 days before each survey and 2 cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey.ResultsThe prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites.ConclusionThese results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.

  5. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  6. Genetic Ancestry-Smoking Interactions and Lung Function in African Americans: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Melinda C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Colangelo, Laura A.; Williams, L. Keoki; Sen, Saunak; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Meibohm, Bernd; Galanter, Joshua; Hu, Donglei; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad; Zmuda, Joseph; Garcia, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 Afr...

  7. The Difference between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2015-01-01

    I want to explain the differences in the following aspects:pronunciation,spelling,vocabulary and usage.I will compare these two languages in theory and use some examples.I think we can learn more through this kind of research.

  8. The Difference between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2015-01-01

    I want to explain the differences in the following aspects: pronunciation,spelling,vocabulary and usage.I will compare these two languages in theory and use some examples.I think we can learn more through this kind of research.

  9. Policy-driven tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, John A; Abramsohn, Erin M; Park, Hye-Youn

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the passage of Proposition 99, California's comprehensive tobacco control programme has benefited from a localised policy adoption process that allows for the innovation and diffusion of strong local tobacco control policies throughout the state. Methods The policy adoption continuum is described in the context of California's smoke-free workplace movement, and the influence of policy-driven tobacco control initiatives on social norms, behaviour and the public's health was ex...

  10. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  11. Self-reported tobacco use, knowledge on tobacco legislation and tobacco hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala State

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan Jayakrishnan; Seema Geetha; Bhaskarapillai Binukumar; Sreekumar,; Kamala Lekshmi

    2011-01-01

    Context: Tobacco consumption initiated during the adolescent period is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of fatal diseases in adulthood. Information on tobacco use and awareness regarding tobacco legislation and hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala is limited. Aims: To assess the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescent students in a rural district in Kerala state and to understand the extent of awareness about the prominent legislative measures against tobacco and tobacco h...

  12. NEW TOBACCO SORTS POTENTIAL FOR TOBACCO INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homutova S. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The review of the latest tobacco selection researches is given in the article. The basic aim of these researches is creation of new sort material, which is ecologically stable, and corresponding to energy conservation demands. New tobacco sorts are presented

  13. The British will use question-tags, won't they? The case of Four Weddings and a Funeral

    OpenAIRE

    Chiaro Nocella, Delia

    2000-01-01

    There are, in fact, so many American TV films, series, situation comedies and cartoons on the Italian screen that it is actually difficult to find much material which is dubbed into Italian from varieties of English other than US English, including British English itself.so many American TV films, series, situation comedies and cartoons on the Italian screen that it is actually difficult to find much material which is dubbed into Italian from varieties of English other than US English, includ...

  14. Treating tobacco dependence: state of the science and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Caryn; Patterson, Freda; Berrettini, Wade

    2005-01-10

    Despite almost two decades of intensive tobacco control efforts, nearly one quarter of Americans continue to smoke. The two United States Food and Drug Administration-approved medications used to treat tobacco dependence, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy, are effective for only a fraction of smokers. Investigations of medications approved for affective disorders and other forms of substance abuse, such as fluoxetine and naltrexone, have yielded mixed results as tobacco dependence treatments. A particular challenge in tobacco dependence treatment is the development of effective approaches for smokers with unique needs, such as cancer patients and pregnant women. Despite new developments in these areas, significant gaps in knowledge and practice remain. Basic research in the neurobiologic and genetic basis of nicotine dependence offers promise for the development of novel and more effective treatment approaches. For example, emerging research in pharmacogenetics explores how genetic variation in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug targets modifies response to pharmacotherapy. These discoveries could someday help practitioners to individualize the type, dosage, and duration of tobacco dependence treatment based on genotype, and maximize the efficacy. PMID:15637394

  15. The British foreign exchange reserves puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Hüfner, Felix P.

    2000-01-01

    The British foreign exchange reserves decreased by 40 percent during the period August 1996-December 1999 although the Pound Sterling is considered a floating exchange rate since it left the EMS in 1992. Since changes in the level of foreign exchange reserves are usually taken as indicators for foreign exchange interventions in the economic literature we investigate the case of the British reserves in detail. While the Pound Sterling has appreciated strongly against the Deutsche Mark in this ...

  16. The moral reading of the British constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakin, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...

  17. Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Temin

    1996-01-01

    There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views u...

  18. The British Empire and the Muslim world

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Francis

    2001-01-01

    By the 1920s the British Empire embraced substantially more than half the Muslim peoples of the world. For much of the twentieth century Britain was the greatest influence over their development. Imperial security in large part dictated which territories of former Muslim empires or petty Muslim states the British came to rule. Imperial interests in combination with those of rival empires and local forces dictated precisely, and sometimes not so precisely, where the boundaries of new states we...

  19. Radon in British mines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer

  20. Entry Modes for British MNCs into China

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    China has undergone massive economic reforms and institutional changes over the last 3 decades. Increasingly liberalized government regulations and the opening up of the Chinese market have attracted British MNCs to enter into this ‘dream market’. This paper seeks to primarily explore the factors that affect the entry mode selection of British MNCs. It will also seek to investigate how the current institutional environment affects entry mode selection. This paper uses a case study method to a...

  1. Comorbid Trajectories of Tobacco and Marijuana Use as Related to Psychological Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous classes of comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use were examined in order to determine how they are related to subsequent antisocial behavior, poor self control and internalizing behavior. Data are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American (n=243) and Puerto Rican (n=232) adolescents and adults in the community. Logistic regression analyses were employed to measure the association between the comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use and the psy...

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenco Grant; Brauer Gerhard; Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl; Georges Karla

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant intervi...

  3. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  4. Researching British university sport initiations

    OpenAIRE

    Wintrup, Glen

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The study of sport initiations is in its infancy. So far, the North American-centric research has focussed on ‘exposing and condemning’ morally unacceptable initiation activities, which are referred to as hazing. Hazing moral panics in North America has resulted in universities utilising sport initiation empirical research to construct anti-hazing policies; policies proven to be ineffective i...

  5. Tobacco and health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  6. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  9. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  10. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  11. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  12. Economics of Tobacco Toolkit, Tool 4 : Design and Administer Tobacco Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Yurekli, Ayda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this tool is to help the reader understand the structure, design, and administration of tobacco taxes. There is no doubt about the adverse health impacts of tobacco use. In both developed and developing countries, the Ministries of health, tobacco interest groups, academia, and advocates against tobacco strongly believe that tobacco consumption should be reduced, and that to...

  13. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  14. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COBHAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  15. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  16. Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students - United States, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tushar; Arrazola, René A; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Homa, David M; King, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged addiction mostly begin during youth and young adulthood (1,2). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2015 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of seven tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], hookahs [water pipes used to smoke tobacco], pipe tobacco, and bidis [small imported cigarettes wrapped in a tendu leaf]) among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths (1,3). Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco

  17. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  18. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...

  19. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  20. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is a...

  1. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  2. American method and comparison of the different methods of internal ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Patnaik

    1952-01-01

    Full Text Available Le Duc's method gave good results in almost all cases. But in all cases American ammunition was used in American guns and it is doubtful if the method would give equally good results when applied to British guns or British propellants. The advantage of Le Duc's method, however, in its simplicity compared with the other theoretical methods and the quickness with which results can be calculated by this method.

  3. CRITERIA OF BRITISH TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION CULTURE FORMEDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Алексеевич Есипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students.The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-13

  4. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...... of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory....

  5. The British Library's Vulnerable Collection Items Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly C. Kowal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The British Library embarked on a project in 2007 to better protect collection materials considered vulnerable. Following thefts of maps contained within books, a methodology was developed to firmly identify the unique copies of rare and valuable British Library holdings, using a range of security photography and copy-specific descriptive metadata. The outcome of the project not only served to improve the security of the selected maps, but by revealing these hidden collections, access to and knowledge of them is enhanced.

  6. Tobacco and the movie industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's voluntary restrictions and its agreement with the state attorneys general prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. Extensive research provides strong and consistent evidence that smoking in the movies promotes smoking. This article summarizes the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others) and proposes several solutions to reduce adolescent exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking. PMID:16446255

  7. Shifting Tides: Minnesota Tobacco Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoukalas, Theodore H. Ph.D.; Ibrahim, Jennifer K. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    Minnesota was a pioneer in the tobacco control movement in the United States. Minnesota enjoyed early success with the passage of the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act in 1975 which created nonsmoking sections in public places, including workplaces and restaurants throughout the state. While modest by 2003 standards, this act represented a major step forward at the time. It was enacted without any overt opposition from the tobacco industry, something that would never happen again. Bet...

  8. Shifting Tides: Minnesota Tobacco Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoukalas, Theodore H. Ph.D.; Ibrahim, Jennifer K. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    Minnesota was a pioneer in the tobacco control movement in the United States. Minnesota enjoyed early success with the passage of the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act in 1975 which created nonsmoking sections in public places, including workplaces and restaurants throughout the state. While modest by 2003 standards, this act represented a major step forward at the time. It was enacted without any overt opposition from the tobacco industry, something that would never happen again. Between 1975 a...

