WorldWideScience

Sample records for britain spatial analysis

  1. The Europeanisation of spatial planning in Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    contestation over meanings, played out in policy debates, in documentation and in other practices of spatial planning. In particular we concentrate on how images are used together with textual references and discussions to form a persuasive component of spatial discourse. We therefore analyse these...... representations of space as contested, rather than as the outputs of rational spatial analysis. Overall the paper argues that whilst the use of images in EU spatial policy dicourse succeeds in strongly visioning a polucentric Europe of flows, it also  reproduces the uncertainties, conflicts and tesions which...

  2. Spatial and temporal analysis of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide residues in polecats (Mustela putorius) from throughout their range in Britain, 1992-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no evidence that extent of exposure of polecats to second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides has changed in Britain during the 1990s nor is it higher in recently recolonised areas in England where usage is higher. - Polecats (Mustela putorius) in Britain are currently expanding their range eastwards from Wales to reoccupy central and eastern areas of England. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), to which polecats are exposed by eating contaminated prey, are used more extensively in these central and eastern regions, leading to fears of increased exposure, and possible resultant mortality. We measured bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen and brodifacoum concentrations in the livers of 50 polecats from areas that included newly recolonised habitats and found that at least one SGAR was detected in the livers of 13 out of 37 (35.1%) male and 5 out of 13 (38.5%) female polecats. Difenacoum and bromadiolone were detected most frequently. We then combined these data with measurements on another 50 individuals from earlier studies to create a dataset for 100 polecats collected throughout the 1990s from across the whole of their current range. Using this dataset, we determined if there was any evidence that contamination in polecats had increased during the 1990s and whether animals from England were more contaminated than those from Wales, as might be expected given regional differences in the patterns of SGAR use. Overall, 31 of the 100 polecats analysed to date contained SGAR residues. The incidence was a little higher (40%) in animals that died between January and June and this probably better reflects the overall proportion of animals that are sub-lethally exposed. There was no statistically significant change during the 1990s in the proportion of polecats exposed to SGARs nor any evidence that greater use of SGARs in England resulted in more contamination of polecats. Contrary to expectation, the proportion of animals that contained

  3. Spatial and temporal analysis of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide residues in polecats (Mustela putorius) from throughout their range in Britain, 1992-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, R.F.; Birks, J.D.S.; Afsar, A.; Wienburg, C.L.; Kitchener, A.C

    2003-04-01

    There is no evidence that extent of exposure of polecats to second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides has changed in Britain during the 1990s nor is it higher in recently recolonised areas in England where usage is higher. - Polecats (Mustela putorius) in Britain are currently expanding their range eastwards from Wales to reoccupy central and eastern areas of England. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), to which polecats are exposed by eating contaminated prey, are used more extensively in these central and eastern regions, leading to fears of increased exposure, and possible resultant mortality. We measured bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen and brodifacoum concentrations in the livers of 50 polecats from areas that included newly recolonised habitats and found that at least one SGAR was detected in the livers of 13 out of 37 (35.1%) male and 5 out of 13 (38.5%) female polecats. Difenacoum and bromadiolone were detected most frequently. We then combined these data with measurements on another 50 individuals from earlier studies to create a dataset for 100 polecats collected throughout the 1990s from across the whole of their current range. Using this dataset, we determined if there was any evidence that contamination in polecats had increased during the 1990s and whether animals from England were more contaminated than those from Wales, as might be expected given regional differences in the patterns of SGAR use. Overall, 31 of the 100 polecats analysed to date contained SGAR residues. The incidence was a little higher (40%) in animals that died between January and June and this probably better reflects the overall proportion of animals that are sub-lethally exposed. There was no statistically significant change during the 1990s in the proportion of polecats exposed to SGARs nor any evidence that greater use of SGARs in England resulted in more contamination of polecats. Contrary to expectation, the proportion of animals that contained

  4. Spatial and temporal analysis of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide residues in polecats (Mustela putorius) from throughout their range in Britain, 1992-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R F; Birks, J D S; Afsar, A; Wienburg, C L; Kitchener, A C

    2003-01-01

    Polecats (Mustela putorius) in Britain are currently expanding their range eastwards from Wales to reoccupy central and eastern areas of England. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), to which polecats are exposed by eating contaminated prey, are used more extensively in these central and eastern regions, leading to fears of increased exposure, and possible resultant mortality. We measured bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen and brodifacoum concentrations in the livers of 50 polecats from areas that included newly recolonised habitats and found that at least one SGAR was detected in the livers of 13 out of 37 (35.1%) male and 5 out of 13 (38.5%) female polecats. Difenacoum and bromadiolone were detected most frequently. We then combined these data with measurements on another 50 individuals from earlier studies to create a dataset for 100 polecats collected throughout the 1990s from across the whole of their current range. Using this dataset, we determined if there was any evidence that contamination in polecats had increased during the 1990s and whether animals from England were more contaminated than those from Wales, as might be expected given regional differences in the patterns of SGAR use. Overall, 31 of the 100 polecats analysed to date contained SGAR residues. The incidence was a little higher (40%) in animals that died between January and June and this probably better reflects the overall proportion of animals that are sub-lethally exposed. There was no statistically significant change during the 1990s in the proportion of polecats exposed to SGARs nor any evidence that greater use of SGARs in England resulted in more contamination of polecats. Contrary to expectation, the proportion of animals that contained difenacoum was marginally higher in Wales than elsewhere. PMID:12531306

  5. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood 'clustering' structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author)

  6. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Sylvia; Monfort, Christine [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Villejuif, 94 (France); Green, Martyn; Muirhead, Colin [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Draper, Gerald [Oxford Univ., Childhood Cancer Research Group, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood `clustering` structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author).

  7. An analysis of childhood leukaemia and natural radiation in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following claims that indoor radon may be responsible for a significant proportion of leukaemia cases, a correlation study has been performed of childhood leukaemia and levels of natural radiation in small areas throughout Britain. Analysis at the district level showed no statistically significant results. Based on larger geographical areas (counties) there were indications of a statistically significant positive trend in the leukaemia risk with indoor radon level and of a significant negative trend with indoor gamma level, under an analysis that included radon and gamma terms simultaneously. However, these trends were reversed (but were not significant) for an analysis at the district level adjusted for county. This discrepancy could not be explained by random errors in the measurement of natural radiation levels, and seems likely to have been caused by confounding factors affecting the analysis based on larger areas (counties). Consequently this study does not support the claims of a measurable link between radon exposure and leukaemia. (author)

  8. Epidemiological analysis of data for scrapie in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Donnelly, C.; Ferguson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the control or eradication of scrapie and any other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) possibly circulating in the sheep population has become a priority in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the dev

  9. Leukaemia clusters in childhood: geographical analysis in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, E.G.

    1994-08-01

    Study objective - To validate previously demonstrated spatial clustering of childhood leukaemias by showing relative proximities of selected map features to cluster locations, compared with control locations. If clusters are real, then they are likely to be close to a determining hazard. Design -Cluster postcode loci and partially matched control postcodes were compared in terms of distances to railways, main roads, churches, surface water, woodland areas, and railside industrial installations. Further supporting comparisons between non-clustered cases and random postcode controls with those map features representable as single grid points were made. Setting -England, Wales, and Scotland 1966-83. Subjects - Grid referenced registrations of 9406 childhood leukaemias and non-Hodgkin`s lymphomas, including 264 pairs (or more) separated by <150 m, and grid references of random postcodes in equal numbers. Main results - the 264 clusters showed relative proximities (or the inverse) to several map features, of which the most powerful was an association with railways. The non-railway associations seemed to be statistically indirect. Some railside industrial installations, identified from a railway atlas, also showed relative proximities to leukaemia clusters, as well as to non-clustered cases, but did not ``explain`` the railway effect. These installations, with seemingly independent geographical associations, included oil refineries, petrochemical plants, oil storage and oil distribution depots, power stations, and steelworks. Conclusions - The previously shown childhood leukaemia clusters are confirmed to be non-random through their systematic associations with certain map features when compared with the control locations. The common patterns of close association of clustered and non-clustered cases imply a common aetiological component arising from a common environmental hazard - namely the use of fossil fuels, especially petroleum. (UK)

  10. Britain Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    provides introductions to prominent ideas, social, political, and cultural critique and responses, all of contemporary relevance. In addition to providing the necessary basic and factual information, the book and its homepage suggest student assignments, topics for presentations and essays, and literature......In Britain Today, topics and key subjects are chosen to reflect the most important social, political, and cultural issues in Britain today, with a focus on those that Scandinavian lecturers and students will find particularly important and engaging. Avoiding overly descriptive approaches, the book...

  11. Journeys to health services in Great Britain: an analysis of changing travel patterns 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Julian; Kamruzzaman, Md

    2012-03-01

    This paper examines changing patterns in the utilisation and geographic access to health services in Great Britain using National Travel Survey data (1985-2006). The utilisation rate was derived using the proportion of journeys made to access health services. Geographic access was analysed by separating the concept into its accessibility and mobility dimensions. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the differences between different socio-spatial groups in these indicators over the period 1985-2006. This study found that journey distances to health facilities were significantly shorter and also gradually reduced over the period in question for Londoners, females, those without a car or on low incomes, and older people. However, most of their rates of utilisation of health services were found to be significantly lower because their journey times were significantly longer and also gradually increased over the periods. These findings indicate that the rate of utilisation of health services largely depends on mobility level although previous research studies have traditionally overlooked the mobility dimension. PMID:22014623

  12. Anti-nuclear weapons activism in the United States and Great Britain: a comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, G.

    1987-01-01

    This study is a response to the lacuna in empirical research into political activism and the nuclear issue and seeks to ascertain the social and value characteristics, political attitudes, and political behavior of activists in the United States and Great Britain. Consideration is also given to gender differences in light of evidence of an emerging gender gap in these two countries. The study investigates the common forces cited in two sets of literature - post-industrialism and anti-nuclear weapons movements - which provide a framework for analysis. Survey research data is employed to assess cross-national similarities and differences. The findings obtained indicate that while American and British activists exhibit common social and value characteristics, British activists appear more integrated in their political opposition to nuclear weapons compared with their American counterparts. Survey results indicate that the political-action repertoire of these activists is quite diverse, suggesting a new style of politics in advanced industrial democracies. Gender-based analysis reveals two important findings. First, activist American men differ significantly from the other three social groups in their attitudes towards nuclear weapons. Second, activist women in both national settings participate at a level equal to or exceeding that of activist men.

  13. Professional analysis in spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis contributes to accomplishment of the three basic aims of spatial planning: it is basic element for setting spatial policies, concepts and strategies, gives basic information to inhabitants, land owners, investors, planners and helps in performing spatial policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects. Analysis in planning are generally devoted to: understand current circumstances and emerging conditions within planning decisions; determine priorities of open questions and their solutions; formulate general principles for further development.

  14. Wages and the education and employment choices of young people: empirical analysis for Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the responsiveness of the education and employment choices of young people in Great Britain to the level of wages currently available to them in the labour market. Our results show that among young males in particular, the probability of continued participation in full-time education declines significantly as the expected wage increases. The effects for young women are smaller and not statistically significant in general. In addition, we find that the probability of being ...

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  16. Perspectives on spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This book takes both a retrospective and prospective view of the field of spatial analysis by combining selected reprints of classic articles by Arthur Getis with current observations by leading experts in the field. Four main aspects are highlighted, dealing with spatial analysis, pattern analysis, local statistics as well as illustrative empirical applications. Researchers and students will gain an appreciation of Getis' methodological contributions to spatial analysis and the broad impact of the methods he has helped pioneer on an impressively broad array of disciplines including spatial epidemiology, demography, economics, and ecology. The volume is a compilation of high impact original contributions, as evidenced by citations, and the latest thinking on the field by leading scholars. This makes the book ideal for advanced seminars and courses in spatial analysis as well as a key resource for researchers seeking a comprehensive overview of recent advances and future directions in the field.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  18. Local models for spatial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    In both the physical and social sciences, there are now available large spatial data sets with detailed local information. Global models for analyzing these data are not suitable for investigating local variations; consequently, local models are the subject of much recent research. Collecting a variety of models into a single reference, Local Models for Spatial Analysis explains in detail a variety of approaches for analyzing univariate and multivariate spatial data. Different models make use of data in unique ways, and this book offers perspectives on various definitions of what constitutes

  19. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Henrys

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Great Britain currently have nitrogen (N deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads. Previous studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, whereas here we look at individual species. We used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to N in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg N scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys indicating increased fertility. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. A number of these species were either habitat dominants or possessed traits known to be influential in controlling ecosystem function. Many community dominants showing significant negative relationships with N deposition highlight a potentially significant loss of function. Some species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels. Some species also showed continuous changes as N deposition levels rose above the current critical load values. This work contributes to the growing evidence base suggesting species level impacts at low N deposition values.

  20. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star...

  1. Spatial analysis of weed patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijting, S.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:    Spatial analysis, weed patterns, Mead’s test, space-time correlograms, 2-D correlograms, dispersal, Generalized Linear Models, heterogeneity, soil, Taylor’s power law.   Weeds in agriculture occur in patches. This thesis is a contribution to the characterization of this patchiness, to i

  2. Nitrogen impacts on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Henrys

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of the United Kingdom currently have nitrogen (N deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads, and are predicted to continue to do so. Previous studies have shown that this excess N can be very damaging to semi-natural ecosystems. However, such studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, possibly missing the risk that increased deposition can have on individual plant species. To address this gap in knowledge, we used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain: the vascular plant database and the Botanical Society of the British Isles local change network to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to nitrogen in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. Species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels.

  3. Methodology of Comparative Analysis of Public School Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methodology of comparative analysis of public school teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of the research methodology, used to conduct the comparative analysis. Their major components of the research model (parametric-determining, conceptual and analytical, integrating-analytical and differentiating-analytical, prognostic component have been defined and specified. Public school teachers’ CPD has been studied by foreign and domestic scientists: political, social, cultural and economic aspects of teachers’ CPD (L. Darling-Hammond, M. Tight; CPD programs (C. Pratt; CPD content (N. Dana Fichtman, M. Rees, A. Ross, S. Zepeda; CPD models, methods and forms (K. Duinlan, P. Grimmet, G. Troia, P. Wong; continuous professional education (Ya. Belmaz, A. Kuzminskyy, O. Kuznyetsova. The research methodology comprises theoretical (comparative-historical, logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis, general scientific and interdisciplinary forecasting methods, and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  4. A critical analysis of anti-Islamisation and anti-immigration discourse:the case of the English Defence League and Britain First

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Kader, Noha

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the discursive strategies employed by two of the far-right movements in the UK, specifically in the English Defence League (EDL) and Britain First, when dealing with immigration and what they term as the “Islamisation of Britain”. The paper will demonstrate how these movements frame their arguments by employing strategies of positive-self and negative-other representation. The analysis will rely on the Discourse Historical Approach (DHA) as a framework for examining the mi...

  5. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  6. Introduction to Models in Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Lena

    2007-01-01

    The book provides a broad overview of the different types of models used in advanced spatial analysis. The models concern spatial organization, location factors and spatial interaction patterns from both static and dynamic perspectives. This introductory chapter proposes a discussion on the different meanings which are given to models in the field of spatial analysis depending on the formalization framework (statistics, GIS, computational approach). Core concepts as spatial interaction and le...

  7. A New Methodology of Spatial Crosscorrelation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The idea of spatial crosscorrelation was conceived of long ago. However, unlike the related spatial autocorrelation, the theory and method of spatial crosscorrelation analysis have remained undeveloped. This paper presents a set of models and working methods for spatial crosscorrelation analysis. By analogy with Moran's index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form and by means of mathematical reasoning, I derive a theoretical framework for geographical crosscorrelation analysis. First, two sets of spatial crosscorrelation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial crosscorrelation coefficient and a set of local spatial crosscorrelation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial crosscorrelation is proposed, and different scatterplots show different relationships between correlated variables. Based on the spatial crosscorrelation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial crosscorrelation) and indirect correlation (sp...

  8. a spatial panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lottmann, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes determinants for regional differences in German unemployment rates. We specify a spatial panel model to avoid biased and inefficient estimates due to spatial dependence. Additionally, we control for temporal dynamics in the data. Our study covers the whole of Germany as well as East andWest Germany separately. We exploit district-level data on 24 possible explanatory variables for the period from 1999 until 2007. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamic panel model is ...

  9. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere-Williams, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry. PMID:25276875

  10. Spatial analysis and planning under imprecision

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Y

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with complexity, imprecision, human valuation, and uncertainty in spatial analysis and planning, providing a systematic exposure of a new philosophical and theoretical foundation for spatial analysis and planning under imprecision. Regional concepts and regionalization, spatial preference-utility-choice structures, spatial optimization with single and multiple objectives, dynamic spatial systems and their controls are analyzed in sequence.The analytical framework is based on fuzzy set theory. Basic concepts of fuzzy set theory are first discussed. Many numerical examples and emp

  11. Local models for spatial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Christopher D

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on solutions, this second edition provides guidance to a wide variety of real-world problems. The text presents a complete introduction to key concepts and a clear mapping of the methods discussed. It also explores connections between methods. New chapters address spatial patterning in single variables and spatial relations. In addition, every chapter now includes links to key related studies. The author clearly distinguishes between local and global methods and provides more detailed coverage of geographical weighting, image texture measures, local spatial autocorrelation, and multic

  12. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis and Industry Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Kosfeld, Reinhold; Eckey, Hans-Friedrich; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Traditional measures of spatial industry concentration are restricted to given areal units. They do not make allowance for the fact that concentration may be differently pronounced at various geographical levels. Methods of spatial point pattern analysis allow to measure industry concentration at a continuum of spatial scales. While common distance based methods are well applicable for sub-national study areas, they become inefficient in measuring concentration at various levels within indust...

  13. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Migration and Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Sokal, R R; Jacquez, G M; Wooten, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    We test various assumptions necessary for the interpretation of spatial autocorrelation analysis of gene frequency surfaces, using simulations of Wright's isolation-by-distance model with migration or selection superimposed. Increasing neighborhood size enhances spatial autocorrelation, which is reduced again for the largest neighborhood sizes. Spatial correlograms are independent of the mean gene frequency of the surface. Migration affects surfaces and correlograms when immigrant gene freque...

  14. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from twelve equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman-Monteith equations reproduce best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically-based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the twelve PET equations. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen-Hense and calibrated Blaney-Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley-Taylor, Makkink and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within the range of

  15. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  16. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  17. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper;

    residuals generalise the well-known residuals for point processes in time, used in signal processing and survival analysis. An important difference is that the conditional intensity or hazard rate of the temporal point process must be replaced by the Papangelou conditional intensity $lambda$ of the spatial....... The conditional intensity $lambda$ plays the role of the mean response. Elaborating this analogy gives us recommendations for diagnostic plots and model criticism using these residuals. A plot of smoothed residuals against spatial location, or against a spatial covariate, is effective in diagnosing spatial trend...

  18. Kinematic analysis of spatial parallel manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyses a particularly spatial manipulator, establish initial data and based on fixed geometrical link parameters we conduct a kinematic analysis of manipulator by Denavit-Hartenberg matrix way. (author)

  19. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005.......Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005....

  20. Roman Amphoras in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tyers

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the principal classes of amphoras circulating in Britain during the Roman period (1st c. BC - 4th c. AD. The form, fabric, sources, contents and dating of each type are described in a series of Atlas Pages, accompanied by a series of computer-generated maps. The Atlas pages can also be accessed through a clickable map, based on the source of the amphoras, through a time-line, showing which types are circulating at any period, a visual index, as well as through a full text search. The supporting data include a bibliography and a database of the distribution of these amphoras in Britain.

  1. How Different Newspapers Cover Xingjian Conflicts from Human Right Perspective? A Frame Analysis of 10 Newspapers from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Mainland China, Britain and Unites States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hwa Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drastic increase of riots has been noted in Xingjian, the far-western Chinese region, in recent years, resulting in international media concerns about its ethnic conflicts, terrorism and human rights abuses. How different newspapers covered those conflict events from the human rights perspective? The paper aims to analyze different news frames of 10 newspapers: 4 major Taiwan newspapers, 2 China’s major newspapers, 2 Hong Kong newspapers, New York Times of US and The Guardian in Britain. Adopting a content analysis of 7 major Xingjian riots coverage during 2013/06 to 2013/12, the research finds out that there are 2 major frames, one is the China official frame, which shows less news sources with one-sided pro-regime position, accusing the protesters, concerning less human rights abuses. While the “critical frame” demonstrates more news sources from different positions, accusing both the regime and the protesters, and covering more human rights abuses.

  2. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H. E. Mr Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition. From 14 to 17 November 30 British companies exhibited leading edge technologies at CERN. This is Britain's 18th exhibition at CERN since 1968. Out of the 30 companies, which attended the Britain at CERN exhibition in 1998, 25 have received an order or a contract relating to CERN during the last two years. The exhibition was inaugurated on Tuesday by Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International. He was accompanied by H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse CMG, OBE, Her Majesty's Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. David Roberts, Deputy Head of Mission and Director of Trade Promotion at the British Embassy in Bern. CERN Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, underlined the major contribution of British physicists to CERN, pointing out the fact ...

  3. Supplementary pension coverage in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrientos

    1998-01-01

    The 1986 Social Security Act introduced far-reaching changes to the supplementary pension environment in Britain, encouraging the growth of defined contribution pension plans and especially personal pensions. This paper examines the pattern of supplementary pension coverage of employees in Britain five years after the implementation of the Act, using cross-sectional data from the Family Resources Survey 1993-94. Two-thirds of employees in Britain are covered by private contracted-out pension ...

  4. A New Methodology of Spatial Cross-Correlation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran’s index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is deri...

  5. Spatially comprehensive data for forestry scenario analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of forest data for national level policy making. Three major issues were considered: (i) to determine typical requirements of data in forestry scenario analysis, (ii) to evaluate and further develop methods to determine data requirements, and (iii) to develop methods that improve data usability in forestry scenario analysis. Increasingly, the trend is to use spatially comprehensive data as a basis for forestry scenario analysis. Compared to traditional approache...

  6. Multivariate Analysis of Variance Using Spatial Ranks

    OpenAIRE

    KYUNGMEE CHOI; JOHN MARDEN

    2002-01-01

    The authors consider multivariate analysis of variance procedures based on the multivariate spatial ranks. Two models are considered: the location-family model and the fully nonparametric model. Procedures for testing main and interaction effects are given for the 2 × 2 layout.

  7. A metapopulation of the lizard Anguis fragilis (Squamata: Anguidae on a local scale in Dorset, Great Britain, as indicated by spatial distribution and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Haley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A metapopulation is a group of spatially structured populations, consisting of distinct units (subpopulations that are separated by space or barriers, and connected by dispersal movements. Evidence derived from Gaussian finite-mixture models and dispersal events suggests that slow-worms may exist in a metapopulation. The Gaussian finite-mixture models showed that slow-worms are aggregated into individual subpopulations; the movement data revealed that males are more likely to migrate than females and that they have the ability to travel sufficiently far to bridge subpopulations. Therefore, the evidence supports the metapopulation theory and that slow-worms exist in multiple small subpopulations instead of one large homogenous population.

  8. Putting Partnership Into Practice In Britain

    OpenAIRE

    William Brown

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews industrial relations developments in Britain during 1999 by assessing how New Labour's policy commitment to encouraging 'partnership' is developing in practice. After a discussion of the Employment Relations Act it considers the wider influence of European legislation. It then describes how partnership approaches have been developing in trade union policy and industrial practice. This leads to an analysis of the operation of two explicit 'social partnership' institutions, AC...

  9. Tourism activity and economic conditions in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolakis, A.; Clark, Dave

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of tourism activity on local business and economic conditions in local economies in Britain. The empirical investigation focuses on whether or not tourism activity is beneficial to local rural and urban economies and informs policy makers aiming to maximise their tourism potential. The analysis differentiates local authority areas into two distinct groups according to the intensity of tourism employment (below and above average). Whilst the empirical evidence su...

  10. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs (Friday 09h00-12h00) Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors the list of lectures. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK (Pirelli Cables) 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherto...

  11. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex...

  12. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials E...

  13. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL-PS

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex X-Ray &...

  14. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  15. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  16. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-nine companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherton) Ltd 5. Data Systems & Solutions (Advanced Con...

  17. Geochemical study on hot-spring water in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Lahan, M. M.; Verave, R. T.; Irarue, P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    West New Britain Province, which occupies the western part of New Britain Island in Papua New Guinea, is ideally located within an active tectonic region that influences volcanism creating an environment favourable for geothermal activity. Geothermal mapping of surface manifestations reveals high temperature geothermal prospects along the northern coastline of West New Britain Province that are further confirmed by geochemical analysis. The occurrence of geothermal features ...

  18. Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Durham

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the types of figurines found in Roman Britain. Over 1000 figurines of Late Iron Age or Roman date are known from Britain, but there has been no consideration of the group as a whole. While many individual pieces have been published in excavation reports or as notes, many more remain largely unpublished and unknown. The publication of this corpus makes the data available to a wide audience, and in particular those involved in the study of Roman material culture. While the majority of figurines are of copper alloy, there is a small number in other metals including iron and lead. The figurines from Britain comprise a wide range of types depicting Roman and Gallo-Roman deities, human figures, birds and animals. The spatial and social distribution of the major types will also be discussed.

  19. Spatially Resolved Analysis of Bragg Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets an inherent control of optical shrinkage in photosensitive polymers, contributing by means of spatially resolved analysis of volume holographic phase gratings. Point by point scanning of the local material response to the Gaussian intensity distribution of the recording beams is accomplished. Derived information on the local grating period and grating slant is evaluated by mapping of optical shrinkage in the lateral plane as well as through the depth of the layer. The influence of recording intensity, exposure duration and the material viscosity on the Bragg selectivity is investigated.

  20. Spatial interaction analysis in probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In severe probabilistic risk assessments (PRA), it has been shown that accident scenarios involving ''external events'', such as fires and floods, can make an important contribution to the frequency of core damage and radionuclide release. These events belong to the broader category of common cause events, and an important issue in the evaluation of these events is whether a complete set of scenarios has been considered. In this article, a systematic scoping method is described for identifying and ranking scenarios involving environmental hazards that originate within plant boundaries and for determining the scope of the following detailed external event analysis. This method is also known as spatial interaction analysis. It was developed as part of the Seabrook Station Probabilistic Safety Assessment and has since been improved and applied to two other PRAs

  1. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE WITH SPATIALLY CORRELATED SECONDARY VARIABLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data sets which contain measurements on a spatially referenced response and covariate are analyzed using either co-kriging or spatial analysis of covariance. While co-kriging accounts for the correlation structure of the covariate, it is purely a predictive tool. Alternatively, spatial analysis of c...

  2. Spatial Data Mining using Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.N.Santhosh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining, which is refers to as Knowledge Discovery in Databases(KDD, means a process of nontrivialexaction of implicit, previously useful and unknown information such as knowledge rules, descriptions,regularities, and major trends from large databases. Data mining is evolved in a multidisciplinary field ,including database technology, machine learning, artificial intelligence, neural network, informationretrieval, and so on. In principle data mining should be applicable to the different kind of data and databasesused in many different applications, including relational databases, transactional databases, datawarehouses, object- oriented databases, and special application- oriented databases such as spatialdatabases, temporal databases, multimedia databases, and time- series databases. Spatial data mining, alsocalled spatial mining, is data mining as applied to the spatial data or spatial databases. Spatial data are thedata that have spatial or location component, and they show the information, which is more complex thanclassical data. A spatial database stores spatial data represents by spatial data types and spatialrelationships and among data. Spatial data mining encompasses various tasks. These include spatialclassification, spatial association rule mining, spatial clustering, characteristic rules, discriminant rules,trend detection. This paper presents how spatial data mining is achieved using clustering.

  3. TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECIFIC SPATIAL COMPLEX NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    JUN WANG; GREGORY PROVAN

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyses of specific spatial networks, we compare the accuracy of three models in capturing topologies of two types of spatial networks: electronic circuits and brain networks. The models analyzed are an optimization model trading off multiple-objective constraints, an extended preferential attachment model with spatial constraints, and the generalized random graph model. First, we find that the optimization model and the spatial preferential attachment model can generate similar top...

  4. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and we propose diagnostic plots based on them. The residuals apply to any point process model that has a conditional intensity; the model may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on...... spatial covariates. Some existing ad hoc methods for model checking (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity and Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases. Diagnostic tools are developed systematically, by using an analogy between our spatial residuals and the ususal residuals...... plots. A plot of smoothed residuals against spatial location, or against a spatial covariate, is effective in diagnosing spatial trend or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction....

  5. Recent developments in spatial analysis spatial statistics, behavioural modelling, and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Getis, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, spatial analysis has become an increasingly active field, as evidenced by the establishment of educational and research programs at many universities. Its popularity is due mainly to new technologies and the development of spatial data infrastructures. This book illustrates some recent developments in spatial analysis, behavioural modelling, and computational intelligence. World renown spatial analysts explain and demonstrate their new and insightful models and methods. The applications are in areas of societal interest such as the spread of infectious diseases, migration behaviour, and retail and agricultural location strategies. In addition, there is emphasis on the uses of new technologoies for the analysis of spatial data through the application of neural network concepts.

  6. Part 2 The Link between GIS and spatial analysis . GIS, spatial econometrics and social science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselin, Luc

    Some ideas are formulated on the challenges presented to GIS, spatial analysis and spatial econometrics that result from recent trends in social science research. These new developments are characterized by a focus on the geography of phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the need to extend concepts of space, to broaden the analytical toolbox and to develop software and advance education.

  7. Spatial Analysis of the Japanese Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Akio Kusakabe; Jinhwan Oh

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes gas prices, costs, and expenditures in Japan from a spatial perspective. The main findings are as follows: (1) Gas prices, costs, and expenditures exhibit spatially dependent patterns throughout Japan and are related to the service area locations of the gas distributors. (2) Regional conditions, including weather, production shipment, and availability and method of procuring domestic natural gas are the main determinants influencing gas prices and cost levels in Japan. The...

  8. Geostatistics and Analysis of Spatial Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2007-01-01

    This note deals with geostatistical measures for spatial correlation, namely the auto-covariance function and the semi-variogram, as well as deterministic and geostatistical methods for spatial interpolation, namely inverse distance weighting and kriging. Some semi-variogram models are mentioned, specifically the spherical, the exponential and the Gaussian models. Equations to carry out simple og ordinary kriging are deduced. Other types of kriging are mentioned, and references to internation...

  9. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian) mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recor...

  10. Book review: Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns by J. Illian, A. Penttinen, H. Stoyan and D. Stoyan. Wiley (2008), ISBN 9780470014912......Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns by J. Illian, A. Penttinen, H. Stoyan and D. Stoyan. Wiley (2008), ISBN 9780470014912...

  11. A prototype auto-human support system for spatial analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lianfa; WANG Jinfeng

    2006-01-01

    Spatial analysis is a multidisciplinary field that involves multiple influential factors, variation and uncertainty, and modeling of geospatial data is a complex procedure affected by spatial context, mechanism and assumptions. In order to make spatial modeling easier, some scholars have suggested a lot of knowledge from exploratory data analysis (EDA), specification of the model, fitness and diagnosis of the model, to interpretation of the model. Also an amount of software has improved some functionalities of spatial analysis, e.g. EDA by the dynamic link (GeoDa) and robust statistical calculation (R). However, there are few programs for spatial analysis that can automatically deal with unstructured declarative issues and uncertainty in machine modeling using the domain knowledge. Under this context, this paper suggests a prototype support system for spatial analysis that can automatically use experience and knowledge from the experts to deal with complexity and uncertainty in modeling. The knowledge base component, as the major contribution of the system, in support of the expert system shell, codes and stores declarative modeling knowledge, e.g. spatial context, mechanisms and prior knowledge to deal with declarative issues during the modeling procedure. With the open architecture, the system integrates functionalities of other components, e.g. GIS' visualization, DBMS, and robust calculation in an interactive environment. An application case of spatial sampling, design and implementation of spatial modeling with such a system is demonstrated.

  12. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    OpenAIRE

    Richard White

    2012-01-01

    Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fadin...

  13. Analysis of a spatially deconvolved solar pore

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, C Quintero; Cobo, B Ruiz; Suematsu, Y; Katsukawa, Y; Ichimoto, K

    2016-01-01

    Solar pores are active regions with large magnetic field strengths and apparent simple magnetic configurations. Their properties resemble the ones found for the sunspot umbra although pores do not show penumbra. Therefore, solar pores present themselves as an intriguing phenomenon that is not completely understood. We examine in this work a solar pore observed with Hinode/SP using two state of the art techniques. The first one is the spatial deconvolution of the spectropolarimetric data that allows removing the stray light contamination induced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. The second one is the inversion of the Stokes profiles assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium that let us to infer the atmospheric physical parameters. After applying these techniques, we found that the spatial deconvolution method does not introduce artefacts, even at the edges of the magnetic structure, where large horizontal gradients are detected on the atmospheric parameters. Moreover, we also describe the p...

  14. Second order analysis for spatial Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    We derive summary statistics for stationary Hawkes processes which can be considered as spatial versions of classical Hawkes processes. Particularly, we derive the intensity, the pair correlation function and the Bartlett spectrum. Our results for Gaussian fertility rates and the extension to...... marked Hawkes processes are discussed....

  15. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link......-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure....

  16. Analysis of a spatially deconvolved solar pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Shimizu, T.; Cobo, B. Ruiz; Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.

    2016-05-01

    Solar pores are active regions with large magnetic field strengths and apparent simple magnetic configurations. Their properties resemble the ones found for the sunspot umbra although pores do not show penumbra. Therefore, solar pores present themselves as an intriguing phenomenon that is not completely understood. We examine in this work a solar pore observed with Hinode/SP using two state of the art techniques. The first one is the spatial deconvolution of the spectropolarimetric data that allows removing the stray light contamination induced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. The second one is the inversion of the Stokes profiles assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium that let us to infer the atmospheric physical parameters. After applying these techniques, we found that the spatial deconvolution method does not introduce artefacts, even at the edges of the magnetic structure, where large horizontal gradients are detected on the atmospheric parameters. Moreover, we also describe the physical properties of the magnetic structure at different heights finding that, in the inner part of the solar pore, the temperature is lower than outside, the magnetic field strength is larger than 2 kG and unipolar, and the LOS velocity is almost null. At neighbouring pixels, we found low magnetic field strengths of same polarity and strong downward motions that only occur at the low photosphere, below the continuum optical depth log τ = -1. Finally, we studied the spatial relation between different atmospheric parameters at different heights corroborating the physical properties described before.

  17. Analysis of a spatially deconvolved solar pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Shimizu, T.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.

    2016-08-01

    Solar pores are active regions with large magnetic field strengths and apparent simple magnetic configurations. Their properties resemble the ones found for the sunspot umbra although pores do not show penumbra. Therefore, solar pores present themselves as an intriguing phenomenon that is not completely understood. We examine in this work a solar pore observed with Hinode/SP using two state of the art techniques. The first one is the spatial deconvolution of the spectropolarimetric data that allows removing the stray light contamination induced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. The second one is the inversion of the Stokes profiles assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium that let us to infer the atmospheric physical parameters. After applying these techniques, we found that the spatial deconvolution method does not introduce artefacts, even at the edges of the magnetic structure, where large horizontal gradients are detected on the atmospheric parameters. Moreover, we also describe the physical properties of the magnetic structure at different heights finding that, in the inner part of the solar pore, the temperature is lower than outside, the magnetic field strength is larger than 2 kG and unipolar, and the line-of-sight velocity is almost null. At neighbouring pixels, we found low magnetic field strengths of same polarity and strong downward motions that only occur at the low photosphere, below the continuum optical depth log τ = -1. Finally, we studied the spatial relation between different atmospheric parameters at different heights corroborating the physical properties described before.

  18. Computational Neural Networks: A New Paradigm for Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a systematic introduction to computational neural network models is given in order to help spatial analysts learn about this exciting new field. The power of computational neural networks viz-à-viz conventional modelling is illustrated for an application field with noisy data of limited record length: spatial interaction modelling of telecommunication data in Austria. The computational appeal of neural networks for solving some fundamental spatial analysis problems is summarized...

  19. Joyce, Ireland, Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Len

    2006-01-01

    British-Irish historical, political, and cultural relations. Almost wholly comprising contributions by British and Irish scholars, the book theorizes a move toward historical materialism in Joyce studies. Methodologically, it involves a skeptical caution about relations between theoretical models and texts; a turn toward concrete historical analysis; a practice of maximal historical saturation; scrupulous attention to questions of historical discontinuity; and an insistence on historical p...

  20. Geostatistics and Analysis of Spatial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2007-01-01

    This note deals with geostatistical measures for spatial correlation, namely the auto-covariance function and the semi-variogram, as well as deterministic and geostatistical methods for spatial interpolation, namely inverse distance weighting and kriging. Some semi-variogram models are mentioned......, specifically the spherical, the exponential and the Gaussian models. Equations to carry out simple og ordinary kriging are deduced. Other types of kriging are mentioned, and references to international literature, Internet addresses and state-of-the-art software in the field are given. A very simple example to...... illustrate the computations and a more realistic example with height data from an area near Slagelse, Denmark, are given. Finally, a series of attractive characteristics of kriging are mentioned, and a simple sampling strategic consideration is given based on the dependence of the kriging variance of...

  1. Exploiting spatial descriptions in visual scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Leon; Johannsen, Katrin; Swadzba, Agnes; De Ruiter, Jan P; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The reliable automatic visual recognition of indoor scenes with complex object constellations using only sensor data is a nontrivial problem. In order to improve the construction of an accurate semantic 3D model of an indoor scene, we exploit human-produced verbal descriptions of the relative location of pairs of objects. This requires the ability to deal with different spatial reference frames (RF) that humans use interchangeably. In German, both the intrinsic and relative RF are used frequently, which often leads to ambiguities in referential communication. We assume that there are certain regularities that help in specific contexts. In a first experiment, we investigated how speakers of German describe spatial relationships between different pieces of furniture. This gave us important information about the distribution of the RFs used for furniture-predicate combinations, and by implication also about the preferred spatial predicate. The results of this experiment are compiled into a computational model that extracts partial orderings of spatial arrangements between furniture items from verbal descriptions. In the implemented system, the visual scene is initially scanned by a 3D camera system. From the 3D point cloud, we extract point clusters that suggest the presence of certain furniture objects. We then integrate the partial orderings extracted from the verbal utterances incrementally and cumulatively with the estimated probabilities about the identity and location of objects in the scene, and also estimate the probable orientation of the objects. This allows the system to significantly improve both the accuracy and richness of its visual scene representation. PMID:22806654

  2. Spatial distribution analysis on climatic variables in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Information ecology is a new research area of modern ecology.Here describes spatial distribution analysis methods of four sorts of climatic variables, i.e. temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and sunshine fraction on Northeast China. First,Digital terrain models was built with large-scale maps and vector data. Then trend surface analysis and interpolation method were used to analyze the spatial distribution of these four kinds of climatic variables at three temporal scale: (1) monthly data; (2)mean monthly data of thirty years, and (3) mean annual data of thirty years. Ecological information system were used for graphics analysis on the spatial distribution of these climate variables.

  3. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

  4. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  5. Statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal point patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Diggle, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Written by a prominent statistician and author, the first edition of this bestseller broke new ground in the then emerging subject of spatial statistics with its coverage of spatial point patterns. Retaining all the material from the second edition and adding substantial new material, Statistical Analysis of Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Point Patterns, Third Edition presents models and statistical methods for analyzing spatially referenced point process data. Reflected in the title, this third edition now covers spatio-temporal point patterns. It explores the methodological developments from th

  6. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hualin Xie; Guiying Liu; Qu Liu; Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumptio...

  7. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  8. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is endemic in many provinces with high incidence in mainland China, although integrated intervention measures including rodent control, environment management and vaccination have been implemented for over ten years. In this study, we conducted a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial analysis on distribution of HFRS cases for the whole country with an objective to inform priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Methods Annualized average incidence at a county level was calculated using HFRS cases reported during 1994–1998 in mainland China. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect spatial autocorrelation and clusters of HFRS incidence at the county level throughout the country. Results Spatial distribution of HFRS cases in mainland China from 1994 to 1998 was mapped at county level in the aspects of crude incidence, excess hazard and spatial smoothed incidence. The spatial distribution of HFRS cases was nonrandom and clustered with a Moran's I = 0.5044 (p = 0.001. Spatial cluster analyses suggested that 26 and 39 areas were at increased risks of HFRS (p Conclusion The application of GIS, together with spatial statistical techniques, provide a means to quantify explicit HFRS risks and to further identify environmental factors responsible for the increasing disease risks. We demonstrate a new perspective of integrating such spatial analysis tools into the epidemiologic study and risk assessment of HFRS.

  9. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Internal Wave Analysis Spatial Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains the spatial extent of the internal wave analysis. This area of interest was defined in interests of time. A cusory review of the 66 SAR...

  10. Analysis of spatially deconvolved polar faculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Suematsu, Y.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Shimizu, T.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2016-07-01

    Polar faculae are bright features that can be detected in solar limb observations and they are related to magnetic field concentrations. Although there are a large number of works studying them, some questions about their nature as their magnetic properties at different heights are still open. Thus, we aim to improve the understanding of solar polar faculae. In that sense, we infer the vertical stratification of the temperature, gas pressure, line-of-sight velocity and magnetic field vector of polar faculae regions. We performed inversions of the Stokes profiles observed with Hinode/Spectropolarimeter after removing the stray light contamination produced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. Moreover, after solving the azimuth ambiguity, we transform the magnetic field vector to local solar coordinates. The obtained results reveal that the polar faculae are constituted by hot plasma with low line-of-sight velocities and single polarity magnetic fields in the kilogauss range that are nearly perpendicular to the solar surface. We also found that the spatial location of these magnetic fields is slightly shifted respect to the continuum observations towards the disc centre. We believe that this is due to the hot wall effect that allows detecting photons that come from deeper layers located closer to the solar limb.

  11. Local spatial frequency analysis for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, John; Shafer, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A sense of vision is a prerequisite for a robot to function in an unstructured environment. However, real-world scenes contain many interacting phenomena that lead to complex images which are difficult to interpret automatically. Typical computer vision research proceeds by analyzing various effects in isolation (e.g., shading, texture, stereo, defocus), usually on images devoid of realistic complicating factors. This leads to specialized algorithms which fail on real-world images. Part of this failure is due to the dichotomy of useful representations for these phenomena. Some effects are best described in the spatial domain, while others are more naturally expressed in frequency. In order to resolve this dichotomy, we present the combined space/frequency representation which, for each point in an image, shows the spatial frequencies at that point. Within this common representation, we develop a set of simple, natural theories describing phenomena such as texture, shape, aliasing and lens parameters. We show these theories lead to algorithms for shape from texture and for dealiasing image data. The space/frequency representation should be a key aid in untangling the complex interaction of phenomena in images, allowing automatic understanding of real-world scenes.

  12. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Baltmiškytė; Kęstutis Dučinskas

    2013-01-01

    Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential) are built to estima...

  13. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  14. Asymptotic analysis of spatial discretizations in implicit Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We perform an asymptotic analysis of spatial discretizations in Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC). We consider two asymptotic scalings: one that represents a time step that resolves the mean-free time, and one that corresponds to a fixed, optically large time step. We show that only the latter scaling results in a valid spatial discretization of the proper diffusion equation, and thus we conclude that IMC only yields accurate solutions when using optically large spatial cells if time steps are also optically large. We demonstrate the validity of our analysis with a set of numerical examples.

  15. Asymptotic analysis of spatial discretizations in implicit Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We perform an asymptotic analysis of spatial discretizations in Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC). We consider two asymptotic scalings: one that represents a time step that resolves the mean-free time, and one that corresponds to a fixed, optically large time step. We show that only the latter scaling results in a valid spatial discretization of the proper diffusion equation, and thus we conclude that IMC only yields accurate solutions when using optically large spatial cells if time steps are also optically large, We demonstrate the validity of our analysis with a set of numerical examples.

  16. Myxomatosis in 1950s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P W J

    2008-01-01

    In 1953 myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, broke out in Britain for the first time. It rapidly killed tens of millions of the animals from Kent to the Shetlands. Many farmers and foresters welcomed a disease that virtually eliminated a longstanding and serious agricultural pest. Others were horrified by the sight of thousands of dead and dying animals. With meat still rationed, consumers rued the loss of a cheap and nutritious foodstuff. Rough shooters deplored the loss of prey and hatters and furriers the unavailability of the fur on which their businesses depended. Rabbits also had champions within the 'establishment'; these included Winston Churchill who was personally influential in making deliberate transmission of the disease a criminal offence. The arrival in Britain of myxomatosis presented the authorities with difficult questions: should they try to contain it, spread it or do nothing; should they take advantage of rabbit depopulation and try to exterminate such a destructive animal? In the event the outbreak was allowed to run its course and rabbit extermination became government policy. This article considers who or what was responsible for the disease reaching the UK and how it then spread throughout the country. It examines the responses of government, other institutions and members of the public. Finally, it explores the impact of rabbit de-population on agriculture, the natural environment and public opinion. PMID:19069081

  17. Analysis of spatially deconvolved polar faculae

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, C Quintero; Cobo, B Ruiz; Shimizu, T; Ramos, A Asensio

    2016-01-01

    Polar faculae are bright features that can be detected in solar limb observations and they are related to magnetic field concentrations. Although there is a large number of works studying them, some questions about their nature as their magnetic properties at different heights are still open. Thus, we aim to improve the understanding of solar polar faculae. In that sense, we infer the vertical stratification of the temperature, gas pressure, line of sight velocity and magnetic field vector of polar faculae regions. We performed inversions of the Stokes profiles observed with Hinode/SP after removing the stray light contamination produced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. Moreover, after solving the azimuth ambiguity, we transform the magnetic field vector to local solar coordinates. The obtained results reveal that the polar faculae are constituted by hot plasma with low line of sight velocities and single polarity magnetic fields in the kilogauss range that are nearly perpendicular to th...

  18. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  19. Spatial analysis of BSE cases in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brus Dick J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many of the European countries affected by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, case clustering patterns have been observed. Most of these patterns have been interpreted in terms of heterogeneities in exposure of cattle to the BSE agent. Here we investigate whether spatial clustering is present in the Dutch BSE case data. Results We have found three spatial case clusters in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The clusters are geographically distinct and each cluster appears in a different birth cohort. When testing all birth cohorts together, only one significant cluster was detected. The fact that we found stronger spatial clustering when using a cohort-based analysis, is consistent with the evidence that most BSE infections occur in animals less than 12 or 18 months old. Conclusion Significant spatial case clustering is present in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The spatial clusters of BSE cases are most likely due to time-dependent heterogeneities in exposure related to feed production.

  20. Kernel parameter dependence in spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply a kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) [7, 8] analysis to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemistry data from South Greenland and illustrate the dependence of......Principal component analysis (PCA) [1] is often used for general feature generation and linear orthogonalization or compression by dimensionality reduction of correlated multivariate data, see Jolliffe [2] for a comprehensive description of PCA and related techniques. Schölkopf et al. [3] introduce...... kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini [4] is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop [5] and Press et al. [6] describe kernel methods among many other subjects. The kernel version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional...

  1. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software package PySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is described

  2. Public sector relocation and regional disparities in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    J Neill Marshall; Catherine Hodgson; David Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The authors use the government-commissioned Lyons review proposals for the relocation of approximately 20 000 public sector jobs from London and the South East of England as a springboard for a historical analysis of civil service dispersal in Britain. Though civil service dispersal has helped ameliorate regional disparities, this has been a secondary objective of relocation programmes. The authors highlight the interconnections between public sector relocation and civil service (re)organisat...

  3. An Introduction to Spatial Analysis in Social Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For years researchers have recognized the need to consider environmental and contextual variables in the social and behavioral sciences. Multilevel models have grown in popularity in large part because they provide a means to explicitly model the influence of context on many individual level processes. However, in applications of these and other statistical models that incorporate context into the analysis, rarely is physical location or distance between entities considered. In this paper we discuss a variety of spatial analysis techniques and their applications in educational and psychological research. We provide examples with the SAS software package and other more specialized spatial analysis software.

  4. Britain honours its particle physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental particle physicists figure among the winners for 2004 of Britain's most prestigious prizes for physics, awarded by the Institute of Physics (IOP). The IOP's own Paul Dirac medal and prize, goes to this year to CERN's John Ellis for "his highly influential work on particle-physics phenomenology; in particular on the properties of gluons, the Higgs boson and the top quark". One of the institute's premier wards, it is made for outstanding contributions to theoretical (including mathematical and computational) physics. The Duddell medal and prize, in memory of William du Bois Duddell, the inventor of the electromagnetic oscillograph, is awarded for outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge through the application of physics, including the invention or design of scientific instruments or the discovery of materials used in their construction. It is shared this year by Geoff Hall, of Imperial College London, Alessandro Marchioro from CERN and Peter Sharp of the Rutherfor...

  5. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  6. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  7. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    Based on work by Pearson in 1901, Hotelling in 1933 introduced principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is often used for general feature generation and linear orthogonalization or compression by dimensionality reduction of correlated multivariate data, see Jolliffe for a comprehensive description...... hand. Schölkopf et al. introduce kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop and Press et al. describe kernel methods among many other subjects. Nielsen and Canty use kernel PCA to detect change in univariate airborne digital camera images....... The kernel version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF...

  8. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Comerón Tejero, Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal background-radiation ratio SBR at the photodetector input. The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effec...

  9. Numerical analysis of shell and spatial structures

    OpenAIRE

    Samartín, Avelino

    1991-01-01

    Since the advent of the computer into the engineering field, the application of the numerical methods to the solution of engineering problems has grown very rapidly. Among the different computer methods of structural analysis the Finite Element (FEM) has been predominantly used. Shells and space structures are very attractive and have been constructed to solve a large variety of functional problems (roofs, industrial building, aqueducts, reservoirs, footings etc). In this type of structu...

  10. Spatial analysis of snail distribution in Jiangning county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-ying; ZHOU Yun; XU De-zhong; SUN Zhi-dong; ZHOU Xiao-nong; GONG Zi-li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the spatial distribution of oncomelenia snails in Jiangning County. Methods:Cluster analysis and the Spatial Scan Statistics were performed based on the density of alive-snails in habitats and its rate infected by the S. Japonicum. Results: Although areas of snail habitats and density of the alivesnails in marshland in 2000 are higher significantly than that in mountain areas in Jiangning County, the numbers of habitats in mountain are more than that in marshland and they distributed sporadically. The snail habitats were classified into 4 in marshlands and 3 classes in mountain areas respectively in cluster analysis.Although they are mainly the one with low density of alive and infected snails, we should alert that there are also some habitats with high snail density and infection rate, which is important for the transmission of schistosomia. The analysis of Spatial Scan Statistics detected 2 significant spatial aggregations for alive-snail in marshland and 4 in mountain areas respectively with p-values less than 0. 01. There are also 2 significant spatial aggregations for infected snails in marshland. Conclusion.. The significant spatial aggregations for alivesnails and infected snails indicated that there are some factors in the habitats suitable for the survival of snails and the transmission of schistosomia.

  11. Application of Integration of Spatial Statistical Analysis with GIS to Regional Economic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; DU Daosheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes a few spatial statistical analysis methods for to measuring spatial autocorrelation and spatial association, discusses the criteria for the identification of spatial association by the use of global Moran Coefficient, Local Moran and Local Geary. Furthermore, a user-friendly statistical module, combining spatial statistical analysis methods with GIS visual techniques, is developed in Arcview using Avenue. An example is also given to show the usefulness of this module in identifying and quantifying the underlying spatial association patterns between economic units.

  12. Mathematical Analysis of Urban Spatial Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Cities can be considered to be among the largest and most complex artificial networks created by human beings. Due to the numerous and diverse human-driven activities, urban network topology and dynamics can differ quite substantially from that of natural networks and so call for an alternative method of analysis. The intent of the present monograph is to lay down the theoretical foundations for studying the topology of compact urban patterns, using methods from spectral graph theory and statistical physics. These methods are demonstrated as tools to investigate the structure of a number of real cities with widely differing properties: medieval German cities, the webs of city canals in Amsterdam and Venice, and a modern urban structure such as found in Manhattan. Last but not least, the book concludes by providing a brief overview of possible applications that will eventually lead to a useful body of knowledge for architects, urban planners and civil engineers.

  13. Conservative RIA analysis with use of spatial kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of methodology of conservative RIA analysis with use of spatial kinetic reactor core model is presented. It is shown that their application yields more conservative assessment of reactor core parameters for which acceptance criteria for rod ejection RIA are established, in comparison with point-one-dimensional kinetic model. Application of methodology based on using of point-one-dimensional kinetic model and power peaking factor obtained from stationery calculations of states that can be realized during RIA is also allowable if choice of given state is substantiated. But, as it is shown the choice of reactor core state for power peaking factor definition is not trivial and it can be calculated on the base of rod ejection RIA analysis with use of 3-D spatial kinetic reactor core model. Performed studies come to conclusion about necessity to indicate using of spatial kinetic software for RIA analysis in normative documents. (authors)

  14. Contributions to the Analysis of Spatial and Spatial-Temporal Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoest, G.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis addresses some problems in the analysis of spatial and spatial-temporal data and discusses prediction, prediction errors and identification of emission sources. European sulphur data are used as illustration. In an investigation of a spatial-temporal decomposition model for improving estimates of spatial interpolation (prediction) errors from monitoring data, the estimates were improved compared to estimates obtained by the method known as Kriging (an extension of the Wiener-Kolmogorov theory from time series to spatial processes), although the interpolated values were quite similar. A study of a random process model with an unknown, slowly varying trend and a correlated residual process is performed, using both trend estimation (smoothing) and prediction. Local polynomial methods are extended to continuous random processes. A new approach to non-parametric smoothing and to non-parametric Kriging is described. Finally, a statistical method for verifying reported sulphur emissions from European countries is presented. The method combines meteorological modeling, prior information on sulphur emissions and measurements of sulphate depositions within a Bayesian framework. 101 refs., 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Geographical variations in fertility and transition to second and third birth in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Francesca; Graham, Elspeth; Feng, Zhiqiang

    2014-09-01

    Geographical variations in fertility have been observed within several countries in Northern Europe, with higher fertility in rural areas, smaller settlements and city suburbs. However, the processes underlying such fertility variations across residential contexts are not well understood. This paper contributes to the on-going debate by looking at local variations in fertility in Britain. It aims to disentangle the relative contribution of a number of factors, including the socio-economic characteristics of individuals, housing conditions, patterns of residential relocation and lastly, contextual factors stricto sensu. In addition, it seeks to identify those aspects of reproductive behaviour which are more likely to be associated with the observed spatial differences, and to distinguish between those that may be influenced by local context and those that respond to social influences at different scales. The focus is on local fertility contexts which, we argue, have the potential to influence the fertility behaviour of individuals through processes of social learning. Individual level data from the British Household Panel Survey and methods of event history analysis are used to explore women's transitions to second and third order births in Britain in the early 21st century. Our findings indicate that individual reproductive life paths respond to a variety of social processes acting at various scales, and that these influences vary by birth order. Most interestingly, local fertility contexts influence transition to first birth but not transition to higher order births, which are mainly associated with individual characteristics of women and their partners. Dominant spacing effects, however, suggest that local contexts have an indirect impact on second and third births through age at the onset of childbearing. The study demonstrates the importance of considering social interaction theories, and their extension to scale-sensitive spatial contexts in which these

  16. Literary Translation in Britain and Selective Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Eric

    2002-01-01

    In his article "Literary Translation in Britain and Selective Xenophobia," Eric Dickens discusses the fact that fewer translations of works of contemporary prose, poetry, and essays appear in Great Britain than perhaps anywhere else in Europe. Dickens attributes this shortfall to various factors, including poor language teaching and an indifference to foreign languages in general, but also to a degree of smugness with regard to literature written in English being "the best in the world." In h...

  17. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, R. J.; Bell, V. A.; R. M. Austin; Harding, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heati...

  18. Book review: Political parties in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Goes, Eunice

    2013-01-01

    "Political Parties in Britain." Matt Cole and Helen Deighan. Edinburgh University Press. July 2012. --- This introductory textbook examines the factors contributing to a political party’s fortune and identity. Authors Matt Cole and Helen Deighan examine Britain’s main political parties as well as ‘peripheral’ parties including the BNP and UKIP. Eunice Goes writes that Political Parties in Britain is a highly informative, accessible and up-to-date introductory text that should be included i...

  19. Exotic Animals in Eighteenth-Century Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, Christopher Jonathan Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Exotic animals are conspicuously absent in economic histories and discussions of material culture in eighteenth-century Britain, even though they were highly sought-after luxury goods. As a response, this cultural history is a step towards a fuller understanding of the broad yet related meanings that a range of exotic animals held in Georgian Britain. A study is structured around four themes of meaning. The significance of exotic animals is explored, in turn, through their function as commodi...

  20. Ethnic Residential Segregation by Nativity in Great Britain and the United States*

    OpenAIRE

    Iceland, John; Mateos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines patterns of ethnic residential integration in Great Britain and the United States. Using data from 2000/2001 censuses from these two countries, we compute segregation indexes for comparably-defined ethnic groups by nativity and for specific foreign-born groups. We find that blacks are much less segregated in Great Britain than in the U.S, and black segregation patterns by nativity tend to be consistent with spatial assimilation in the former country (the foreign born are m...

  1. Global sensitivity analysis for models with spatially dependent outputs

    CERN Document Server

    Marrel, Amandine; Jullien, Michel; Laurent, Beatrice; Volkova, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The global sensitivity analysis of a complex numerical model often calls for the estimation of variance-based importance measures, named Sobol' indices. Metamodel-based techniques have been developed in order to replace the cpu time-expensive computer code with an inexpensive mathematical function, which predicts the computer code output. The common metamodel-based sensitivity analysis methods are well-suited for computer codes with scalar outputs. However, in the environmental domain, as in many areas of application, the numerical model outputs are often spatial maps, which may also vary with time. In this paper, we introduce an innovative method to obtain a spatial map of Sobol' indices with a minimal number of numerical model computations. It is based upon the functional decomposition of the spatial output onto a wavelet basis and the metamodeling of the wavelet coefficients by the Gaussian process. An analytical example is presented to clarify the various steps of our methodology. This technique is then a...

  2. Exploring spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Demewoz; Azage, Muluken; Mola, Tegegn; Rainey, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting reflects a failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period of time. Stunting is associated with adverse functional consequences including poor cognition, low educational performance, low adult wages, and poor reproductive outcomes. The objective of the study was to investigate spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. Methods This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A t...

  3. Unit 188 - Artificial Neural Networks for Spatial Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    183, CC in GIScience; Gopal, Sucharita

    2000-01-01

    This unit presents a definition of artificial neural networks (ANN); describes different types of ANN and their applications in geography and spatial analysis; explains differences between ANN and AI and between ANN and statistics; and describes how to apply a supervised ANN in model classification and function estimation problems.

  4. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Anne; Hönekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large…

  5. Pattern analysis on Residential burglary by Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA, Case study: Zahedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFor recent century human safety and freedom from crime are very important in everyday life. In terms of human needs, Maslow's (1943 hierarchy of needs suggests sustainable environments should cater for biological and physiological, safety, affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization needs — in that order. Crime and freedom from crime are surely high on peoples' agendas of most important issues in many countries worldwide. Geographers deal with the distribution of a wide variety of geographical entities and phenomena amongst human safety and freedom. Geographers analyze the spatial distributions, the pattern of the distribution of objective and subjective phenomena spatial variability and so forth. The concept of spatial analysis deals discovery spatial patterns, causes and effect of phenomena, autocorrelation, etc. Geographers in spatial crime analysis were limited to mapping crimes in locations and regions. Technological improvements, first and foremost in computer processor capabilities, are fundamental to recent analytical advances in the methods available for analyzing place-based data. The initiation of computer mapping applications and additional geographic information systems (GIS are important to being able to measure and represent the spatial relationships in data. ESDA is a collection of techniques to describe and imagine spatial distributions; identify unusual locations or spatial outliers; discover patterns of spatial association, clusters, or hot spots; and suggest spatial regimes or other forms of spatial heterogeneity. Material and MethodsData: In current study used results of census of population and housing 2006 and Residential burglary data of Zahedan as None spatial data and census Zone map of Zahedan(is located southern-east of Iran as spatial data.To measure the spatial distribution, autocorrelation and autoregressive used Moran’s I and LISA index in ArcGIS 9.3 and GeoDA 0.9.3 software. Spatial aggregation of

  6. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-Ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands. PMID:26994374

  7. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  8. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R; Comeron, Adolfo

    2002-12-20

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal/background-radiation ratio (SBR) at the photodetector input The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effective protection against sky background radiation for groundbased biaxial lidars is the modifying of their angular field according to a spatial-angular filtering efficiency criterion. Some effective approaches to achieve a high filtering efficiency for the receiving system optimization are discussed. PMID:12510915

  9. GIS application on spatial landslide analysis using statistical based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred F.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the assessment results of spatially based probabilistic three models using Geoinformation Techniques (GIT) for landslide susceptibility analysis at Penang Island in Malaysia. Landslide locations within the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, satellite images and supported with field surveys. Maps of the topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial data sets. There are ten landslide related factors were extracted from the spatial database and the frequency ratio, fuzzy logic, and bivariate logistic regression coefficients of each factor was computed. Finally, landslide susceptibility maps were drawn for study area using frequency ratios, fuzzy logic and bivariate logistic regression models. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared with actual landslide locations in study area. The verification results show that bivariate logistic regression model provides slightly higher prediction accuracy than the frequency ratio and fuzzy logic models.

  10. [Ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City based on GIS spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-jun; Liu, Yong-juan

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, five sensitivity factors affecting the eco-environment of Shanghai City, i.e., rivers and lakes, historical relics and forest parks, geological disasters, soil pollution, and land use, were selected, and their weights were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Combining with GIS spatial analysis technique, the sensitivities of these factors were classified into four grades, i.e., highly sensitive, moderately sensitive, low sensitive, and insensitive, and the spatial distribution of the ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City was figured out. There existed a significant spatial differentiation in the ecological sensitivity of the City, and the insensitive, low sensitive, moderately sensitive, and highly sensitive areas occupied 37.07%, 5.94%, 38.16%, and 18.83%, respectively. Some suggestions on the City's zoning protection and construction were proposed. This study could provide scientific references for the City's environmental protection and economic development. PMID:20879541

  11. Socio-Spatial Intelligence: social media and spatial cognition for territorial behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luini, Lorenzo P; Cardellicchio, Davide; Felletti, Fulvia; Marucci, Francesco S

    2015-09-01

    Investigative analysts gather data from different sources, especially from social media (SM), in order to shed light on cognitive factors that may explain criminal spatial behavior. A former research shows how tweets can be used to estimate private points of interest. Authors' aim was to demonstrate, as they extend the analysis to a wider statistical base, how social maps and Web applications could be used in investigative analysis and spatial cognition research. A total of 100 Twitter accounts with approximately 250 tweets each were submitted to common geographical techniques (measures such as Convex-Hull, Mean-Center, Median-Center, Standard-Deviation-Ellipse) in order to test the hypothesis that user areas of activity are predictable. Predictions were tested through a set of specific information: clear reference to areas of activity and clear reference about user's residence. Simple algorithms and procedures demonstrated that they could be used to predict where SM users live, giving positive results in about 4/5 cases and giving indications about their home location. In fact, all home positions were found in the Convex-Hull and most of them in the Standard-Deviation-Ellipse. Furthermore, in up to 80% of cases, houses were found within a buffer zone of 1.500 m with Median-Center as centrum (70% using Median-Center as centrum) with a minimum effectiveness threshold of 12-13 tweets. SM may help in studying people mobility and their cognition of space and, moreover, where they live, or their traveling behavior. The processing of geographical data in conjunction with the SM analysis may facilitate the construction of models describing specific behavior of people. The use of geographical information system tools and SM analysis represents an effective approach in order to acquire spatial and territorial information, referred to social relationship. The results may be used successfully in the understanding of social dynamics and for the prevention of criminal behavior

  12. Fourier mode analysis of source iteration in spatially periodic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard Fourier mode analysis is an indispensable tool when designing acceleration techniques for transport iterations; however, it requires the assumption of a homogeneous infinite medium. For problems of practical interest, material heterogeneities may significantly impact iterative performance. Recent work has applied a Fourier analysis to the discretized two-dimensional transport operator with heterogeneous material properties. The results of these analyses may be difficult to interpret because the heterogeneity effects are inherently coupled to the discretization effects. Here, the authors describe a Fourier analysis of source iteration (SI) that allows the calculation of the eigenvalue spectrum for the one-dimensional continuous transport operator with spatially periodic heterogeneous media

  13. Highly resolved spatial and temporal photoemission analysis of integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an optical system for highly resolved photoemission analysis of integrated circuits. Photons emitted by switching transistors allow the operation of an integrated circuit to be observed by recording the individual photoemission acts. The ongoing feature size reduction makes the space–time-resolved detection of these extremely weak photoemissions challenging. We combine different optical and photonic solutions to achieve both a high spatial and temporal resolution in a compact analysis system. Imaging and detection modules capture photons through the substrate during normal chip operation and perform highly resolved optical analysis. We demonstrate the system capability by photoemission records of a real-world IC device. (paper)

  14. Directional spatial frequency analysis of lipid distribution in atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Clyde; Reese, Eric; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert; Russell, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the growth of fibrous plaques due to the retention of cholesterol and lipids within the artery wall, which can lead to vessel occlusion and cardiac events. One way to evaluate arterial disease is to quantify the amount of lipid present in these plaques, since a higher disease burden is characterized by a higher concentration of lipid. Although therapeutic stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport to reduce cholesterol deposits in plaque has not produced significant results, this may be due to current image analysis methods which use averaging techniques to calculate the total amount of lipid in the plaque without regard to spatial distribution, thereby discarding information that may have significance in marking response to therapy. Here we use Directional Fourier Spatial Frequency (DFSF) analysis to generate a characteristic spatial frequency spectrum for atherosclerotic plaques from C57 Black 6 mice both treated and untreated with a cholesterol scavenging nanoparticle. We then use the Cauchy product of these spectra to classify the images with a support vector machine (SVM). Our results indicate that treated plaque can be distinguished from untreated plaque using this method, where no difference is seen using the spatial averaging method. This work has the potential to increase the effectiveness of current in-vivo methods of plaque detection that also use averaging methods, such as laser speckle imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Spatial risk assessment for critical network infrastructure using sensitivity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael M·derl; Wolfgang Rauch

    2011-01-01

    The presented spatial risk assessment method allows for managing critical network infrastructure in urban areas under abnormal and future conditions caused e.g.,by terrorist attacks,infrastructure deterioration or climate change.For the spatial risk assessment,vulnerability maps for critical network infrastructure are merged with hazard maps for an interfering process.Vulnerability maps are generated using a spatial sensitivity analysis of network transport models to evaluate performance decrease under investigated thread scenarios.Thereby parameters are varied according to the specific impact of a particular threat scenario.Hazard maps are generated with a geographical information system using raster data of the same threat scenario derived from structured interviews and cluster analysis of events in the past.The application of the spatial risk assessment is exemplified by means of a case study for a water supply system,but the principal concept is applicable likewise to other critical network infrastructure.The aim of the approach is to help decision makers in choosing zones for preventive measures.

  16. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume different receivers. To explicitly show the capacity scaling law of SS MIMO systems, some approximate capacity expressions for the two scenarios are derived. Next, we extend our analysis to a multiple user system with zero-forcing receivers (ZF) under spatially-independent scheduling and analyze the sum-rate. Furthermore, we provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. Our results show that the secondary system with a smaller number of transmit antennas Nt and a larger number of receive antennas Nr can achieve higher capacity at lower interference temperature Q, but at high Q the capacity follows the scaling law of the conventional MIMO systems. However, for a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system, the secondary system with small Nt and large Nr can achieve the highest capacity throughout the entire region of Q. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Ntlog2(Q(KNtNp-1)/Nt), where Np denotes the number of antennas of the primary receiver and K represents the number of secondary transmitters.

  17. Marketing strategy of hotel chain Premier Inn in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Kanderová, Kristína

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is dedicated to the marketing strategy of hotel chain Premier Inn in Great Britain. Aim of the thesis is the analysis of its unusual marketing strategy based on the good night guarantee. In practice it means that if a guest in any Premier Inn hotel does not sleep well, his/her money will be given back to them. Financial analysis of the chosen hotel for March 2016 will show its favorable financial situation in spite of the fact that the guarantee represents extra costs for the company.

  18. Spatial Fourier analysis of video photobleaching measurements. Principles and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, T T; Jacobson, K A

    1991-08-01

    The major use of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique is to measure the translational motion of the molecular components in various condensed media. In a conventional laser spot photobleaching experiment, a photomultiplier is used to measure the total brightness levels of the bleached region in the sample, so no spatial information can be directly obtained. In video-FRAP, a series of images after photobleaching is acquired, allowing the spatial character of the recovery to be determined; this permits direct detection of both anisotropic diffusion and flow. To utilize all of the available image data to determine the transport coefficients, a two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform analysis of the images after photobleaching was employed. The change in the transform between two time points reflects the action of diffusion during the interim. An important advantage of this method, which involves taking the ratio of image transforms at different time points, is that it does not require a specific initial condition to be created by laser photobleaching. The ability of the analysis to extract transport coefficients from computer-simulated diffusional recovery is assessed in the presence of increasing amounts of noise. Experimental data analysis from the diffusion of proteins in viscous solutions and from the diffusion of protein receptors on cell surfaces demonstrate the feasibility of the Fourier analysis to obtain transport coefficients from the video FRAP measurement. PMID:1912279

  19. Spatial eigenvector filtering for spatiotemporal crime mapping and spatial crime analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Jokar Arsanjani, J

    2015-01-01

    Spatial and spatiotemporal analyses are exceedingly relevant to determine criminogenic factors. The estimation of Poisson and negative binomial models (NBM) is complicated by spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, first, eigenvector spatial filtering (ESF) is introduced as a method for spatiotemporal m

  20. Origins of Megalithic Astronomy in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Gail

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of free-standing stones in Britain during the Late Neolithic, there was a significant change in the lithification of people's cosmology. Such monuments continued to be erected across Britain almost until the end of the Bronze Age. It has been empirically verified that for many Bronze Age monuments erected in Scotland between 1400-900 BC, there is a common set of complex landscape and astronomical patternings. However, when and where these patterns were first introduced through standing-stone structures was unknown. Here we show that the visible astronomical-landscape variables found at Bronze Age sites on the inner isles and mainland of western Scotland were first established nearly two millennia earlier, with the erection of the first standing-stone 'great circles' in Britain: Callanish and Stenness of Scotland.

  1. Spatial behaviour of burglars: data, analysis, application in practice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polišenská, Veronika

    Praha : EFPA/UPA, 2007 - (Polišenská, V.; Šolc, M.; Kotrlová, J.). 250 s. ISBN 978-80-7064-017-3. [10th European Congress of Psychology: Mapping of Psychological Knowledge for Society. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/0261 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : burglary * spatial behaviour * qualitative analysis Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. Weighted Marginal Fisher Analysis with Spatially Smooth for aircraft recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhenzhong; Liu Chang; Li Nan

    2014-01-01

    Due to limitations to extract invariant features for recognition when the aircraft presents various poses and lacks enough samples for training, a novel algorithm called Weighted Marginal Fisher Analysis with Spatially Smooth (WMFA-SS) for extracting invariant features in aircraft recognition is proposed. According to the Graph Embedding (GE) framework, Heat Kernel function is firstly introduced to characterize the interclass separability when choosing the weights of penalty graph. Furthermor...

  3. China's Regional Disparity in Demographic Transition: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiamin

    2008-01-01

    China's regional income gap has given rise to different socio-economic characteristics of its core and periphery, leading to different expressions in demographic transition. This paper explores the spatial pattern of China's fertility, age, migration, and household transition and finds that the regional pattern of demographic transition roughly follows a gradient of provinces' economic status. Further analysis indicates that this pattern is more sensitive to economic conditions in rural areas...

  4. GIS-BASED SPATIAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COLLEGE GRADUATES EMPLOYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, R.

    2012-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004–2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were ...

  5. Welfare Analysis of Pollution Control With Spatial Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Thomas

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the welfare losses resulting from emission control policies which do not take into account differences in control costs among firms and in benefits across regions. In contrast, an optimal policy considers these differences, and on their basis, requires differential controls among regions, presumably encouraging spatial adaptation of production. Drawing on an empirical analysis of welfare benefits and welfare costs of controlling particulate emissions from the iron and st...