  9. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰艺

    2014-01-01

    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  10. British advice for the Dutch natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief impression is given of the Netherlands Energy Congress, which was held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in December 1999. Many speakers were British which compared the liberalization process of the Dutch natural gas market with the British experiences

  11. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your... TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25a Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own...

  12. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    OpenAIRE

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts...

  13. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Otañez, Martin G; Stanton A Glantz

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity ...

  14. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  15. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  16. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  17. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. In addition, it participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. This report notes that the most significant development in 2000 was the sharp increase in the continental market price for natural gas, and in the winter spot price spikes in the west from southern British Columbia to California. As a result, the Commission had to approve large rate increases for BC gas customers. These high prices had a marked impact on cost of living and operating costs. In British Columbia, electricity rates are based on the cost of generation, transmission and distribution. Electricity rates have been, and will continue to be frozen for B.C. Hydro customers until October 2001. The Commission has instituted transmission access principles and tariffs for B.C. Hydro and West Kootenay Power to make it possible for these utilities to participate in regional electricity markets. The report also noted that the movement toward increased competition and deregulation of electricity markets in British Columbia has lost momentum, given the experiences in California and Alberta. tabs., figs

  18. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  19. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  20. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  1. A very British spectacle? : critical reception of the fantasy genre within contemporary British cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the period since 2001, cinema has witnessed what David Butler refers to as a ‘golden age’ of fantasy film production. The majority of fantasy films released during this time have originated from British literature, and have to some extent been produced and located within Britain, showcasing a wealth of national characters, acting talent, and landscapes on screen. Yet, despite vital revisionist work conducted on British horror, science fiction and melodrama, there remains a hesitancy to emb...

  2. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, A; Khanam, S.; Furnham, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towa...

  3. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: American Indian (AI and Alaska Native (AN communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods: This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results: Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion: Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes.

  4. Tobacco Industry Marketing to Low Socio-economic Status Women in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; England, Lucinda J.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic-status (SES) females in the US. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, “discount-susceptible” older female smokers, and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females, and promoting luxury images to low SES African American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the US for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include: 1) counter-acting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, 2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display, and 3) creating counter-advertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. PMID:24449249

  5. Self-reported tobacco use, knowledge on tobacco legislation and tobacco hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Jayakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco consumption initiated during the adolescent period is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of fatal diseases in adulthood. Information on tobacco use and awareness regarding tobacco legislation and hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala is limited. Aims: To assess the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescent students in a rural district in Kerala state and to understand the extent of awareness about the prominent legislative measures against tobacco and tobacco hazards. Materials and Methods: Data on awareness regarding health hazards due to tobacco use and legislation against tobacco consumption were collected from students of 15 randomly selected high schools in an educational sub-district in Kerala, using a cross-sectional study design. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact test statistics were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1473 students participated in the study, of which 79% were males (mean age 15.4 years, SD 1.5. The overall prevalence of ′current tobacco users′ was 8%. A significant association between age and tobacco use was noted among tobacco habitues (P<0.05. Awareness regarding legislation against smoking in public places was more in the higher age-groups (P<0.05. Females were more aware of the ′smoking ban′ than males (P<0.05. Our survey of the awareness regarding the hazards associated with tobacco use revealed that 41.5% of the students knew about the link between oral cancer and tobacco, with the awareness being greater among females than among males (64.3% vs 35.4%. Conclusion: The finding that tobacco consumption increases with age is a matter of concern. In addition to their clinical work, dental professionals should also educate the public on the hazards of tobacco and conduct tobacco cessation programmes for adolescent groups to control the tobacco epidemic.

  6. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  7. Application of a CBPR Framework to Inform a Multi-level Tobacco Cessation Intervention in Public Housing Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Tingen, Martha S.; Jarriel, Stacey Crawford; Caleb, Maudesta; Simmons, Alisha; Brunson, Juanita; Mueller, Martina; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Newman, Susan D.; Cox, Melissa J.; Magwood, Gayenell; Hurman, Christina

    2012-01-01

    African American women in urban, high poverty neighborhoods have high rates of smoking, difficulties with quitting, and disproportionate tobacco-related health disparities. Prior research utilizing conventional “outsider driven” interventions targeted to individuals has failed to show effective cessation outcomes. This paper describes the application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to inform a culturally situated, ecological based, multi-level tobacco cessation in...

  8. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. PMID:25270734

  9. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  10. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  11. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  12. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  13. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  14. Tobacco Use in Racial and Ethnic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... generous support Make a difference by delivering research, education and advocacy to those impacted by lung disease. ...

  15. The tobacco gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rovetto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 it was closed and dismantled the spectacular Duke Gar­dens near Princeton University. They were created by the famous heiress Doris Duke, in honor of her father, James Buchanan Duke. This last gentleman caused 100-million deaths during the 20th century. The gardens mentioned demonstrated, perhaps trivially, what was stated by philosopher Walter Benjamin: There has never been a document of culture, which is not simultaneously one of barbarism”. “Buck” Duke was the inventor of the modern cigarette. By the end of the 20th century, this astute manufacturer entered the instantly ready-to-smoke tobacco market (without having to roll in small pieces of paper or cut off the cigarette tips with the automated production of cigarettes. Without a cigarette maker like Carmen from opera by Bizet who rolled a maximum of 200 cigarettes per day, the machine he perfected with a mechanic named Bonsack produced 120,000 “cigarettes” during the same time. Thereby, rea­ching a oversupply that had to be sold – creating a demand for it. The solution was cigarette marketing and advertising. These were placed in restaurants, bars, and cigar stores; thus, making them an important part of the worker’s period of rest and dining. Although, in principle, they were associated to women of free morals (“Smo­king is a great sensual pleasure. While smoking, I a wait for the man I love …” sang Sarita Montiel in the 1950s in a stroke of clever advertising these were transformed into symbols of women’s libe­ration. Toward the late 1920s, young women were seen marching and brandishing their freedom torches, the cigarettes. During the two world wars, cigarettes were distributed to hundreds of thou­sands of soldiers as part of their daily nutritional ration. During the immediate post-war, packs of Camel and Lucky Strike were the most used Exchange currency in Europe. With all these publi­city maneuvers, Mr. Duke and his partners have caused, as we al

  16. The forgotten people in British public health: a national neglect of the dying, bereaved and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapliagou, Aliki; Kellehear, Allan

    2016-06-01

    The clinical and social epidemiology of living with a life-threatening or life-limiting illness, frail ageing, long-term caregiving, and grief and bereavement is well documented in the palliative care, psycho-oncology and psychiatric literature but this investigation asks what interest exists from the mainstream public health sector in these health and illness experiences. This paper reports a content analysis of 7 key British public health journals, 14 major public health textbooks and 3 public health websites employing key word and synonym searches to assess the size and quality of interest in populations related to ageing, dying, caregiving, and grief and bereavement. Compared with other public health issues, such as obesity and tobacco use, for examples, interest in the social experience and epidemiology of end-of-life experiences is extremely low. Reasons for this lack of interest are explored. PMID:26892871

  17. Development of a model of the tobacco industry's interference with tobacco control programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Trochim, W; Stillman, F; Clark, P; Schmitt, C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To construct a conceptual model of tobacco industry tactics to undermine tobacco control programmes for the purposes of: (1) developing measures to evaluate industry tactics, (2) improving tobacco control planning, and (3) supplementing current or future frameworks used to classify and analyse tobacco industry documents.

  18. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  19. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  20. Tobacco Use in California, 1990

    OpenAIRE

    University of California, San Diego; California Department of Health Services

    1991-01-01

    Summary This report presents data on a partial sample of a survey of cigarette smoking behaviors and attitudes among Californians conducted during the summer of 1990. The prevalence of current smoking among adults in California is 21.2%, with males (23.8%) smoking more than females(18.8%). This represents a sharp decline in smoking following the increase in the tobacco excise tax and implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control program by the State of California,and is on track ...

  1. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the country.Broomrape (Orobanche ce

  2. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco... Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal... “pipe tobacco.” (b) Product weight. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal subject to...

  3. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  8. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  9. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  10. F/Pilipino American Substance Abuse: Sociocultural Factors and Methods of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Kevin L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the unique experiences of Filipino Americans in relation to alcohol and tobacco use. Commentary is offered for potential methods of treatment for this ethnic group. The distinction between Filipino Americans and other Asian Americans is drawn to illustrate a need for ethnocentric therapeutic…

  11. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  12. Should Tobacco Sponsorship Of Education Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008, a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area. On the roof of the school building stands the signboard "Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School." A slogan engraved on another board reads, "Tobacco helps your success."

  13. Should Tobacco Sponsorship Of Education Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008.a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area.On the roof of the school building stands the signboard"Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School."A slogan engraved on another board reads,"Tobacco heIps your Success."

  14. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  17. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  19. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  20. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  1. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  2. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallow tobacco juice when they chew or dip benefit most from nicotine replacement. Find an oral substitute for smokeless tobacco that you enjoy. This may be sugarless gum, hard candy, beef jerky or sunflower seeds. Don't substitute cigarette smoking for smokeless tobacco. ...