  6. Scenario analysis in spatial impact assessment:a methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Torrieri, F.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of Spatial or Territorial Impact Assessment as a new tool for balanced urban or regional planning from a long-term sustainability perspective. It then argues that modern scenario methods may be a useful complement to pro-active and future oriented urban or regional strategic thinking. A cognitive interactive model for scenario analysis is next presented and its advantages are outlined.

  7. Gis-Based Spatial Statistical Analysis of College Graduates Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, R.

    2012-07-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004-2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were analyzed with geocoding using ArcGIS software, and the stepwise multiple linear regression method via SPSS software was used to predict the employment and to identify spatially associated enterprise and professionals demand in the future. The results show that the enterprises in Wuhan east lake high and new technology development zone increased dramatically from 2004 to 2008, and tended to distributed southeastward. Furthermore, the models built by statistical analysis suggest that the specialty of graduates major in has an important impact on the number of the employment and the number of graduates engaging in pillar industries. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis which helps to simulate the spatial distribution of the employment status is a potential tool for human resource development research.

  8. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-11-23

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  9. Analysis of Ag-superlens performances using spatial convolution formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnadi, Indra; Iskandar, Alexander A; Tjia, May-On

    2010-02-01

    It is shown that the spatial convolution formulation offers the advantage for direct analysis in the real space of the effects of system-object feature mismatches on the resulting image quality. Imaging systems of various layered Ag-poly(methyl methacrylate) configurations and a variety of square-slit objects were considered for the analysis. The results reveal how those feature mismatches affect the image quality and clarify the previously suggested possible advantage of using a layered Ag superlens over a single-Ag slab of the same total thickness. Those mismatches may eventually be quantified to allow the optimization of a superlens appropriate for imaging a certain object. PMID:20126238

  10. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  11. Patterns of Holocene relative sea level change in the North of Britain and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Hunt, N.; Firth, C. R.; Jordan, J. T.; Fretwell, P. T.; Harman, M.; Murdy, J.; Orford, J. D.; Burnside, N. G.

    2012-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of relative sea level (RSL) change in the North of Britain and Ireland during the Holocene are examined. Four episodes, each defined by marked changes in the RSL trend, are identified. Each episode is marked by a rise to a culminating shoreline followed by a fall. Episode HRSL-1 dates from the Younger Dryas to early in the Holocene; HRSL-2 to HRSL-4 occurred later in the Holocene. There is extensive evidence for each episode, and on this basis the spatial distribution of the altitude data for three culminating shorelines and a shoreline formed at the time of the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami (ca 8110 ± 100 cal. BP) is analysed. Ordinary Kriging is used to determine the general pattern, following which Gaussian Trend Surface Analysis is employed. Recognising that empirical measurements of RSL change can be unevenly distributed spatially, a new approach is introduced which enables the developing pattern to be identified. The patterns for the most widely occurring shorelines were analysed and found to be similar and common centre and axis models were developed for all shorelines. The analyses described provide models of the spatial pattern of Holocene RSL change in the area between ca 8100 cal. BP and ca 1000 cal. BP based on 2262 high resolution shoreline altitude measurements. These models fit the data closely, no shoreline altitude measurement lying more than -1.70 m or +1.82 m from the predicted value. The models disclose a similar pattern to a recently published Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model for present RSL change across the area, indicating that the overall spatial pattern of RSL change may not have varied greatly during the last ca 8000 years.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  13. The Spatial Structures and Town Planning of Industrial Cities in Modern Britain(1848-1939)%近代英国工业城市的空间结构与城市规划(1848-1939)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁远; 刘金源

    2015-01-01

    以曼彻斯特、伯明翰和利兹为代表的新型工业城市在空间结构方面体现出鲜明特征:随着新型工业建筑的出现,土地功能实现区分;各类建筑交叉林立,城市布局混乱;新的社会阶层居所分离形成。这种空间结构特征,使得工业城市中的“城市病”问题尤为突出。在英国19世纪中叶兴起的近代城市规划运动中,工业城市积极开展规划实践,空间结构得到合理重组,“城市病”得以缓解,城市面貌显著改观。%As the new type of cities,industrial cities,represented by Manchester,Birmingham and Leeds,embodied unique spatial structures:the land’ s functional classification was formed with the appearance of new industrial buildings,the architec-tural layout took on a chaotic look because of the mixture of various kinds of buildings and the new residential segregation of different classes emerged as well. These structural features resulted in especially serious“urban diseases” in industrial cities. During the modern town planning movement since the mid-19th century,industrial cities actively carried out planning prac-tices. As the achievement of town planning,the spatial structures of industrial cities have been reasonably re-organized,“ur-ban diseases” have been relieved and cities’ appearance has been remarkably improved as well.

  14. Spatially resolved fish population analysis for designing MPAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Mosegaard, Henrik; Jensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The sandeel population analysis model (SPAM) is presented as a simulation tool for exploring the efficiency of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for sandeel stocks. SPAM simulates spatially resolved sandeel population distributions, based on a high-resolution map of all fishery-established sandbank...... habitats for settled sandeels, combined with a life-cycle model for survival, growth, and reproduction, and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for describing larval transport between the network of habitats. SPAM couples stock dynamics to ecosystem and anthropogenic forcing via well-defined drivers....... The SPAM framework was tested using ICES statistical rectangle 37F2 as an MPA, and the impact on sandeel populations within the MPA and neighbouring habitats was investigated. Increased larval spillover compensated for lost catches inside the MPA. The temporal and spatial scales of stock response to...

  15. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence...

  16. Spatial Diffusion of Innovation: A Spatial Panel Analysis of Electronic Toll Collecting Transponders in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Hamaoka

    2009-01-01

    The spatial panel model is applied to a new data set: monthly data of the number of ETC (Electronic Toll Collecting) transponders newly installed in 47 Japanese prefectures. The model incorporates marketing variables and highway-related variables. Regarding the spatial panel model, this work estimates fixed-effect and random-effect model for spatial-lag model and spatial-error model. For each formulation, four types of weight matrix, geographical adjacency matrix, automobile traffic OD (Origi...

  17. Use of artificial neural network for spatial rainfall analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tsangaratos Paraskevas; Rozos Dimitrios; Benardos Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the precipitation data measured at 23 rain gauge stations over the Achaia County, Greece, were used to estimate the spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation values over a specific catchment area. The objective of this work was achieved by programming an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that uses the feed-forward back-propagation algorithm as an alternative interpolating technique. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to process the data derived by the ANN and to create a continuous surface that represented the spatial mean annual precipitation distribution.The ANN introduced an optimization procedure that was implemented during training, adjusting the hidden number of neurons and the convergence of the ANN in order to select the best network architecture. The performance of the ANN was evaluated using three standard statistical evaluation criteria applied to the study area and showed good performance. The outcomes were also compared with the results obtained from a previous study in the area of research which used a linear regression analysis for the estimation of the mean annual precipitation values giving more accurate results. The information and knowledge gained from the present study could improve the accuracy of analysis concerning hydrology and hydrogeological models, ground water studies, flood related applications and climate analysis studies.

  18. Different Ways of Thinking about Street Networks and Spatial Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Street networks, as one of the oldest infrastructures of transport in the world, play a significant role in modernization, sustainable development, and human daily activities in both ancient and modern times. Although street networks have been well studied in a variety of engineering and scientific disciplines, including for instance transport, geography, urban planning, economics, and even physics, our understanding of street networks in terms of their structure and dynamics remains limited, especially when dealing with such real-world problems as traffic jams, pollution, and human evacuations for disaster management. One goal of this special issue is to promote different ways of thinking about understanding street networks, and of conducting spatial analysis.

  19. Spatial Analysis Along Networks Statistical and Computational Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Atsuyuki

    2012-01-01

    In the real world, there are numerous and various events that occur on and alongside networks, including the occurrence of traffic accidents on highways, the location of stores alongside roads, the incidence of crime on streets and the contamination along rivers. In order to carry out analyses of those events, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of specific techniques. Spatial Analysis Along Networks provides a practical guide to the necessary statistical techniques and their computational implementation. Each chapter illustrates a specific technique, from Stochastic Point Process

  20. Reducing spatial uncertainty in climatic maps through geostatistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Ninyerola, Miquel; Pons, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Climatic maps from meteorological stations and geographical co-variables can be obtained through correlative models (Ninyerola et al., 2000)*. Nevertheless, the spatial uncertainty of the resulting maps could be reduced. The present work is a new stage over those approaches aiming to study how to obtain better results while characterizing spatial uncertainty. The study area is Catalonia (32000 km2), a region with highly variable relief (0 to 3143 m). We have used 217 stations (321 to 1244 mm) to model the annual precipitation in two steps: 1/ multiple regression using geographical variables (elevation, distance to the coast, latitude, etc) and 2/ refinement of the results by adding the spatial interpolation of the regression residuals with inverse distance weighting (IDW), regularized splines with tension (SPT) or ordinary kriging (OK). Spatial uncertainty analysis is based on an independent subsample (test set), randomly selected in previous works. The main contribution of this work is the analysis of this test set as well as the search for an optimal process of division (split) of the stations in two sets, one used to perform the multiple regression and residuals interpolation (fit set), and another used to compute the quality (test set); optimal division should reduce spatial uncertainty and improve the overall quality. Two methods have been evaluated against classical methods: (random selection RS and leave-one-out cross-validation LOOCV): selection by Euclidian 2D-distance, and selection by anisotropic 2D-distance combined with a 3D-contribution (suitable weighted) from the most representative independent variable. Both methods define a minimum threshold distance, obtained by variogram analysis, between samples. Main preliminary results for LOOCV, RS (average from 10 executions), Euclidian criterion (EU), and for anisotropic criterion (with 1.1 value, UTMY coordinate has a bit more weight than UTMX) combined with 3D criteria (A3D) (1000 factor for elevation

  1. Spatial and temporal epidemiological analysis in the Big Data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stevens, Kim B

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent with global economic development in the last 50 years, the opportunities for the spread of existing diseases and emergence of new infectious pathogens, have increased substantially. The activities associated with the enormously intensified global connectivity have resulted in large amounts of data being generated, which in turn provides opportunities for generating knowledge that will allow more effective management of animal and human health risks. This so-called Big Data has, more recently, been accompanied by the Internet of Things which highlights the increasing presence of a wide range of sensors, interconnected via the Internet. Analysis of this data needs to exploit its complexity, accommodate variation in data quality and should take advantage of its spatial and temporal dimensions, where available. Apart from the development of hardware technologies and networking/communication infrastructure, it is necessary to develop appropriate data management tools that make this data accessible for analysis. This includes relational databases, geographical information systems and most recently, cloud-based data storage such as Hadoop distributed file systems. While the development in analytical methodologies has not quite caught up with the data deluge, important advances have been made in a number of areas, including spatial and temporal data analysis where the spectrum of analytical methods ranges from visualisation and exploratory analysis, to modelling. While there used to be a primary focus on statistical science in terms of methodological development for data analysis, the newly emerged discipline of data science is a reflection of the challenges presented by the need to integrate diverse data sources and exploit them using novel data- and knowledge-driven modelling methods while simultaneously recognising the value of quantitative as well as qualitative analytical approaches. Machine learning regression methods, which are more robust and can handle

  2. Drought analysis in Switzerland: spatial and temporal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franca, Gaetano; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Bonaccorso, Brunella; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    Drought as a natural hazard may have negative impacts even in regions characterized by a general abundance of water resources. The Swiss Alpine region has experienced several extreme meteorological events (heat waves, droughts) during the last fifty years that have caused human and economic losses. Though Swiss climate is far from arid or semi-arid, natural climatic variability, exacerbated by climate change, could lead to more severe impacts from naturally occurring meteorological droughts (i.e. lack or significant reduction of precipitation) in the future. In this work, spatial and temporal features of meteorological droughts in Switzerland have been explored by the identification and probabilistic characterization of historic drought events on gridded precipitation data during the period 1961-2012. The run method has been applied to both monthly and annual precipitation time series to probabilistically characterize drought occurrences as well as to analyze their spatial variability. Spatial features have also been investigated by means of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied to Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) series at 3, 6, and 12-month aggregated time scale, in order to detect areas with distinct precipitation patterns, accounting for seasonality throughout year and including both wet and dry conditions. Furthermore, a probabilistic analysis of drought areal extent has been carried out by applying an SPI-based procedure to derive Severity-Area-Frequency (SAF) curves. The application of run method reveals that Ticino and Valais are the most potentially drought-prone Swiss regions, since accumulated deficit precipitation is significantly higher (up to two times) than in the rest of the country. Inspection of SPI series reveals many events in which precipitation has shown significant anomalies from the average in the period 1961-2012 at the investigated time scales. Anomalies in rainfall seem to exhibit high spatial correlation, showing uniform sub

  3. Spatial regression analysis on 32 years total column ozone data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Knibbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-regressions analysis have been performed on 32 years of total ozone column data that was spatially gridded with a 1° × 1.5° resolution. The total ozone data consists of the MSR (Multi Sensor Reanalysis; 1979–2008 and two years of assimilated SCIAMACHY ozone data (2009–2010. The two-dimensionality in this data-set allows us to perform the regressions locally and investigate spatial patterns of regression coefficients and their explanatory power. Seasonal dependencies of ozone on regressors are included in the analysis. A new physically oriented model is developed to parameterize stratospheric ozone. Ozone variations on non-seasonal timescales are parameterized by explanatory variables describing the solar cycle, stratospheric aerosols, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, El Nino (ENSO and stratospheric alternative halogens (EESC. For several explanatory variables, seasonally adjusted versions of these explanatory variables are constructed to account for the difference in their effect on ozone throughout the year. To account for seasonal variation in ozone, explanatory variables describing the polar vortex, geopotential height, potential vorticity and average day length are included. Results of this regression model are compared to that of similar analysis based on a more commonly applied statistically oriented model. The physically oriented model provides spatial patterns in the regression results for each explanatory variable. The EESC has a significant depleting effect on ozone at high and mid-latitudes, the solar cycle affects ozone positively mostly at the Southern Hemisphere, stratospheric aerosols affect ozone negatively at high Northern latitudes, the effect of QBO is positive and negative at the tropics and mid to high-latitudes respectively and ENSO affects ozone negatively between 30° N and 30° S, particularly at the Pacific. The contribution of explanatory variables describing seasonal ozone variation is generally

  4. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hauffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes.

    In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5% being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors, but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal

  5. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5%) being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors), but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal limitation and

  6. Managers in the Making: Careers, Development and Control in Corporate Britain and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John; Edwards, Paul; Sisson, Keith

    This book presents an analysis of the processes by which managers are made in Britain and Japan. It provides a detailed comparative study of the careers, training, developmental experience, and job demands of managers in eight companies in four sectors: engineering, banking, retail, and communications. Data are from the following sources:…

  7. Use of spatiotemporal analysis of laboratory submission data to identify potential outbreaks of new or emerging diseases in cattle in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milnes Ailsa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New and emerging diseases of livestock may impact animal welfare, trade and public health. Early detection of outbreaks can reduce the impact of these diseases by triggering control measures that limit the number of cases that occur. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prospective spatiotemporal methods could be used to identify outbreaks of new and emerging diseases in scanning surveillance data. SaTScan was used to identify clusters of unusually high levels of submissions where a diagnosis could not be reached (DNR using different probability models and baselines. The clusters detected were subjected to a further selection process to reduce the number of false positives and a more detailed epidemiological analysis to ascertain whether they were likely to represent real outbreaks. Results 187,925 submissions of clinical material from cattle were made to the Regional Laboratory of the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA between 2002 and 2007, and the results were stored on the VLA FarmFile database. 16,925 of these were classified as DNRs and included in the analyses. Variation in the number and proportion of DNRs was found between syndromes and regions, so a spatiotemporal analysis for each DNR syndrome was done. Six clusters were identified using the Bernoulli model after applying selection criteria (e.g. size of cluster. The further epidemiological analysis revealed that one of the systemic clusters could plausibly have been due to Johne's disease. The remainder were either due to misclassification or not consistent with a single diagnosis. Conclusions Our analyses have demonstrated that spatiotemporal methods can be used to detect clusters of new or emerging diseases, identify clusters of known diseases that may not have been diagnosed and identify misclassification in the data, and highlighted the impact of data quality on the ability to detect outbreaks. Spatiotemporal methods should be used alongside

  8. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports a...... series of studies aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. 2. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by how they employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been...... cross-cultural comparability. 5. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward's method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were labelled the uninvolved food consumer, the careless food consumer, the rational food consumer, the conservative food consumer, the adventurous consumer...

  9. The bivariate combined model for spatial data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, Thomas; Lawson, Andrew B; Kirby, Russell S; Faes, Christel

    2016-08-15

    To describe the spatial distribution of diseases, a number of methods have been proposed to model relative risks within areas. Most models use Bayesian hierarchical methods, in which one models both spatially structured and unstructured extra-Poisson variance present in the data. For modelling a single disease, the conditional autoregressive (CAR) convolution model has been very popular. More recently, a combined model was proposed that 'combines' ideas from the CAR convolution model and the well-known Poisson-gamma model. The combined model was shown to be a good alternative to the CAR convolution model when there was a large amount of uncorrelated extra-variance in the data. Less solutions exist for modelling two diseases simultaneously or modelling a disease in two sub-populations simultaneously. Furthermore, existing models are typically based on the CAR convolution model. In this paper, a bivariate version of the combined model is proposed in which the unstructured heterogeneity term is split up into terms that are shared and terms that are specific to the disease or subpopulation, while spatial dependency is introduced via a univariate or multivariate Markov random field. The proposed method is illustrated by analysis of disease data in Georgia (USA) and Limburg (Belgium) and in a simulation study. We conclude that the bivariate combined model constitutes an interesting model when two diseases are possibly correlated. As the choice of the preferred model differs between data sets, we suggest to use the new and existing modelling approaches together and to choose the best model via goodness-of-fit statistics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26928309

  10. Brazilian road traffic fatalities: a spatial and environmental analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTI are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1. The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. CONCLUSIONS: By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies.

  11. Competition in public transport in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    White, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Britain offers a case in which much greater experience of competition in the public transport sector can be seen than in other European countries. Examples are drawn from this experience, showing that outcomes differ between the long-distance and local markets, price competition functioning much more effectively in the former. In many respects, the competitive bidding process may be seen as more important and extensive than direct ‘on the road’ inter-operator competition within th...

  12. Occupational cancer burden in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Rushton, Lesley; Hutchings, Sally J; Fortunato, Lea; Young, Charlotte; Evans, Gareth S; Brown, Terry; Bevan, Ruth; Slack, Rebecca; Holmes, Phillip; Bagga, Sanjeev; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2012-01-01

    A sound knowledge base is required to target resources to reduce workplace exposure to carcinogens. This project aimed to provide an objective estimate of the burden of cancer in Britain due to occupation. This volume presents extensive analyses for all carcinogens and occupational circumstances defined as definite or probable human occupational carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This article outlines the structure of the supplement – two methodological papers (st...

  13. Abortion Counselling in Britain: Understanding the Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggart, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature from a number of disciplines in order to provide an explanation of the political controversy attached to the provision of abortion counselling. It will show how this is an area of health policy debate in which women's reproductive bodies have become a setting for political struggle. The issue of abortion counselling in Britain has undergone a number of discursive shifts in response to political manoeuvring and changing socio-legal framing of abortion. In partic...

  14. Britain Seeks Compromise on Animal Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Nelson; 陈青

    2004-01-01

    @@ Attacks on facilities, assaults on lab staff and a distinct lack of public support have combined to make animal research a significant problem for the British government. On the one hand, it wants to support biomedical② research and bolster③ the pharmaceutical④ industry, Britain's most successful high-technology sector. But by doing so it might alienate⑤ a public that is largely ambivalent⑥about the value of animal experiments.

  15. [Research of Identify Spatial Object Using Spectrum Analysis Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Feng, Shi-qi; Shi, Jing; Xu, Rong; Wang, Gong-chang; Li, Bin-yu; Liu, Yu; Li, Shuang; Cao Rui; Cai, Hong-xing; Zhang, Xi-he; Tan, Yong

    2015-06-01

    The high precision scattering spectrum of spatial fragment with the minimum brightness of 4.2 and the resolution of 0.5 nm has been observed using spectrum detection technology on the ground. The obvious differences for different types of objects are obtained by the normalizing and discrete rate analysis of the spectral data. Each of normalized multi-frame scattering spectral line shape for rocket debris is identical. However, that is different for lapsed satellites. The discrete rate of the single frame spectrum of normalized space debris for rocket debris ranges from 0.978% to 3.067%, and the difference of oscillation and average value is small. The discrete rate for lapsed satellites ranges from 3.118 4% to 19.472 7%, and the difference of oscillation and average value relatively large. The reason is that the composition of rocket debris is single, while that of the lapsed satellites is complex. Therefore, the spectrum detection technology on the ground can be used to the classification of the spatial fragment. PMID:26601348

  16. Analysis of Spatial Data Structures for Proximity Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anupreet Walia; Jochen Teizer

    2008-01-01

    Construction is a dangerous business.According to statistics,in every of the past thirteen years more than 1000 workers died in the USA construction industry.In order to minimize the overall number of these incidents,the research presented in this paper investigates to monitor and analyze the trejectories of construction resources first in a simulated environment and later on the actual job site.Due to the complex nature of the construction environment,three dimensional (3D) positioning data of workers is hardly col-lected.Although technology is available that allows tracking construction assets in real-time,indoors and outdoors,in 3D,at the same time,the continuously changing spatial and temporal arrangement of job sites requires any successfully working data processing system to work in real-time.This research paper focuses is safety on spatial data structures that offer the capability of realigning itself and reporting the distance of the closest neighbor in real-time.This paper presents results to simulations that allow the processing of real-time location data for collision detection and proximity analysis.The presented data structures and perform-ance results to the developed algorithms demonstmte that real-time tracking and proximity detection of re-sources is feasible.

  17. Climate change and water resources in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality - as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents - will deteriorate. In northern Britain, river flows are likely to increase throughout the year, particularly in winter. Climate change may lead to increased demands for water, over and above that increase which is forecast for non-climatic reasons, primarily due to increased use for garden watering. These increased pressures on the water resource base will impact not only upon the reliability of water supplies, but also upon navigation, aquatic ecosystems, recreation and power generation, and will have implications for water management. Flood risk is likely to increase, implying a reduction in standards of flood protection. The paper discusses adaptation options. 39 refs., 5 figs

  18. Calculation and analysis of the neutron radiography spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Spatial resolution is the key parameter for neutron radiography facility. A model of the integrated system resolution is important when designing or using a system to ensure that the realistic resolution goals can be established and achieved. Purpose: For this resolution modeling analysis we focused on the effects of the geometry effects of L/D, the optical diffusion response of the scintillator and the sampling at the sensor (CCD or CMOS camera) and a formula was derived indicating their functional relationship. Methods: This resolution modeling analysis has been down by theoretic calculations. Then this integrated system resolution model was used as an empirical methodology to verify and optimize the performance of the detection system for real-time neutron radiography at China Advance Research Reactor. Results: The special resolutions at very collimation conditions have been calculation by using this method. And three of important parameters of this resolution model have been discussed to optimize the system performance. Conclusion: These resolution analysis concepts and methods will benefit both the design and the characterization of radiography systems. (authors)

  19. Multitemporal spatial pattern analysis of Tulum's tropical coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Forero, Sandra Carolina; López-Caloca, Alejandra; Silván-Cárdenas, José Luis

    2011-11-01

    The tropical coastal landscape of Tulum in Quintana Roo, Mexico has a high ecological, economical, social and cultural value, it provides environmental and tourism services at global, national, regional and local levels. The landscape of the area is heterogeneous and presents random fragmentation patterns. In recent years, tourist services of the region has been increased promoting an accelerate expansion of hotels, transportation and recreation infrastructure altering the complex landscape. It is important to understand the environmental dynamics through temporal changes on the spatial patterns and to propose a better management of this ecological area to the authorities. This paper addresses a multi-temporal analysis of land cover changes from 1993 to 2000 in Tulum using Thematic Mapper data acquired by Landsat-5. Two independent methodologies were applied for the analysis of changes in the landscape and for the definition of fragmentation patterns. First, an Iteratively Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) algorithm was used to detect and localize land cover change/no-change areas. Second, the post-classification change detection evaluated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. Landscape metrics were calculated from the results of IR-MAD and SVM. The analysis of the metrics indicated, among other things, a higher fragmentation pattern along roadways.

  20. The South Asian Presence in Britain and its Transnational Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    An outline of the way in which transnational kinship networks facilitated the process of South Asian migration to Britain and the subsequent construction of plethora of ethnic colonies in the heart of most of Britain's cities, together with an exploration of the way in which the distinctive dynamics of locally-specific networks continue to have far reaching consequences for developments in Britain, in South Asia, as well as in more global arenas.

  1. Geochemical study on hot-spring water in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahan, M. M.; Verave, R. T.; Irarue, P. Y.

    2015-10-01

    West New Britain Province, which occupies the western part of New Britain Island in Papua New Guinea, is ideally located within an active tectonic region that influences volcanism creating an environment favourable for geothermal activity. Geothermal mapping of surface manifestations reveals high temperature geothermal prospects along the northern coastline of West New Britain Province that are further confirmed by geochemical analysis. The occurrence of geothermal features is confined to the Quaternary Kimbe Volcanics and alluvium in the lowland areas. The features in Talasea appear to be controlled by deep-seated northerly trending faults while structures in Hoskins also appear to be deep seated but have not been identified. The geothermal systems in West New Britain Province have not been drilled, but preliminary reconnaissance geothermal mapping and geochemical analysis reveals four high temperature geothermal prospects suitable for further investigation and development of geothermal energy. These are the Pangalu (Rabili) and Talasea Station geothermal prospects in Talasea and Kasiloli (Magouru) and Silanga (Bakama and Sakalu) geothermal prospects in Hoskins. The calculated reservoir temperatures for these fields are in the range of 245-310 °C. Recommendations are made for further follow-up exploratory investigations.

  2. Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Alò Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area. Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Methods Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Results Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. Conclusion As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In

  3. A scoping review of spatial cluster analysis techniques for point-event data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Fritz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial cluster analysis is a uniquely interdisciplinary endeavour, and so it is important to communicate and disseminate ideas, innovations, best practices and challenges across practitioners, applied epidemiology researchers and spatial statisticians. In this research we conducted a scoping review to systematically search peer-reviewed journal databases for research that has employed spatial cluster analysis methods on individual-level, address location, or x and y coordinate derived data. To illustrate the thematic issues raised by our results, methods were tested using a dataset where known clusters existed. Point pattern methods, spatial clustering and cluster detection tests, and a locally weighted spatial regression model were most commonly used for individual-level, address location data (n = 29. The spatial scan statistic was the most popular method for address location data (n = 19. Six themes were identified relating to the application of spatial cluster analysis methods and subsequent analyses, which we recommend researchers to consider; exploratory analysis, visualization, spatial resolution, aetiology, scale and spatial weights. It is our intention that researchers seeking direction for using spatial cluster analysis methods, consider the caveats and strengths of each approach, but also explore the numerous other methods available for this type of analysis. Applied spatial epidemiology researchers and practitioners should give special consideration to applying multiple tests to a dataset. Future research should focus on developing frameworks for selecting appropriate methods and the corresponding spatial weighting schemes.

  4. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption change is weakened. The regions with higher energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the developed coastal areas in China, while those with lower energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the less developed western regions in China. Energy consumption change in China is mainly caused by transportation industry and non-labor intensive industry. Rapid economic development and higher industrialization rate are the main causes for faster changes in energy consumption in China. The results also indicate that spatial autoregressive model can reveal more influencing factors of energy consumption changes in China, in contrast with standard linear model. At last, this study has put forward the corresponding measures or policies for dealing with the growing trend of energy consumption in China.

  5. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  6. Study of academic achievements using spatial analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Velilla, C.; Sánchez-Girón, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the 2010/12 academic year the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid implemented three new degrees all of them adapted to the European Space for Higher Education. These degrees are namely: Graduate in Agricultural Engineering and Science, Graduate in Food Engineering and Graduate in Agro-Environmental Engineering. A total of 382 new incoming students were finally registered and a survey study was carried out with these students about their academic achievement with the aim of finding the level of dependence among the following variables: the final mark in their secondary studies, the option followed in the secondary studies (Art, Science and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences), the mark obtained in the entering examination to the university and in which of the two opportunities per year this examination takes place the latter mark was obtained. Similarly, another group of 77 students were evaluated independently to the former group. These students were those entering the College in the previous academic year (2009/10) and decided to change their curricula to the new ones. Subsequently, using the tools of spatial analysis of geographic information systems, we analyzed the possible relationship between the success or failure at school and the socioeconomic profile of new students in a grade. For this purpose every student was referenced assigning UTM coordinates to their postal addresses. Furthermore, all students' secondary schools were geographically coded considering their typology (public, private, and private subsidized) and fares. Each student was represented by its average geometric point in order to be correlated to their respective record. Following this procedure a map of the performance of each student could be drawn. This map can be used as a reference system, as it includes variables as the distance from the student home to the College, that can be used as a tool to calculate the probability of success or

  7. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Subba Rao

    2014-06-01

    A study on the geochemistry of groundwater was carried out in a river basin of Andhra Pradesh to probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO$^{−}_{3}$, Cl−, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, NO$^{−}_{3}$ and F−, into two orthogonal principal components (PC1 and PC2), accounting for 75% of the total variance of the data matrix. PC1 has high positive loadings of EC, Na+, Cl−, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, Mg2+ and Ca2+, representing a salinity controlled process of geogenic (mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation), anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine (marine clay) origin. The PC2 loadings are highly positive for HCO$^{−}_{3}$, F−, pH and NO$^{−}_{3}$, attributing to the alkalinity and pollution controlled processes of geogenic and anthropogenic origins. The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin from upstream to downstream area with an increase in concentration of chemical variables, which is due to anthropogenic and marine origins with varying topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the groundwater quality shows a variation of chemical facies from Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+: HCO$^{−}_{3}$ > Cl− > SO$^{2−}_{4}$ > NO$^{−}_{3}$ > F− at high topography to Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+: Cl− > HCO$^{−}_{3}$ > SO$^{2−}_{4}$ > NO$^{−}_{3}$ > F− at low topography. With PCA, an effective tool for the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, a subset of explored wells is indexed for continuous monitoring to optimize the expensive effort.

  8. Analysis of WiMAX Physical Layer Using Spatial Multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Sanghoi, Pavani

    2012-01-01

    Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) has emerged as a promising solution for providing last mile internet access technology to provide high speed internet access to the users in the residential as well as in the small and medium sized enterprise sectors. IEEE 802.16e is one of the most promising and attractive candidate among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access. The emergence of WiMAX protocol has attracted various interests from almost all the fields of wireless communications. MIMO systems which are created according to the IEEE 802.16-2005 standard (WiMAX) under different fading channels can be implemented to get the benefits of both the MIMO and WiMAX technologies. In this paper analysis of higher level of modulations (i.e. M-PSK and M-QAM for different values of M) with different code rates and on WiMAX-MIMO system is presented for Rayleigh channel by focusing on spatial multiplexing MIMO technique. Signal-to Noise Ratio (SNR) vs Bit Error Rate (BER) analysis has been done.

  9. Spatial resolution attainable in germanium detectors by pulse shape analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several applications for which it is desirable to calculate the locations and energies of individual gamma-ray interactions within a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. These include gamma-ray imaging and Compton suppression. With a segmented detector this can be accomplished by analyzing the pulse shapes of the signals from the various segments. We examine the fundamental limits to the spatial resolution attainable with this approach. The primary source of error is the series noise of the field effect transistors (FETs) at the inputs of the charge amplifiers. We show how to calculate the noise spectral density at the output of the charge amplifiers due to an optimally selected FET. This calculation is based only on the detector capacitance and a noise constant for the FET technology. We show how to use this spectral density to calculate the uncertainties in parameters, such as interaction locations and energies, that are derived from pulse shape analysis using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) applied to filtered and digitized recordings of the charge signals. Example calculations are given to illustrate our approach. Experimental results are given that demonstrate that one can construct complete systems, from detector through data analysis, that come near the theoretical limits

  10. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  11. Signal Adaptive System for Space/Spatial-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin N. Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a multiple-clock-cycle implementation (MCI of a signal adaptive two-dimensional (2D system for space/spatial-frequency (S/SF signal analysis. The design is based on a method for improved S/SF representation of the analyzed 2D signals, also proposed here. The proposed MCI design optimizes critical design performances related to hardware complexity, making it a suitable system for real time implementation on an integrated chip. Additionally, the design allows the implemented system to take a variable number of clock cycles (CLKs (the only necessary ones regarding desirable—2D Wigner distribution-presentation of autoterms in different frequency-frequency points during the execution. This ability represents a major advantage of the proposed design which helps to optimize the time required for execution and produce an improved, cross-terms-free S/SF signal representation. The design has been verified by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA circuit design, capable of performing S/SF analysis of 2D signals in real time.

  12. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods. PMID:17537540

  13. Spatial Analysis of Breast Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavifar, Neda; Pakzad, Reza; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Moudi, Asieh; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in females (27% of the total) and the main cause of death (16%) due to cancer in women in developed and developing countries. Variations in its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. Since there have been a lack of studies on this topic in our country, the present spatial analysis of breast cancer incidence in Iran in 2009 was conducted using data from the national cancer registry system. The reported incidences of the disease were standardized according to the World Health Organization population and the direct method. Then data was inserted into the GIS software and finally, using the Hot Spot Analysis (Geties-Ord Gi), high-risk areas were drawn. Provinces with incidences 1.96 SD higher or lower than the national average were considered as hot spots or cold spots, at the significance level of 0.05%. In 2009, a total of 7,582 cases of BC occurred in Iran. The annual incidence was 33.2 per hundred thousand people. Our study showed that the highest incidence of BC in women occurred in the central provinces of the country, Tehran, Isfahan, Yazd, Markazi and Fars. The results of hot spots analysis showed that the distribution of high-risk BC was focused in central parts of Iran, especially Isfahan province (p <0.01). The other provinces were not significantly different from the national average. The higher incidence in central provinces may be due to greater exposure to carcinogens in urban areas, a Western lifestyle and high prevalence of other risk factors. Further epidemiological studies about the etiology and early detection of BC are essential. PMID:27165209

  14. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about pharmacists who come to work in Great Britain. Recent changes in the registration routes onto the Register of Pharmacists of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain may have affected entries from overseas: reciprocal arrangements for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand ended in June 2006; 10 new states joined the European Union in 2004 and a further two in 2007, allowing straightforward registration. Aims The aims of the paper are to extend our knowledge about the extent to which Great Britain is relying on the contribution of internationally trained pharmacists and to explore their routes of entry and demographic characteristics and compare them to those of pharmacists trained in Great Britain. Methods The August 2007 Register of Pharmacists provided the main data for analysis. Register extracts between 2002 and 2005 were also explored, allowing longitudinal comparison, and work pattern data from the 2005 Pharmacist Workforce Census were included. Results In 2007, internationally trained pharmacists represented 8.8% of the 43 262 registered pharmacists domiciled in Great Britain. The majority (40.6% had joined the Register from Europe; 33.6% and 25.8% joined via adjudication and reciprocal arrangements. Until this entry route ended for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand in 2006, annual numbers of reciprocal pharmacists increased. European pharmacists are younger (mean age 31.7 than reciprocal (40.0 or adjudication pharmacists (43.0, and the percentage of women among European-trained pharmacists is much higher (68% when compared with British-trained pharmacists (56%. While only 7.1% of pharmacists registered in Great Britain have a London address, this proportion is much higher for European (13.9%, adjudication (19.5% and reciprocal pharmacists (28.9%. The latter are more likely to

  15. Corporate Ownership and Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  16. Britain and Algeria: Problems of Return

    OpenAIRE

    Joffé, George

    2007-01-01

    Collective Action to Support the Reintegration of Return Migrants in their Country of Origin (MIREM) Britain is not an obvious country to which Algerians migrate, although the crisis of the Algerian civil war in the 1990s was to make it an alternative to continental Europe, especially France. From 45 in 1991, asylum applications peaked in 1995 at 1,865 persons and then ran at a consistently high level up to 2002. They are now in steep decline. Return of Algerian asylum-seekers has not f...

  17. THE STRATEGIES OF INTEGRATING SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS AND GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The gap between SDA (Spatial Data Analysis) and GIS (Geographical Information Systems) existed for along time. Presently this problem still remains in spite of a lot of theoretical and practical studies which try to find the solution for it. The research background and current situation about how to integrate SDA and GIS are introduced at first. Themain idea of this article is to make sure what is the best scheme to bridge the gap between SDA and GIS and how to designit. There are a lot of factors to influence the standards to assess such a scheme, for instance, the attitude of users and GISdevelopers, the framework and related functions of current available GIS software in the market and so on. But the twomost important ones of them are efficiency and flexibility of the scheme itself. Efficiency can be measured by the convenient extent and temporal length when it is used for carrying out SDA. Flexibility means users can define their own SDAmethods. The best integration scheme should satisfy the two standards at the same time. A group of functions, which canbe combined to implement any SDA method, are defined in order to design such an integration scheme. The functions aredivided into five classes according to their properties.

  18. THE STRATEGIES OF INTEGRATING SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS AND GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOZheng-yuan; LILin

    2002-01-01

    The gap between SDA(Spatial Data Analysis) and GIS (Geographical Information Systems)existed for a long time.Presently this problem still remains in spite of a lot of theoretical and practical studies which try to find the solu-tion for it.The research background and current situation about how to integrate SDA and GIS are introduced at first.The main idea of this article is to make sure what is the best scheme to bridge the gap between SDA and GIS and how to design it.There are a lot of factors to influence the standards to assess such a scheme,for instance,the attitude of users and GIS developers,the framework and related functions of current available GIS software in the market and so on.But the two most important ones of them are efficiency and flexibility of the scheme itself.Efficiency can be measured by the conve-nient extent and temporal length when it is used for carrying out SDA.Flexibility means users can define their own SDA methods.The best integration scheme should satisfy the two standards at the same time.A group of functions,which can be combined to implement any SDA method,are defined in order to design such an integration scheme.The functions are divided into five classes according to their properties.

  19. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  20. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  1. Turbulent Times: Outdoor Education in Great Britain: 1993-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Pete; Telford, John

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor education has a long and well documented history in Great Britain which is regularly linked to Hahn, Gordonstoun School, and the Outward Bound movement. A kayaking tragedy in 1993 resulted in the introduction of new legislation through Parliament. This has led to major changes in outdoor education in Great Britain and extensive debates,…

  2. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Chinese Inter-Provincial Industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yibo Liu; Xianjin Huang; Xiaofeng Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation ana...

  3. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  4. Global Research on Artificial Intelligence from 1990–2014: Spatially-Explicit Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiqiang Niu; Wenwu Tang; Feng Xu; Xiaoyan Zhou; Yanan Song

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we conducted the evaluation of artificial intelligence research from 1990–2014 by using bibliometric analysis. We introduced spatial analysis and social network analysis as geographic information retrieval methods for spatially-explicit bibliometric analysis. This study is based on the analysis of data obtained from database of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S). Our results revealed scientific outputs...

  5. Culture and the environment in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Timothy

    1985-03-01

    The British pride themselves on their long tradition of landscape management rooted in the aristocratic and landowning classes of the 18th and 19th centuries. The British also emphasize that the rise of modern pollution control began in the Victorian industrial era with the emergence of the national Inspectorates and the local Commissioners of Sewers. All these traditions are rooted in British social history, which was heavily influenced by class, power, and the changing shape of industrial and agricultural development. In modern Britain, affected by industrial recession, where concern over jobs and growth appears to dominate public and political attention, as well as public spending cuts that sap the morale and effectiveness of the major regulatory agencies, attitudes toward, and the execution of, environmental protection are undergoing a subtle but profound revolution. It is slowly but agonizingly being recognized that economic growth and social well-being cannot be disconnected from environmental processes and the limits these impose on management and technological intervention. A 21st century Britain will have to integrate conservation with development in order to survive.

  6. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  7. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  8. Malaria in Britain: 1977-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, P A; Bradley, D J; Blaze, M; Hurn, M

    1988-01-23

    The incidence of malaria in Britain as reported to the Malaria Reference Laboratory during the past decade has increased by 51%, from 1529 to 2309 cases, and infection with Plasmodium falciparum has increased from one fifth to one third of all cases. The case fatality rate for P falciparum infections declined from 2.7% to 0.5%. Of the 67 persons who died, 54 were of British origin, nine of Asian descent, and four African. Sixteen had taken chemoprophylaxis; of these, nine had taken pyrimethamine alone. The pattern of infection shows that resident ethnic minority groups, temporary residents from west Africa, and tourists who visit Kenya are particularly at high risk. The calculated attack rates suggest that men, children, and young adults are at greater risk of malaria than women and older people. Rates are highest in immigrants who have settled in Britain who visit relatives: 316 and 331 per 100,000 for Africa and Asia respectively, 120 and 39 in tourists to those same regions, and 228 and 38 in business travellers to those regions. PMID:3124901

  9. Spatial dimensions of precision agriculture: a spatial econometric analysis of millet yield on Sahelian coversands

    OpenAIRE

    FLORAX Raymond J.g.m.; Voortman, Roelf L.; Brouwer, Joost

    2002-01-01

    The identification of local soil variability caused by within-field differences of macronutrients and ecological features is of paramount importance for the effectiveness of precision agriculture. We present several spatial statistical and econometric techniques to capture local differences in soil variation, ecological characteristics, and yield more effectively than the analytical techniques traditionally used in agronomy. The application of these techniques is illustrated in a case study d...

  10. Local and Spatial Cointegration in the Wage Curve: A Spatial Panel Analysis for German Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kosfeld, Reinhold; Dreger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The wage curve introduced by Blanchflower and Oswald (1990, 1994) postulates a negative correlation between wages and unemployment. Empirical results focus on particular theoretical channels establishing the relationship. Panel models mostly draw on unionized bargaining or the efficiency wage hypothesis. Spatial econometric approaches can be rationalized by monopsonistic competition. However, the approaches either ignore the issue of nonstationarity or treat the data as if it were nonspatial....

  11. Inverse spatial principal component analysis for geophysical survey data interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingmou; Dehler, Sonya A.

    2015-04-01

    The starting point for data processing, visualization, and overlay with other data sources in geological applications often involves building a regular grid by interpolation of geophysical measurements. Typically, the sampling interval along survey lines is much higher than the spacing between survey lines because the geophysical recording system is able to operate with a high sampling rate, while the costs and slower speeds associated with operational platforms limit line spacing. However, currently available interpolating methods often smooth data observed with higher sampling rate along a survey line to accommodate the lower spacing across lines, and much of the higher resolution information is not captured in the interpolation process. In this approach, a method termed as the inverse spatial principal component analysis (isPCA) is developed to address this problem. In the isPCA method, a whole profile observation as well as its line position is handled as an entity and a survey collection of line entities is analyzed for interpolation. To test its performance, the developed isPCA method is used to process a simulated airborne magnetic survey from an existing magnetic grid offshore the Atlantic coast of Canada. The interpolation results using the isPCA method and other methods are compared with the original survey grid. It is demonstrated that the isPCA method outperforms the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Kriging (Geostatistical), and MINimum Curvature (MINC) interpolation methods in retaining detailed anomaly structures and restoring original values. In a second test, a high resolution magnetic survey offshore Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, was processed and the results are compared with other geological information. This example demonstrates the effective performance of the isPCA method in basin structure identification.

  12. Spatial Analysis of Heterodera glycines Populations in Field Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Francl, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in nematode population densities presents an obstacle to the precise determination of infestation levels. Three field plots were intensively sampled for soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ich.) cysts before and after spring cultivation to quantify the spatial attributes of the population. Population density strata were detected running parallel to plant rows. Highest population densities before cultivation were found in the plant row and the middle furrow, Popula...

  13. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; S. Trajanovski; Wilke, T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial ...

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CANDEIA (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva; José Márcio de Mello; José Roberto Soares Scolforo; Luíz Czanck Júnior; Ivonise Silva Andrade; Antônio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Candeia (Eremanthus erythropapus) is a woody species that produces wood for various uses and with high economicvalue. This fact has caused an uncontrolled exploitation of the species. One way to reduce the exploitation impact of candeia tree is toelaborate a sustainable management plan. Spatial evaluation is important to analyze the ecological behavior of the species. The resultsmay help the comprehension of the spatial dependency and the pattern of distribution. The objective of this study w...

  15. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  16. Economic analysis of spatial preferences heterogeneity of water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Ortega, Julia; Brouwer, Roy; Berbel, Julio

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to account for spatial preference variability in the economic valuation of water quality improvements in the river basin context. This is expected to be particularly relevant for the implementation of the European WFD, as it will involve spatially differentiated perceptions of the benefits of water quality changes. A choice experiment is developed based on maps to elicit welfare measures for water quality improvements across sub-basins in the Guadalquivir R...

  17. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis : A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the mo

  18. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis: A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the model parameters and demonstrates the consequences…

  19. Integration of principal components analysis and cellular automata for spatial decisionmaking and urban simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xia(黎夏); YEH; Gar-On(叶嘉安)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues about the correlation of spatial variables during spatial decisionmaking using multicriteria evaluation (MCE) and cellular automata (CA). The correlation of spatial variables can cause the malfunction of MCE. In urban simulation, spatial factors often exhibit a high degree of correlation which is considered as an undesirable property for MCE. This study uses principal components analysis (PCA) to remove data redundancy among a large set of spatial variables and determine 'ideal points' for land development. PCA is integrated with cellular automata and geographical information systems (GIS) for the simulation of idealized urban forms for planning purposes.

  20. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan. PMID

  1. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  2. Multi-Level Spatial Analysis for Change Detection of Urban Vegetation at Individual Tree Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spurious change is a common problem in urban vegetation change detection by using multi-temporal remote sensing images of high resolution. This usually results from the false-absent and false-present vegetation patches in an obscured and/or shaded scene. The presented approach focuses on object-based change detection with joint use of spatial and spectral information, referring to it as multi-level spatial analyses. The analyses are conducted in three phases: (1 The pixel-level spatial analysis is performed by adding the density dimension into a multi-feature space for classification to indicate the spatial dependency between pixels; (2 The member-level spatial analysis is conducted by the self-adaptive morphology to readjust the incorrectly classified members according to the spatial dependency between members; (3 The object-level spatial analysis is reached by the self-adaptive morphology involved with the additional rule of sharing boundaries. Spatial analysis at this level will help detect spurious change objects according to the spatial dependency between objects. It is revealed that the error from the automatically extracted vegetation objects with the pixel- and member-level spatial analyses is no more than 2.56%, compared with 12.15% without spatial analysis. Moreover, the error from the automatically detected spurious changes with the object-level spatial analysis is no higher than 3.26% out of all the dynamic vegetation objects, meaning that the fully automatic detection of vegetation change at a joint maximum error of 5.82% can be guaranteed.

  3. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  4. Social Media in the Changing Ecology of News: The Fourth and Fifth Estate in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, William H.; Grant Blank; Nic Newman

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the changing patterns of news production and consumption in the UK that are being shaped by the Internet and related social media. Theoretically, this focus addresses concern over whether the Internet is undermining the Fourth Estate role of the press in liberal democratic societies. The case study draws from multiple methods, including survey research of individuals in Britain from 2003-2011, analysis of log files of journalistic sites, and interviews with...

  5. State, power, administration: Marxist and Foucauldian perspectives on state development in Britain, 1832-1918

    OpenAIRE

    Neocleous, Mark

    1995-01-01

    This thesis seeks to contribute an original account of state power by reconceptualising the state-civil society distinction through the category of political administration. Through an analysis of the development of the state in Britain between 1832 and 1918 it seeks to show why such a reconceptualisation is necessary and the features which distinguish it from other accounts. This task is performed via an immanent critique of the work of Hegel, Marx and Foucault. It is argued that historical ...

  6. Cancer risks in populations living near landfill sites in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Jarup, L; Briggs, D.; de Hoogh, C; Morris, S.; Hurt, C.; Lewin, A; Maitland, I; Richardson, S; Wakefield, J; Elliott , P.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have raised concerns about possible excess risks of bladder, brain and hepatobiliary cancers and leukaemias near landfill sites. Several cancers have been implicated, but no consistent pattern has emerged. We present a large nationwide analysis of selected cancers near landfill sites in Great Britain. The base population comprised people living within 2 km of 9565 (from a total of 19 196) landfill sites that were operational at some time from 1982 to 1997, with populations li...

  7. Association of age and social class with suicide among men in Great Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitman, N; Carstairs, V.; Duffy, J.

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate suicide and "undetermined" deaths by age, economic activity status, and social class in Great Britain among males of working age. DESIGN--The study was a cross sectional analysis of Registrar General's data for England and Wales around 1981, repeated for around 1971, and for Scotland around 1971 and 1981. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--For England and Wales around 1971, suicide and undetermined death rates showed a progressive increase with age and ...

  8. By Slow Degrees: Two Centuries of Social Reproduction and Mobility in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lambert; Kenneth Prandy; Wendy Bottero

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses long term trends in patterns of intergenerational social mobility in Britain. We argue that there is convincing empirical evidence of a small but steady linear trend towards increasing social mobility throughout the period 1800-2004. Our conclusions are based upon the construction and analysis of an extended micro-social dataset, which combines records from an historical genealogical study, with responses from 31 sample surveys conducted over the period 1963-2004. There h...

  9. Geometric anisotropic spatial point pattern analysis and Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Toftaker, Håkon

    We consider spatial point processes with a pair correlation function g(u) which depends only on the lag vector u between a pair of points. Our interest is in statistical models with a special kind of ‘structured’ anisotropy: g is geometric anisotropy if it is elliptical but not spherical. In...... particular we study Cox process models with an elliptical pair correlation function, including shot noise Cox processes and log Gaussian Cox processes, and we develop estimation procedures using summary statistics and Bayesian methods. Our methodology is illustrated on real and synthetic datasets of spatial...

  10. Spatial analysis of storm depths from an Arizona raingage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennessey, N. M.; Eagleson, P. S.; Qinliang, W.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    1986-01-01

    Eight years of summer rainstorm observations are analyzed by a dense network of 93 raingages operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, in the 150 km Walnut Gulch experimental catchment near Tucson, Arizona. Storms are defined by the total depths collected at each raingage during the noon-to-noon period for which there was depth recorded at any of the gages. For each of the resulting 428 storm days, the gage depths are interpolated onto a dense grid and the resulting random field analyzed to obtain moments, isohyetal plots, spatial correlation function, variance function, and the spatial distribution of storm depth.

  11. Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, Paolo; Wang, Jiaqiu; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of...

  12. Britain labours towards a 1994 rebirth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, the United Kingdom government is due to undertake a thorough and wide-ranging review of nuclear power. The articles brought together here, collectively present nuclear power as a viable energy option for Britain. The future of nuclear power beyond 1994 is considered in terms of performance, future reactor design and economics and the role of the state utility, nuclear electric, is assessed. Other topics included are: the success of Scottish nuclear; progress with the Sizewell B PWR; life-time extrusion of magnox plants; nuclear electric's AGR improvement programme; decommissioning; plans for an underground rock laboratory at Sellafield for further investigation of deep disposal of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste; successful remote ultrasonic inspection of magnox reactor pressure vessels; the application of on-line diagnostics and monitoring to on-load fuelling at the Torness twin-reactor AGR station; the control for radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities. (U.K.)

  13. The Spatial Behaviour of Animals and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, T. S.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some common patterns of animal spatial behavior, and discusses spatial relationships that can be observed as an important component of human social behavior. Reports the results of a study relating to the interpersonal distances of people in bus queues in Britain. (JR)

  14. he Analysis of the Noble Family Morality in the Industrial Period in Britain%英国工业革命期间贵族家庭观浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2012-01-01

    英国贵族在工业革命期间的家庭关系较典型的核心家庭来说稍有扩大,被称为“扩大的核心家庭”。该文欲通过对贵族婚姻关系、亲子关系、主仆关系以及松散的亲属关系的阐述,来对这一时期其家庭观的几个维度进行粗浅的探讨。%The relationship of noble family in Britain was the extended nuclear family. This article describes and analyses the noblemen's marriage, children, servants and relatives.

  15. Occupational cancer burden in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Lesley; Hutchings, Sally J; Fortunato, Lea; Young, Charlotte; Evans, Gareth S; Brown, Terry; Bevan, Ruth; Slack, Rebecca; Holmes, Phillip; Bagga, Sanjeev; Cherrie, John W; Van Tongeren, Martie

    2012-06-19

    A sound knowledge base is required to target resources to reduce workplace exposure to carcinogens. This project aimed to provide an objective estimate of the burden of cancer in Britain due to occupation. This volume presents extensive analyses for all carcinogens and occupational circumstances defined as definite or probable human occupational carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This article outlines the structure of the supplement - two methodological papers (statistical approach and exposure assessment), eight papers presenting the cancer-specific results grouped by broad anatomical site, a paper giving industry sector results and one discussing work-related cancer-prevention strategies. A brief summary of the methods and an overview of the updated overall results are given in this introductory paper. A general discussion of the overall strengths and limitations of the study is also presented. Overall, 8010 (5.3%) total cancer deaths in Britain and 13,598 cancer registrations were attributable to occupation in 2005 and 2004, respectively. The importance of cancer sites such as mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma and stomach cancers are highlighted, as are carcinogens such as asbestos, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists, as well as occupational circumstances such as shift work and occupation as a painter or welder. The methods developed for this project are being adapted by other countries and extended to include social and economic impact evaluation. PMID:22710676

  16. Phasing out Britain's nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of phasing-out Britain's nuclear power stations. It considers a range of strategies, from complete closure by 1990, to allowing them to run the full course of their planned lives, which for some reactors would be well into the next century. For reasons stated, closure of all Britain's nuclear power stations by 1990 or shortly afterwards would be likely to lead to a shortfall in generating capacity. Sufficient new generating capacity could not be provided quickly enough to avoid this shortfall, so power cuts at times of winter peak demand would probably occur. However, the older Magnox reactors, which comprise nine of the sixteen nuclear power stations, could be closed by the end of the present decade without risking power cuts. The seven AGRs, which are all newer, could be closed between 1995 and 2000, as replacement capacity was completed. 6 GW of new capacity, equivalent to three coal-fired power stations of standard design, would be needed for this purpose. The phasing out of nuclear power would add to the electricity industry operating costs. Taking all costs together - decommissioning, operating costs and the capital cost of replacement - the increase in electricity price is unlikely to exceed 10%. It is essential that the phasing-out of nuclear power is supported by new investment in the UK coal industry. Given the long time lag in completing new developments, it would be wise to make an early start on this new capacity in order to avoid large coal imports in the 1990s. (author)

  17. Insights to urban dynamics through landscape spatial pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TV, Ramachandra; Aithal, Bharath H.; Sanna, Durgappa D.

    2012-08-01

    Urbanisation is a dynamic complex phenomenon involving large scale changes in the land uses at local levels. Analyses of changes in land uses in urban environments provide a historical perspective of land use and give an opportunity to assess the spatial patterns, correlation, trends, rate and impacts of the change, which would help in better regional planning and good governance of the region. Main objective of this research is to quantify the urban dynamics using temporal remote sensing data with the help of well-established landscape metrics. Bangalore being one of the rapidly urbanising landscapes in India has been chosen for this investigation. Complex process of urban sprawl was modelled using spatio temporal analysis. Land use analyses show 584% growth in built-up area during the last four decades with the decline of vegetation by 66% and water bodies by 74%. Analyses of the temporal data reveals an increase in urban built up area of 342.83% (during 1973-1992), 129.56% (during 1992-1999), 106.7% (1999-2002), 114.51% (2002-2006) and 126.19% from 2006 to 2010. The Study area was divided into four zones and each zone is further divided into 17 concentric circles of 1 km incrementing radius to understand the patterns and extent of the urbanisation at local levels. The urban density gradient illustrates radial pattern of urbanisation for the period 1973-2010. Bangalore grew radially from 1973 to 2010 indicating that the urbanisation is intensifying from the central core and has reached the periphery of the Greater Bangalore. Shannon's entropy, alpha and beta population densities were computed to understand the level of urbanisation at local levels. Shannon's entropy values of recent time confirms dispersed haphazard urban growth in the city, particularly in the outskirts of the city. This also illustrates the extent of influence of drivers of urbanisation in various directions. Landscape metrics provided in depth knowledge about the sprawl. Principal component

  18. Rockfall hazard analysis using LiDAR and spatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hengxing; Martin, C. Derek; Zhou, Chenghu; Lim, Chang Ho

    2010-05-01

    Rockfalls have been significant geohazards along the Canadian Class 1 Railways (CN Rail and CP Rail) since their construction in the late 1800s. These rockfalls cause damage to infrastructure, interruption of business, and environmental impacts, and their occurrence varies both spatially and temporally. The proactive management of these rockfall hazards requires enabling technologies. This paper discusses a hazard assessment strategy for rockfalls along a section of a Canadian railway using LiDAR and spatial modeling. LiDAR provides accurate topographical information of the source area of rockfalls and along their paths. Spatial modeling was conducted using Rockfall Analyst, a three dimensional extension to GIS, to determine the characteristics of the rockfalls in terms of travel distance, velocity and energy. Historical rockfall records were used to calibrate the physical characteristics of the rockfall processes. The results based on a high-resolution digital elevation model from a LiDAR dataset were compared with those based on a coarse digital elevation model. A comprehensive methodology for rockfall hazard assessment is proposed which takes into account the characteristics of source areas, the physical processes of rockfalls and the spatial attribution of their frequency and energy.

  19. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We consider spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of weed presen...... combining approximate Kalman filter techniques with importance sampling....

  20. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    This paper considers spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of we...... combining approximate Kalman filter techniques with importance sampling....

  1. An analysis of trends in spatial mobility of Dutch graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, Viktor; Van Dijk, Jouke; Van Wissen, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Considerable attention in the literature has been devoted to spatial mobility as a mechanism in the transition from study to work. In this paper, the relationships between migration and both regional economic circumstances and individual characteristics are investigated using a micro-dataset on Dutc

  2. Deforestation, leakage and avoided deforestation policies: a spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DELACOTE, Philippe; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Roussel, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that deforestation choices in one area influence deforestation decisions in nearby patches. We explore the interplay between forest landscapes comprising heterogeneous patches, localised spatial displacement, and avoided deforestation policies. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) policie...

  3. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  4. An Empirical Study Of Productivity Growth In EU28 - Spatial Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Alicja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the spatial process of productivity growth in the European Union on the foundations of the theory of New Economic Geography. The proposed model is based on the study of NUTS 2 regions and takes into consideration a spatial weights matrix in order to better describe the structure of spatial dependence between EU regions. Furthermore, our paper attempts to investigate the applicability of some new approaches to spatial modelling including parameterization of the spatial weights matrix. Our study presents an application of the spatial panel model with fixed effects to Fingleton’s theoretical framework. We suggest that the applied approach constitutes an innovation to spatial econometric studies providing additional information hence, a deeper analysis of the investigated problem.

  5. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  6. Distributed multi-criteria model evaluation and spatial association analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Model performance, if evaluated, is often communicated by a single indicator and at an aggregated level; however, it does not embrace the trade-offs between different indicators and the inherent spatial heterogeneity of model efficiency. In this study, we simulated the water balance of the Mississippi watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated against monthly river discharge at 131 measurement stations. Its time series were bisected to allow for subsequent validation at the same gauges. Furthermore, the model was validated against evapotranspiration which was available as a continuous raster based on remote sensing. The model performance was evaluated for each of the 451 sub-watersheds using four different criteria: 1) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), 2) percent bias (PBIAS), 3) root mean square error (RMSE) normalized to standard deviation (RSR), as well as 4) a combined indicator of the squared correlation coefficient and the linear regression slope (bR2). Conditions that might lead to a poor model performance include aridity, a very flat and steep relief, snowfall and dams, as indicated by previous research. In an attempt to explain spatial differences in model efficiency, the goodness of the model was spatially compared to these four phenomena by means of a bivariate spatial association measure which combines Pearson's correlation coefficient and Moran's index for spatial autocorrelation. In order to assess the model performance of the Mississippi watershed as a whole, three different averages of the sub-watershed results were computed by 1) applying equal weights, 2) weighting by the mean observed river discharge, 3) weighting by the upstream catchment area and the square root of the time series length. Ratings of model performance differed significantly in space and according to efficiency criterion. The model performed much better in the humid Eastern region than in the arid Western region which was confirmed by the

  7. What made Britannia great? Did the Industrial Revolution make Britain a world power?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    How much of Britain's high living standards and military power compared to its competitors in 1850 should be attributed to Britain having first experienced the Industrial Revolution? Examining data on real wages in the north and south of England, the Netherlands and Ireland in the Industrial Revolution era, this paper contends that most of the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution benefited Britain's competitors as much as Britain itself. Britain attained higher outputs per pers...

  8. Advanced spatial metrics analysis in cellular automata land use and cover change modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an approach for a more effective definition of cellular automata transition rules for landscape change modeling using an advanced spatial metrics analysis. This approach considers a four-stage methodology based on: (i) the search for the appropriate spatial metrics with minimal correlations; (ii) the selection of the appropriate neighborhood size; (iii) the selection of the appropriate technique for spatial metrics application; and (iv) the analysis of the contribution level of each spatial metric for joint use. The case study uses an initial set of 7 spatial metrics of which 4 are selected for modeling. Results show a better model performance when compared to modeling without any spatial metrics or with the initial set of 7 metrics.

  9. Analysis on Tourism Economic Spatial Relation of Liaoning Central City Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong; SUN; Liang; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Through the calculation and analysis of the tourism economic spatial relation,it found that Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism economic spatial relation has many problems,such as the central city is insufficient,and the low degree of spatial relations. Therefore,this article puts forward the countermeasures,which can provide theoretical and practical reference for Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism industry layout.

  10. Investment prospects priority in the policy of stable economic growth in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Markevych

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the components of the economic grown policy of Great Britain based on global consolidation of the investment position of the country. The place of Great Britain in the system of international economic relations and its role in the EU has been established by means of comparative analysis of a number of macroeconomic indices and components of foreign economic activity. Also, the article considers peculiarities of the country`s foreign economic policy aimed at overcoming the deficit of financial resources and accumulation of foreign capitals. The factors and components of further engagement of international financial resources have been determined, which shall positively influence the country` s investment attractiveness and provision of stable economic growth and development of the country in the future

  11. Analysis of Spatial and Economical Effects in Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Ph.D. Thesis In this thesis we analyze the performance of communication networks using game theoretic approaches. The thesis is in two parts. The first part studies the performance of Ad hoc, cellular and transportation networks taking into consideration spatial effects. The second part studies economic issues in the communication networks related to the 'net neutrality' regulations. Here we study price competition and revenue sharing mechanisms between the network service providers. In th...

  12. General Equilibrium Analysis of the Spatial Impacts of Rural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Kenneth J.; Psaltopoulos, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    General equilibrium (GE) techniques have recently been used to simulate policy impacts for neighbouring or different rural areas, thus focussing on the important spatial aspect of such policies. A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) represents production, households, government, etc. in matrix form, while computable GE models introduce greater behavioural flexibility at the cost of parameterisation. Several SAM and CGE models have recently been built for rural regions, while others have tried to r...

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PLACE: A SPATIAL AREA FOR HEALTH ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jalila Vieira de Figueirêdo Leite; Aldo Dantas; Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a theoretical discussion related to spatial areas used in Epidemiology, analysing their theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses in the recognition of social determinants of health. Some territorial divisions were defended as alternative scales because of homogeneity and accuracy characteristics, and because of their particular criteria of definitions, while recognizing the necessity to overcome some challenges related to the concepts, research designs and a...

  14. SPATIAL AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN GUILAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi Nia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO, the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022 and rice workers (47 621 insured workers among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009–2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran’s I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  15. Analysis of spatial chromatin organization and its evolutionary conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Not only the DNA's base pair composition but also its spatial structure is relevant for gene expression. This work studies the dependency of the three-dimensional genome fold on linear features and rearrangements, as well as the structural similarities in human and mouse. We show that individual inter-chromosomal contacts are not conserved, though the linear genome composition and functional properties of its organization exhibit similarities.

  16. Analog model for analysis of spatial instability of neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task was to develop a model for analysing spatial instability of the neutron flux and defining the optimum number and position of regulating rods. The developed model enables calculation of higher harmonics to be taken into account for each type of reactor, to define zones for regulation rods, position and number of points for detecting reactor state, and number and position of the regulating rods

  17. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  18. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  19. The development of consumer society in Britain, part one

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, David

    2004-01-01

    In conversation with Ian Duncan, Maxine Berg reflects on the development of consumerism and the rise of the middle class in eighteenth and nineteenth century Britain. The colours, textures, cloths and other desirable things.

  20. The development of comsumer society in Britain, part two

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, David

    2004-01-01

    In conversation with Ian Duncan, Maxine Berg reflects on the development of consumerism and the rise of the middle class in eighteenth and nineteenth century Britain. New domestic spaces, and the role of servants. New retailing and luxury.

  1. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  2. Spatial recurrence analysis: A sensitive and fast detection tool in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, T. L.; Galuzio, P. P.; Lopes, S. R.; Viana, R. L., E-mail: viana@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Efficient diagnostics of breast cancer requires fast digital mammographic image processing. Many breast lesions, both benign and malignant, are barely visible to the untrained eye and requires accurate and reliable methods of image processing. We propose a new method of digital mammographic image analysis that meets both needs. It uses the concept of spatial recurrence as the basis of a spatial recurrence quantification analysis, which is the spatial extension of the well-known time recurrence analysis. The recurrence-based quantifiers are able to evidence breast lesions in a way as good as the best standard image processing methods available, but with a better control over the spurious fragments in the image.

  3. Spatial recurrence analysis: A sensitive and fast detection tool in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, T. L.; Galuzio, P. P.; Lopes, S. R.; Viana, R. L.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient diagnostics of breast cancer requires fast digital mammographic image processing. Many breast lesions, both benign and malignant, are barely visible to the untrained eye and requires accurate and reliable methods of image processing. We propose a new method of digital mammographic image analysis that meets both needs. It uses the concept of spatial recurrence as the basis of a spatial recurrence quantification analysis, which is the spatial extension of the well-known time recurrence analysis. The recurrence-based quantifiers are able to evidence breast lesions in a way as good as the best standard image processing methods available, but with a better control over the spurious fragments in the image.

  4. Analysis and optimal synthesis of single loop spatial mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Med Amine LARIBI; Lotfi ROMDHANE; Sa(i)d ZEGHLOUL

    2011-01-01

    In this work,a systematic approach is presented to obtain the input-output equations of a single loop 4-bar spatial mechanisms.The dialytic method along with Denavit-Hartenberg parameters can be used to obtain these equations efficiently.A genetic algorithm (GA) has been used to solve the problem of spatial mechanisms synthesis.Two types of mechanisms,e.g.,RSCR and RSPC (R:revolute; S:spherical; C:cylindrical; P:prismatic),have illustrated the application of the GA to solve the problem of function generation and path generation.In some cases,the GA method becomes trapped in a local minimum.A combined GA-fuzzy logic (GA-FL) method is then used to improve the final result.The results show that GAs,combined with an adequate description of the mechanism,are well suited for spatial mechanism synthesis problems and have neither difficulties inherent to the choice of the initial feasible guess,nor a problem of convergence,as it is the case for deterministic methods.

  5. Spatial point pattern analysis of aerial survey data to assess clustering in wildlife distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaemba, Wilson Mwale

    Assessing clustering in wildlife populations is crucial for understanding their dynamics. This assessment is made difficult for data obtained through aerial surveys because the shape and size of sampling units (strip transects) result in poor data supports, which generally hampers spatial analysis of these data. The problem may be solved by having more detailed data where exact locations of observed animal groups are recorded. These data, obtainable through GPS technology, are amenable to spatial analysis, thereby allowing spatial point pattern analysis to be used to assess observed spatial patterns relative to environmental factors like vegetation. Distance measures like the G-statistic and K-function classify such patterns into clustered, regular or completely random patterns, while independence between species is assessed through a multivariate extension of the K-function. Quantification of clustering is carried out using spatial regression. The techniques are illustrated with field data on three ungulates observed in an ecosystem in Kenya. Results indicate a relation between species spatial distribution and their dietary requirements, thereby concluding the usefulness of spatial point pattern analysis in investigating species spatial distribution. It also provides a technique for explaining and differentiating the distribution of wildlife species.

  6. Diversity and ecology of the potato : The use of spatial analysis in crop science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial variation is a fundamental characteristic of agriculture, but crop scientists have largely ignored it, particularly at levels beyond the field scale. This thesis provides examples of analysis of spatial variation over larger areas. It contributes to our knowledge of the

  7. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of F. hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  8. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  9. Education and Cohabitation in Britain: A Return to Traditional Patterns?

    OpenAIRE

    Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire; Beaujouan, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Cohabitation is sometimes thought of as being inversely associated with education, but in Britain a more complex picture emerges. Educational group differences in cohabitation vary by age, time period, cohort, and indicator used. Well-educated women pioneered cohabitation in Britain in the 1970s and 1980s. In the most recent cohorts, however, the less educated have exceeded the best educated in the proportions ever having cohabited at young ages. But the main difference by education currently...

  10. Unions and Workplace Performance in Britain and France

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; John Forth; Patrice Laroche

    2009-01-01

    Using nationally representative workplace surveys we examine the relationship between unionization and workplace financial performance in Britain and France. We find that union bargaining is detrimental to workplace performance in Britain and that this effect is larger when unionization is endogenized. In France, union bargaining is associated with poorer workplace performance but the effect disappears once unionization is treated as endogenous. However, high levels of union density do have a...

  11. The rise of pan-Islamism in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Terrorist events in Britain in recent years indicate that some British Muslims do not view their lives through a domestic lens; that is, they do not embrace British norms and values. Instead, they identify with a global Muslim community in a radical way. This thesis explains what is fueling the rise of pan-Islamism in Britain. For many Muslims, their religious identity is stronger than their British identity because they are alienated from the rest of society. The alienation is generated ...

  12. Higher education in Australia and Britain : what lessons?

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    Both Britain and Australia have seen rapid, inadequately funded, expansion of student numbers, and increasing central planning. To address these problems, this paper argues (a) that students should pay via a system of income-contingent loans for the private benefits they derive from higher education, and (b) that, within a government-ordained regulatory framework, universities should be free to set fees and student numbers. In the wake of the Dearing Report in 1997, Britain is making progress...

  13. The Dynamics of Child Poverty: Britain and Germany Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian; Wagner, Gert G.

    2001-01-01

    We compare patterns of movements into and out of poverty by children in Britain and Germany using data from the British Household Panel Survey and the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 1992-7. Compared to Germany, in Britain poverty persistence is greater, and poverty exit rates in particular are lower. In both countries poverty is particularly persistent among children in lone parent households and households with a non-working head. Events such as family formation and dissolution, ...

  14. Monitoring Method of Cow Anthrax Based on Gis and Spatial Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yang, Yong; Wang, Hongbin; Dong, Jing; Zhao, Yujun; He, Jianbin; Fan, Honggang

    Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer application system, which possesses the ability of manipulating spatial information and has been used in many fields related with the spatial information management. Many methods and models have been established for analyzing animal diseases distribution models and temporal-spatial transmission models. Great benefits have been gained from the application of GIS in animal disease epidemiology. GIS is now a very important tool in animal disease epidemiological research. Spatial analysis function of GIS can be widened and strengthened by using spatial statistical analysis, allowing for the deeper exploration, analysis, manipulation and interpretation of spatial pattern and spatial correlation of the animal disease. In this paper, we analyzed the cow anthrax spatial distribution characteristics in the target district A (due to the secret of epidemic data we call it district A) based on the established GIS of the cow anthrax in this district in combination of spatial statistical analysis and GIS. The Cow anthrax is biogeochemical disease, and its geographical distribution is related closely to the environmental factors of habitats and has some spatial characteristics, and therefore the correct analysis of the spatial distribution of anthrax cow for monitoring and the prevention and control of anthrax has a very important role. However, the application of classic statistical methods in some areas is very difficult because of the pastoral nomadic context. The high mobility of livestock and the lack of enough suitable sampling for the some of the difficulties in monitoring currently make it nearly impossible to apply rigorous random sampling methods. It is thus necessary to develop an alternative sampling method, which could overcome the lack of sampling and meet the requirements for randomness. The GIS computer application software ArcGIS9.1 was used to overcome the lack of data of sampling sites.Using ArcGIS 9.1 and GEODA

  15. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  16. Analysis of SWOT spatial and temporal samplings over continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, Sylvain; Lamy, Alain; Mognard, Nelly

    2014-05-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, collaboratively developed by NASA, CNES and CSA, is a joint oceanography/continental hydrology mission planned for launch in 2020. In June 2013, a new SWOT orbit has been selected with a 77.6° inclination, a 21 days repeat cycle and a 891 km altitude. The main satellite payload (a Ka-band SAR Interferometer), will provide 2D maps of water elevation, mask and slope over two swaths, both having a 50 km extent. These two swaths will be separated by a 20 km nadir gap. Most of the studies concerning SWOT published since 2007 have considered a former orbit with a 78° inclination, 22 day repeat orbit and a 970 km altitude and a 60 km extent for each swath. None of them have studied the newly selected orbit and the impact of the 20 km nadir gap on the spatial coverage has not been much explored. The purpose of the work presented here is to investigate the spatial and temporal coverage given this new orbit and the actual swath extent (2*50 km swaths with the 20 km nadir gap in between) and compare it to the former SWOT configuration. It is shown that the new configuration will have almost no impact on the computation of monthly averages, however it will impact the spatial coverage. Because of the nadir gap, the orbit repeatitivity and the swaths extent, 3.6% of the continental surfaces in between 78°S and 78°N will never be observed by SWOT (which was previously equal to 2.2% with the former SWOT configuration). The equatorial regions will be the most impacted, as uncovered area could go up to ~14% locally, whereas it never exceeded 9% with the previous SWOT configuration.