  3. Digital preservation at the British Library

    OpenAIRE

    Woodyard, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Ensuring the comprehensive coverage, recording and preservation of the UK national published output is one of the British Library’s key responsibilities. A significant proportion of the Library’s cultural heritage collections will be in digital formats and require long term access, so the Library has to be at the forefront of national and international efforts to develop digital preservation. The Library is addressing digital preservation by establishing policy, negotiating and legally obtain...

  4. Care credits in the British pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachantoni, Athina

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a brief outline of the first stage of a comparative research project in the role and adequacy of care credits in the British and German pension systems. The provision of care credits has been an essential part of pension reforms around Europe, which significantly changes the prospects of carers to accumulate adequate pension contributions through their life course. But although the policy significance of care credits is due to rise in line with an increasing demand...

  5. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    D.R. Seip; D.B. Cichowski

    1996-01-01

    The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces) populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus). Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitat...

  6. Nostalgia versus Feminism in British Costume Drama

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Sibel ÇELİK

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the phenomenon of (mainly British) costume drama during the last twenty-five years and the theoretical debate surrounding the socalled 'heritage' film. Critics of the 1980s and 1990s saw in the heritage film an attempt to exploit the nostalgic and conservative appeal of the historical costume drama in order to support the Thatcherite political project of redefining and reorientating national identity. Yet the costume drama, with its independently-minded heroines and its sh...

  7. Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, L. Alan

    1990-01-01

    Import protection is frequently advocated as a means of preserving jobs and avoiding labour adjustment costs. Defining adjustment costs in terms of output forgone during the process of adjustment and ignoring any general equilibrium repercussions, we estimate that quantitative restrictions on British footwear imports during 1979 protected about 1,000 jobs and avoided once-and-for-all adjustment costs of only around 1 million pounds sterling. The result is based on new data which reveal high r...

  8. Hearing care policy analysis in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Fadyeyeva, Inna

    2007-01-01

    Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...

  9. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  10. The parliamentary representation of British Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Parliamentary parties in the British House of Commons tend to experience high levels of voting unity with individual MPs only occasionally dissenting from party policy. Although constituency influence has been used extensively to predict legislative behaviour in candidate-centred electoral environments, it is argued here that constituency preferences can, under certain circumstances, shape parliamentary behaviour in a strong-party, weak personal-vote, electoral environment such as the United ...

  11. British interests in the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ellerby, Clive Richard.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the circumstances which influenced the policy of the British Government towards the decolonization of the Falklands from 1945 to 1989. A comprehensive approach to the subject enabled an examination of the inter-relationship between the various forces which defined the nature of the dilemma. The themes included economic development, the form of landownership in the Colony, Falkland polit...

  12. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  13. A critical history of British earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.

  14. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  15. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  16. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Service International Research Unit, Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-15

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  17. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  18. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto M Sebrie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Recent Global Adult Tobacco Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Akansha; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use in India is characterized by a high prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use, with dual use also contributing a noticeable proportion. In the context of such a high burden of tobacco use, this study examines the regional variations, and socioeconomic, demographic and other correlates of smoking, smokeless tobacco and dual use of tobacco in India. Methods and Findings We analyzed a cross sectional, nationally representative sample of individuals from the Global Ad...

  20. "Purchasing Power Parity Across Six British Colonies Versus Across the Same Six U.S. States, 1748-1811."

    OpenAIRE

    Farley Grubb 

    2004-01-01

    For the six major British North American colonies, five of whom independently issued their own fiat paper money, exchange rates between these colonies are constructed and combined with price indices to test purchasing power parity between these colonies. Purchasing power parity is then tested between these same six locations after they became states united politically and monetarily under a common currency with no trade barriers established by the U.S. Constitution. Even when using short span...

  1. Tobacco and psychiatric dual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders. PMID:19283970

  2. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...

  3. The problem of participation the British team at the Olympic Games in 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Sadykova, Viktoriia

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the Summer Olympics in Moscow in 1980, specifically, the issue of participation the team from Great Britain, which was manifested in the "boycott the Olympics". Paid attention to display the main cause of the boycott and study the role of the British and American governments in its organization.The article notes, that boycott the Olympic Games in Moscow was the impetus for a mass protest the countries of the world against the aggressive policy of the USSR in the lat...

  4. British Energy privatisation - 18 months on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the

  5. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. Objective : To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India′s comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Materials and Methods : Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. Results : The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco Control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. Conclusion : The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seem to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  6. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kershen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  7. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest is rising in smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to smoking, but published reviews on smokeless tobacco and cancer are limited. We review North American and European studies and compare effects of smokeless tobacco and smoking. Methods We obtained papers from MEDLINE searches, published reviews and secondary references describing epidemiological cohort and case-control studies relating any form of cancer to smokeless tobacco use. For each study, details were abstracted on design, smokeless tobacco exposure, cancers studied, analysis methods and adjustment for smoking and other factors. For each cancer, relative risks or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were tabulated. Overall, and also for USA and Scandinavia separately, meta-analyses were conducted using all available estimates, smoking-adjusted estimates, or estimates for never smokers. For seven cancers, smoking-attributable deaths in US men in 2005 were compared with deaths attributable to introducing smokeless tobacco into a population of never-smoking men. Results Eighty-nine studies were identified; 62 US and 18 Scandinavian. Forty-six (52% controlled for smoking. Random-effects meta-analysis estimates for most sites showed little association. Smoking-adjusted estimates were only significant for oropharyngeal cancer (1.36, CI 1.04–1.77, n = 19 and prostate cancer (1.29, 1.07–1.55, n = 4. The oropharyngeal association disappeared for estimates published since 1990 (1.00, 0.83–1.20, n = 14, for Scandinavia (0.97, 0.68–1.37, n = 7, and for alcohol-adjusted estimates (1.07, 0.84–1.37, n = 10. Any effect of current US products or Scandinavian snuff seems very limited. The prostate cancer data are inadequate for a clear conclusion. Some meta-analyses suggest a possible effect for oesophagus, pancreas, larynx and kidney cancer, but other cancers show no effect of smokeless tobacco. Any possible effects are not evident in Scandinavia. Of 142

  8. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  9. The urgent need to change the current medical approach on tobacco cessation in Latin America Urge cambiar el abordaje de la cesación del tabaquismo por los médicos en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the accumulation of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and the new paradigm of smoking as a disease where nicotine is the drug that modifies the functional and morphological characteristics of the brain in dependent smokers, tobacco smoking continues as an important public health problem in many Latin American countries. In contrast with big advances in the tobacco control area, as an example the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control signed by 168 c...

  10. Cigarette Smoking Among Urban American Indian Adults - Hennepin and Ramsey Counties, Minnesota, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jean; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Lamont, Genelle; D'Silva, Joanne; Erickson, Darin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, it was estimated that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indians was 36.5%, the highest of all racial/ethnic groups in the continental United States (1). Among American Indians, considerable cultural and geographic variation in cigarette smoking exists. Smoking prevalence among American Indians is lowest in the Southwest and highest in the Upper Midwest/Northern Plains (2). Little information is available about tobacco use among urban American Indians, who might not have ever lived on a reservation or be enrolled in or affiliated with a tribe. In Minnesota, a significant proportion of American Indians reside in urban areas. Among Minnesota's residents who identify as American Indian alone or in combination with another race, 30% live in Hennepin County and Ramsey County, which encompass Minneapolis and St. Paul, respectively (collectively known as the Twin Cities). The predominant tribes (Ojibwe [Chippewa] and Dakota/Lakota/Nakota [Sioux]) traditionally have used locally grown tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), red willow, and other plants for religious ceremonies, although nonceremonial tobacco is often substituted for traditional plants. To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking among this population, it is important to distinguish ceremonial tobacco use (smoked or used in other ways) from nonceremonial tobacco use. To obtain estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among American Indians in Hennepin and Ramsey counties, the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey was administered to 964 American Indian residents in 2011, using respondent-driven sampling. Among all participants, 59% were current smokers, 19% were former smokers, and 22% had never smoked. Approximately 40% of employed participants reported that someone smoked in their workplace area during the preceding week. High prevalences of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among urban American Indians in Minnesota underscores the need for a comprehensive and culturally

  11. Precocious Albion: A New Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2014-01-01

    Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...

  12. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Joshi; Dylan Kneale

    2008-01-01

    This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of pos...

  13. The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-01-01

    South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:26841882

  14. Health Risk Behaviors among Five Asian American Subgroups in California: Identifying Intervention Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Crespi, Catherine M; Alano, Ryan E.; Sudan, Madhuri; Bastani, Roshan

    2012-01-01

    This analysis assessed the prevalence of excess body weight, physical inactivity and alcohol and tobacco use in Asian American subgroups. Using 2005 California Health Interview Survey data, we estimated the prevalence of body mass index (BMI) categories using both standard and World Health Organization-proposed Asian-specific categories, physical inactivity, and alcohol and tobacco use for Chinese (n=1285), Japanese (n=421), Korean (n=620), Filipino (n=659) and Vietnamese (n=480) Americans in...