  17. Analysis of Spatial Interpolation in the Material-Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Lars

    This paper analyses different types of spatial interpolation for the material-point method The interpolations include quadratic elements and cubic splines in addition to the standard linear shape functions usually applied. For the small-strain problem of a vibrating bar, the best results are...... obtained using quadratic elements. It is shown that for more complex problems, the use of partially negative shape functions is inconsistent with the material-point method in its current form, necessitating other types of interpolation such as cubic splines in order to obtain smoother representations of...

  18. Dynamical Analysis of Scalar Field Cosmologies with Spatial Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Gosenca, Mateja

    2015-01-01

    We explore the dynamical behaviour of cosmological models involving a scalar field (with an exponential potential and a canonical kinetic term) and a matter fluid with spatial curvature included in the equations of motion. Using appropriately defined parameters to describe the evolution of the scalar field energy in this situation, we find that there are two extra fixed points that are not present in the case without curvature. We also analyse the evolution of the effective equation-of-state parameter for different initial values of the curvature.

  19. Static calculation and analysis of spatial rod system (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsanov M.N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of the spatial elastic statically determinate truss is given. The Maple mathematical system with the inductive method of obtaining solutions for an arbitrary number of rods is used. It allows to estimate the limiting construction properties and to find the characteristic features of truss. The stress and deflection are determined. The solutions of the problem on the rack-truss and the beam-truss are given. It is shown that in some cases due to the constructive design errors the increase in the number of rods under constant load does not lead to a decrease in deflection. The analytical solution reveals this feature.

  20. SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS GOO JUN * AND JOYDEEP GHOSH* Abstract. A semi-supervised...

  1. Are gasoline taxes in Britain too high?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2000, the people of Britain protested against high gasoline prices in a massive demonstration throughout the country in which truck drivers and farmers blockaded oil refineries and disrupted the movement of fuel to gas stations. The resulting panic buying by motorists meant that in weeks following the demonstration, almost all of the country's gas stations had run dry. Similar protests spread across Europe, encouraged by earlier success of demonstrations in France that lead to the government agreeing to tax concessions. The reason for the higher fuel prices was the significant increase in the world price of oil, stimulated by the rapid expansion in the world economy. While the demand for oil increased, supply was restrained. Gasoline prices in Britain, however, also reflect a higher rate of excise tax which the government has imposed on gasoline. The current excise tax per litre is higher than in any other country, and even with adjustment, this tax is 75 per cent higher than the 1990 level. The tax constitutes 60 per cent of the price of fuel, which is currently 83 pence per litre or $5.65 per gallon (of which $3.40 is the excise tax). Leaders of the protest were looking for price relief for trucking companies, farmers, taxi drivers and other motorists. The government response was a package of measures to reduce road taxes, along with a promise not to increase the gasoline tax in line with inflation, and a reduction in vehicle taxes for trucks and small engine cars. A cut of 3 pence in the tax on low sulfur gasoline was also introduced, but the government has no plans to substantially reduce the general excise tax on gasoline. The high gasoline prices were defended on three grounds, that taxes reduce air pollution by penalizing driving and encouraging people to buy fuel-efficient cars, that they reduce traffic congestion by discouraging driving, and that taxes provide revenues that could be used for government spending. Economists suggest that a tax

  2. A Spatial Analysis of Driving Behavior in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soltani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAfter industrial revolution, driving vehicles became a necessity in fulfilling human needs in different aspects of life. This is a positive phenomenon but is not without negative side effects, such as, for example, accidents, air pollution, traffic jam etc. In many countries, road construction and maintenance is far behind innovations of new vehicles. In many places the road quality or size is not able to bare the traffic load, hence the reason for significant rise in accidents and human life loss in the second half of the twentieth century in developed and developing countries. That is, 1.2 million deaths worldwide are caused by vehicle accidents. Accidents are the first cause of injuries and second cause of death in the population of Iran at ages bellow 40. In vehicle accidents, three factors are involved: human, vehicle and road quality. The human factor is more apparent since it governs the other two. Since the human factor is influenced by social, economic, cultural, political and other environmental aspects, its behavior in driving varies with respect to space and time. Consequently the question addressed in this paper is as follow: is there a correlation between where does the driver live and how his driving behavior is? And how is the driver’s spatial distribution manner when it comes to improper driving behavior on the intra-city routs? The megacity of Isfahan as a touristic city is of concern in this respect. Thus the broader questions are: which are the factors involved in affecting the driving behavior of drivers in Isfahan? What are the patterns which influence driving behaviors and what are the effective factors involved in developing these behaviors? For this purpose, the drivers’ behavior of different sections of the city are evaluated based on different variables and the local roads. Finally, the worst exposed driving behaviors of domestic drivers on domestic roads are identified. Material and Methods This is a

  3. Short Communication. Restoring monoculture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. To improve the quality of monoculture plantations in China.Area of study. structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China.Material and Methods. Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations.Main results. The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure.Research highlights. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world.Key words: monoculture plantation; structure-based forest management; stand spatial structure; forest restoration

  4. Geoscience after ITPart G. Familiarization with spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundt, Hardy; Brinkkötter-Runde, Klaus

    2000-04-01

    Field based and GPS supported GIS are increasingly applied in various spatial disciplines. Such systems represent more sophisticated, time and cost effective tools than traditional field forms for data acquisition. Meanwhile, various systems are on the market. These mostly enable the user to define geo-objects by means of GPS information, supported by functionalities to collect and analyze geometric information. The digital acquisition of application specific attributes is often underrepresented within such systems. This is surprising because pen computer based GIS can be used to collect attributes in a profitable manner, thus adequately supporting the requirements of the user. Visualization and graphic displays of spatial data are helpful means to improve such a data collection process. In section one and two basic aspects of visualization and current uses of visualization techniques for field based GIS are described. Section three mentions new developments within the framework of wearable computing and augmented reality. Section four describes current activities aimed at the realization of real time online field based GIS. This includes efforts to realize an online GIS data link to improve the efficiency and the quality of fieldwork. A brief discussion in section five leads to conclusions and some key issues for future research.

  5. Pre-surgical fMRI Data Analysis Using a Spatially Adaptive Conditionally Autoregressive Model

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, ZHUQING; Berrocal, Veronica J.; Andreas J Bartsch; Johnson, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial smoothing is an essential step in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. One standard smoothing method is to convolve the image data with a three-dimensional Gaussian kernel that applies a fixed amount of smoothing to the entire image. In pre-surgical brain image analysis where spatial accuracy is paramount, this method, however, is not reasonable as it can blur the boundaries between activated and deactivated regions of the brain. Moreover, while in a stan...

  6. Spatial Cluster Analysis by the Adleman-Lipton DNA Computing Model and Flexible Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Laisheng Xiang; Xiyu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cluster analysis is an important data-mining task. Typical techniques include CLARANS, density- and gravity-based clustering, and other algorithms based on traditional von Neumann’s computing architecture. The purpose of this paper is to propose a technique for spatial cluster analysis based on DNA computing and a grid technique. We will adopt the Adleman-Lipton model and then design a flexible grid algorithm. Examples are given to show the effect of the algorithm. The new clustering ...

  7. Spatial Cluster Analysis by the Bin-Packing Problem and DNA Computing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Xiyu Liu; Jie Xue

    2013-01-01

    Spatial cluster analysis is an important data mining task. Typical techniques include CLARANS, density- and gravity-based clustering, and other algorithms based on traditional von Neumann's computing architecture. The purpose of this paper is to propose a technique for spatial cluster analysis based on sticker systems of DNA computing. We will adopt the Bin-Packing Problem idea and then design algorithms of sticker programming. The proposed technique has a better time complexity. In the case ...

  8. Time dependent analysis of Xenon spatial oscillations in small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents time dependent analysis of xenon spatial oscillations studying the influence of the power density distribution, type of reactivity perturbation, power level and core size, using the one-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis with the MID2 and citation codes, respectively. It is concluded that small pressurized water reactors with height smaller than 1.5 m are stable and do not have xenon spatial oscillations. (author)

  9. Disciplining Medicine: Science and the Rhetoric of Medical Education Reform in Britain, 1770-1858

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly A.

    In Britain, medical education evolved significantly between roughly 1770 and 1858. The doctrines established by medical teachers in the late eighteenth century not only revised or overturned received theories of disease, physiology, and therapeutics, but also entailed new approaches to instruction. Though this educational reform process met some resistance, by the mid-nineteenth century, the new scientific perspective had displaced the traditional humanistic paradigm in medical pedagogy. In Britain, this evolution was initiated in Scotland, where its leading medical teachers would gain considerable fame for championing a new science-based educational curriculum. A contribution to the fields of rhetoric of medicine and rhetoric of science, this study investigates the rhetorical demarcation of the medical discipline in Britain during the years of medical education reform. It draws attention to how the medical discipline evolved and transformed between these years, ultimately defining itself as a science. Focusing on documents addressed to questions of pedagogical method, curricular emphases, and doctrinal disputes, this study identifies the chief arguments, assumptions, and aspirations that motivated and justified innovations in the teaching of medicine at specific British institutions and promoted broader, sweeping reform of the whole system of British medical education. The analysis of these texts highlights the complexities of medical education reform in Britain, and the diverse perspectives that coalesced to shape medical education in new ways. Moreover, these discourses serve as historical markers for how the medical discipline was (re)shaped scientifically. Finally, this study contends that disciplines are most apparently shaped through what is taught, and to understand the rhetoric of disciplinarity in British medical education reform, one must understand the history of its teaching practices.

  10. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933. PMID:27388257

  11. Spatial compression algorithm for the analysis of very large multivariate images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-07-15

    A method for spatially compressing data sets enables the efficient analysis of very large multivariate images. The spatial compression algorithms use a wavelet transformation to map an image into a compressed image containing a smaller number of pixels that retain the original image's information content. Image analysis can then be performed on a compressed data matrix consisting of a reduced number of significant wavelet coefficients. Furthermore, a block algorithm can be used for performing common operations more efficiently. The spatial compression algorithms can be combined with spectral compression algorithms to provide further computational efficiencies.

  12. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  13. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  14. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Service International Research Unit, Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-15

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  15. Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Boardman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Concern about soil erosion on arable land in Britain dates back at least 40 years. Monitoring schemes and case studies have subsequently identified the areas at risk, the rates and frequencies and the major factors responsible for erosion. Initial concern focused on impacts on the farm and therefore on food production. Latterly the emphasis has shifted to off-farm impacts particularly reservoir sedimentation, muddy flooding of properties and the ecological damage to watercourses due to nutrient enrichment, pesticides and damage to fish spawning grounds from fine-sediment inputs. The shift has therefore been to concerns about a healthy and sustainable environment which includes soils. Government agencies, the water companies and the farming industry have lagged behind scientific studies in recognising and addressing erosion problems. Attempts at mitigation are now largely driven by the need to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive whereby watercourses must reach “good status” by 2015. Future changes in land use and climate will offer further challenges in terms of effective monitoring and compliance.

  16. Climate index for Great Britain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Great Britain. (J.S.)

  17. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  18. A spatial and genetic analysis of Cowbird host selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D.C.; Sedgwick, J.A.; Painter, I.S.; Casna, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    Our study of brood parasitism patterns in forest communities revealed the egg-laying frequency and host selection patterns of female cowbirds. By integrating molecular genetics and spatial data, we have the first published estimate on cowbird laying rates in field studies. The 29 females in the study laid only 1-5 eggs each, much lower than previous estimates from captive cowbirds and extrapolations from ovarian development in capture/recapture studies that had suggested that as many as 40 eggs could be laid per individual cowbird. Cowbird females also were shown for the first time to lay significantly more eggs within the home range areas they established rather than outside the home range. No patterns were uncovered for individual females preferentially parasitizing particular host species

  19. Spectral analysis and filtering techniques in digital spatial data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeng-Jong

    1989-01-01

    A filter toolbox has been developed at the EROS Data Center, US Geological Survey, for retrieving or removing specified frequency information from two-dimensional digital spatial data. This filter toolbox provides capabilities to compute the power spectrum of a given data and to design various filters in the frequency domain. Three types of filters are available in the toolbox: point filter, line filter, and area filter. Both the point and line filters employ Gaussian-type notch filters, and the area filter includes the capabilities to perform high-pass, band-pass, low-pass, and wedge filtering techniques. These filters are applied for analyzing satellite multispectral scanner data, airborne visible and infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, gravity data, and the digital elevation models (DEM) data. -from Author

  20. Detecting Hotspots from Taxi Trajectory Data Using Spatial Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. X.; Qin, K.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, C. K.; Chen, Y. X.

    2015-07-01

    A method of trajectory clustering based on decision graph and data field is proposed in this paper. The method utilizes data field to describe spatial distribution of trajectory points, and uses decision graph to discover cluster centres. It can automatically determine cluster parameters and is suitable to trajectory clustering. The method is applied to trajectory clustering on taxi trajectory data, which are on the holiday (May 1st, 2014), weekday (Wednesday, May 7th, 2014) and weekend (Saturday, May 10th, 2014) respectively, in Wuhan City, China. The hotspots in four hours (8:00-9:00, 12:00-13:00, 18:00-19:00 and 23:00-24:00) for three days are discovered and visualized in heat maps. In the future, we will further research the spatiotemporal distribution and laws of these hotspots, and use more data to carry out the experiments.

  1. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang;

    2015-01-01

    extracted directly from tissue sections. PLESA uses a sealed and pressurized sampling probe that enables the use of chloroform-containing extraction solvents for efficient in situ lipid microextraction with a spatial resolution of 400 μm. Quantification of lipid species is achieved by the inclusion of...... internal lipid standards in the extraction solvent. The analysis of lipid microextracts by nanoelectrospray ionization provides long-lasting ion spray which in conjunction with a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer enables identification and quantification of molecular lipid species using a method......Here we describe a novel surface sampling technique termed pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis (PLESA), which in combination with a dedicated high-resolution shotgun lipidomics routine enables both quantification and in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species...

  2. Application of computer intensive data analysis methods to the analysis of digital images and spatial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeld, Kristian

    1992-01-01

    Computer-intensive methods for data analysis in a traditional setting has developed rapidly in the last decade. The application of and adaption of some of these methods to the analysis of multivariate digital images and spatial data are explored, evaluated and compared to well established classical...... the projection pursuit is presented. Examples from remote sensing are given. The ACE algorithm for computing non-linear transformations for maximizing correlation is extended and applied to obtain a non-linear transformation that maximizes autocorrelation or 'signal' in a multivariate image. This is a...... generalization of the minimum /maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF's) which is a linear method. The non-linear method is compared to the linear method when analyzing a multivariate TM image from Greenland. The ACE method is shown to give a more detailed decomposition of the image than the MAF-transformation and...

  3. Analysis of field-scale spatial correlations and variations of soil nutrients using geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Yu, Wenwen; Shi, Jianhan; Zhang, Peipei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-02-01

    Spatial correlations and soil nutrient variations are important for soil nutrient management. They help to reduce the negative impacts of agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Based on the sampled available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK), soil nutrient data from 2010, the spatial correlation, was analyzed, and the probabilities of the nutrient's abundance or deficiency were discussed. This paper presents a statistical approach to spatial analysis, the spatial correlation analysis (SCA), which was originally developed for describing heterogeneity in the presence of correlated variation and based on ordinary kriging (OK) results. Indicator kriging (IK) was used to assess the susceptibility of excess of soil nutrients based on crop needs. The kriged results showed there was a distinct spatial variability in the concentration of all three soil nutrients. High concentrations of these three soil nutrients were found near Anzhou. As the distance from the center of town increased, the concentration of the soil nutrients gradually decreased. Spatially, the relationship between AN and AP was negative, and the relationship between AP and AK was not clear. The IK results showed that there were few areas with a risk of AN and AP overabundance. However, almost the entire study region was at risk of AK overabundance. Based on the soil nutrient distribution results, it is clear that the spatial variability of the soil nutrients differed throughout the study region. This spatial soil nutrient variability might be caused by different fertilizer types and different fertilizing practices. PMID:26832723

  4. A modified SUnSAL-TV algorithm for hyperspectral unmixing based on spatial homogeneity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sparse regression framework has been introduced by many works to solve the linear spectral unmixing problem due to the knowledge that a pixel is usually mixed by less endmembers compared with the endmembers in spectral libraries or the entire hyperspectral data sets. Traditional sparse unmixing techniques focus on analyzing the spectral properties of hyperspectral imagery without incorporating spatial information. But the integration of spatial information would be beneficial to promote the performance of the linear unmixing process. An algorithm called sparse unmixing via variable splitting augmented Lagrangian and total variation (SUnSAL-TV) adds a total variation spatial regularizer besides the sparsity-inducing regularizer to the final unmixing objective function. The total variation spatial regularization is helpful to promote the fractional abundance smoothness. However, the abundance smoothness varies in the image. In this paper, the spatial smoothness is estimated through homogeneity analysis. Then the spatial regularizer is weighted for each pixel by a homogeneity index. The modified algorithm, called homogeneity analysis based SUnSAL-TV (SUnSAL-TVH), integrates the spatial information with finer modelling of spatial smoothness and is supposed insensitive to the noise and more stable. Experiments on synthetic data sets are taken and indicate the validity of our algorithm

  5. Dynamics of land change in India: a fine-scale spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, P.; Roy, P. S.; Sharma, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Ramachandran, R.; Joshi, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Land is scarce in India: India occupies 2.4% of worlds land area, but supports over 1/6th of worlds human and livestock population. This high population to land ratio, combined with socioeconomic development and increasing consumption has placed tremendous pressure on India's land resources for food, feed, and fuel. In this talk, we present contemporary (1985 to 2005) spatial estimates of land change in India using national-level analysis of Landsat imageries. Further, we investigate the causes of the spatial patterns of change using two complementary lines of evidence. First, we use statistical models estimated at macro-scale to understand the spatial relationships between land change patterns and their concomitant drivers. This analysis using our newly compiled extensive socioeconomic database at village level (~630,000 units), is 100x higher in spatial resolution compared to existing datasets, and covers over 200 variables. The detailed socioeconomic data enabled the fine-scale spatial analysis with Landsat data. Second, we synthesized information from over 130 survey based case studies on land use drivers in India to complement our macro-scale analysis. The case studies are especially useful to identify unobserved variables (e.g. farmer's attitude towards risk). Ours is the most detailed analysis of contemporary land change in India, both in terms of national extent, and the use of detailed spatial information on land change, socioeconomic factors, and synthesis of case studies.

  6. Using codispersion analysis to quantify and understand spatial patterns in species-environment relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Hannah L; Case, Bradley S; Zimmerman, Jess K; Thompson, Jill; Myers, Jonathan A; Ellison, Aaron M

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of spatial patterns in species-environment relationships can provide new insights into the niche requirements and potential co-occurrence of species, but species abundance and environmental data are routinely collected at different spatial scales. Here, we investigate the use of codispersion analysis to measure and assess the scale, directionality and significance of complex relationships between plants and their environment in large forest plots. We applied codispersion analysis to both simulated and field data on spatially located tree species basal area and environmental variables. The significance of the observed bivariate spatial associations between the basal area of key species and underlying environmental variables was tested using three null models. Codispersion analysis reliably detected directionality (anisotropy) in bivariate species-environment relationships and identified relevant scales of effects. Null model-based significance tests applied to codispersion analyses of forest plot data enabled us to infer the extent to which environmental conditions, tree sizes and/or tree spatial positions underpinned the observed basal area-environment relationships, or whether relationships were a result of other unmeasured factors. Codispersion analysis, combined with appropriate null models, can be used to infer hypothesized ecological processes from spatial patterns, allowing us to start disentangling the possible drivers of plant species-environment relationships. PMID:27037819

  7. Ontology Driven Analysis of Spatio-temporal Phenomena, Aimed At Spatial Planning And Environmental Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, A.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Kaczmarek, I.

    2013-10-01

    Spatial planning is a crucial area for balancing civilization development with environmental protection. Spatial planning has a multidisciplinary nature. It must take into account the dynamics of the processes, which could affect the integrity of the environmental system. That is why we need a new approach to modelling phenomena occurring in space. Such approach is offered by ontologies, based on Description Logic (DL) and related to inference systems. Ontology is a system for the knowledge representation, including conceptual scheme and based on this scheme representation of reality. Ontologies can be enriched with additional logical systems. The authors present a way of building domain ontologies for spatial planning, including the representation of spatio-temporal phenomena. Description Logic is supplemented by structures of temporal logic. As a result, the analysis for exploring the topological relations between spatial objects will be extended to include temporal relationships: coincidence, precedence and succession, cause and effect relationship. Spatio-temporal models with temporal logic structures, encoded in ontologies, could be a subject of inference process, performed by semantic reasoners (reasoner engines). Spatio-temporal representations are offered, by so-called upper ontologies, such as GFO, BFO, OCHRE and others. Temporal structures provided in such ontologies, are useful for the analysis of data obtained from environmental and development monitoring systems and for description and representation of historical phenomena. They allow creating the models and scenarios of expected spatial transformation. They will support analysis for spatial development design, decision-making in spatial planning and forecasting of environmental impact.

  8. Quantifying spatial pattern similarity in multivariate analysis using functional anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Gilron, Roee; Rosenblatt, Jonathan; Koyejo, Oluwasanmi; Poldrack, Russell A.; Mukamel, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has gained enormous popularity in the neuroimaging community over the past few years. At the group level, most MVPA studies adopt an "information based" approach in which the sign of the effect of individual subjects is discarded and a non-directional summary statistic is carried over to the second level. This is in contrast to a directional "activation based" approach which is typical in univariate group level analysis, in which both signal magnitude and si...

  9. Infant mortality in Brazil, 1980-2000: A spatial panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barufi Ana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important measure of human development, related to the level of welfare of a society. In order to inform public policy, various studies have tried to identify the factors that influence, at an aggregated level, infant mortality. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional pattern of infant mortality in Brazil, evaluating the effect of infrastructure, socio-economic, and demographic variables to understand its distribution across the country. Methods Regressions including socio-economic and living conditions variables are conducted in a structure of panel data. More specifically, a spatial panel data model with fixed effects and a spatial error autocorrelation structure is used to help to solve spatial dependence problems. The use of a spatial modeling approach takes into account the potential presence of spillovers between neighboring spatial units. The spatial units considered are Minimum Comparable Areas, defined to provide a consistent definition across Census years. Data are drawn from the 1980, 1991 and 2000 Census of Brazil, and from data collected by the Ministry of Health (DATASUS. In order to identify the influence of health care infrastructure, variables related to the number of public and private hospitals are included. Results The results indicate that the panel model with spatial effects provides the best fit to the data. The analysis confirms that the provision of health care infrastructure and social policy measures (e.g. improving education attainment are linked to reduced rates of infant mortality. An original finding concerns the role of spatial effects in the analysis of IMR. Spillover effects associated with health infrastructure and water and sanitation facilities imply that there are regional benefits beyond the unit of analysis. Conclusions A spatial modeling approach is important to produce reliable estimates in the analysis of panel IMR data. Substantively, this paper

  10. Abundant Topological Outliers in Social Media Data and Their Effect on Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholt, Rene; Steiger, Enrico; Resch, Bernd; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Twitter and related social media feeds have become valuable data sources to many fields of research. Numerous researchers have thereby used social media posts for spatial analysis, since many of them contain explicit geographic locations. However, despite its widespread use within applied research, a thorough understanding of the underlying spatial characteristics of these data is still lacking. In this paper, we investigate how topological outliers influence the outcomes of spatial analyses of social media data. These outliers appear when different users contribute heterogeneous information about different phenomena simultaneously from similar locations. As a consequence, various messages representing different spatial phenomena are captured closely to each other, and are at risk to be falsely related in a spatial analysis. Our results reveal indications for corresponding spurious effects when analyzing Twitter data. Further, we show how the outliers distort the range of outcomes of spatial analysis methods. This has significant influence on the power of spatial inferential techniques, and, more generally, on the validity and interpretability of spatial analysis results. We further investigate how the issues caused by topological outliers are composed in detail. We unveil that multiple disturbing effects are acting simultaneously and that these are related to the geographic scales of the involved overlapping patterns. Our results show that at some scale configurations, the disturbances added through overlap are more severe than at others. Further, their behavior turns into a volatile and almost chaotic fluctuation when the scales of the involved patterns become too different. Overall, our results highlight the critical importance of thoroughly considering the specific characteristics of social media data when analyzing them spatially. PMID:27611199

  11. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  12. Life cycle assessment of the transmission network in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Gareth P.; Maclean, Edward N.J.; Karamanlis, Serafeim; Ochoa, Luis F. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Analysis of lower carbon power systems has tended to focus on the operational carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from power stations. However, to achieve the large cuts required it is necessary to understand the whole-life contribution of all sectors of the electricity industry. Here, a preliminary assessment of the life cycle carbon emissions of the transmission network in Great Britain is presented. Using a 40-year period and assuming a static generation mix it shows that the carbon equivalent emissions (or global warming potential) of the transmission network are around 11 gCO{sub 2-eq}/kWh of electricity transmitted and that almost 19 times more energy is transmitted by the network than is used in its construction and operation. Operational emissions account for 96% of this with transmission losses alone totalling 85% and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) emissions featuring significantly. However, the CO{sub 2} embodied within the raw materials of the network infrastructure itself represents a modest 3%. Transmission investment decisions informed by whole-life cycle carbon assessments of network design could balance higher financial and carbon 'capital' costs of larger conductors with lower transmission losses and CO{sub 2} emissions over the network lifetime. This will, however, necessitate new regulatory approaches to properly incentivise transmission companies. (author)

  13. Urban expansion analysis based on spatial variables derived from multi-temporal remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yetao; Wang, Yingying; Zhou, Qiming; Gong, Jianya

    2008-10-01

    In this research, we focus on the spatial pattern of the urban expansion. The spatial pattern of the urban area can be quantitatively delineated by many spatial variables. Numerous spatial variables have been examined to evaluate their applicability to the urban change. These metrics include road network accessibility, built-up density and some landscape metrics. Remote sensing technology was used for monitoring dynamic urban change. Multi-temporal Landsat TM images (1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 2000, and 2002) were used for the change detection using post-classification comparison method. The road network and its change were extracted from multitemporal images using the GDPA algorithm. Contagion, one of the landscape metrics, was selected, because it it can describe the heterogeneity of the suburban area, where the landuse change is most likely to happen. Analysis has also been conducted to identify the relationship between urban change and these spatial variables.

  14. Historical GIS Projects: Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Parker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The use of historical GIS (HGIS in humanities and social sciences research has added dimensions to scholarship in terms of both analysis and visualization. The construction of appropriate HGIS systems for the integration of historical data requires large investments in time, resources, and technical expertise. Fundamental to the success of such systems is the spatial data infrastructure (SDI that consists of crucial components including licensing, data formats, documentation, and standards of metadata. This paper examines the aspects of an SDI necessary for HGIS, particularly on the level of national endeavours, through use of the example of the Great Britain Historical GIS Project. The detailed facets of an effective SDI for a national HGIS can serve as a model for researchers in Canada interested in developing a similar resource.

  15. Cartographic Modeling: Computer-assisted Analysis of Spatially Defined Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic models addressing a wide variety of applications are composed of fundamental map processing operations. These primitive operations are neither data base nor application-specific. By organizing the set of operations into a mathematical-like structure, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling framework can be developed. Among the major classes of primitive operations are those associated with reclassifying map categories, overlaying maps, determining distance and connectivity, and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods. The conceptual framework of cartographic modeling is established and techniques for characterizing neighborhoods are used as a means of demonstrating some of the more sophisticated procedures of computer-assisted map analysis. A cartographic model for assessing effective roundwood supply is briefly described as an example of a computer analysis. Most of the techniques described have been implemented as part of the map analysis package developed at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

  16. Analysis of primary and secondary influences on spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, J C; Na, D L; Schwartz, R L; Heilman, K M

    1998-08-01

    When attempting to determine the middle of a line, patients with neglect deviate from true center. Deviation may be induced by perceptual-attentional bias, premotor-intentional bias, or both. Using a video-based apparatus, we decoupled perceptual from premotor influences on line bisection performance in patients with hemispatial neglect to examine (a) the relationship between primary and secondary bias and (b) the relationship of bias type to lesion location. The same video-based procedure was applied to target cancellation to determine if neglect type varied as a function of task. Primary attentional-perceptual bias was found using line bisection in 14/26 subjects, most of whom had lesions involving the posterior hemisphere. Primary premotor-intentional bias on line bisection was more often associated with lesions of frontal-subcortical structures. The neglect type determined by the bisection task agreed with the results of target cancellation in most cases. Secondary bias was determined based upon whether decoupling decreased the magnitude of bisection error (concordant), increased error (discordant), or produced no significant change. Most patients showed a secondary bias, with 12/26 in the discordant group and 11/26 in the concordant group. Discordant secondary bias was more common in premotor-intentional neglect (10/12) than in perceptual-attentional neglect (2/14), whereas concordant bias was more common in the latter group (10/14) compared to the former (1/12). The nonrandom relationship between primary and secondary bias may provide a more detailed description of ways in which anatomically separate components of a cortical network contribute to spatial processing under conditions of perceptuomotor incongruity. PMID:9733554

  17. Spatial analysis and the measurement of urban sprawl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Nancy Ngan Gee

    The thesis extends the research of the SCATTER project which evaluates the understanding of urban sprawl in Europe and examines methods for quantifying sprawl. The thesis extends this by examining the extent to which the definition and identification of sprawl is influenced by the nature of the indicators and measures used, and on the scale at which they are applied. It assesses the suitability of measures used in the US context for the polycentric pattern of European cities. Measures used in the European context have been based on land use densities - this is extended to incorporate measures based on urban form and land use patterns. The findings highlight the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring sprawl, as sprawl is a complex phenomenon with experts in the regions often unable to agree on the patterns and consequences of this type of urban growth. It is not so much a specific land use pattern or set of patterns as a manifestation of concerns which are common features of modern urban growth - regardless of urban form - and which emerge from the emphasis of interpretation and the dimensions of interest to local administrators and land use authorities. The research has identified that measures are sensitive to the spatial area used - even areas with some similarities, such as county and travel to work areas or district and urban areas do not produce consistent results. In Europe therefore measuring sprawl is also complicated by the fact that self contained subcentres set in low density rural areas may contribute to sprawl in the city centre, yet this is not identified by traditional measures of sprawl which assume that areas related to the urban centre are contiguous.

  18. Analysis of the automated systems of planning of spatial constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.С. Барабаш

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the questions of analysis of existing SAPR and questions of development of new information technologies of planning on the basis of integration of programmatic complexes with the use of united informatively-logical model of object.

  19. Determinants of the distribution and concentration of biogas production in Germany. A spatial econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogas production in Germany is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution and the formation of regional centers. In the present study the determinants of the spatial distribution and concentration are analyzed with methods of spatial statistics and spatial econometrics. In addition to the consideration of ''classic'' site factors of agricultural production, the analysis here focuses on the possible relevance of agglomeration effects. The results of the work contribute to a better understanding of the regional distribution and concentration of the biogas production in Germany.

  20. Associations between residence at birth and mental health disorders: a spatial analysis of retrospective cohort data

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, K; Aschengrau, A; Webster, TF; Bartell, SM; Vieira, VM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Hoffman et al. Background: Mental health disorders impact approximately one in four US adults. While their causes are likely multifactorial, prior research has linked the risk of certain mental health disorders to prenatal and early childhood environmental exposures, motivating a spatial analysis to determine whether risk varies by birth location. Methods: We investigated the spatial associations between residence at birth and odds of depression, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic st...

  1. Mass-spectrometry-based spatial proteomics data analysis using pRoloc and pRolocdata

    OpenAIRE

    L. Gatto; Breckels, L. M.; Wieczorek, S.; Burger, T; Lilley, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Experimental spatial proteomics, i.e. the high-throughput assignment of proteins to sub-cellular compartments based on quantitative proteomics data, promises to shed new light on many biological processes given adequate computational tools. Results: Here we present pRoloc, a complete infrastructure to support and guide the sound analysis of quantitative mass-spectrometry-based spatial proteomics data. It provides functionality for unsupervised and supervised machine learning for d...

  2. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    John Barrett; Yang Yu; Jan Minx; Ashok Chapagain; Yim Ling Siu; Klaus Hubacek; Kuishuang Feng; Dabo Guan

    2010-01-01

    The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are main...

  3. A Spatial Analysis of Tourism Activity in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Luminita CONSTANTIN; Dardala, Adriana Elena

    2015-01-01

    Location is a key concept in tourism sector analysis, given the dependence of this activity on the natural, built, cultural and social characteristics of a certain territory. Consequently, the tourist zoning is an important instrument for delimiting tourist areas in accordance with multiple criteria, so as to lay the foundations for finding the most suitable solutions of turning to good account the resources in this field. The modern approaches propose in this respect a series of analytical t...

  4. Spatial analysis of elderly access to primary care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Gracia Nancy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admissions for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are considered preventable admissions, because they are unlikely to occur when good preventive health care is received. Thus, high rates of admissions for ACSCs among the elderly (persons aged 65 or above who qualify for Medicare health insurance are signals of poor preventive care utilization. The relevant geographic market to use in studying these admission rates is the primary care physician market. Our conceptual model assumes that local market conditions serving as interventions along the pathways to preventive care services utilization can impact ACSC admission rates. Results We examine the relationships between market-level supply and demand factors on market-level rates of ACSC admissions among the elderly residing in the U.S. in the late 1990s. Using 6,475 natural markets in the mainland U.S. defined by The Health Resources and Services Administration's Primary Care Service Area Project, spatial regression is used to estimate the model, controlling for disease severity using detailed information from Medicare claims files. Our evidence suggests that elderly living in impoverished rural areas or in sprawling suburban places are about equally more likely to be admitted for ACSCs. Greater availability of physicians does not seem to matter, but greater prevalence of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates, relative to U.S. medical graduates, does seem to reduce ACSC admissions, especially in poor rural areas. Conclusion The relative importance of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates in providing primary care to the elderly in geographic areas of greatest need can inform the ongoing debate regarding whether there is an impending shortage of physicians in the United States. These findings support other authors who claim that the existing supply of physicians is perhaps adequate, however the distribution of them across

  5. Detecting the Land-Cover Changes Induced by Large-Physical Disturbances Using Landscape Metrics, Spatial Sampling, Simulation and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran’I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE. Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management.

  6. Arc_Mat: a Matlab-based spatial data analysis toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Lesage, James

    2010-03-01

    This article presents an overview of Arc_Mat, a Matlab-based spatial data analysis software package whose source code has been placed in the public domain. An earlier version of the Arc_Mat toolbox was developed to extract map polygon and database information from ESRI shapefiles and provide high quality mapping in the Matlab software environment. We discuss revisions to the toolbox that: utilize enhanced computing and graphing capabilities of more recent versions of Matlab, restructure the toolbox with object-oriented programming features, and provide more comprehensive functions for spatial data analysis. The Arc_Mat toolbox functionality includes basic choropleth mapping; exploratory spatial data analysis that provides exploratory views of spatial data through various graphs, for example, histogram, Moran scatterplot, three-dimensional scatterplot, density distribution plot, and parallel coordinate plots; and more formal spatial data modeling that draws on the extensive Spatial Econometrics Toolbox functions. A brief review of the design aspects of the revised Arc_Mat is described, and we provide some illustrative examples that highlight representative uses of the toolbox. Finally, we discuss programming with and customizing the Arc_Mat toolbox functionalities.