  15. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Duduk; Aleksandra Bulajić; Janoš Berenji; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2006-01-01

    Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tobacco each virus (TEV) and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV).The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were invest...

  16. Anarchic alchemists : dissident androgyny in Anglo-American gothic fiction from Godwin to Melville

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Evert Jan van

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation Anarchic Alchemists: Dissident Androgyny in Anglo-American Gothic Fiction from Godwin to Melville investigates the close generic links between British and American Gothic fictions from the late eighteenth-century up to the middle of the nineteenth century, including studies on Willi

  17. Making sense of British newspaper campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2013 Ghana reported 7 cases of measles; Britain reported over 900 – the second highest in the EU. Ghana had a 100% vaccination rate; in Britain most reported cases were among 10- 16 year olds in areas where vaccination had fallen to 50%. Last month the British government said it would lobby the European Commission to relax the restrictions on GM food and crops. In 2012, 270 million ha of GM crops were grown in 28 countries; in the EU only 2 such crops have been license...

  18. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  19. Battleships and British Society, 1920-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    This article will explore the image of the Royal Navy’s battleships in British society between 1920 and 1960. Although much of what follows might be said to apply to Royal Navy as a whole, particularly ‘glamorous’ vessels such as aircraft carriers, cruisers and destroyers, it is the contention of this piece that the Royal Navy’s battleships by virtue of their sheer size and power captured the public imagination more than any other type of warship. The study of the image of the battleship in p...

  20. A history of British Assemblies of God

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, William K.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main historical works on Assemblies of God in Britain. The first is Donald Gee's Wind and Flame (originally published under the title The Pentecostal Movement in 1941; later revised and enlarged for publication in 1967). Gee was intimately involved in much of AoG's development not only in the British Isles but also overseas, There are, however, three things which Donald Gee fails to do and which I decided to attempt in the history which follows. First, and very properly, Gee und...

  1. Tobacco control in Europe: a policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertollini, Roberto; Ribeiro, Sofia; Mauer-Stender, Kristina; Galea, Gauden

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised. PMID:27246592

  2. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    from the Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for up to 34years and in 56,211 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study followed for up to 7years. RESULTS: During follow-up, 335 and 169 individuals developed aortic aneurysm outcomes in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...

  3. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Somatunga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  4. Further investigation of the HEXA gene intron 9 donor splice site mutation frequently found in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs disease patients from the British Isles.

    OpenAIRE

    Landels, E C; Green, P.M.; Ellis, I H; Fensom, A H; Kaback, M M; Lim-Steele, J; Zeiger, K; Levy, N; Bobrow, M

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study we found that a Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) causing mutation in the intron 9 donor splice site of the HEXA gene occurs at high frequency in non-Jewish patients and carriers from the British Isles. It was found more frequently in subjects of Irish, Scottish, and Welsh origin compared with English origin (63% and 31% respectively). We have now tested, in a blind study, 26 American TSD carriers and 28 non-carriers who have British ancestry for the intron 9 splice site mutation. S...

  5. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Admini...

  6. Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, J

    1999-01-01

    One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death s...

  7. Tobacco Consumption Determinants in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Juraev, Nosirjon

    2014-01-01

    The following paper aims to contribute the existing literature on Russian tobacco use by analysing the determinants of smoking, and comparing the results to previous researches. We are also one of the few, if not the first to test the significance of BMI (Body Mass Index) with smoking habits. Our results mostly compromise with the results of previous English literature. Smokers generally tend to lose weight, and obese people naturally do not practice smoking. Educated peop...

  8. Young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging: a comparison of EU Tobacco Products Directive & Ireland's Standardisation of Tobacco Act

    OpenAIRE

    Babineau, Kate; Clancy, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging according to two current pieces of legislation: The EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) and Ireland's Public Health (Standardisation of Tobacco Products) Act. Design Within-subject experimental cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of secondary school students. School-based pen and paper survey. Setting 27 secondary schools across Ireland, randomly stratified for size, geographic location, gender, religious affi...

  9. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco..., AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal subject to internal revenue tax, have adequately...

  10. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  11. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  12. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  13. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  14. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate.

  15. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  16. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Secondhand Smoke Kills Research shows that even a little secondhand ...

  17. Tobacco Cessation Quitline Spending in 2005 and 2006: What State-Level Factors Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Paula A.; Beyer, Eric J.; Baker, Timothy B.; Bailey, Linda A.; Fiore, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation telephone quitlines are an effective population-wide strategy for smoking cessation, but funding for this service varies widely. State-level factors may explain this difference. Data from the 2005 and 2006 North American Quitline Consortium surveys and from publicly available sources were analyzed to identify factors that predict higher levels of per capita quitline funding. The best-fitting multivariate model comprised higher per capita tobacco control funding (2005 p = 0.004, 2006 p=0.000), not securitizing Master Settlement Agreement payments (2005 p = 0.008, 2006 p=0.01), and liberal political ideology (2005 p = 0.002, 2006 p=0.002). Select state-level factors appear to have influenced per capita quitline services funding. These findings can help inform advocates and policymakers as they advocate for quitlines and tobacco control funding. PMID:19440282

  18. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  19. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  20. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  1. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  2. Quality management in production of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko; Smokvoski, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Improvement of quality management in tobacco industry should be a continuous process if we want to keep up with the latest trends in the world. A starting point in improvement of QM is to introduce the international quality standards ISO-9000. This will help to maintain the current state and to follow the technological development, technical innovations and changes in the market. In addition, international standards specific to this branch (tobacco and tobacco products) must be also con...

  3. Chemistry and toxicology of smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Bhisey, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    In most parts of the world, tobacco is used for smoking, whereas, in India, tobacco is used for smoking as well as in diverse smokeless forms. Absorption of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco and other ingredients added to various products are causally associated with several non-communicable diseases including cancer, especially oral cancer, which is the leading cancer among men and the third most common cancer among women in India. This article highlights the toxicity, mutagenecity...

  4. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry S; Chaudhry K

    2007-01-01

    Background : The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. Objective : To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India′s comprehensive...

  5. Taxation of smokeless tobacco in India

    OpenAIRE

    S K Rout; Arora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of fiscal policy, especially taxation, though has been proved to be an effective instrument of tobacco control, its application is limited in India due to several reasons. This paper examines the tax structure, price and affordability of SLT products in order to provide evidence on how to strengthen the role of fiscal policy in tobacco control. Method: Secondary data on tax structure and revenue from tobacco products were collected from the Ministry of Finance, Government...

  6. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    L C Somatunga; D N Sinha; P Sumanasekera; K Galapatti; S Rinchen; A Kahandaliyanage; Mehta, F. R.; N L Jayasuriya-Dissanayake

    2012-01-01

    To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT us...

  7. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis, N; AKMG Hussain; Fong, G T

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand...

  8. Tobacco Use Among Individuals With Schizophrenia: What Role Has the Tobacco Industry Played?*

    OpenAIRE

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Hall, Sharon M.; Bero, Lisa A

    2007-01-01

    Rates of tobacco use among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have been estimated as high as 80%. A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the high rate of tobacco use among this vulnerable group. This study examined the tobacco industry's efforts to establish and promulgate beliefs about schizophrenic individuals’ need to smoke and the hazards of quitting. The current study analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents. The initial search was conducted during Janua...

  9. Irreconcilable Conflict: The Tobacco Industry and the Public Health Challenge of Tobacco Use

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Up to half of tobacco users will die of cancer, lung disease, heart disease, stroke, or another tobacco-related disease. Cigarettes and other tobacco products cause disease because they expose their users to nicotine and numerous other toxic chemicals. Tobacco companies have been working to develop a “safe” cigarette for more than half a century. Initially, their attention focused on cigarettes that produced lower tar and nicotine yields in machine-smoking tests. T...

  10. Fatal Deception: The tobacco industry's "new" global standards for tobacco marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Saloojee, Yussuf; Hammond, Ross

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the proposed global standards for tobacco marketing and assesses whether it will lead to the responsible marketing of tobacco products. It concludes that the proposed measures will not lead to any substantive changes in current tobacco advertising practices and will not protect children from tobacco marketing. The report recommends that governments should reject the industry’s overtures, and instead rapidly implement past World Health Assembly resolutions on toba...

  11. The impact of local U.S. tobacco policies on youth tobacco use: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    FRIEND, KAREN B.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States, killing over 430,000 people annually. Tobacco initiation and use among youth remains a significant public health concern. Despite declines in U.S. youth tobacco use in recent years, state and national survey results are still cause for alarm. Although traditional school-based curricular programs are the most common strategy to prevent or reduce youth tobacco use, their effectiveness may be limit...

  12. Retailers' knowledge of tobacco harm reduction following the introduction of a new brand of smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio Francis; Rosenberg Zale; Heavner Karyn K; Phillips Carl V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicotine, for cigarettes. The introduction of a Swedish-style ST product, du Maurier snus (dMS) (Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited), which was marketed as a THR product, provided a unique opportunity to assess retailers' knowledge. This study examined retailers' knowledge of...