  7. Analysis of obstruction reason of urban sewer using spatial association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongmei; Luo, Yu

    2009-10-01

    Sewerage network is an important part of municipal infrastructure for a city. Obstruction of sewer causes street flooding and affects people's daily life directly. To investigate reasons why some sewage pipes are blocked frequently in Kunming, China, we employ spatial analysis and data mining technology to analyze the data on the basis of a municipal sewerage geographic information system of the city. In the GIS, all of map layers and attribute tables are organized and saved in a relational database with Geodatabase model. First, we combined SQL attribute query with spatial location query to find out the sewage pipes that are blocked frequently. Then, we carried out buffer analysis and intersect analysis on the layers of the frequently-blocked pipes and buildings along the streets to extract buildings that are close to these frequently-blocked pipes. Joining the buildings in the buffer scope and the frequently-blocked pipes forms a big table prepared for spatial data mining. We used Apriori algorithm to mine spatial association rules from the data in the big table in order to search implicit reasons of obstruction of the pipes. The results from data mining indicate that strong spatial and non-spatial associate rules exist between the obstruction and restaurants in the buildings, as well as attribute slopes and diameters of these sewage pipes.

  8. Spatial calculating analysis model research of land-use change in urban fringe districts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The spatial calculating analysis model is based on GIS overlay. It compartmental-izes the research district land into three spatial parts: unchanged part,converted part and increased part. By this method we can evaluate the numerical model and dynamic degree model for existing calculating changing speed of land-use. Fur-thermore the paper raises reviving the calculating analysis model of spatial infor-mation in order to predict the dynamic changing level of all sorts of land. More concretely speaking,the model is mainly to know the changing area and changing speed (increased or decreased) of different land classifications from the micro-cosmic angle and to clearly show the spatial distribution and spatio-temporal law for changing urban lands. We discover why the situation has taken place by com-bining social and economic conditions. The result indicates that the calculating analysis model of spatial information can derive more accurate procedure of spatial transference and increase of all kinds of land from the microcosmic angle. By this model and technology,we can make the research of spatio-temporal structure evolution in land-use be more systematical and deeper. The result will benefit the planning management of urban land-use of developed districts in China in the fu-ture.

  9. Analysis of Participatory Processes in the Formulation of Spatial Plan for Nature Park Medvednica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lovrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This research aims to assess the stakeholders influence on spatial planning of Nature Park Medvednica, a mountainous protected area adjacent to Zagreb, the capital city of Croatia, which tries to hold on to the pressure of the urbanization. Because of the inexistence of spatial plan which is required with the Croatian laws, its area was significantly decreased in 2009. This kind of research has not been done yet for NP Medvednica, and it will provide a contribution to the process of developing a spatial Plan for NP Medvednica. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the framework of stakeholder analysis, for which a series of in-depth interviews with - stakeholders were performed, and documents concerning the spatial plan were analysed. The data gained was processed in MAXQDA software for qualitative analysis. Results and Conclusion: The gathered data explains which are the disadvantages of the tree processes of the formulation of the spatial plan and is giving a possible theoretical explanation or a model which can be implied in any decision making process involving stakeholders in natural resources management in within a given political and cultural context. Description of the past and current spatial planning situation of the NP Medvednica was specified and issues and stakeholders concerning the creation of the spatial plan where identified. The key conflict areas that affect the formulation of spatial plan were detected and examined. The level of participation of stakeholders in the context of fulfilment of their own interests was assessed as well as the influence on participation processes of different stakeholder groups on the formulation of the spatial plan. In order to have proper citizens and stakeholders participation some changes in the legislation should take place.

  10. Analysis of WiMAX Physical Layer Using Spatial Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Sanghoi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Broadband Wireless Access (BWA has emerged as a promising solution for providing lastmile internet access technology to provide high speed internet access to the users in the residential aswell as in the small and medium sized enterprise sectors. IEEE 802.16e is one of the most promising andattractive candidate among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access. The emergence ofWiMAX protocol has attracted various interests from almost all the fields of wireless communications.MIMO systems which are created according to the IEEE 802.16-2005 standard (WiMAX under differentfading channels can be implemented to get the benefits of both the MIMO and WiMAX technologies. Inthis paper analysis of higher level of modulations (i.e. M-PSK and M-QAM for different values of M withdifferent code rates and on WiMAX-MIMO system is presented for Rayleigh channel by focusing onspatial multiplexing MIMO technique. Signal-to Noise Ratio (SNR vs Bit Error Rate (BER analysis hasbeen done.

  11. Spatial frequency analysis for the discrimination of moving surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipenmyr, J.; Zogaj, I.; Roennerling, L. [IMEGO Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Haus, J.; Schaefer, R.; Lauinger, N. [CORRSYS-DATRON Sensorsysteme GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Inspection of the surface texture of moving materials has great implication in the production industry. A study was performed with the aim of investigating the possible use of a grating-optical correlation sensor for inspection of moving surfaces. A novel four-flank grating sensor developed by CORRSYS-DATRON Sensorsysteme GmbH, Wetzlar, was used. For the analysis of the raw signal from the sensor a signal-processing algorithm was developed. The final test showed that changes in the surface texture of an abrasive paper during wear could easily be followed at a speed of 5 m/s, although the actually wear was well within the sub-mm range. Thus, a grating-optical correlation sensor together with the developed signal-processing algorithm is an excellent basis for inspection systems of moving surfaces in production processes. (orig.)

  12. Computer simulation and analysis of spatial galaxy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo techniques were employed to simulate detailed and realistic fields of galaxies in a variety of model universes extending to a maximum redshift of z = 10. The simulated data were treated as real data and extensive analysis were carried out. The interest was in developing analytical tools that would work with confusion limited data sets (which would typify high redshift galaxy ensembles) and also provide information on cosmological effects that are important at high redshifts, such as the effects due to stellar evolution in galaxies and those due to geometry of space-time. Special attention was paid to the infrared behavior of galaxies and, in particular, the role infrared colors as distance indicators was carefully scrutinized

  13. Ambiguous symbols: why there were no figurines in Neolithic Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the scarcity of representational art, and particularly of representations of the human body, in Neolithic Britain, in contrast with the Neolithic of south-east Europe. My suggestion is that this contrast can be linked with differing notions of personal identity and bodily integrity. In later Neolithic Britain, a complex mode of non-representational decoration developed, which elaborated the practice of making reference to absent persons and things by using deliberately ambiguous motifs, which connected past and present as well as remote locations.

  14. Analysis of the Spatial Variation of Hospitalization Admissions for Hypertension Disease in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhensheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, awareness about hypertension, the treatment rate and the control rate are low compared to developed countries, even though China’s aging population has grown, especially in those areas with a high degree of urbanization. However, limited epidemiological studies have attempted to describe the spatial variation of the geo-referenced data on hypertension disease over an urban area of China. In this study, we applied hierarchical Bayesian models to explore the spatial heterogeneity of the relative risk for hypertension admissions throughout Shenzhen in 2011. The final model specification includes an intercept and spatial components (structured and unstructured. Although the road density could be used as a covariate in modeling, it is an indirect factor on the relative risk. In addition, spatial scan statistics and spatial analysis were utilized to identify the spatial pattern and to map the clusters. The results showed that the relative risk for hospital admission for hypertension has high-value clusters in the south and southeastern Shenzhen. This study aimed to identify some specific regions with high relative risk, and this information is useful for the health administrators. Further research should address more-detailed data collection and an explanation of the spatial patterns.

  15. Aspects of the incorporation of spatial data into radioecological and restoration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade geographical information systems have been increasingly used to incorporate spatial data into radioecological analysis. This has allowed the development of models with spatially variable outputs. Two main approaches have been adopted in the development of spatial models. Empirical Tag based models applied across a range of spatial scales utilize underlying soil type maps and readily available radioecological data. Soil processes can also be modelled to allow the dynamic prediction of radionuclide soil to plant transfer. We discuss a dynamic semi-mechanistic radiocaesium soil to plant-transfer model, which utilizes readily available spatially variable soil parameters. Both approaches allow the identification of areas that may be vulnerable to radionuclide deposition, therefore enabling the targeting of intervention measures. Improved estimates of radionuclide fluxes and ingestion doses can be achieved by incorporating spatially varying inputs such as agricultural production and dietary habits in to these models. In this paper, aspects of such models, including data requirements, implementation and outputs are discussed and critically evaluated. The relative merits and disadvantages of the two spatial model approaches adopted within radioecology are discussed. We consider the usefulness of such models to aid decision-makers and access the requirements and potential of further application within radiological protection. (author)

  16. USING SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN TOURISM: A CASE STUDY ON ACCOMMODATION IN TURKEY BY DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KERVANKIRAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the changes occurring over time in the spatial distribution of tourism and the interpretation of the effects of these changes correctly will contribute to tourism planning practices more efficiently and effectively. In this study, the spatial distribution of the number of accommodations in Turkey was analyzed by districts between 2000 and 2013. The study aimed at analyzing the size, distribution, and spatial clustering of accommodations by districts between 2000 – 2013, and how this clustering changed over the 14-year period. The number of accommodations by districts was obtained from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat for the time period between 2000 and 2013. Temporal and spatial analysis of the data was carried out using ArcGIS 10.1 software. In the study, first, the distribution of the number of tourists accommodated in the facilities certified by the Ministry was mapped by districts for the years 2000, 2005, and 2013, then the tourism development model of the districts was generated. The spatial distribution of the accommodations by districts was assessed by using Average Centers, Weighted Average Centers, Standard Distance, and Standard Deviation Ellipses. Spatial clustering of the accommodations was analyzed with Spatial Autocorrelation (Moran’s I, LISA, Getis Ord Gi*.

  17. Promotional archipelagoes of change. Spatial analysis of Dinosauro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decades, the post industrial Latin American cities have become important economic centers in the world. Their integration into the world economy helped those cities become in the favorite places for the linking functions and activities to the world nets of commerce, productions culture, etc. These urban centers which are expanding gradually into segmented developing areas have caused an apparent space duality between the private and public activities as it can be seen though the differential access to goods and services by the society. At present, there has been an increase in cultural activities which form change promoting archipelagoes subject to several dimensions of analysis. The inequity in the distribution of economic and educational resources causes unequal ways of access to consumption of these areas of cultural production, and of goods and services, what gives place to situations of social exclusion and inclusion. To understand this fact related to money behavior, we have selected an area situated in the northwest of Cordoba capital city, in Argentina, which is a shopping mall called Dinosaurio Group. In this essay we present an exploration into the conflicts caused to the cities through the expansion of the segmented urban centers, promoters of change, and its relationship with the public and private space.

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of anisotropic spatially reinforced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.

    1993-01-01

    The material-adaptive three-dimensional analysis of inhomogeneous structures based on the meso-volume concept and application of deficient spline functions for displacement approximations is proposed. The general methodology is demonstrated on the example of a brick-type mosaic parallelepiped arbitrarily composed of anisotropic meso-volumes. A partition of each meso-volume into sub-elements, application of deficient spline functions for a local approximation of displacements and, finally, the use of the variational principle allows one to obtain displacements, strains, and stresses at anypoint within the structural part. All of the necessary external and internal boundary conditions (including the conditions of continuity of transverse stresses at interfaces between adjacent meso-volumes) can be satisfied with requisite accuracy by increasing the density of the sub-element mesh. The application of the methodology to textile composite materials is described. Several numerical examples for woven and braided rectangular composite plates and stiffened panels under transverse bending are considered. Some typical effects of stress concentrations due to the material inhomogeneities are demonstrated.

  19. Flood risk perceptions and spatial multi-criteria analysis: an exploratory research for hazard mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Raaijmakers, Ruud; Krywkow, Jörg; Veen, van, R.

    2008-01-01

    The conventional method of risk analysis (with risk as a product of probability and consequences) does not allow for a pluralistic approach that includes the various risk perceptions of stakeholders or lay people within a given social system. This article introduces a methodology that combines the virtues of three different methods: the quantifiable conventional approach to risk; the taxonomic analysis of perceived risk; and the analytical framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. This ...

  20. Geospatial Analysis Requires a Different Way of Thinking: The Problem of Spatial Heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial analysis is very much dominated by a Gaussian way of thinking, which assumes that things in the world can be characterized by a well-defined mean, i.e., things are more or less similar in size. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, many things in the world lack a well-defined mean, and therefore there are far more small things than large ones. This paper attempts to argue that geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking - a Paretian way of thinking that underlies skewed distribution such as power laws, Pareto and lognormal distributions. I review two properties of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, and point out that the notion of spatial heterogeneity in current spatial statistics is only used to characterize local variance of spatial dependence. I subsequently argue for a broad perspective on spatial heterogeneity, and suggest it be formulated as a scaling law. I further discuss the implications of Paretian thinking and the scaling law for better understan...

  1. Channels of synthesis forty years on: integrated analysis of spatial economic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewings, Geoffrey J. D.; Nazara, Suahasil; Dridi, Chokri

    . Isard's vision of integrated modeling that was laid out in the 1960s book Methods of Regional Science provided a road map for the development of more sophisticated analysis of spatial economic systems. Some forty years later, we look back at this vision and trace developments in a sample of three areas - demographic-econometric integrated modeling, spatial interaction modeling, and environmental-economic modeling. Attention will be focused on methodological advances and their motivation by new developments in theory as well as innovations in the applications of these models to address new policy challenges. Underlying the discussion will be an evaluation of the way in which spatial issues have been addressed, ranging from concerns with regionalization to issues of spillovers and spatial correlation.

  2. SOIL SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND AGRICULTURAL LAND USE OPTIMIZATION BY USING GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and process of Geographic Information System (GIS) applied in soil spatial analysis, involving the collection of soil spatial data that GIS required, spatial analysis method of soil nutrient, land use, slope and exposure of geography, crop yield and other factors, and also including acquiring soil spatial information and creating thematic map, and so on. Taking Hengjing Town in Wuxian County of Jiangsu Province as a case study and the maximum income as a principle, and applying the GIS methods and their interrelated models, we have calculated the most optimized agricultural land and the possible maximum income of Hengjing Town. According to the method, we can rationally regulate local agricultural production, and put forward some scenarios for optimizing agricultural structure of Hengjing Town. The paper puts forward an evaluation method of land adaptability based on soil spatial analysis, and offers some research clews to optimize agricultural land use constitution, so the paper will be have important reference value for soil study.

  3. Spatial-Functional Analysis of Kurdish Courtyard Houses in Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A. Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was to analyze the concept of spatial-function in courtyard house layout and its influence to the cultural and social activities. Themes such as integration, segregation, accessibility and zoning of the building space layout are required to be deliberated, in order to achieve further understanding about the Kurdish social and cultural benchmarks (norms that might have affected by the spatial configuration of the house layouts. Approach: The study was based on the analysis from selected samples of courtyard house layouts in Erbil city, through adopting the theory of space syntax and its techniques (gamma analysis method. The purpose was to interpret and identify the mutual relationship between space and social life through both scales of spatial-functional analysis. Functionally, illustration and classification of the key zones and sectors of the house; spatially, measuring the main syntactic characteristics of spatial systems (house layoutsand translating it to numerical data in order to identify their effect that forming spatial patterns. Results: The functional approach for the design of residential spaces had a clear impact on the method of formation and organization of residential spaces (functional sectors through the indicators of physical and intellectual change that affected the nature of spontaneous social interaction in the traditional Kurdish courtyard houses in the city of Erbil. Conclusion: Social variables and factors stemming from the customs and traditions of the community have a direct impact on the residential function through the way of forming and configuration of its interior spaces, which had supported by discovering Genotypic spatial-functional patterns of house layouts (study sample.

  4. Analysis of spatial and temporal water pollution patterns in Lake Dianchi using multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huai-Cheng; Sheng, Hu; Liu, Hui; Dao, Xu; He, Cheng-Jie

    2010-11-01

    Various multivariate statistical methods including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), factor analysis (FA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to explain the spatial and temporal patterns of surface water pollution in Lake Dianchi. The dataset, obtained during the period 2003-2007 from the Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center, consisted of 12 variables surveyed monthly at eight sites. The CA grouped the 12 months into two groups, August-September and the remainder, and divided the lake into two regions based on their different physicochemical properties and pollution levels. The DA showed the best results for data reduction and pattern recognition in both temporal and spatial analysis. It calculated four parameters (TEMP, pH, CODMn, and Chl-a) to 85.4% correct assignment in the temporal analysis and three parameters (BOD, NH₄+-N, and TN) to almost 71.7% correct assignment in spatial analysis of the two clusters. The FA/PCA applied to datasets of two special clusters of the lake calculated four factors for each region, capturing 72.5% and 62.5% of the total variance, respectively. Strong loadings included DO, BOD, TN, CODCr, CODMn, NH₄+-N, TP, and EC. In addition, box-whisker plots and GIS further facilitated and supported the multivariate analysis results. PMID:19936953

  5. Analysis of spatial and temporal extreme monsoonal rainfall over South Asia using complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Nishant [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics, Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Bookhagen, Bodo [University of California Santa Barbara, Department of Geography, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marwan, Norbert [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Juergen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt University, Department of Physics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We present a detailed analysis of summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian peninsular using nonlinear spatial correlations. This analysis is carried out employing the tools of complex networks and a measure of nonlinear correlation for point processes such as rainfall, called event synchronization. This study provides valuable insights into the spatial organization, scales, and structure of the 90th and 94th percentile rainfall events during the Indian summer monsoon (June-September). We furthermore analyse the influence of different critical synoptic atmospheric systems and the impact of the steep Himalayan topography on rainfall patterns. The presented method not only helps us in visualising the structure of the extreme-event rainfall fields, but also identifies the water vapor pathways and decadal-scale moisture sinks over the region. Furthermore a simple scheme based on complex networks is presented to decipher the spatial intricacies and temporal evolution of monsoonal rainfall patterns over the last 6 decades. (orig.)

  6. Spatial Topology and its Structural Analysis based on the Concept of Simplicial Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a model that identifies spatial relationships for a structural analysis based on the concept of simplicial complex. The spatial relationships are identified through overlapping two map layers, namely a primary layer and a contextual layer. The identified spatial relationships are represented as a simplical complex, in which simplices and vertices respectively represent two layers of objects. The model relies on the simplical complex for structural representation and analysis. To quantify structural properties of individual primary objects (or equivalently simplices), and the simplicial complex as a whole, we define a set of centrality measures by considering multidimensional chains of connectivity, i.e. the number of contextual objects shared by a pair of primary objects. With the model, the interaction and relationships with a geographic system are modeled from both local and global perspectives. The structural properties and modeling capabilities are illustrated with a simple example a...

  7. Elderly Return Migration from Britain to Ireland - A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    1996-01-01

    The National Council for the Elderly commissioned the Institute of Irish Studies at the University of Liverpool, in 1994, to undertake research and prepare a preliminary report for the Council, exploring the recent scale of, and background to, return migration to the Republic of Ireland amongst elderly Irish-born people living in Britain Download the Report here

  8. Punjabi Childrearing in Britain: Development of Identity, Religion and Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, J. S.; Ghuman, Paul A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interviewed two generations of Punjabi mothers living in Britain. Found that while second-generation Punjabis are changing some traditional mores (equal treatment of boys and girls, modified system of arranged marriage), they are also eager to transmit the core values (religion, mother tongue, familial spirit) of their culture and want their…

  9. Twinning rates and social class in Great Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, M; Botting, B

    1989-01-01

    We examined like and unlike sex twinning rates in Great Britain by social class over the period 1974-85. Although twinning rates are believed to have changed over that period, we found no evidence of differential change by social class, suggesting that any factors affecting twinning are widespread in the population.

  10. Charting the Development of Multi-Ethnic Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrif, Shahid

    2001-01-01

    Provides a broad history of the contribution of people of Asian origin, particularly Indian origin, to the development of the United Kingdom, discussing the racial bias they have historically faced in the country's educational, social, and employment systems. A timeline of the Indian presence in Great Britain from 1688-1999 is presented. (SM)

  11. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  12. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range chang

  13. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  14. Voluntary refugee work in Britain, 1933–39

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Im Artikel wird die Arbeit von Flüchtlingskomitees untersucht, die sich in Großbritannien vor und während des Zweiten Weltkriegs gründeten und dort betätigten. The focus of this paper is of the work undertaken by refugee committees which were established and operating in Britain before and during the Second World War.

  15. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  16. Influences of Customs In Britain on English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Idioms,which reflect customs,are the essence of culture in every country. It is necessary for us to become aware ofthe increasing significance of idioms learning. This article will be of help to you to learn about the meaning and usages of someidioms related to customs in Britain as well as the influence of the customs on these idioms.

  17. Influences of Customs In Britain on English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Ya Qing

    2009-01-01

    Idioms, which reflect customs, are the essence of culture in every country. It is necessary for us to become aware of the increasing significance of idioms learning. This article will be of help to you to learn about the meaning and usages of some idioms related to customs in Britain as well as the influence of the customs on these idioms.

  18. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  19. An Integrative Platform for Three-dimensional Quantitative Analysis of Spatially Heterogeneous Metastasis Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldner, Ian H.; Yang, Lin; Cowdrick, Kyle R.; Wang, Qingfei; Alvarez Barrios, Wendy V.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Zhang, Yizhe; Host, Misha; Liu, Fang; Chen, Danny Z.; Zhang, Siyuan

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic microenvironments are spatially and compositionally heterogeneous. This seemingly stochastic heterogeneity provides researchers great challenges in elucidating factors that determine metastatic outgrowth. Herein, we develop and implement an integrative platform that will enable researchers to obtain novel insights from intricate metastatic landscapes. Our two-segment platform begins with whole tissue clearing, staining, and imaging to globally delineate metastatic landscape heterogeneity with spatial and molecular resolution. The second segment of our platform applies our custom-developed SMART 3D (Spatial filtering-based background removal and Multi-chAnnel forest classifiers-based 3D ReconsTruction), a multi-faceted image analysis pipeline, permitting quantitative interrogation of functional implications of heterogeneous metastatic landscape constituents, from subcellular features to multicellular structures, within our large three-dimensional (3D) image datasets. Coupling whole tissue imaging of brain metastasis animal models with SMART 3D, we demonstrate the capability of our integrative pipeline to reveal and quantify volumetric and spatial aspects of brain metastasis landscapes, including diverse tumor morphology, heterogeneous proliferative indices, metastasis-associated astrogliosis, and vasculature spatial distribution. Collectively, our study demonstrates the utility of our novel integrative platform to reveal and quantify the global spatial and volumetric characteristics of the 3D metastatic landscape with unparalleled accuracy, opening new opportunities for unbiased investigation of novel biological phenomena in situ.

  20. Lower Bound Limit State Analysis using the Interior-Point Method with Spatial Varying Barrier Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    A method of conducting lower bound Limit State analysis is to apply the interior-point method. The aim of the paper is to refine the method by reducing the number of optimization variables considerably by eliminating the equilibrium equations a priori. Another new idea is to adapt a spatially...

  1. Second harmonic generation and pulse shaping in positively and negatively spatially dispersive nanowaveguides: comparative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of second harmonic generation in ordinary and backward-wave settings is presented. Extraordinary properties of frequency doubling nonlinear optical reflectivity and pulse shaping through phase matching of ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves in the nanowaveguides with mixed negative/positive spatial dispersion is demonstrated with numerical simulations.

  2. Exploratory Data Analysis to Identify Factors Influencing Spatial Distributions of Weed Seed Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparing distributions of different species in multiple fields will help us understand the spatial dynamics of weed seed banks, but analyzing observational data requires non-traditional statistical methods. We used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to investigate factors that influ...

  3. A Bayesian multidimensional scaling procedure for the spatial analysis of revealed choice data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeSarbo, WS; Kim, Y; Fong, D

    1999-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian formulation of a vector multidimensional scaling procedure for the spatial analysis of binary choice data. The Gibbs sampler is gainfully employed to estimate the posterior distribution of the specified scalar products, bilinear model parameters. The computational procedure

  4. Misfits and the Imagined American High School: A Spatial Analysis of Student Identities and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a socio-spatial analysis of youth identities within the context of school choice reforms. Unable to conform to cultural ideals inscribed in the American school, a diverse group of youth forced out of traditional schools mediate the local production of school choice initiatives through the formation of youth identities as…

  5. Performance analysis of spatial multiplexing MIMO system with time reversal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Dou, Zheng; Khan, Zayed

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the performance analysis of Spatial Multiplexing(SM) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system with time reversal (TR) technology. Focus is given on the spatial multiplexing gain of MIMO than the diversity gain aspect with the notion that the idea of diversity is inseparably associated with the uncertainty of the channel. If transmitter knows Channel State Information (CSI) before transmission, potential benefits can be harvested. TR is used here, to provide Channel State Information (CSI) at the transmitter before transmission. With the features of temporal and spatial focusing, TR not only can provide immunity against fading for spatially multiplexed data stream but also help boost its Multi Stream Interference (MSI) limited performance by mitigating it. The performance analysis of SM-MIMOTR is carried out with the aim of average minimum error probability for quantity of interest data rate. The interest date rate is 19.07 Mbps, where as the average minimum error probably is set to be that of Single Input Multi Output (SIMO) maximum ratio combining system (MRC). BER of Single Input Single Output (SISO) system is also simulated for making comparison tangible. Simulation study shows that Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the system with the data rate of interest nearly coincides with that of SIMO system at the range of 10-15db and is better than SISO in all simulated Eb/No points. Additionally, from the standpoint of tread off curve, between diversity gain and spatial multiplexing gain, the non linearity nature still holds.

  6. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain. PMID:22029555

  7. Analysis of the Impact of Soil Heterogeneity on the Spatial Variation of Unsaturated Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    the numerical model HYDRUS 3D (PC-Progress, Prague, Czech Republic) based on the numerical indices assigned by LISA, was automated. Each of the 100 realizations were run at 10 different inflow rates ranging from 1.44 cm/d to 74.4 cm/d. Each of the 1000 simulations produced resulted in an output of 487 spatially-varied outflows, allowing spatial analysis of the model outputs and comparison to the spatial outputs from the column experiment. Analysis of the effects of the size and spatial location of the synthetic hydraulic property clusters at different flow rates on the spatial distribution of outflow will be presented and discussed.

  8. Not all maps are equal: GIS and spatial analysis in epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Rytkönen, Mika J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Geographical Information System (GIS) has emerged as an innovative and important component of many projects in public health and epidemiology. One of the most useful functions of GIS in epidemiology continues to be its utility in basic mapping. GIS may also involve more sophisticated spatial analysis of disease occurrence and contributing environmental factors. Depending on the quantity and quality of data and the methodology used in analysis, a given map may be either useful or mis...

  9. Learning Bayesian networks from big meteorological spatial datasets. An alternative to complex network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; San Martín, Daniel; Herrera, Sixto; Santiago Cofiño, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The growing availability of spatial datasets (observations, reanalysis, and regional and global climate models) demands efficient multivariate spatial modeling techniques for many problems of interest (e.g. teleconnection analysis, multi-site downscaling, etc.). Complex networks have been recently applied in this context using graphs built from pairwise correlations between the different stations (or grid boxes) forming the dataset. However, this analysis does not take into account the full dependence structure underlying the data, gien by all possible marginal and conditional dependencies among the stations, and does not allow a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. In this talk we introduce Bayesian networks as an alternative multivariate analysis and modeling data-driven technique which allows building a joint probability distribution of the stations including all relevant dependencies in the dataset. Bayesian networks is a sound machine learning technique using a graph to 1) encode the main dependencies among the variables and 2) to obtain a factorization of the joint probability distribution of the stations given by a reduced number of parameters. For a particular problem, the resulting graph provides a qualitative analysis of the spatial relationships in the dataset (alternative to complex network analysis), and the resulting model allows for a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. Bayesian networks have been widely applied in many fields, but their use in climate problems is hampered by the large number of variables (stations) involved in this field, since the complexity of the existing algorithms to learn from data the graphical structure grows nonlinearly with the number of variables. In this contribution we present a modified local learning algorithm for Bayesian networks adapted to this problem, which allows inferring the graphical structure for thousands of stations (from observations) and/or gridboxes (from model simulations) thus providing new

  10. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. Analysis of Regularly and Irregularly Sampled Spatial, Multivariate, and Multi-temporal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes different methods that are useful in the analysis of multivariate data. Some methods focus on spatial data (sampled regularly or irregularly), others focus on multitemporal data or data from multiple sources. The thesis covers selected and not all aspects of relevant data analysis techniques in this context. Geostatistics is described in Chapter 1. Tools as the semivariogram, the cross-semivariogram and different types of kriging are described. As an independent re-inven...

  12. Analysis of the quasi-diffusion method on two-dimensional problems with spatially periodic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study convergence of the quasi-diffusion (QD) method on two-dimensional spatially periodic problems with strong heterogeneities. A Fourier analysis of the linearized QD equations in the vicinity of the solution is performed. The analysis shows that in Periodic Horizontal Interface (PHI) problems the QD iteration method loses its effectiveness and even diverges in some cases. Numerical results of finite-medium PHI problems are presented to demonstrate the behavior of the QD method that was theoretically predicted. (authors)

  13. The ins and outs of poverty in advanced economies: poverty dynamics in Canada, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta

    2004-01-01

    Comparative analysis of poverty dynamics—incidence, transitions, and persistence—can yield important insights about the nature of poverty and the effectiveness of alternative policy responses. This manuscript compares poverty dynamics in four advanced industrial countries (Canada, unified Germany, Great Britain, and the United States) for overlapping six-year periods in the 1990s. The data indicate that poverty persistence is higher in North America than in Europe; for example, despite high i...

  14. Extreme Precipitation Estimation with Typhoon Morakot Using Frequency and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan and produced copious amounts of precipitation in 2009. From the point view of hydrological statistics, the impact of the precipitation from typhoon Morakot using a frequency analysis can be analyzed and discussed. The frequency curve, which was fitted mathematically to historical observed data, can be used to estimate the probability of exceedance for runoff events of a certain magnitude. The study integrates frequency analysis and spatial analysis to assess the effect of Typhoon Morakot event on rainfall frequency in the Gaoping River basin of southern Taiwan. First, extreme rainfall data are collected at sixteen stations for durations of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours and then an appropriate probability distribution was selected to analyze the impact of the extreme hydrological event. Spatial rainfall patterns for a return period of 200-yr with 24-hr duration with and without Typhoon Morakot are estimated. Results show that the rainfall amount is significantly different with long duration with and without the event for frequency analysis. Furthermore, spatial analysis shows that extreme rainfall for a return period of 200-yr is highly dependent on topography and is smaller in the southwest than that in the east. The results not only demonstrate the distinct effect of Typhoon Morakot on frequency analysis, but also could provide reference in future planning of hydrological engineering.

  15. Analysis on the Temporal and Spatial Characteristics and Causes of Cold Wave in Qinhuangdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the temporal and spatial characteristics and causes of cold wave in Qinhuangdao.[Method] Based on temperature data from five surface meteorological stations in Qinhuangdao from 1970 to 2009 and the latest standards issuing cold wave early warning signal,statistical analysis on the temporal and spatial distribution of cold wave was carried out,and the causes were discussed preliminarily.[Result] From 1970 to 2009,the frequencies of blue and yellow cold wave in Qinhuangdao reg...

  16. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ludwiczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The goal is to increase the level of spatial and information detail of common databases, thus allowing higher accuracy and effectiveness of the analyses needed to achieve the goals of new generation spatial and agriculture planning. Specific in-depth analyses allowed to define techniques useful in order to reduce the increase in survey costs. Moreover, the work reports the main results regarding a multicriteria model for the analysis of the countryside defined by the research. Such model is aimed to assess the various agricultural, environmental and landscape features, vocations, expressions and attitudes, and support the definition and implementation of specific and targeted planning and programming policies.

  17. Spatial analysis of eco-environmental risk factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ali-Akbarpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis, it is still considered as a severe public health problem particularly in developing countries and a great economic burden on the health resources. The present study was designed and conducted to determine the eco-environmental characteristics of the leishmaniasis disease by spatial analysis. Materials and Methods: In an ecological study, data were collected on eco-environmental factors of Fars province in Iran and on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases from 2002 to 2009. geographic weighted regression (GWR was used to analyse the data and compare them with ordinary least square (OLS regression model results. Moran′s Index was applied for analysis of spatial autocorrelation in residual of OLS. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant and adjusted R2 was used for model preferences. Results: There was a significant spatial autocorrelation in the residuals of OLS model (Z=2.45, P=0.014. GWR showed that rainy days, minimum temperature, wind velocity, maximum relative humidity and population density were the most important eco-environmental risk factors and explained 0.388 of the associated factors of CL. Conclusion: Spatial analysis can be a good tool for detection and prediction of CL disease. In autocorrelated and non-stationary data, GWR model yields a better fitness than OLS regression model. Also, population density can be used as a surrogate variable of acquired immunity and increase the adjusted R2.

  18. Bayesian statistical modeling of spatially correlated error structure in atmospheric tracer inverse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse modeling applications in atmospheric chemistry are increasingly addressing the challenging statistical issues of data synthesis by adopting refined statistical analysis methods. This paper advances this line of research by addressing several central questions in inverse modeling, focusing specifically on Bayesian statistical computation. Motivated by problems of refining bottom-up estimates of source/sink fluxes of trace gas and aerosols based on increasingly high-resolution satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical concentrations, we address head-on the need for integrating formal spatial statistical methods of residual error structure in global scale inversion models. We do this using analytically and computationally tractable spatial statistical models, know as conditional autoregressive spatial models, as components of a global inversion framework. We develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to explore and fit these spatial structures in an overall statistical framework that simultaneously estimates source fluxes. Additional aspects of the study extend the statistical framework to utilize priors in a more physically realistic manner, and to formally address and deal with missing data in satellite retrievals. We demonstrate the analysis in the context of inferring carbon monoxide (CO sources constrained by satellite retrievals of column CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT instrument on the TERRA satellite, paying special attention to evaluating performance of the inverse approach using various statistical diagnostic metrics. This is developed using synthetic data generated to resemble MOPITT data to define a~proof-of-concept and model assessment, and then in analysis of real MOPITT data.

  19. Geographic Information Systems, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Analysis Activities in Texas, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  20. A spatial cluster analysis of tractor overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, D.M.; Cole, H.P.; Odoi, A.; Myers, M.L.; Carey, D.I.; Westneat, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Methods: A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Results: The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55) and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97). Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002) and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (ptractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions) with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky. ?? 2012 Saman et al.

  1. Assessing spatial resolution versus sensitivity from laser speckle contrast imaging: application to frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricq, Stéphanie; Mahé, Guillaume; Rousseau, David; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Varela, Julio Rojas; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    For blood perfusion monitoring, laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging is a recent non-contact technique that has the characteristic of delivering noise-like speckled images. To exploit LSC images for quantitative physiological measurements, we developed an approach that implements controlled spatial averaging to reduce the detrimental impact of the noise and improve measurement sensitivity. By this approach, spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity can be traded-off in a flexible way depending on the quantitative prospect of the study. As an application, detectability of the cardiac activity from LSC images of forearm using power spectrum analysis is studied through the construction of spatial activity maps offering a window on the blood flow perfusion and its regional distribution. Comparisons with results obtained with signals of laser Doppler flowmetry probes are performed. PMID:22644256

  2. Detecting spatial homogeneity in the world trade web with Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chiarucci, Riccardo; Loffredo, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In a spatially embedded network, that is a network where nodes can be uniquely determined in a system of coordinates, links' weights might be affected by metric distances coupling every pair of nodes (dyads). In order to assess to what extent metric distances affect relationships (link's weights) in a spatially embedded network, we propose a methodology based on DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis). DFA is a well developed methodology to evaluate autocorrelations and estimate long-range behaviour in time series. We argue it can be further extended to spatially ordered series in order to assess autocorrelations in values. A scaling exponent of 0.5 (uncorrelated data) would thereby signal a perfect homogeneous space embedding the network. We apply the proposed methodology to the World Trade Web (WTW) during the years 1949-2000 and we find, in some contrast with predictions of gravity models, a declining influence of distances on trading relationships.

  3. Efficiency analysis of control algorithms in spatially distributed systems with chaotic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korus Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of examination of control algorithms for the purpose of controlling chaos in spatially distributed systems like the coupled map lattice (CML. The mathematical definition of the CML, stability analysis as well as some basic results of numerical simulation exposing complex, spatiotemporal and chaotic behavior of the CML were already presented in another paper. The main purpose of this article is to compare the efficiency of controlling chaos by simple classical algorithms in spatially distributed systems like CMLs. This comparison is made based on qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods proposed in the previous paper such as the indirect Lyapunov method, Lyapunov exponents and the net direction phase indicator. As a summary of this paper, some conclusions which can be useful for creating a more efficient algorithm of controlling chaos in spatially distributed systems are made.

  4. Spatial factor analysis: a new tool for estimating joint species distributions and correlations in species range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Shelton, Andrew O.;

    2015-01-01

    1. Predicting and explaining the distribution and density of species is one of the oldest concerns in ecology. Species distributions can be estimated using geostatistical methods, which estimate a latent spatial variable explaining observed variation in densities, but geostatistical methods may...... be imprecise for species with low densities or few observations. Additionally, simple geostatistical methods fail to account for correlations in distribution among species and generally estimate such cross-correlations as a post hoc exercise. 2. We therefore present spatial factor analysis (SFA), a spatial...... model for estimating a low-rank approximation to multivariate data, and use it to jointly estimate the distribution of multiple species simultaneously. We also derive an analytic estimate of cross-correlations among species from SFA parameters. 3. As a first example, we show that distributions for 10...

  5. A Spatial Analysis of GEOID03 and GEOID09 in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifuzzaman, Kazi; Hintz, Raymond J.

    2016-06-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) recommends using a hybrid geoid model to derive orthometric heights from ellipsoid heights. The accuracy of GEOID03 and GEOID09 were assessed independently in Connecticut. The present research analyses the spatial behavior of residuals derived from the comparison of differential levelled NAVD 88 orthometric heights and GPS-derived orthometric heights (using GEOID03 & GEOID09) at 72 benchmarks in Connecticut. Both geometrical and geostatistical analyses were performed on the residuals. A planar regression model indicates a weak spatial relation for residuals derived from GEOID03. This weakness was not noted in the analysis of residuals derived from GEOID09. Results of a four-parameter regression model does not indicate any need for a correction surface. A kriging surface was created with a fitted spherical semivariogram model and suggests GEOID09 captures more spatial variability of geoid undulation than GEOID03 in Connecticut.

  6. A GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrology is the study of water in all its forms, origins, and destinations on the earth.This paper develops a novel modeling technique using a geographic information system (GIS) to facilitate watershed hydrological routing using RADAR data. The RADAR rainfall data, segmented to 4 km by 4 km blocks, divides the watershed into several sub basins which are modeled independently. A case study for the GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is provided for South Fork Cowikee Creek near Batesville, Alabama. All the data necessary to complete the analysis is maintained in the ArcView GIS software. This paper concludes that the GIS-Based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is a viable method to calculate hydrological routing for large watersheds. (author)

  7. Research Update: Spatially resolved mapping of electronic structure on atomic level by multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic level spatial variability of electronic structure in Fe-based superconductor FeTe0.55Se0.45 (Tc = 15 K) is explored using current-imaging tunneling-spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data differentiates regions of dissimilar electronic behavior that can be identified with the segregation of chalcogen atoms, as well as boundaries between terminations and near neighbor interactions. Subsequent clustering analysis allows identification of the spatial localization of these dissimilar regions. Similar statistical analysis of modeled calculated density of states of chemically inhomogeneous FeTe1−xSex structures further confirms that the two types of chalcogens, i.e., Te and Se, can be identified by their electronic signature and differentiated by their local chemical environment. This approach allows detailed chemical discrimination of the scanning tunneling microscopy data including separation of atomic identities, proximity, and local configuration effects and can be universally applicable to chemically and electronically inhomogeneous surfaces

  8. Reconstruction and analysis of temperature and density spatial profiles inertial confinement fusion implosion cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss several methods for the extraction of temperature and density spatial profiles in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores based on the analysis of the x-ray emission from spectroscopic tracers added to the deuterium fuel. The ideas rely on (1) detailed spectral models that take into account collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes, and radiation transport calculations, (2) the availability of narrow-band, gated pinhole and slit x-ray images, and space-resolved line spectra of the core, and (3) several data analysis and reconstruction methods that include a multi-objective search and optimization technique based on a novel application of Pareto genetic algorithms to plasma spectroscopy. The spectroscopic analysis yields the spatial profiles of temperature and density in the core at the collapse of the implosion, and also the extent of shell material mixing into the core. Results are illustrated with data recorded in implosion experiments driven by the OMEGA and Z facilities

  9. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    with their environmental degradation. Thus, this paper highlights the Rio de Janeiro intra-metropolitan inequalities through a documentation of the direct correlation between the spactial distribution of social segments of the population, infrastructure provision and location of hazardous facilities......This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economical...... and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more...

  10. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia

  11. Bayesian statistical modeling of spatially correlated error structure in atmospheric tracer inverse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mukherjee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss the use of Bayesian modeling and computational methods for atmospheric chemistry inverse analyses that incorporate evaluation of spatial structure in model-data residuals. Motivated by problems of refining bottom-up estimates of source/sink fluxes of trace gas and aerosols based on satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical concentrations, we address the need for formal modeling of spatial residual error structure in global scale inversion models. We do this using analytically and computationally tractable conditional autoregressive (CAR spatial models as components of a global inversion framework. We develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to explore and fit these spatial structures in an overall statistical framework that simultaneously estimates source fluxes. Additional aspects of the study extend the statistical framework to utilize priors on source fluxes in a physically realistic manner, and to formally address and deal with missing data in satellite retrievals. We demonstrate the analysis in the context of inferring carbon monoxide (CO sources constrained by satellite retrievals of column CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT instrument on the TERRA satellite, paying special attention to evaluating performance of the inverse approach using various statistical diagnostic metrics. This is developed using synthetic data generated to resemble MOPITT data to define a proof-of-concept and model assessment, and then in analysis of real MOPITT data. These studies demonstrate the ability of these simple spatial models to substantially improve over standard non-spatial models in terms of statistical fit, ability to recover sources in synthetic examples, and predictive match with real data.

  12. Evidence for fish dispersal from spatial analysis of stream network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing spatially explicit conservation strategies for stream fishes requires an understanding of the spatial structure of dispersal within stream networks. We explored spatial patterns of stream fish dispersal by evaluating how the size and proximity of connected streams (i.e., stream network topology) explained variation in fish assemblage structure and how this relationship varied with local stream size. We used data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (n = 308 sites). We quantified stream network topology with a continuous analysis based on the rate of downstream flow accumulation from sites and with a discrete analysis based on the presence of mainstem river confluences (i.e., basin area >250 km2) within 20 fluvial km (fkm) from sites. Continuous variation in stream network topology was related to local species richness within a distance of ???10 fkm, suggesting an influence of fish dispersal within this spatial grain. This effect was explained largely by catostomid species, cyprinid species, and riverine species, but was not explained by zoogeographic regions, ecoregions, sampling period, or spatial autocorrelation. Sites near mainstem river confluences supported greater species richness and abundance of catostomid, cyprinid, and ictalurid fishes than did sites >20 fkm from such confluences. Assemblages at sites on the smallest streams were not related to stream network topology, consistent with the hypothesis that local stream size regulates the influence of regional dispersal. These results demonstrate that the size and proximity of connected streams influence the spatial distribution of fish and suggest that these influences can be incorporated into the designs of stream bioassessments and reserves to enhance management efficacy. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  13. Conditional versus unconditional industrial agglomeration: disentangling spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity in the analysis of ICT firms' distribution in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espa, Giuseppe; Arbia, Giuseppe; Giuliani, Diego

    2013-01-01

    A series of recent papers have introduced some explorative methods based on Ripley's K-function (Ripley in J R Stat Soc B 39(2):172-212, 1977) analyzing the micro-geographical patterns of firms. Often the spatial heterogeneity of an area is handled by referring to a case-control design, in which spatial clusters occur as over-concentrations of firms belonging to a specific industry as opposed to the distribution of firms in the whole economy. Therefore, positive, or negative, spatial dependence between firms occurs when a specific sector of industry is seen to present a more aggregated pattern (or more dispersed) than is common in the economy as a whole. This approach has led to the development of relative measures of spatial concentration which, as a consequence, are not straightforwardly comparable across different economies. In this article, we explore a parametric approach based on the inhomogeneous K-function (Baddeley et al. in Statistica Nederlandica 54(3):329-350, 2000) that makes it possible to obtain an absolute measure of the industrial agglomeration that is also able to capture spatial heterogeneity. We provide an empirical application of the approach taken with regard to the spatial distribution of high-tech industries in Milan (Italy) in 2001.

  14. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  15. Winners and losers in flexible labor markets: the fate of women with chronic illness in contrasting policy environments--Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Bo; Holland, Paula; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2003-01-01

    This study compares employment rates among men and women with and without chronic illness in the contrasting policy environments of Britain and Sweden, through analysis of household surveys for 1979-1995. Professional and managerial groups were winners in both countries, including during recessio......, would be the winners in a more flexible, less regulated labor market-quite the reverse....

  16. Spatial Analysis and Synthesis of Car Audio System and Car Cabin Acoustics with a Compact Microphone Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakari, Tervo; Pätynen, Jukka; Kaplanis, Neofytos; Lydolf, Morten; Bech, Søren; Lokki, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    dummy head measurements. In combination with a compact microphone array, the approach is based on the recently introduced parametric spatial sound analysis method, called the Spatial Decomposition Method (SDM). An objective analysis of the sound field with respect to direction and energy enables the...

  17. Spatial analysis of myocardial infarction in Iran: National report from the Iranian myocardial infarction registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction (MI is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Iran. No spatial analysis of MI has been conducted to date. The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of MI incidence and to identify the associated factors in Iran by province. Materials and Methods: This study has two parts. One part is prospective and hospital-based, and the other part is an ecological study. In this study, the data of 20,750 new MI cases registered in Iranian Myocardial Infarction Registry in 2012 were used. For spatial analysis in global and local, spatial autocorrelation, Moran′s I, Getis-Ord, and logistic regression models were used. Data were analyzed by Stata software and ArcGIS 9.3. Results: Based on autocorrelation coefficient, a specific pattern was observed in the distribution of MI incidence in different provinces (Moran′s I: 0.75, P < 0.001. Spatial pattern of incidence was approximately the same in men and women. MI incidence was clustering in six provinces (North Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Golestan, and Mazandaran. Out of the associated factors with clustered MI in six provinces, temperature, humidity, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI could be mentioned. Hypertension, smoking, and BMI contributed to clustering with, respectively, 2.36, 1.31, and 1.31 odds ratio. Conclusion: Addressing the place-based pattern of incidence and clarifying their epidemiologic dimension, including spatial analysis, has not yet been implemented in Iran. Report on MI incidence rate by place and formal borders is useful and is used in the planning and prioritization in different levels of health system.

  18. Spatial analysis of Neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Frössling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum infected dairy herds in Sweden were investigated. The study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. Test-positive herds were found in all parts of Sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the Moran’s I test. Possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying the local indicator of spatial association (LISA test statistic and the spatial scan statistic. Analysis based on data aggregated by postal code areas as well as analysis based on exact coordinates identified significant clusters of high prevalence in the middle parts of Sweden and low prevalence in the south. This was not expected considering the results from other European studies of N. caninum in cattle. However, the findings are supported by the distribution of previously known case herds.

  19. Mass spectrometry based imaging techniques for spatially resolved analysis of molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMatros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants are composed of a multitude of tissues with specific functions, reflected by distinct profiles for transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Comprehensive analysis of metabolites and proteins has advanced tremendously within recent years, and this progress has been driven by the rapid development of sophisticated mass spectrometrical techniques. In most of the current omics-studies, analysis is performed on whole organ or whole plant extracts, rendering to the loss of spatial information. Mass spectrometry based imaging (MSI techniques have opened a new avenue to obtain information on the spatial distribution of metabolites and of proteins. Pioneered in the field of medicine, the approaches are now applied to study the spatial profiles of molecules in plant systems. A range of different plant organs and tissues have been successfully analyzed by MSI, and patterns of various classes of metabolites from primary and secondary metabolism could be obtained. It can be envisaged that MSI approaches will substantially contribute to build spatially resolved biochemical networks.

  20. Multi-resolution analysis of high density spatial and temporal cloud inhomogeneity fields from HOPE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Madhavan, Bomidi; Deneke, Hartwig; Macke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Clouds are the most complex structures in both spatial and temporal scales of the Earth's atmosphere that effect the downward surface reaching fluxes and thus contribute to large uncertainty in the global radiation budget. Within the framework of High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high density network of 99 pyranometer stations was set up around Jülich, Germany (~ 10 × 12 km2 area) during April to July 2013 to capture the small-scale variability in cloud induced radiation fields at the surface. In this study, we perform multi-resolution analysis of the downward solar irradiance variability at the surface from the pyranometer network to investigate the dependence of temporal and spatial averaging scales on the variance and spatial correlation for different cloud regimes. Preliminary results indicate that correlation is strongly scale-dependent where as the variance is dependent on the length of averaging period. Implications of our findings will be useful for quantifying the effect of spatial collocation while validating the satellite inferred solar irradiance estimates, and also to explore the link between cloud structure and radiation. We will present the details of our analysis and results.

  1. Where do overweight women in Ghana live? Answers from exploratory spatial data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelia A.A. Dake

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextual influence on health outcomes is increasingly becoming an important area of research. Analytical techniques such as spatial analysis help explain the variations and dynamics in health inequalities across different context and among different population groups. This paper explores spatial clustering in body mass index among Ghanaian women by analysing data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques. Overweight was a more common occurrence in urban areas than in rural areas. Close to a quarter of the clusters in Ghana, mostly those in the southern sector contained women who were overweight. Women who lived in clusters where the women were overweight were more likely to live around other clusters where the women were also overweight. The results suggest that the urban environment could be a potential contributing factor to the high levels of obesity in urban areas of Ghana. There is the need for researchers to include a spatial dimension to obesity research in Ghana paying particular attention the urban environment.

  2. Regional flood frequency analysis using spatial proximity and basin characteristics: Quantile regression vs. parameter regression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kuk-Hyun; Palmer, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite wide use of regression-based regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) methods, the majority are based on either ordinary least squares (OLS) or generalized least squares (GLS). This paper proposes 'spatial proximity' based RFFA methods using the spatial lagged model (SLM) and spatial error model (SEM). The proposed methods are represented by two frameworks: the quantile regression technique (QRT) and parameter regression technique (PRT). The QRT develops prediction equations for flooding quantiles in average recurrence intervals (ARIs) of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 100 years whereas the PRT provides prediction of three parameters for the selected distribution. The proposed methods are tested using data incorporating 30 basin characteristics from 237 basins in Northeastern United States. Results show that generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution properly represents flood frequencies in the study gages. Also, basin area, stream network, and precipitation seasonality are found to be the most effective explanatory variables in prediction modeling by the QRT and PRT. 'Spatial proximity' based RFFA methods provide reliable flood quantile estimates compared to simpler methods. Compared to the QRT, the PRT may be recommended due to its accuracy and computational simplicity. The results presented in this paper may serve as one possible guidepost for hydrologists interested in flood analysis at ungaged sites.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Dust Source Variability in Northern China Identified Using Advanced Remote Sensing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramelli, A.; Pasqui, M.; Barbour, J.; Kirschbaum, D.; Bottai, L.; Busillo, C.; Calastrini, F.; Guarnieri, F.; Small, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to provide a detailed characterization of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the regional and local dust source areas within the desert of the Alashan Prefecture (Inner Mongolia, China). This problem was approached through multi-scale remote sensing analysis of vegetation changes. The primary requirements for this regional analysis are high spatial and spectral resolution data, accurate spectral calibration and good temporal resolution with a suitable temporal baseline. Landsat analysis and field validation along with the low spatial resolution classifications from MODIS and AVHRR are combined to provide a reliable characterization of the different potential dust-producing sources. The representation of intra-annual and inter-annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) trend to assess land cover discrimination for mapping potential dust source using MODIS and AVHRR at larger scale is enhanced by Landsat Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA). The combined methodology is to determine the extent to which Landsat can distinguish important soils types in order to better understand how soil reflectance behaves at seasonal and inter-annual timescales. As a final result mapping soil surface properties using SMA is representative of responses of different land and soil cover previously identified by NDVI trend. The results could be used in dust emission models even if they are not reflecting aggregate formation, soil stability or particle coatings showing to be critical for accurately represent dust source over different regional and local emitting areas.

  4. Spatial analysis of drumlins within the Arran, Guelph, and Galt drumlin fields of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, John

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction of former ice conditions and glacier dynamics in previously glaciated terrains requires understanding of the processes and controls on the development of subglacial landforms such as drumlins. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of drumlins identified from digital elevation model (DEM) data within three drumlin fields in southern Ontario, Canada (the Arran, Galt and Guelph drumlin fields) formed in the Late Wisconsin by the Ontario and Georgian Bay ice lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed field description of a partially excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field provides firther insight to compliment the geomorphometric analysis. Drumlins are identified and their morphological parameters documented using a computer-based process that allows direct comparison of forms within and between individual fields. Statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics and spatial distribution of drumlins within each of the three drumlin fields, using kernel density and nearest neighbour analysis, indicates that drumlins of particular types show distinct patterns of clustering that appear to be are related to several different factors including length of time under ice, bedrock topography, and ice velocity. Sediments exposed in an excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field show a relatively undisturbed older fluvial or glaciofluvial crudely stratified sands draped by a thin veneer of coarse grained deformation till. This stratigraphy is similar to that described from modern drumlins in Iceland and is consistent with models of drumlin formation by subglacial deformation processes. The methodology of drumlin analysis can be applied to the study of any drumlin field with an adequate coverage of digital spatial data. The ability to consistently identify and characterize drumlin morphology and distribution will allow more objective and systematic comparison of these landforms both within and between

  5. Spatial analysis of residential fuelwood supply and demand patterns in Mexico using the WISDOM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A WISDOM analysis was conducted in Mexico in order to: (1) identify fuelwood (FW) hot spots in terms of residential FW use and availability of FW resources for the year 2000, and (2) estimate net CO2 emissions from the non-renewable use of FW. WISDOM (woodfuel integrated supply/demand overview mapping) is a spatially explicit method, based on geographic information system (GIS) technology, which ranks a set of spatial units according to a group of indicators, in order to identify woodfuel priority areas or woodfuel hot spots. A comprehensive analysis was conducted, integrating full coverage national data on land cover classes, land cover change maps (1993-2000), geo-referenced population censuses (1990 and 2000), and a meticulous review of the international literature and Mexican case studies. Following a spatial multi-criteria analysis, 2395 counties (out of a country total of 2424 in year 2000) were ranked based on the number, density and annual growth rate of FW users; the percentage of households that use FW; the resilience of FW consumption, and the magnitude and likely trends of FW forest resources. The WISDOM analysis allowed the identification of 304 high priority counties (HPC), which showed a spatially aggregated pattern into 16 clusters. HPC cover 4% of Mexican territory and represent 27% of total FW consumption. We estimated that 1.3TgCO2y-1 are released to the atmosphere by non-renewable FW burning, a value that represents less than 1% of Mexican total annual CO2 emissions in 2002. The results of the analysis show that WISDOM is a useful tool for both focusing resources to critical areas where action is more needed and to obtain more accurate estimates of the impacts associated to FW use. (author)

  6. A comparative analysis of two highly spatially resolved European atmospheric emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.; Tchepel, O.; Schaap, M.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.

    2013-08-01

    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling. This research performs an inter-comparative analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS - High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System - DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 × 12 km2 was used to compare the three datasets spatially. The inter-comparative analysis was performed by source sector (SNAP - Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) with emission totals for selected pollutants. It included the computation of difference maps (to focus on the spatial variability of emission differences) and a linear regression analysis to calculate the coefficients of determination and to quantitatively measure differences. From the spatial analysis, greater differences were found for residential/commercial combustion (SNAP02), solvent use (SNAP06) and road transport (SNAP07). These findings were related to the different spatial disaggregation that was conducted by the TNO and HERMES

  7. Model Interpretation of Topological Spatial Analysis for the Visually Impaired (Blind Implemented in Google Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Franco Porto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological innovations promote the availability of geographic information on the Internet through Web GIS such as Google Earth and Google Maps. These systems contribute to the teaching and diffusion of geographical knowledge that instigates the recognition of the space we live in, leading to the creation of a spatial identity. In these products available on the Web, the interpretation and analysis of spatial information gives priority to one of the human senses: vision. Due to the fact that this representation of information is transmitted visually (image and vectors, a portion of the population is excluded from part of this knowledge because categories of analysis of geographic data such as borders, territory, and space can only be understood by people who can see. This paper deals with the development of a model of interpretation of topological spatial analysis based on the synthesis of voice and sounds that can be used by the visually impaired (blind.The implementation of a prototype in Google Maps and the usability tests performed are also examined. For the development work it was necessary to define the model of topological spatial analysis, focusing on computational implementation, which allows users to interpret the spatial relationships of regions (countries, states and municipalities, recognizing its limits, neighborhoods and extension beyond their own spatial relationships . With this goal in mind, several interface and usability guidelines were drawn up to be used by the visually impaired (blind. We conducted a detailed study of the Google Maps API (Application Programming Interface, which was the environment selected for prototype development, and studied the information available for the users of that system. The prototype was developed based on the synthesis of voice and sounds that implement the proposed model in C # language and in .NET environment. To measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the prototype, usability

  8. Prospects for higher spatial resolution quantitative X-ray analysis using transition element L-lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowering electron beam kV reduces electron scattering and improves spatial resolution of X-ray analysis. However, a previous round robin analysis of steels at 5 – 6 kV using Lα-lines for the first row transition elements gave poor accuracies. Our experiments on SS63 steel using Lα-lines show similar biases in Cr and Ni that cannot be corrected with changes to self-absorption coefficients or carbon coating. The inaccuracy may be caused by different probabilities for emission and anomalous self-absorption for the La-line between specimen and pure element standard. Analysis using Lℓ(L3-M1)-lines gives more accurate results for SS63 plausibly because the M1-shell is not so vulnerable to the atomic environment as the unfilled M4,5-shell. However, Lℓ-intensities are very weak and WDS analysis may be impractical for some applications. EDS with large area SDD offers orders of magnitude faster analysis and achieves similar results to WDS analysis with Lα-lines but poorer energy resolution precludes the use of Lℓ-lines in most situations. EDS analysis of K-lines at low overvoltage is an alternative strategy for improving spatial resolution that could give higher accuracy. The trade-off between low kV versus low overvoltage is explored in terms of sensitivity for element detection for different elements

  9. An Analysis of Spatial Clustering and Implications for Wildlife Management: A Burrowing Owl Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Trulio, Lynne A.; Biging, Gregory S.; Chromczak, Debra

    2007-03-01

    Analysis tools that combine large spatial and temporal scales are necessary for efficient management of wildlife species, such as the burrowing owl ( Athene cunicularia). We assessed the ability of Ripley’s K-function analysis integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) to determine changes in burrowing owl nest clustering over two years at NASA Ames Research Center. Specifically, we used these tools to detect changes in spatial and temporal nest clustering before, during, and after conducting management by mowing to maintain low vegetation height at nest burrows. We found that the scale and timing of owl nest clustering matched the scale and timing of our conservation management actions over a short time frame. While this study could not determine a causal link between mowing and nest clustering, we did find that Ripley’s K and GIS were effective in detecting owl nest clustering and show promise for future conservation uses.

  10. The System of Teacher Education Management in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chychuk Antonina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of teacher education management, namely, forms and principles of teacher education management according to the normative base (Education Reform Act (1988; Education Act (1992; 1993; 1996; 1997; 2002; School Standards and Framework Act (1998; Higher Education Act (2004, etc., monitoring and participation of the public in its management have been analyzed. It has been proved that lately the democratization process in British education management has been combined with the increased attention of the state to monitoring, requirements to appropriate activity of educational establishments and trends seem to be forward education quality enhancing, democratization of evaluation, monitoring and information providing processes. Changes in education management in the historical context have been considered. The organizations participating in education management in Great Britain have been outlined. The data has been presented that enabled to distinguish similarities and differences in the functioning of the organizations participating in education management in Great Britain and ensure the existing of independent management authorities within them.

  11. The economic failure of nuclear power in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henney, A.

    1990-01-01

    Claims made about the economics of nuclear power have been misleading. The history and political framework within which nuclear power has developed in Britain are explained so that those claims can be understood. The main factors affecting the development of nuclear power in Britain have been military requirements, national pride, the hope of cheap electricity and concern about the security of fuel supplies. Variations in the official view of the economics of Magnox reactors are used to illustrate changes in the government attitude to nuclear power economics. Other factors - the 'oil crisis' of the 1970's the miners' strike, the accident at Three Mile Island and methods of accounting are all shown to influence this attitude. At the Hinkley Point C Inquiry the Central Electricity Generating Board conceded that nuclear power was not economic a position recognised by the government in the non-privatisation of nuclear power. (UK).

  12. THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN AS IT REALLY WAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolls Royce Rolls Royce Magazine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago the Battle of Britain was fought in the skies over southern England, Historians have analysed the Battle in detail, and as a result some of its mystique has been torn away. For example, the RAF's claim that 185 German aircraft were shot down on 15 September 1940 was highly inaccurate; in fact the Luftwaffe lost only about 60 bombers and fighters on that day. But there are some certainties: The Battle was Hitler's first major reverse in the 1939-45 war, and it meant that Britain did not go the way of the countries in continental Europe which had been conquered in 1939 and in 1940 . It was a very close thing. The Royal Air Force was helped by good equipment, radar, the benefit of fighting over home territory, and German errors.

  13. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  14. A spatial analysis of private well water Escherichia coli contamination in southern Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Krolik; Allison Maier; Gerald Evans; Paul Belanger; Geoffrey Hall; Alan Joyce; Anna Majury

    2013-01-01

    Research to date has provided limited insight into the complexity of water-borne pathogen transmission. Private well water supplies have been identified as a significant pathway in infectious disease transmission in both the industrialised and the developing world. Using over 90,000 private well water submission records representing approximately 30,000 unique well locations in south-eastern Ontario, Canada, a spatial analysis was performed in order to delineate clusters with elevated risk of...

  15. Statistical and spatial analysis of forest fire ignition points: a study case in South of France

    OpenAIRE

    Lampin, C.; Jappiot, M.; Morge, D.; Vennetier, M.

    2006-01-01

    In south of France, the forest fire origin is mainly due to human activities. It represents 96 % of the fire causes. A study concerning spatial distribution of past fire ignition points was performed trying to point out areas where the fire ignition is important, in order to know. the repartition of ignition points and to model its distribution. A statistical data analysis, at a French area level, has allowed to relate ignition point density with global indicators of human activity and to dev...

  16. A Wave-Spectrum Analysis of Urban Population Density: Entropy, Fractal, and Spatial Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Yanguang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The method of spectral analysis is employed to research the spatial dynamics of urban population distribution. First of all, the negative exponential model is derived in a new way by using an entropy-maximizing idea. Then an approximate scaling relation between wave number and spectral density is derived by Fourier transform of the negative exponential model. The theoretical results suggest the locality of urban population activities. So the principle of entropy maximization can be utilized t...

  17. The spatial metaphor of Utopia in Russian culture and in analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivinsky, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    The spatial metaphor of Utopia is considered from a Jungian perspective along with its role in Russian culture and in analysis. Such post-Jungian concepts as the cultural complex and the archetypal story pattern of a victim are used in considering the desperate longing for a rescuer in patients' narratives and in Russian society. A clinical vignette is provided to illustrate these ideas. PMID:24467352

  18. Frames of reference for helicopter electronic maps - The relevance of spatial cognition and componential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Kelly; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-generated map displays for NOE and low-level helicopter flight were formed according to prior research on maps, navigational problem solving, and spatial cognition in large-scale environments. The north-up map emphasized consistency of object location, wheareas, the track-up map emphasized map-terrain congruency. A component analysis indicates that different cognitive components, e.g., orienting and absolute object location, are supported to varying degrees by properties of different frames of reference.

  19. Wavelet analysis of location and intensity of spatial rhythms in hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Anastasia I.; Postnikov, Eugene B.

    2013-10-01

    Hippocampal formation is responsible for the memory processes and spatial navigation; however, underlaying mechanisms and firing location of specific neuronal cells are still poorly investigated. We propose the wavelet analysis for the description of generation of polyrhythmic signals in the human hippocampal system. We analyze experimental data obtained earlier in hippocampal shearers. This method allows comparing with the simple Fourier method to investigate firing patterns in details, namely, to characterize their location and firing intensity.

  20. Analysis and directions for spatial organization of allotment gardening in the area of Municipatity of Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Potrebuješ, Urška

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we studied the surface areas of urban allotment gardens in municipality of Ljubljana. The analysis includes all areas of municipality Ljubljana, where urban gardening activity occurs. Based on the digital ortofoto (DOF) images from 2010 we made a map, showing the surface areas of allotment gardening in municipality of Ljubljana. This was compared with gardening areas that were analyzed in 1984, 1995 and 2006, and the planed areas of municipal spatial plan of municipalit...

  1. Land Use Change and Its Determinant Factors in Northern Laos: Spatial and Socio-economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Southavilay Boundeth; Teruaki Nanseki; Shigeyoshi Takeuchi; Tetsuo SATHO

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study ar...

  2. Spatial analysis of dynamic movements of Vélo'v, Lyon's shared bicycle program

    OpenAIRE

    Borgnat, Pierre; Fleury, Eric; Robardet, Céline; Scherrer, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Public transportation systems like Lyon's bicycle community sharing program can be considered as a complex system composed of interconnected stations that exchange bicycles. Such system generates digital footprints that reveals the activity in the city over time and space and make possible their analyze. In this paper, the analysis deals with the spatial understanding and visualization of bicycle trips. We first study the activity in each station separately and then identify the main characte...

  3. Space for people and their stuff. Intra-site spatial analysis of settlement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sommer, U.; Květina, Petr

    Zadar: University of Zadar, 2007. s. 76-77. ISBN 978-953-7237-25-7. [European Association of Archaeologists Annual Meeting /13./. 18.09.2007–23.09.2007, Zadar] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Intra-site spatial analysis * refuse management * settlement Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Networks in Berlin’s Music Industry – A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mundelius, Marco; Hertzsch, Wencke

    2005-01-01

    In addition to a distinct regional concentration of the branch in a few, large metropolitan areas in Germany, Berlin shows inner-city (inner-regional) concentrations of the music industry and its players linked with the value chain as well as branch-relevant institutions. By means of a written survey of companies in the media and IT industries in Berlin and Brandenburg plus expert interviews, an analysis of the Berlin music branch, regarding its spatial as well as organizational concentration...

  5. A perturbation analysis of a mechanical model for stable spatial patterning in embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentil, D. E.; Murray, J. D.

    1992-12-01

    We investigate a mechanical cell-traction mechanism that generates stationary spatial patterns. A linear analysis highlights the model's potential for these heterogeneous solutions. We use multiple-scale perturbation techniques to study the evolution of these solutions and compare our solutions with numerical simulations of the model system. We discuss some potential biological applications among which are the formation of ridge patterns, dermatoglyphs, and wound healing.

  6. My trip to Britain,my greatest inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉瑜

    2015-01-01

    During a summer vacation I went to Britain to visit our sister school there with the teachers and students delegation in our school for a cross-cultural communication trip and we stayed there for about a month.What I saw and experienced during the trip broadened my horizon and had a great effect on me and it’s really a wonderful and unforgettable experience in my life.

  7. Transracial adoption in Britain: Politics, ideology and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Barn, Ravinder; Kirton, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Transracial adoptions by white parents are situated at the intersections of family and public policy. Debates on racial integration are juxtaposed with child rights and the private sphere of the family. In Britain, the practices of transracial adoption and 'racial matching' continue to invite fierce debate and discussion. Several factors, including the ongoing disproportionate representation of minority ethnic children in the public care system, the 'unavailability' of suitable minority ethni...

  8. RIVPACS III - Great Britain (Beta release version) User manual

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, R; Wright, J. F.; Furse, M.T.; Moss, D.

    1997-01-01

    This manual and the associated software are essentially the samas the version of RIVPACS III developed by the Institute of Freshwater Ecology in 1995 for use in England and Wales by the National Rivers Authority (now the Environment Agency) and in Scotland by the Scottish River Purification Boards (now Scottish EnvironmentProtection Agency). This version lacks the section relating to Northern Ireland and should therefore only be used within Great Britain

  9. Neither Scotland nor England : Middle Britain, c.850–1150

    OpenAIRE

    McGuigan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In and around the 870s, Britain was transformed dramatically by the campaigns and settlements of the Great Army and its allies. Some pre-existing political communities suffered less than others, and in hindsight the process helped Scotland and England achieve their later positions. By the twelfth century, the rulers of these countries had partitioned the former kingdom of Northumbria. This thesis is about what happened in the intervening period, the fate of Northumbria’s political structur...

  10. Employment opportunities and pre-marital births in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Ermisch, John

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, nearly two-fifths of births in Britain were outside marriage. This study estimates the impact of employment opportunities in the local labour market on the probability that a childless never married woman has a birth outside marriage. It uses the unemployment rate in the travel-to-work area in which the woman lives as the indicator of employment opportunities. The estimates indicate poorer employment opportunities increase the pre-marital first birth rate and discourage union formation.

  11. Social mobility and the importance of networks: evidence for Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Marcenaro Gutierrez, Oscar; Micklewright, John; Vignoles, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Greater levels of social mobility are widely seen as desirable on grounds of both equity and efficiency. Debate on social mobility in Britain and elsewhere has recently focused on specific factors that might hinder social mobility, including the role of internships and similar employment opportunities that parents can sometimes secure for their children. We address the help that parents give their children in the job market using data from the new age 42 wave of the 1970 British Cohort Study....

  12. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Beaujouan, Éva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979–2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marr...

  13. Contested landscapes: the moral geographies of light pollution in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Dunnett, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of light pollution and its connections to moral geographies of landscape in Britain. The paper aims to provide a greater understanding of light pollution in the present day, where the issue connects to policy debates about energy efficiency, crime, health, ecology and night time aesthetics, whilst also engaging with new areas of research in cultural geography. The main sources of investigation are the Campaign to Protect Rural England and the British Astronomi...

  14. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer Ahmed; Haralambos Mouratidis; David Preston

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s ...

  15. Genotypic variation in Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R F; Lindley, A. R.; Copas, A; Ambrose, H. E.; Davies, R J O; Wakefield, A E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pneumocystis jirovecii is the cause of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunosuppressed humans. Asymptomatic colonisation with P jirovecii may occur in patients with minor immunosuppression or chronic lung disease. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of P jirovecii in Britain over a period of 12.5 years.Methods: Between January 1989 and July 2001 161 samples of P jirovecii were obtained from patients with PCP (n = 119), patients colonised by P jiroveci...

  16. Modernisation and the New Left in sixties Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Goldie, Christopher Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the relationship between the New Left and modernisation, and to suggest that modernisation provides a powerful means of understanding the underlying dynamics of Britain's history in the 1960s. This relationship is understood in terms of a politics of space. The New Left is defined broadly for this purpose as a movement emerging from the dislocating experiences of social, cultural and physical mobility in the postwar period. What is termed the 'modernisatio...

  17. Nuclear deterrent cooperation involving Britain, France, and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Funtanilla, Neil E.

    1998-01-01

    To construct a political union with an autonomous Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), the European Union (EU) must "sooner or later" address the integration of the British and French deterrents within a credible West European nuclear consultation arrangement. However, there exists little consensus among Britain, France, and Germany on the creation of a European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI), much less the "course and speed" of integration within the EU. Indeed, the "conflict and...

  18. Commercial and Sublime: Popular Astronomy Lectures in Nineteenth Century Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, H-F

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses the practitioners, sites, curriculums, apparatus and audiences of popular astronomy lecturing in nineteenth-century Britain. Lecturers who were active approximately between 1820 and 1860 are the focus. This thesis emphasises popularisers who were not scientific elites, including C. H. Adams (1803-1871), George Bartley (c. 1782-1858), and D. F. Walker (1778-1865). Activities of private popularisers are compared with those in scientific establishments, such as the Royal In...

  19. Wage effects from changes in local human capital in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplanis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the wage effects arising from changing local human capital in the labour market areas of Britain. Employing wage regressions, it is found that individuals’ wages are positively associated with changes in the employment shares of high-paid occupation workers in the British travel-to-work-areas for the late 1990s. I examine this positive association for different occupational groups (defined by pay) in order to disentangle between production function and consumer demand driv...