  13. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution. PMID:14660122

  14. Tobacco Company Strategies to Undermine Tobacco Control Activities at the World Health Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Committee of Experts on Tobacco Industry Documents, World Health Organization

    2000-01-01

    Evidence from tobacco industry documents reveals that tobacco companies have operated for many years with the deliberate purpose of subverting the efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO) to control tobacco use. The attempted subversion has been elaborate, well financed, sophisticated, and usually invisible.

  15. Teenagers' Use of Tobacco and Their Perceptions of Tobacco Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…

  16. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Methods Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer‐reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Results Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak “share of voice” in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Conclusions Tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries. PMID:17130625

  17. Research on American English Translation of Chinese Signs in Baoding from the Perspective of Cultural Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Zhao; Ruixian Ma; Xiaomei Du

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at analyzing the American English translation of Chinese signs in Baoding from the perspective of cultural differences. The thesis researches on signs translation from a new angle by separating American English translation from British English translation and puts special emphasis on American English signs translation, which may be helpful to the standardization of signs translation in China. Through digging out the cultural differences from different thinking mode, value, an...

  18. The Infrastructure of the Fur Trade in the American Southwest, 1821-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Call, Hadyn B.

    2014-01-01

    Careful study of the published history of the American Southwest reveals that historians have not provided a comprehensive analysis of the infrastructure that enabled the fur trade in the American Southwest to thrive. Analysis of that infrastructure unveils an amalgamation of blended characteristics derived from the French, British, and American systems along with characteristics derived from the Southwest’s own evolutionary development over time and space. This paper will detail and explain ...

  19. Smokeless tobacco consumption among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muttapppallymyalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : More than one-third of the tobacco consumed regionally is of smokeless form. Aims : To determine the prevalence and pattern of smokeless tobacco use among school children. Settings and Design : This cross-sectional study was conducted among children in 5 randomly selected high schools in Kannur district, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1200 children. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis : PASW 17 software was used for data analysis. Results : The mean age of the students was 14.4 years with a standard deviation (SD of 1.2 years, and 8.5% (CI, 7.1-10.2 of the participants were tobacco users. Smokeless tobacco was used by 2% (CI, 1.2-3.4 of the participants. None of the female students used tobacco products. Among the tobacco users, the mean age at the start of any tobacco use was 12.8 years with an SD of 1.1 years. The minimum age was 12 years and the maximum was 14 years. More than 50% smokeless tobacco users started their habit at the age of 12 years; 38.5% of them started at the age of 13 years and remaining at the age of 14 years. The 84.6% smokeless tobacco users were using it 2-3 times a week and 39% of them revealed that the tobacco products were purchased from shops located near the schools. Among the users, one used to keep the quid in the mouth for more than half an hour. Conclusion : The study concludes that there is a need to educate the children regarding the hazards associated with tobacco consumption.

  20. Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants Prevalencia de consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en inmigrantes latinoamericanos adultos Prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas em adultos imigrantes latino-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael González-López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%. For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices.Con el fin de estimar la prevalencia por autorreporte del consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en la población adulta de inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Sevilla, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra representativa de 190 inmigrantes. Los resultados mostraron que el 61,4% de los sujetos bebió alcohol en el mes anterior a la recolección de datos, y el 13,2% de los participantes mostró tener riesgo de alcoholismo. El 30,0% ya era fumador. El 5,3% de los encuestados ha consumido drogas ilícitas en los últimos seis meses (marihuana: 3,7%, el hachís, la cocaína un 1,1% y 0,5%. Para todas las sustancias investigadas, la prevalencia de consumo fue mayor en hombres de 25-39 años. Se concluye que los inmigrantes tienen una alta prevalencia de consumo de drogas. La enfermera puede prevenir estos comportamientos de riesgo mediante la implementación de prácticas educativas.Para estimar a prevalência de autorrelato de consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas da população adulta de latino

  1. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    Britain's race for Africa continues to draw significant scholarly interest. Traditionally, studies have focused on well-documented figures such as explorers, missionaries and capitalists. Working against the trend, this is the first book to concentrate solely on the role of engineers. It analyses...... the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen...... reconstructs the networks and activities of Britain's engineers while focusing on London as a centre of imperial expansion. By treating Britain and the empire as an interconnected zone heanalyses the ways in whichideas , people and technologies circulated during the critical period....

  2. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  4. What Does the “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” Mean to Tobacco Growers?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Kelly; Starnes, Jane H.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.

    2010-01-01

    The “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” was signed into law on June 22, 2009. The bill grants the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco leaf is not subject to the regulation. As a result, it is not apparent what it does mean to tobacco growers. However, since the demand for tobacco is in large part determined by the demand for cigarettes, a change in demand for cigarettes due to the FDA ...

  5. Tobacco, Microbes, and Carcinogens: Correlation Between Tobacco Cure Conditions, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Content, and Cured Leaf Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Audrey D; Fisher, Colin; Jack, Anne; Moe, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are carcinogenic N-nitrosamine compounds present at very low levels in freshly harvested tobacco leaves that accumulate during leaf curing. Formation of N-nitrosamine compounds is associated with high nitrate levels in the leaf at harvest, and nitrate is presumed to be the source from which the N-nitrosation species originates. More specifically, nitrite is considered to be a direct precursor, and nitrite is linked with N-nitrosation in many environmental matrices where it occurs via microbial nitrate reduction. Here, we initiate work exploring the role of leaf microbial communities in formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Leaves from burley tobacco line TN90H were air cured under various temperature and relative humidity levels, and 22 cured tobacco samples were analyzed for their microbial communities and leaf chemistry. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and total tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels revealed a strong positive correlation between the three variables, as well as a strong positive correlation with increasing relative humidity during cure conditions. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess microbial communities in each of the samples. In most samples, Proteobacteria predominated at the phylum level, accounting for >90 % of the OTUs. However, a distinct shift was noted among members of the high tobacco-specific nitrosamine group, with increases in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Several OTUs were identified that correlate strongly (positive and negative) with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Copy number of bacterial nitrate reductase genes, obtained using quantitative PCR, did not correlate strongly with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Incomplete denitrification is potentially implicated in tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels. PMID:27023797

  6. Identification of bacterial and fungal components in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutkiewicz Jacek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The microbiological composition of tobacco products was studied using culture and chemical analysis (of tobacco leaves or chemical analysis only (tobacco and tobacco smoke. The chemical analyses utilized gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids, muramic acid, and ergosterol as markers of respectively lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peptidoglycan, and fungal biomass. Mesophilic bacteria dominated in both fresh and cured tobacco leaves; a range of additional bacteria and fungi were also found albeit in minor amounts. The peptidoglycan and LPS concentrations were approximately the same in tobacco leaves as in cigarette tobacco. The concentrations of the measured microbial components were much lower in some cigarettes locally produced in China, Korea, and Vietnam than in cigarettes of international brands purchased in the same countries, and the concentrations in the smoke were in general agreement with the concentrations in cigarette tobacco. No differences in microbial load in tobacco of "light" and "full flavor" cigarettes were seen. Storing cigarettes at high humidity resulted in elevated levels of fungi in the cigarette tobacco leading to increased ergosterol concentrations in the smoke. The fact that tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol may help to explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and non-smokers exposed to second hand smoke since the same symptoms are also commonly associated with exposure to bioaerosols.

  7. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK. PMID:12147434

  8. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  9. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. PMID:22257526

  10. Quadratic tracer dynamical models tobacco growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the non-uniformly transferring process of some tracer dosages, we assume that the absorption of some tracer by tobacco is a quadratic function of the tracer quantity of the tracer in the case of fast absorption, whereas the exclusion of the tracer from tobacco is a linear function of the tracer quantity in the case of slow exclusion, after the tracer is introduced into tobacco once at zero time. A single-compartment quadratic dynamical model of Logistic type is established for the leaves of tobacco. Then, a two-compartment quadratic dynamical model is established for leaves and calms of the tobacco. Qualitative analysis of the models shows that the tracer applied to the leaves of the tobacco is excluded finally; however, the tracer stays at the tobacco for finite time. Two methods are also given for computing the parameters in the models. Finally, the results of the models are verified by the 32P experiment for the absorption of tobacco. (authors)

  11. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth Donald R; Bagaitkar Juhi; Scott David A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacteri...

  12. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  13. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  14. The tobacco industry's code of advertising in the United States: myth and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, J. W.; Tye, J. B.; Fischer, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The major American tobacco companies developed and agreed to abide by the Cigarette Advertising Code in 1964. The stated aims of the code were to prohibit advertising directed at young people, to prohibit advertising that used fraudulent health claims, and to assure compliance with the code's provisions through the establishment of an administrative arm and enforcement mechanism to prescreen and monitor all cigarette advertising. In the 32 years since the Cigarette Advertising Code's ad...

  15. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues. PMID:24732156

  16. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μ Sv y-1 (average 79.7 μ Sv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μ Sv y-1 (average 67.1 μ Sv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μ Sv y-1 (average 104.7 μ Sv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μ Sv y-1 (average 251.5 μ Sv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1). (authors)

  17. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliverie...

  18. Nanofibrillated cellulose from tobacco industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzzin, Glaiton; Godinho, Marcelo; Dettmer, Aline; Zattera, Ademir José

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco stems waste underwent steam explosion pulping for nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) production. In order to obtain NFC hydrogels, the pulp obtained by steam explosion was bleached and refined in a grinder employing specific energy of up to 5067kWh/t. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was processed under the same conditions to produce NFC hydrogels, later used in order to compare with NFC hydrogels from tobacco stems waste. According to statistical analysis, the optimum tobacco stems pulping condition was obtained with a severity index of log3.0 and active alkali of 16.25%. These conditions allowed obtaining a bleached pulp with Schopper Riegler degree of 46. Electronic microscopy with field emission showed a higher presence of nanofibers in the tobacco stems pulp than in commercial eucalyptus kraft pulp, both after refining. Thermal analysis indicated that tobacco stems pulp degrade at lower temperatures than eucalyptus kraft pulp. FTIR analysis did not indicate chemical bonding differences between the two pulps. PMID:27185117

  19. British Gas marks progress in drive for global operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that British Gas plc, London, is driving to boost the share of its business that comes form outside the U.K. Non-U.K. activities accounted for about 10% of the company's business last year. By the turn of the century earnings form British Gas's non-U.K. exploration and production activities are expected to be about in line with those form the U.K. core business. In addition, the company's global gas business unit-acquisitions, sales, of British Gas technology worldwide, and power generation form gas-will contribute significantly to overseas earnings

  20. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  1. GURKHA IN THE BRITISH ARMY : A HISTORICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL KUMAR POKHAREL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of Gorkhali men's recruit in the British Army is about two centuries long. Its history can be traced from the time of colonial India. When Anglo-Nepal war was took place in 1814-16 British surprised by seeing their fighting capacities. During the course of two great wars Gorkhali proved them as a warrior races and it was followed by in the Falkland war too. So, this article is written in the periphery of recruitment of Gorkhali people in to the British army and it gives its historical knowledge to the readers in some extent.

  2. La propagande anti-britannique en France pendant l’Occupation Anti-British Propaganda in France during the Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Passera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Left to fight alone after France signed the armistice on the 22nd of June 1940, Great Britain became enemy number one in the eyes of the German occupying forces and the Vichy government. This hostility found expression in a considerable quantity of propaganda in the guise of posters, tracts, booklets and brochures meant to denounce British responsibility for the conflict in the eyes of French public opinion. Propaganda was particularly intense from June to December 1940 and from January to June 1944 but the German and French propaganda services waged this psychological warfare against Great Britain throughout the war. In 1940, the anti-British brainwashing campaigns aimed at ridding the defeated French of their guilt by accusing the ex-ally of being the cause of the conflict and of deceit during the Battle of France. In 1941-1942, the Allies’ military setbacks were the subject of tracts and brochures that ridiculed British strategic skills. Propaganda was also based on the painful history of France and Great Britain so as to convince the French that England had always tried to deprive France of her colonies and that it was what she was trying to do by maintaining her presence in Africa. The major part of this propaganda was promoted by the German authorities, only to a lesser degree by the French collaboration parties. Till 1942, the Information Secretariat of the Vichy government distributed few anti-British tracts, concentrating its efforts on the promotion of the National Revolution. On the other hand, the first Anglo-American bombings in the Paris area provoked strong reactions in the Vichy government which then relied on the French population’s confusion and anxiety to denounce British policy. What was the impact of these anti-British speeches on the French population? The prefects’ reports on public opinion show that the plugging of Anglophobic sentiment had little influence on the French who were globally in complete support of the

  3. British FEs Share Community College Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Toby

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of Britain's 565 further education (FE) institutions and a forecast for postsecondary education's future. Suggests that FEs are like American community colleges, providing skills and academic training to enable individuals to reach the next step in their career, and promoting economic development. (VWC)

  4. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Nargis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. Results: The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at −0.64 and of higher priced brands at −0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. Conclusions: This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  5. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Sabrina T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Methods Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. Results The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30% of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23 and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22. Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98. Conclusions This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  6. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  7. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  8. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278. ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  10. Tobacco and the escalating global cancer burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppeltz, Richard F; Jatoi, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888

  11. Tobacco industry interference for pictorial warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Oswal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : A study was carried out to understand the process of interference by the tobacco industry, to measure the compliance of the industry for displaying pictorial warnings on a tobacco product as per the packaging and labeling rules post 31 st May, 2009, and to understand the public opinion on the messages conveyed through such warnings. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 samples of tobacco products were purchased after 31 May, 2009, from the retail vendors of tobacco sellers across the country. Results : The government of India has from time to time, taken measures, including legislations, to control tobacco consumption. The actual implementation of these rules has been postponed repeatedly, apparently because of constant pressure exerted by the tobacco industry. The skull and bone sign hurting religious sentiments as stated by the group of ministers proved to be misleading. Later the Group of Ministers (GOM proposed three very weak and poorly communicative pictorial health warnings to replace those recommended by the Union Health Ministry based on the inputs of the Department of Audio Visual Publicity (DAVP. The industry tried to use strategic means by displaying a dull, diluted, and watered down pictorial warning. The focus group study conducted showed that a scorpion gets associated with the product in a non-scientific manner. X-ray of the lung was hardly understood by anybody. Conclusion : Overall the tobacco industry has constantly flouted with the law right from the policy level to its implementation by displaying dull, diluted, and poorly informed pictorial warnings.

  12. Analysis of the British Commercial Real Estate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Memanova, Tamilyam

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on the economic evaluation of the British commercial real estate market and feasibility study of London’s inner-city office development. Thereby, synthesis of specialized literature and market researches, quantitative analysis of real estate indicators and study of financial viability of 20 Fenchurch Street project were implemented. Based on economic analysis, it was deduced that British commercial real estate markets are steadily recovering from recession start...

  13. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  14. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels and their determinants in older British men

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon Lucy; Papacosta Olia; Whincup Peter; Haines Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there has been concern about the levels of carbon monoxide exposure, particularly among older people, little is known about COHb levels and their determinants in the general population. We examined these issues in a study of older British men. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4252 men aged 60–79 years selected from one socially representative general practice in each of 24 British towns and who attended for examination between 1998 and 2000. Blood samples were mea...

  15. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa

    2009-01-01

    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  16. British anarchism 1881-1914: reality and appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Shpayer, H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis examines the history of British anarchism in the late Victorian and Edwardian era against the background of the movement's popular image. The prevalent image of anarchism assumed the individual to be an unscrupulous criminal and the movement to be a conspiracy intent on unleashing revolutionary violence upon the world. Such a description imparted little of the authentic pursuits and beliefs of British anarchism and proved to be one of the major obstacles ev...

  17. Small farms and climate change adaptation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Kaleen

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...

  18. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  19. Making of British India fictions, 1772-1823

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates British fictional representations of India in novels, plays and poetry from 1772 to 1823. Rather than simply correlating literary portrayals to shifting colonial context and binary power relationships, the project relates representations to the impact of India on British popular culture, and print capitalism’s role in defining and promulgating national identity and proto-global awareness. The study contends that the internal historical development of th...

  20. Remnants of Empire? British media reporting on Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the various ways in which the British media, and the broadsheets The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph in particular, have framed and represented events in Zimbabwe since 2000. It argues that representations of the situation in Zimbabwe have been largely struggles over meanings and definitions of the ‘crisis’ in the country. The extensive media coverage of Zimbabwe in the British media generated a significant amount of debate and this article demonstrates h...

  1. A nestbox trial for British marsh tits Poecile palustris

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton, Richard K.; Hinsley, Shelley A.

    2014-01-01

    Two experimental nestbox trials were attempted, which aimed to maximise uptake by Marsh Tits in British woodland. Nestboxes which more closely approximated the dimensions of natural cavities were used more frequently than standard nestboxes, but the overall uptake was low. We conclude that nestboxes are an inefficient method of monitoring Marsh Tits, at least in the British context, and researchers should concentrate efforts on locating and monitoring natural nest sites.

  2. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  3. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  4. Genomic screen for loci associated with tobacco usage in Mission Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmsen Kirk C

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco usage in Native American adults and adolescents is higher than any other racial or ethnic group, yet biological risk and protective factors underlying tobacco use in this ethnic group remain unknown. A genome scan for loci associated with tobacco use phenotypes was performed with data collected from a community sample of Mission Indians residing in Southwest California. Methods A structured diagnostic interview was used to define two tobacco use phenotypes: 1 any regular tobacco usage (smoked daily for one month or more and 2 persistent tobacco usage (smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day for more than one year. Heritability was determined and a linkage analysis was performed, using genotypes for a panel 791 microsatellite polymorphisms, for the two phenotypes using variance component methods implemented in SOLAR. Results Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores for the two tobacco use phenotypes revealed two scores that exceeded 2.0 for the regular use phenotype: one on chromosomes 6 and one on 8. Four other loci on chromosomes 1,7,13, and 22 were found with LOD scores between 1.0 and 1.5. Two loci of interest were found on chromosomes 1 and 4 for the persistent use phenotype with LOD scores between 1.3–1.5. Bivariate linkage analysis was conducted at the site on chromosome 4 for persistent tobacco use and an alcohol drinking severity phenotype previously identified at this site. The maximum LOD score for the bivariate analysis for the region was 3.4, however, there was insufficient power to exclude coincident linkage. Conclusion While not providing evidence for linkage to specific chromosomal regions these results identify regions of interest in the genome in this Mission Indian population, for tobacco usage, some of which were identified in previous genome scans of non-native populations. Additionally, these data lend support for the hypothesis that cigarette smoking, alcohol

  5. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  6. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  7. Climate change and health in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document described the models that scientists use to investigate the links between climate change and health. It then reviewed the evidence for possible impacts of climate change on human health. Most models conceptualize that climate change will affect the health of British Columbians directly through physical and biological pathways, and indirectly through complex socio-economic and environmental pathways. The direct physical and biological pathways will be the easiest to investigate, monitor and attribute to climate change, while the indirect socio-economic pathways will be more complex to investigate but will have the most impact. This document also provided guidance for a program of research and policy directions to better predict future impacts of climate change on health in BC and to enhance adaptation to these changes. The document suggested that basic research is needed to develop a made in BC model and infrastructure for climate change and health investigations. Currently, rural and remote forestry-dependent and Aboriginal communities in mountain pine infected zones are particularly vulnerable. However, it was concluded that although there is strong evidence for shifts in climate in BC, no direct evidence exists on the impact of climate change on human health in BC. refs., tabs., figs

  8. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  9. State of the air in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  10. Appendix XXIX: Succession management in British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy has formal succession management arrangements, which have evolved over the years to meet the needs of the company. Whilst they are an ongoing process, the arrangements are most manifest in an annual review which results in an overall succession plan for the company. The process embodies a twin-track approach of reviewing existing managers whilst also identifying younger staff with significant potential. These younger staff members are allocated into one of two groupings: those identified as having director level potential, who have their development managed centrally, and those considered to have management potential, the development of whom is managed by the business unit to which they belong, with support from the center as requested. The staff members in both these groupings are kept under review and, if the circumstances warrant it, there may be movement between the two groupings. The aim of succession management is to ensure the company has sufficient experienced, qualified and tested staff to provide succession to senior and other key posts

  11. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  12. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  13. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  14. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  15. Tobacco Industry Interference in the WHO European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2012-01-01

    WHO selected tobacco industry interference as the theme of the 2012 World No Tobacco Day, recognizing the serious danger the tobacco industry poses to public health and the need to expose and counter the industry’s increasing attempts to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control...

  16. 7 CFR 29.75 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.75 Section 29.75... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75 Accessibility of tobacco. (a) All tobacco subject to mandatory inspection shall be made readily accessible for inspection. (b)(1)...

  17. It unfolded quite wonderfully: a history of the Certificate in Conflict Resolution at the Justice Institute of British Columbia 1983–1993

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Nym Annie-Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The Certificate in Conflict Resolution based at the Justice Institute of British Columbia was a manifestation of a North American conflict resolution movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Its location in a justice and public safety training institution facilitated its emergence and its first decade was marked by exponential growth. This study makes visible the theoretical and contextual bases of this first Canadian post-secondary conflict resolution educational program. A narrative research approa...

  18. Tobacco smoke-induced lung fibrosis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O

    2014-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns discouraging smoking, 1,000 American children every day become smokers, ensuring that tobacco-related health complications will be with us for decades to come. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for both chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. The facts that not every smoker develops chronic lung disease and that lung pathology differs markedly among smokers indicate that individual susceptibility must be a central determinant of lung injury responses to cigarette smoke. Comparative examination of pathogenic mechanisms of smoke-induced lung disease can shed light on the homeostatic pathways critical to maintaining lung health. In this review, we explore common and divergent biological forces tilting the lung homeostatic balance away from health and toward emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis. We emphasize recent insights that highlight the greatest contrasts or similarities in the pathogenesis of these two chronic lung disease phenotypes. PMID:24274738

  19. Tobacco smoke. Effects on pulmonary host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-07-01

    Tobacco smoke affected both the metabolism and function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM). Phagocytosis of viable Staphylococcus aureus and inert starch particles was minimally but consistently depressed in PAM from rats exposed to tobacco smoke for six months. Oxygen consumption, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity were elevated in cells from smokers. Oxidation of glucose, labelled in the carbon-six position, remained unchanged. All observed effects of tobacco smoke on oxygen metabolism occurred during phagocytosis and did not affect the basal metabolism of the nonstimulated cell. PMID:225267

  20. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given. PMID:19634530

  1. Tobacco Cessation Interventions for Underserved Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Despite high rates of smoking among some subgroups of women, there is a lack of tailored interventions to address smoking cessation among women. We identify components of a women-centered approach to tobacco cessation by analyzing 3 bodies of literature: sex and gender influences in tobacco use and addiction; evidence-based tobacco cessation guidelines; and best practices in delivery of women-centered care. Programming for underserved women should be tailored, build confidence and increase motivation, integrate social justice issues and address inequities, and be holistic and comprehensive. Addressing the complexity of women’s smoking and tailoring appropriately could help address smoking among subpopulations of women.

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Grant

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies and British Columbia (Canada. These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC. A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

  3. Management of primary hypothyroidism: statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Gilbert, Jackie; Abraham, Prakash; Boelaert, Kristien; Dayan, Colin; Gurnell, Mark; Leese, Graham; McCabe, Christopher; Perros, Petros; Smith, Vicki; Williams, Graham; Vanderpump, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report improved well-being on initiation of treatment. However, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer with symptoms despite achieving adequate biochemical correction. The management of such individuals has been the subject of controversy and of considerable public interest. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. These guidelines have been based on extensive reviews of the medical literature and include sections on the role of combination therapy with L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3) in individuals who are persistently dissatisfied with L-T4 therapy. This position statement by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) summarises the key points in these guidelines and makes recommendations on the management of primary hypothyroidism based on the current literature, review of the published positions of the ETA and ATA, and in line with best principles of good medical practice. The statement is endorsed by the Association of Clinical Biochemistry, (ACB), British Thyroid Foundation, (BTF), Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Society for Endocrinology (SFE). PMID:26010808

  4. Countermeasures for Tobacco Branding and Industrial Development in Enshi Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Guangzhong

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as “Tobacco Kingdom†and “World Capital of Selenium†. It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco, burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then, it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and i...

  5. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $ ...

  6. Introduction : from the British Tertiary into the future - modern perspectives on the British Palaeogene and North Atlantic Igneous provinces.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Dougal A.; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Troll, Valentin R.

    2009-01-01

    The study of volcanic rocks and igneous centres has long been a classic part of geological research. Despite the lack of active volcanism, the British Isles have been a key centre for the study of igneous rocks ever since ancient lava flows and excavated igneous centres were recognized there in the 18th century (Hutton, 1788). This led to some of the earliest detailed studies of petrology. The starting point for many of these studies was the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP; formerly...

  7. Do State Expenditures on Tobacco Control Programs Decrease Use of Tobacco Products Among College Students?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of state tobacco control program expenditures on individual-level tobacco use behaviors among young adults. Data come from the 1993, 1997, 1999 and 2001 waves of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). Our findings indicate that a higher level of state spending on tobacco control programs is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability that smokers report at least one attempt to quit ...

  8. Tobacco Usage and Attitude towards Tobacco Cessation among Prisoners in India – A Cross Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Samyukta; Khanagar, Sanjeev Balappa; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Kodoth, Jithesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a highly addictive substance. Tobacco usage is considered one of the main causes responsible for the death of adults worldwide, with 4.9 million deaths occurring worldwide each year. And if the current tobacco usage patterns continue, it will cause some 10 million deaths every year by 2020. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out among 566 prisoners of central prison Bangalore, who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected using a questionnaire ...

  9. Military Line Leadership and Tobacco Control: Perspectives of Military Policy Leaders and Tobacco Control Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Poston, Walker S. C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership vi...

  10. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  11. Knowledge and attitude towards the health effects of tobacco and measures of tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a major public health threat the world has ever faced. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world. Without the effective implementation of tobacco regulation policy, the risk itself cannot be minimized. The aim of this study is to provide the adolescents knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking, and knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco control measures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive type of study was conducted in December 2013 in one of the government school of Palpa district, one of the rural areas of the Western region. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS 17 version. Microsoft Excel 2007 is also used for the data processing. Results: There is substantial support for the government taking measure towards tobacco control (96%. Furthermore, strong supports are there regarding ban of smoking in public places and public transport (95% followed by increasing price of tobacco products (87%, banning sales of tobacco to and by minors (82% and ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (73%. Conclusion: The study focuses the effective implementation of the Tobacco Control and Regulation Act 2011, Nepal and health education should be provided to the adolescents with the facts and skills that will enable them to protect themselves from the harmful effects of tobacco related exposure.

  12. Tobacco marketing in California and implications for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Roeseler, April; Feighery, Ellen C.; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco marketing influences tobacco use initiation, maintenance of use, and it undermines comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Policies to ban the impact of tobacco marketing are most likely to be more effective if they are comprehensive, as partial bans shift marketing to non-banned forms of media. A comprehensive approach to reducing tobacco marketing includes documentation through monitoring, media and policy interventions and aggressive enforcement of existing laws. Metho...

  13. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Jahnke, SA; Poston, WS; Malone, RE; Haddock, CK

    2016-01-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts.To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive ...

  14. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16–26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and ...

  15. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Ruth E; Kanamori Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Amazon.com Japan using t...

  16. Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the global amount of forest and woodland consumed annually for curing tobacco between 1990 and 1995; to estimate tobacco's share in total deforestation; to rank tobacco-growing countries by the degree of impact of tobacco deforestation; and to indicate environmental criticality emerging from tobacco's impact on forest resources. 
DESIGN—Production of country-specific estimates of forests/woodlands needed and depleted on the basis of growing stock/increment of woody biomas...

  17. Giuliana Iannaccaro - Giovanni Iamartino (Eds., Enforcing and Eluding Censorship: British and Anglo-Italian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Milani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enforcing and Eluding Censorship: British and Anglo-Italian Perspectives is a wide-ranging edited collection offering fourteen contributions on the forms and practices of regulation and reaction connected with censorship. The collection spans several historical periods, media, methodologies and disciplines, from English literature to Linguistics and Translation Studies, thus offering a very broad – yet fragmentary at stages – set of perspectives on the complex and often not overt phenomena of (countercensorship in the Anglo-American culture and Anglo-Italian cultural relationships.  The edited collection is introduced by a preface by one of the editors, Giuliana Iannaccaro, who outlines in rich detail the structure of the book.

  18. Searching for South Asian intelligence: psychometry in British India, 1919-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Shivrang

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction and development of intelligence testing in British India. Between 1919 and 1940 experimenters such as C. Herbert Rice, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Venkatrao Vithal Kamat imported a number of intelligence tests, adapting them to suit a variety of South Asian languages and contexts. Charting South Asian psychometry's gradual move from American missionary efforts toward the state, this paper argues that political reforms in the 1920s and 1930s affected how psychometry was "indigenized" in South Asia. Describing how approaches to race and caste shifted across instruments and over time, this paper charts the gradual recession, within South Asian psychometry, of a "race" theory of caste. Describing some of the ways in which this "late colonial" period affected the postcolonial landscape, the paper concludes by suggesting potential lines for further inquiry into the later career of intelligence testing in India and Pakistan. PMID:25183435

  19. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour

    2006-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Smokeless Tobacco: A Guide for Quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to other tobacco products like cigarettes or cigars! In fact, if you already smoke, this is ... be patient. Constipation/irregularity Add fiber to your diet (whole grain breads and cereals, fresh fruits and ...

  1. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  2. Tobacco Advertising Study, 2008/2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The California Tobacco Advertising Survey (CTAS) is a longitudinal cohort study of California stores that sell cigarettes. The data table shows the percentage of...

  3. Banning smokeless tobacco in India: Policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the second largest producer and third largest consumer of tobacco. According to GATS India Report (2009-10, the users of only smokeless tobacco (SLT are more than double than that of smokers. SLT use is an imminent public health problem, which is contributing to high disease burden in India. It is a "unique" tobacco product due to its availability in myriad varieties, easy access, and affordability especially for adolescents. It has been studied to be a gateway product and facilitates initiation. Currently, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI have prohibited the use of tobacco and nicotine in any food products; yet, the implementation of a permanent ban on SLT across India is still pending. This paper examines how multiple legislations have failed to effectively control or regulate SLT in India and regionally; thus, there is need to strengthen SLT control efforts as "no ordinary product."

  4. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high.......23 kg/m(2) (0.33; 0.13) lower body mass index, 0.32 cm (0.74; 0.003) lower waist circumference and 0.45 cm (0.66; 0.24) lower hip circumference. No association was found between tobacco consumption and waist-hip ratio in genetic analysis, or among CHRNA3 genotype and any of the outcome variables in......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study with a...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses....

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  12. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  14. The action of NGOs in the field of disarmament (between ambitions and limitations) and the British example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first tries to characterize the various NGOs committed in the struggle for disarmament (countries of origin, size, organisation, ties with a political party or a trade union, typology). Then, by addressing different aspects of disarmament (anti-personnel mines, extraordinary sessions of the UN General Assembly dedicated to disarmament, Freeze campaign, or the National Missile Defense), the author identifies and discusses the various strengths and failures of NGOs in their ability to influence the States diplomatic activity or in their legitimacy to intervene. In a second part, the author more particularly addresses the British example. He proposes a sociological analysis of British NGOs (occurrence of the words 'peace' and 'nuclear' in their names, religious or professional dimension), and briefly presents some of them (Acronym Institute, British American Security Information Council, International Security Information Service - UK, Vertic, Programme for Promoting the nuclear non-proliferation or PPNN, Pugwash, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Labour Action for Peace). He comments the evolution of the Labour Party into the New Labour created by Tony Blair

  15. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Results Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Conclusions Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  16. The history of British gynaecological pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible

  17. Swimming Upstream: Tobacco Policy Making in Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Gregory MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political force in Nevada. The industry dominated state politics through a combination of strategic alliances with the hospitality and gaming industries and campaign contributions. From 1990-2006 the tobacco industry contributed $552,111 to the state political parties and individuals running for state office. In 1975, health groups in Nevada attempted to pass a legislative proposal, AB 17, that would have required smoking and non-smoking sections in al...

  18. Smokeless tobacco consumption among school children

    OpenAIRE

    J Muttapppallymyalil; J Sreedharan; B Divakaran

    2010-01-01

    Background : More than one-third of the tobacco consumed regionally is of smokeless form. Aims : To determine the prevalence and pattern of smokeless tobacco use among school children. Settings and Design : This cross-sectional study was conducted among children in 5 randomly selected high schools in Kannur district, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1200 children. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistic...

  19. Attitudes of dental professionals toward tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Kalyan Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The habit of tobacco consumption has plagued all nations from time immemorial. While tobacco use is decreasing in many developed countries, it is increasing in developing countries like India. Health care professionals have a key role to play to motivate and advise tobacco users to quit. Aim: The aim was to assess the attitudes and practice of dental professionals in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai toward tobacco cessation and the potential barriers faced. Subjects and Methods: Questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 500 dental surgeons in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai. The questionnaire contained close-ended questions and assessed the smoking status of the professional, whether they impart tobacco cessation advice to their patients, whether the professional is trained for basic intervention, whether they would be eager to undergo training and also the potential barriers encountered by the professional. Statistical Analysis Used: The SPSS version 17 was used. Frequencies and percentages were used to determine distributions of the responses for each of the variables. Chi-square test was used for analysis. Results: It was observed that the majority of dental clinicians do not use tobacco and although 93% believed that it is the role of the dental professional to offer advice, 21% do not. Potential barriers reported were: Little chance of success, lack of training, lack of time, lack of remuneration, and the possibility of losing patients. Conclusions: Dental professionals must expand their horizon and armamentarium to tobacco intervention strategies inclusive of their regular preventive and therapeutic treatment modalities. Furthermore, the dental institutions (schools should include tobacco intervention in the curriculum, but it should not be just theoretical knowledge rather it must have a practical component.

  20. Attitudes of dental professionals toward tobacco use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dipika Kalyan; Pawar, Sudarshana Devendrasing; Mandal, Anahita; Shah, Rohit Ajay; Rodrigues, Silvia Victor; Desai, Ankit Bharat; Pathare, Pragalbha Nandkumar; Shingnapurkar, Saurabh Hemant; Vijayakar, Harshad Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The habit of tobacco consumption has plagued all nations from time immemorial. While tobacco use is decreasing in many developed countries, it is increasing in developing countries like India. Health care professionals have a key role to play to motivate and advise tobacco users to quit. Aim: The aim was to assess the attitudes and practice of dental professionals in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai toward tobacco cessation and the potential barriers faced. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 500 dental surgeons in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai. The questionnaire contained close-ended questions and assessed the smoking status of the professional, whether they impart tobacco cessation advice to their patients, whether the professional is trained for basic intervention, whether they would be eager to undergo training and also the potential barriers encountered by the professional. Statistical Analysis Used: The SPSS version 17 was used. Frequencies and percentages were used to determine distributions of the responses for each of the variables. Chi-square test was used for analysis. Results: It was observed that the majority of dental clinicians do not use tobacco and although 93% believed that it is the role of the dental professional to offer advice, 21% do not. Potential barriers reported were: Little chance of success, lack of training, lack of time, lack of remuneration, and the possibility of losing patients. Conclusions: Dental professionals must expand their horizon and armamentarium to tobacco intervention strategies inclusive of their regular preventive and therapeutic treatment modalities. Furthermore, the dental institutions (schools) should include tobacco intervention in the curriculum, but it should not be just theoretical knowledge rather it must have a practical component. PMID:26229275