  20. Why Did the Industrial Revolution Start in Britain?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Neuss, Leif

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to provide an integrated overview of the literature devoted to identifying the causes of the British industrial revolution. Why did the industrial revolution, a fascinating and multifaceted event which brought about modern economic growth, occur in eighteenth-century Britain? This question has animated a lot of discussions among scholars and is still nowadays heatedly debated in the literature. This debate is reflected in the large spectrum of theories which aim...

  1. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  2. Cities and Regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Arcaute, E.; Molinero, C.; Hatna, E.; Murcio, R.; Vargas-Ruiz, C.; Masucci, P.; M Batty

    2015-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and ...

  3. Detection of Theileria luwenshuni in sheep from Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, L. Paul; Hernández-Triana, Luis M.; Goharriz, Hooman; Welchman, David; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites of the Phylum Apicomplexa, Order Piroplasmida that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In Great Britain, Theileria spp. have been reported from livestock associated with transmission by the tick Haemaphysalis punctata. However, these reports have not been associated with disease. This study has investigated the cause of a disease outbreak accompanied by mortality in a flock of sheep grazing reclaimed marshland in north...

  4. Personality Variables affect Cooperative Behaviour in Britain and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tuson, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken in examining the relationship of personality variables on cooperation levels. Studies have not yet examined the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality dimensions, but instead cooperation's associations with type-A personality and sensation seeking (Boone, De Brabander & van Witteloostuijn, 1999). To test the hypotheses about the nature of the FFM personality on cooperative behaviour, subjects from Britain and Malaysia played either the dictator game (DG) or th...

  5. Gender inequality and female political participation in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bartolomeo Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to study the rationale of women’ political participation in Great Britain. In particular, we focus on the impact of family orientations about gender inequalities as people’s attitudes can often predict behavior patterns; we also consider other factors related to gender issues, e.g. employment status, job satisfaction and household structure. Specifically, by using the British Household Panel Survey, we evaluate the impact of these determinants on the transition of women from a...

  6. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  7. Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchflower, David G.; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    The standard of living in the industrialized nations has been steadily increasing over the last few decades. Yet some observers wonder whether we are really getting any happier. This paper addresses that question by examining well-being data on 100,000 randomly sampled Americans and Britons from the early 1970s to the late 1990s. Reported levels of happiness have declined over the period in the United States. Life satisfaction has been approximately flat through time in Great Britain. Counter...

  8. Attitudes to age in Britain 2004-08

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Dominic; Eilola, Tiina M.; Swift, Hannah J.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of Britain's ageing population an important challenge is how to respond to people's assumptions and expectations about age and ageing. Attitudes to age can affect people of all ages, and involve people's views both of themselves and of others. These attitudes have important implications for individual well-being, for age equality and for social cohesion. Understanding attitudes to age is essential if we are to develop appropriate strategies for an ageing population. This resear...

  9. Corporate Ownership, Control, and Firm Performance in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long debated whether ownership structure matters for firm performance. The standard view with respect to Victorian Britain is that family-controlled companies had a detrimental effect on operating profit and shareholder value. Here, we examine this view using a hand-collected corporate ownership dataset. Our main finding is that it was not necessarily the broad structure of corporate ownership that mattered for performance, but whether family blockholders had a governance role. ...

  10. Britain at CERN, from 12 to 14 November 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-seven companies presented their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition from 12 to 14 November. British industry exhibited products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects were cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition was organised by BEAMA, the Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations.

  11. The problem of overskilling in Australia and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromaras, Kostas; Mcguinness, Seamus; O'Leary, Nigel C.; Sloane, Peter J.; Fok, Yi King

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the parallel trends in education and labour market developments in Australia and Britain. It uses unique information in the WERS and HILDA surveys on reported overskilling in the workplace. To a degree, the overskilling information overcomes the problem of unobserved ability differences and focuses on the actual job-employee mismatch more than the conventional overeducation variables can. The paper finds that the prevalence of overskilling decreases with education at least...

  12. Britain in bloom? A study into Chinese tourists’ experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Z; He, G.; Vlachos, I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine Chinese tourists’ experience of Britain based on a conceptual model of tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty, and to identify key issues that tourism organisations could address to provide an excellent experience for Chinese tourists. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in collaboration with a tour operator; and 275 valid responses were received. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for data ...

  13. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Zibo City, China, 2009-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is highly endemic in mainland China, where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Zibo City is one of the most serious affected areas in Shandong Province China with the HFRS incidence increasing sharply from 2009 to 2012. However, the hotspots of HFRS in Zibo remained unclear. Thus, a spatial analysis was conducted with the aim to explore the spatial, spatial-temporal and seasonal patterns of HFRS in Zibo from 2009 to 2012, and to provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. METHODS: The study was based on the reported cases of HFRS from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Annualized incidence maps and seasonal incidence maps were produced to analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of HFRS in Zibo City. Then spatial scan statistics and space-time scan statistics were conducted to identify clusters of HFRS. RESULTS: There were 200 cases reported in Zibo City during the 4-year study period. One most likely cluster and one secondary cluster for high incidence of HFRS were identified by the space-time analysis. And the most likely cluster was found to exist at Yiyuan County in October to December 2012. The human infections in the fall and winter reflected a seasonal characteristic pattern of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The secondary cluster was detected at the center of Zibo in May to June 2009, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. CONCLUSION: To control and prevent HFRS in Zibo city, the comprehensive preventive strategy should be implemented in the southern areas of Zibo in autumn and in the northern areas of Zibo in spring.

  14. Spatial and temporal statistical analysis of a ground-water level network, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.D.; Sonenshein, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to evaluate the spatial and temporal statistics of a continuous ground-water level recorder network in Broward County, Florida. Because the Broward County network is sparse for most spatial statistics, a technique has been developed to define polygons for each well that represent the area monitored by the well within specified criteria. The boundaries of these "confidence polygons" are defined by the endpoints of radial lines oriented toward the other wells. The lengths of these lines are determined as the statistically estimated distances to the points at which ground-water levels can be predicted within specirfied criteria. The confidence polygons indicate: (1) the areal coverage of the network, (2) locations where data are unavailable, and (3) areas of redundant data collection. Comparison with data from a noncontinuous recorder well indicates that the confidence polygons are a good represen- tation of areal coverages. The temporal analysis utilizes statistical techniques similar to those used in the spatial method, defining variations in time rather than in space. Consequently, instead of defining radial distances to points, time intervals are defined over which water-level values can be predicted within a specified confidence. These "temporal confidence intervals" correspond to maximum allowable periods between field measure- ments. To combine all results from the analyses, a single coefficient reflecting the spatial and temporal results has been developed. The coefficient is referred to as the Spatial and Temporal Adequacy and Redundancy Evaluation (STARE) and is determined by three factors: the size of the confidence polygon, the number of times the well is part of a redundant pair, and the temporal confidence interval. This coefficient and the individual results of each analysis are used in evaluating the present network and determining future management decisions.

  15. The economic impacts of a submarine HVDC interconnection between Norway and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we analyze the profitability of different HVDC interconnection alternatives between Norway and Great Britain for present and future scenarios. The analysis is done from a merchant and a social welfare perspective. The analyses include interconnections between Norway and Scotland and Southern Great Britain, respectively, as well as an alternative link to a future offshore wind farm. From a social welfare perspective the northern interconnection alternative is profitable under all sets of assumptions. The southern alternative is profitable under present conditions, but less than the northern alternative. The alternative link to the offshore wind park is not profitable, but this result is highly dependent on market conditions. From a merchant perspective none of the alternatives is profitable, clearly illustrating that leaving investments to commercial parties does not realize all projects that increase social welfare. - Highlights: • Profitability of interconnection between Norway and GB is analyzed using simulation. • The Northern alternative increases social welfare under all assumptions. • None of the alternatives is profitable from a merchant perspective. • A link to a prospective wind farm 200 km from the GB coast is not profitable. • Social welfare increasing infrastructure may not be built on commercial conditions

  16. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  17. Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Doreena; Juahir, Hafizan; Latif, Mohd Talib; Zain, Sharifuddin M.; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to investigate possible sources of air pollutants and the spatial patterns within the eight selected Malaysian air monitoring stations based on a two-year database (2008-2009). The multivariate analysis was applied on the dataset. It incorporated Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) to access the spatial patterns, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the major sources of the air pollution and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to assess the percentage contribution of each air pollutant. The HACA results grouped the eight monitoring stations into three different clusters, based on the characteristics of the air pollutants and meteorological parameters. The PCA analysis showed that the major sources of air pollution were emissions from motor vehicles, aircraft, industries and areas of high population density. The MLR analysis demonstrated that the main pollutant contributing to variability in the Air Pollutant Index (API) at all stations was particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10). Further MLR analysis showed that the main air pollutant influencing the high concentration of PM10 was carbon monoxide (CO). This was due to combustion processes, particularly originating from motor vehicles. Meteorological factors such as ambient temperature, wind speed and humidity were also noted to influence the concentration of PM10.

  18. Spatial-Temporal Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Mainland China: An Analysis Based on Bayesian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the spatial-temporal interaction effect within a Bayesian framework and to probe the ecological influential factors for tuberculosis. Methods: Six different statistical models containing parameters of time, space, spatial-temporal interaction and their combination were constructed based on a Bayesian framework. The optimum model was selected according to the deviance information criterion (DIC value. Coefficients of climate variables were then estimated using the best fitting model. Results: The model containing spatial-temporal interaction parameter was the best fitting one, with the smallest DIC value (−4,508,660. Ecological analysis results showed the relative risks (RRs of average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity, and air pressure were 1.00324 (95% CI, 1.00150–1.00550, 1.01010 (95% CI, 1.01007–1.01013, 0.83518 (95% CI, 0.93732–0.96138, 0.97496 (95% CI, 0.97181–1.01386, and 1.01007 (95% CI, 1.01003–1.01011, respectively. Conclusions: The spatial-temporal interaction was statistically meaningful and the prevalence of tuberculosis was influenced by the time and space interaction effect. Average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and air pressure influenced tuberculosis. Average humidity had no influence on tuberculosis.

  19. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of the Economic and Environmental Coordination Development Degree in Liaoning Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study selects 20 indices of economic and environmental conditions over 15 years (1996–2010 for 14 cities in Liaoning province, China. We calculate the economic score and environmental score of each city by processing 4200 data points through SPSS 16.0 and establish synthesis functions between the economy and the environment. For the time dimension, we study the temporal evolution of the economic and environmental coordination development degree . Based on Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA techniques and using GeoDa, we calculate Moran's index of local spatial autocorrelation and explore the spatial distribution character of in Liaoning province through a LISA cluster map. As we found in the temporal dimension, the results show that of the 14 cities has been rising for 15 years and that increases year by year, which indicates that the economic and environmental coordination development condition has been improving from disorder to highly coordinated. A smaller gap between economic strength and environmental carrying capacity in Liaoning province exists, which means that economic development and environmental protection remain synchronized. In the spatial dimension, the highly coordinated cities have changed from a scattering to a concentration in the middle-south region of Liaoning province. Poorly coordinated cities are scattered in the northwestern region of Liaoning province.

  20. Rural tourism spatial distribution based on multi-criteria decision analysis and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxian; Yang, Qingsheng

    2008-10-01

    To study spatial distribution of rural tourism can provide scientific decision basis for developing rural economics. Traditional ways of tourism spatial distribution have some limitations in quantifying priority locations of tourism development on small units. They can only produce the overall tourism distribution locations and whether locations are suitable to tourism development simply while the tourism develop ranking with different decision objectives should be considered. This paper presents a way to find ranking of location of rural tourism development in spatial by integrating multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geography information system (GIS). In order to develop country economics with inconvenient transportation, undeveloped economy and better tourism resource, these locations should be firstly develop rural tourism. Based on this objective, the tourism develop priority utility of each town is calculated with MCDA and GIS. Towns which should be first develop rural tourism can be selected with higher tourism develop priority utility. The method is used to find ranking of location of rural tourism in Ningbo City successfully. The result shows that MCDA is an effective way for distribution rural tourism in spatial based on special decision objectives and rural tourism can promote economic development.

  1. Spatial analysis of internal migration by districts in Turkey: 1995-2000 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yakar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 While entering 21st century, both the population and population mobility have increased considerably in Turkey. This phenomenon occurs in parallel with social change is caused by internal migration as well as population movements, without changing residence. The internal migrations are seen by the increasing size and the spatial distribution pattern. The aim of the study is to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of the internal migrations of Turkey by  county during 1995-2000 period. County-wide study of internal migration data county suggests more detailed and reliable results than those of provinces. According to the spatial analysis, internal migration in Turkey and the decomposition of assembly areas have been identified. In addition, effects of internal migration on population growth was determined by its spatial distribution. As a result, internal migrations in Turkey have varied by districts’ characteristics such as underdeveloped-developed, rural-urban, east-west, coastal-inland as well as other local and regional dynamics.             

  2. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B M; van Bruggen, A H; Subbarao, K V; Pennings, G G

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT The epidemiology of lettuce downy mildew has been investigated extensively in coastal California. However, the spatial patterns of the disease and the distance that Bremia lactucae spores can be transported have not been determined. During 1995 to 1998, we conducted several field- and valley-scale surveys to determine spatial patterns of this disease in the Salinas valley. Geostatistical analyses of the survey data at both scales showed that the influence range of downy mildew incidence at one location on incidence at other locations was between 80 and 3,000 m. A linear relationship was detected between semivariance and lag distance at the field scale, although no single statistical model could fit the semi-variograms at the valley scale. Spatial interpolation by the inverse distance weighting method with a power of 2 resulted in plausible estimates of incidence throughout the valley. Cluster analysis in geographic information systems on the interpolated disease incidence from different dates demonstrated that the Salinas valley could be divided into two areas, north and south of Salinas City, with high and low disease pressure, respectively. Seasonal and spatial trends along the valley suggested that the distinction between the downy mildew conducive and nonconducive areas might be determined by environmental factors. PMID:18944386

  3. Traditional acupuncturists and higher education in Britain: the dual, paradoxical impact of biomedical alignment on the holistic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Assaf; Hatton, Kieron

    2015-04-01

    Traditional acupuncturists' quest for external legitimacy in Britain involves the standardization of their knowledge bases through the development of training schools and syllabi, formal educational structures, and, since the 1990s, the teaching of undergraduate courses within (or validated by) Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), a process which entails biomedical alignment of the curriculum. However, as holistic discourses were commonly used as a rhetorical strategy by CAM practitioners to distance themselves from biomedicine and as a source of public appeal, this 'mainstreaming' process evoked practitioners' concerns that their holistic claims are being compromised. An additional challenge is being posed by a group of academics and scientists in Britain who launched an attack on CAM courses taught in HEIs, accusing them of being 'unscientific' and 'non-academic' in nature. This paper explores the negotiation of all these challenges during the formalization of traditional acupuncture education in Britain, with a particular focus on the role of HEIs. The in-depth qualitative investigation draws on several data sets: participant observation in a university validated acupuncture course; in-depth interviews; and documentary analysis. The findings show how, as part of the formalization process, acupuncturists in Britain (re)negotiate their holistic, anti-reductionist discourses and claims in relation to contemporary societal, political and cultural forces. Moreover, the teaching and validation of acupuncture courses by HEIs may contribute to broadening acupuncturists' 'holistic awareness' of societal and cultural influences on individuals' and communities' ill-health. This investigation emphasises the dynamic and context-specific (rather than fixed and essentialized) nature of acupuncture practice and knowledge. PMID:25779622

  4. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and

  5. An Analysis on the Spatial Distribution of Population Aging Pressure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangWangzhou; Dong Suocheng; Wu Youde; Luo Renbo

    2012-01-01

    Based on comprehensive analysis of the impact of population aging to social and economic development, a comprehensive evaluation system including 18 indexes was constructed for evaluating regional pressure of population aging on social and economic development. Using statistics data of 31 regions in Chi- na from 2004 to 2008, the pressure of population aging on social and economic development, was comprehensively evaluated by using the factor analysis method. The spatial distribution of popu- lation aging in China was also analyzed. This study is to provide scientific basis for government to make strategies of coping with population aging according to regional pressure of population ag- ing on social and economic development in China.

  6. STUDY ON TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND SPATIAL RESORT ANALYSIS BY BRAN BRASOV COUNTY TOURIST TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Cristina HONTUŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an analysis of tourism and mountain tourism trends nationally and internationally, the degree of capitalization of the mountain tourism in Romania, focusing on assessment of tourism in mountain tourist resort Bran, Brasov. The research study is to study the spatial tourist mountain resort of Bran. The objective of this study consists of analysis of tourist traffic at the county level and at the resort. To perform this study we used a series of documents provided by the Municipality representatives Bran on tourism and tourist traffic statistics on the county level and at the boarding house.

  7. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: I. spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of strongly weathered soils under sugarcane and soybean/wheat rotation was quantitatively assessed on 33 fields in two regions in São Paulo State, Brazil: Araras (15 fields with sugarcane and Assis (11 fields with sugarcane and seven fields with soybean/wheat rotation. Statistical methods used were: nested analysis of variance (for 11 fields, semivariance analysis and analysis of variance within and between fields. Spatial levels from 50 m to several km were analyzed. Results are discussed with reference to a previously published study carried out in the surroundings of Passo Fundo (RS. Similar variability patterns were found for clay content, organic C content and cation exchange capacity. The fields studied are quite homogeneous with respect to these relatively stable soil characteristics. Spatial variability of other characteristics (resin extractable P, pH, base- and Al-saturation and also soil colour, varies with region and, or land use management. Soil management for sugarcane seems to have induced modifications to greater depths than for soybean/wheat rotation. Surface layers of soils under soybean/wheat present relatively little variation, apparently as a result of very intensive soil management. The major part of within-field variation occurs at short distances (< 50 m in all study areas. Hence, little extra information would be gained by increasing sampling density from, say, 1/km² to 1/50 m². For many purposes, the soils in the study regions can be mapped with the same observation density, but residual variance will not be the same in all areas. Bulk sampling may help to reveal spatial patterns between 50 and 1.000 m.

  8. When did Britain industrialise? The sectoral distribution of the labour force and labour productivity in Britain, 1381-1851

    OpenAIRE

    Broadberry, Stephen N; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Britain's labour force industrialised early. The industrial and service sectors already accounted for 40% of the labour force in 1381, and a substantial further shift of labour out of agriculture occurred between 1522 and 1700. From the early seventeenth century rising agricultural labour productivity underpinned steadily increasing employment in industry and services, so that by 1759 agriculture's share of the labour force had shrunk to 37% and industry's grown to 34%. Thereafter, industry's...

  9. Public relations, political communications and national news production in Britain 1979-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Aeron

    2000-01-01

    This study looks at the recent rise of the public relations profession and its influence on national news production in Britain. Simply put, has public relations undermined the notion of the fourth estate media in Britain and has it advantaged certain kinds of news source over others? The thesis breaks down into three parts. The first part documents the rise of public relations in Britain, its profile, and distribution amongst a range of institutions and organisations. The d...

  10. A tale of two countries: unions, closures and growth in Britain and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Dale-Olsen, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Using linked private sector employer-employee panel data for Britain and Norway we explore the effects of unionization on workplace closure and employment growth over the period 1997-2004. Unions prolonged the life of low-wage workplaces in Britain, whereas Norwegian unions increased (reduced) closure hazards in high (low) waged workplaces. Contrary to earlier studies, unions had no effect on workplace growth in Britain. In Norway, union workplaces experienced 4 percent per annum lower growth...

  11. The National Landslide Database and GIS for Great Britain: construction, development, data acquisition, application and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Dashwood, Claire; Freeborough, Katy

    2014-05-01

    The National Landslide Database has been developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 16,500 records of landslide events, each documented as fully as possible. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and crowd-sourcing information through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domain map currently under development rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures and an understanding of causative factors and their spatial distribution, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and climate. Daily reports of landslide potential are published by BGS through the NHP and data collected for the National Landslide Database is used widely for the creation of these assessments. The National Landslide Database is freely available via an online GIS and is used by a

  12. Spatial and temporal variabilities of rainfall data using functional data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2016-03-01

    The main concern of this study is to build a functional data object from discrete rainfall observations by looking at how rainfall fluctuates, both spatially and temporally, in the form of smoothing curves. The functional data methods employed in this study are able to extract additional information contained in the function and its derivatives which may not be normally available from traditional statistical methods. Functional concepts such as functional descriptive statistics and functional analysis of variance were applied to describe the spatial and temporal rainfall variations at the stations and at any time throughout the year. This study involves 32 rainfall stations in Peninsular Malaysia and rainfall records for 32 years. Eleven basis functions were used to describe the unimodal rainfall pattern for stations in the East Peninsula, while five and seven bases were required to describe the rainfall pattern for stations in the northwest, west, southwest, and central regions of the peninsula. Based on the location and scale curves, the highest mean and the highest variability of rainfall were observed during the northeast monsoon flow. On the other hand, the concept of functional analysis of variance allows the detailed information in determining when, in a time series, differences may exist in rainfall profiles between two or more regions. In general, the findings suggested that the rainfall profiles of the regions are very dependent on their geographical and spatial locations, as well as the monsoon effect, which reflects the time of year.

  13. Geographic Information Systems, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Analysis Activities in Texas, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  14. SPATIAL GRADIENT ANALYSIS OF URBAN GREEN SPACES COMBINED WITH LANDSCAPE METRICS IN JINAN CITY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-hua; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI; YIN Hai-wei; Akira KIKUCHI

    2005-01-01

    Urban green spaces have been arisen growing concern responded to the social and environmental costs of urban sprawl. A wide range of planning and policies has been and/or will be designed to protect urban green spaces and optimize their spatial pattern. A better design or planning of urban green space can make a major contribution to quality of environment and urban life, and furthermore can decide whether we can have a sustainable development in the urban area. Information about the status quo of urban green spaces can help planners design more effectively.However, how to quantify and capture such information will be the essential question we face. In this paper, to quantify the urban green space, a new method comprising gradient analysis, landscape metrics and GIS was developed through a case of Jinan City. The results demonstrate: 1) the gradient analysis is a valid and reliable instrument to quantify the urban green space spatial pattern precisely; 2) using moving window, explicit landscape metrics were spatially realized. Compared with quantifying metrics in the entire landscape, it would be better to link pattern with process and establish an important basis for analyzing the ecological and socioeconomic functions of green spaces.

  15. Opportunities for multivariate analysis of open spatial datasets to characterize urban flooding risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, S.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.

    2015-06-01

    Cities worldwide are challenged by increasing urban flood risks. Precise and realistic measures are required to reduce flooding impacts. However, currently implemented sewer and topographic models do not provide realistic predictions of local flooding occurrence during heavy rain events. Assessing other factors such as spatially distributed rainfall, socioeconomic characteristics, and social sensing, may help to explain probability and impacts of urban flooding. Several spatial datasets have been recently made available in the Netherlands, including rainfall-related incident reports made by citizens, spatially distributed rain depths, semidistributed socioeconomic information, and buildings age. Inspecting the potential of this data to explain the occurrence of rainfall related incidents has not been done yet. Multivariate analysis tools for describing communities and environmental patterns have been previously developed and used in the field of study of ecology. The objective of this paper is to outline opportunities for these tools to explore urban flooding risks patterns in the mentioned datasets. To that end, a cluster analysis is performed. Results indicate that incidence of rainfall-related impacts is higher in areas characterized by older infrastructure and higher population density.

  16. Analysis of spatial relationships in three dimensions: tools for the study of nerve cell patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Mary A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple technologies have been brought to bear on understanding the three-dimensional morphology of individual neurons and glia within the brain, but little progress has been made on understanding the rules controlling cellular patterning. We describe new matlab-based software tools, now available to the scientific community, permitting the calculation of spatial statistics associated with 3D point patterns. The analyses are largely derived from the Delaunay tessellation of the field, including the nearest neighbor and Voronoi domain analyses, and from the spatial autocorrelogram. Results Our tools enable the analysis of the spatial relationship between neurons within the central nervous system in 3D, and permit the modeling of these fields based on lattice-like simulations, and on simulations of minimal-distance spacing rules. Here we demonstrate the utility of our analysis methods to discriminate between two different simulated neuronal populations. Conclusion Together, these tools can be used to reveal the presence of nerve cell patterning and to model its foundation, in turn informing on the potential developmental mechanisms that govern its establishment. Furthermore, in conjunction with analyses of dendritic morphology, they can be used to determine the degree of dendritic coverage within a volume of tissue exhibited by mature nerve cells.

  17. Spatial distribution and cluster analysis of sexual risk behaviors reported by young men in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Corette

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The well-established connection between HIV risk behavior and place of residence points to the importance of geographic clustering in the potential transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI. Methods To investigate the geospatial distribution of prevalent sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviors in a sample of 18-24 year-old sexually active men in urban and rural areas of Kisumu, Kenya, we mapped the residences of 649 men and conducted spatial cluster analysis. Spatial distribution of the study participants was assessed in terms of the demographic, behavioral, and sexual dysfunction variables, as well as laboratory diagnosed STIs. To test for the presence and location of clusters we used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic as implemented in the Satscan program. Results The results of this study suggest that sexual risk behaviors and STIs are evenly distributed in our sample throughout the Kisumu district. No behavioral or STI clusters were detected, except for condom use. Neither urban nor rural residence significantly impacted risk behavior or STI prevalence. Conclusion We found no association between place of residence and sexual risk behaviors in our sample. While our results can not be generalized to other populations, the study shows that geospatial analysis can be an important tool for investigating study sample characteristics; for evaluating HIV/STI risk factors; and for development and implementation of targeted HIV and STI control programs in specifically defined populations and in areas where the underlying population dynamic is poorly understood.

  18. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77-7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04-35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  19. Spatial-temporal analysis of breast cancer in upper Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The reasons for elevated breast cancer rates in the upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts remain unknown despite several epidemiological studies that investigated possible environmental risk factors. Data from two of these population-based case-control studies provide geocoded residential histories and information on confounders, creating an invaluable dataset for spatial-temporal analysis of participants' residency over five decades. Methods The combination of statistical modeling and mapping is a powerful tool for visualizing disease risk in a spatial-temporal analysis. Advances in geographic information systems (GIS enable spatial analytic techniques in public health studies previously not feasible. Generalized additive models (GAMs are an effective approach for modeling spatial and temporal distributions of data, combining a number of desirable features including smoothing of geographical location, residency duration, or calendar years; the ability to estimate odds ratios (ORs while adjusting for confounders; selection of optimum degree of smoothing (span size; hypothesis testing; and use of standard software. We conducted a spatial-temporal analysis of breast cancer case-control data using GAMs and GIS to determine the association between participants' residential history during 1947–1993 and the risk of breast cancer diagnosis during 1983–1993. We considered geographic location alone in a two-dimensional space-only analysis. Calendar year, represented by the earliest year a participant lived in the study area, and residency duration in the study area were modeled individually in one-dimensional time-only analyses, and together in a two-dimensional time-only analysis. We also analyzed space and time together by applying a two-dimensional GAM for location to datasets of overlapping calendar years. The resulting series of maps created a movie which allowed us to visualize changes in magnitude, geographic size, and

  20. A Spatial Analysis of Atmospheric Ammonia and Ammonium in the U.K.

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    M.A. Sutton

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As measures are implemented internationally to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions, attention is falling on the contribution of NH3 emissions to acidification, nitrogen eutrophication, and aerosol formation. In the U.K., a monitoring network has been established to measure the spatial distribution and long-term trends in atmospheric gaseous NH3 and aerosol NH4+. At the same time, an atmospheric chemistry and transport model, FRAME, has been developed with a focus on reduced nitrogen (NHx. The monitoring data are important to evaluate the model, while the model is essential for a more detailed spatial assessment. The national network is established with over 80 sampling locations. Measurements of NH3 and NH4+ (at up to 50 sites have been made using a new low-cost denuder-filterpack system. Additionally, improved passive sampling methods for NH3 have been applied to explore local variability. The measurements confirm the high spatial variability of NH3 (annual means 0.06 to 11 mg NH3 m�3, consistent with its nature as a primary pollutant emitted from ground-level sources, while NH4+, being a slowly formed secondary product, shows much less spatial variability (0.14 to 2.4 mg NH4+ m�3. These features are reproduced in the FRAME model, which provides estimates at a 5-km level. Analysis of the underlying NH3 emission inventory shows that sheep emissions may have been underestimated and nonagricultural sources overestimated relative to emissions from cattle. The combination of model and measurements is applied to estimate spatial patterns of dry deposition to different vegetation types. The combined approach provides the basis to assess NHx responses across the U.K. to international emission controls.

  1. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

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    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector

  2. Micro-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive subsurface analysis of turbid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, P; Conti, C; Realini, M; Colombo, C

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews a very recent field of noninvasive analysis of turbid media using micro-scale Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy - micro-SORS. The technique combines conventional SORS with microscopy concepts and represents a new imaging modality in Raman microscopy. Micro-SORS facilitates analytical capability for investigating non-destructively the chemical composition of subsurface, micrometer-scale-thick diffusely scattering layers at depths more than an order of magnitude larger than those accessible with the depth resolving power of conventional confocal Raman microscopy. Potential application areas include nondestructive subsurface analysis of painted layers in cultural heritage, characterization of stratified polymer systems, analysis of layered biological samples or forensic analysis. The article discusses the basic principles of the technique, its variants and outlines emerging applications in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26646435

  3. Analysis of three-spacecraft data using planar reciprocal vectors: methodological framework and spatial gradient estimation

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    J. Vogt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ESA's Cluster mission, four-point array techniques are widely used to analyze space plasma phenomena such as shocks and discontinuities, waves and turbulence, and spatial gradients. Due to failures of single instruments on the Cluster spacecraft fleet, there is also need for array processing of three-point measurements. In this paper we identify planar reciprocal vectors as a generic tool for this purpose. The class of three-point techniques introduced here includes methods for discontinuity analysis, wave identification, and spatial gradient determination. Parameter vectors can be resolved fully in the spacecraft plane but further assumptions or physical constraints have to be specified to estimate the normal components. We focus on the gradient estimation problem where we check and illustrate our approach using Cluster measurements.

  4. A spatial analysis of private well water Escherichia coli contamination in southern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Krolik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research to date has provided limited insight into the complexity of water-borne pathogen transmission. Private well water supplies have been identified as a significant pathway in infectious disease transmission in both the industrialised and the developing world. Using over 90,000 private well water submission records representing approximately 30,000 unique well locations in south-eastern Ontario, Canada, a spatial analysis was performed in order to delineate clusters with elevated risk of E. coli contamination using 5 years of data (2008-2012. Analyses were performed for all years independently and subsequently compared to each other. Numerous statistically significant clusters were identified and both geographic stability and variation over time were examined. Through the identification of spatial and temporal patterns, this study provides the basis for future investigations into the underlying causes of bacterial groundwater contamination, while identifying geographic regions that merit particular attention to public health interventions and improvement of water quality.

  5. Georeferenced data employed in the spatial analysis of neighborhood diversity and creative class share in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereitschaft, Bradley; Cammack, Rex

    2015-09-01

    The dataset described in this article, and made available as an accompanying spreadsheet, was used in the study entitled, "Neighborhood diversity and the creative class in Chicago," to assess the spatial associations between neighborhood diversity and the creative class at the neighborhood (i.e., census tract) scale in Chicago [1]. In this study, we found a significant positive association between the creative class and the proportion of gay households and income diversity, but not racial or linguistic diversity. However, a geographically-weighted regression (GWR) analysis demonstrated substantial spatial nonstationarity among these relationships. This article describes the creative class, diversity, and control variables, their sources, and the methods used to calculate them. *Correspondence to: Department of Geography/Geology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6001 Dodge Street, Durham Science Center 263, Omaha, NE 68182, USA. PMID:26322326

  6. Remote sensing and spatial analysis based study for detecting deforestation and the associated drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abbas, Mustafa M.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Deafalla, Taisser H.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays, remote-sensing technologies are becoming increasingly interlinked to the issue of deforestation. They offer a systematized and objective strategy to document, understand and simulate the deforestation process and its associated causes. In this context, the main goal of this study, conducted in the Blue Nile region of Sudan, in which most of the natural habitats were dramatically destroyed, was to develop spatial methodologies to assess the deforestation dynamics and its associated factors. To achieve that, optical multispectral satellite scenes (i.e., ASTER and LANDSAT) integrated with field survey in addition to multiple data sources were used for the analyses. Spatiotemporal Object Based Image Analysis (STOBIA) was applied to assess the change dynamics within the period of study. Broadly, the above mentioned analyses include; Object Based (OB) classifications, post-classification change detection, data fusion, information extraction and spatial analysis. Hierarchical multi-scale segmentation thresholds were applied and each class was delimited with semantic meanings by a set of rules associated with membership functions. Consequently, the fused multi-temporal data were introduced to create detailed objects of change classes from the input LU/LC classes. The dynamic changes were quantified and spatially located as well as the spatial and contextual relations from adjacent areas were analyzed. The main finding of the present study is that, the forest areas were drastically decreased, while the agrarian structure in conversion of forest into agricultural fields and grassland was the main force of deforestation. In contrast, the capability of the area to recover was clearly observed. The study concludes with a brief assessment of an 'oriented' framework, focused on the alarming areas where serious dynamics are located and where urgent plans and interventions are most critical, guided with potential solutions based on the identified driving forces.

  7. New image analysis method for the estimation of global and spatial changes in fruit microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczywek, Piotr M.; Cybulska, Justyna; Dyki, Barbara; Konopacka, Dorota; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Zdunek, Artur

    2016-04-01

    A new image analysis method for the spatial characterization of microscopy images of fruit microstructure is proposed in order to analyse the heterogeneous microstructure of unprocessed fruit and the possible inhomogeneous effects of various technological treatments on this microstructure. The micro-structure of tissue samples was characterized using the global statistics of size and shape parameters calculated for all visible objects. Global analysis was supported by a novel algorithm that allowed for drawing of the maps of the cell wall fraction from microscopy images and for the analysis of both global and local compaction or loosening of tissue. The spatial distribution of the cell wall fraction was visualised in the convenient form of bivariate histograms. To test the developed image analysis protocols, structural changes resulting from ultrasonic and osmotic treatments of apple tissue samples were studied. Peeled and cored apples were submersed in a liquid medium (distilled water or 60 °Bx sucrose solution) for 45 and 90 min with and without ultrasonic treatment. After these treatment procedures, tissue samples were cut into slices, stained and imaged using a microscope. The proposed method allowed to characterise the effects of different sample treatments.

  8. Spatial Data Envelopment Analysis Method for the Evaluation of Regional Infrastructure Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Galinienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to achieve a more detailed assessment of regional differences, exploring regional infrastructure and human capital usage efficiency and to display analysis capabilities of spatial data efficient frontier method.Design/methodology/approach—the data envelopment analysis (DEA is applied to find the efficient frontier, which extends the application of production function of the regions. This method of mathematical programming optimization allows assessing the effectiveness of the regional spatial aspects presented. In recent studies this method is applied for evaluating the European Union regional policy issues.Findings—the application of DEA reveals its feasibility for regional input and output studies to evaluate more detailed and more reasonable fund allocation between Lithuanian regions. This analysis shows that in the comparatively efficient Lithuanian regions, such as Vilnius and Klaipėda, “the bottleneck” of usage of transport infrastructure and regional specific human capital is reached. It is stated that decision-making units could enhance region attractiveness for private investors by improving indirect factors in these regions. For practical significance of the study the results are compared with German regional analysis, conducted by Schaffer and other researchers (2011.Practical implications—the practical value of this work is based on giving more accurate planning tools for fund allocation decisions in Lithuanian regions while planning infrastructure and human capital development. The regional indicators were analyzed for 2010.Research type—case study.

  9. Spatial Data Envelopment Analysis Method for the Evaluation of Regional Infrastructure Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Galinienė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to achieve a more detailed assessment of regional differences, exploring regional infrastructure and human capital usage efficiency and to display analysis capabilities of spatial data efficient frontier method. Design/methodology/approach—the data envelopment analysis (DEA is applied to find the efficient frontier, which extends the application of production function of the regions. This method of mathematical programming optimization allows assessing the effectiveness of the regional spatial aspects presented. In recent studies this method is applied for evaluating the European Union regional policy issues. Findings—the application of DEA reveals its feasibility for regional input and output studies to evaluate more detailed and more reasonable fund allocation between Lithuanian regions. This analysis shows that in the comparatively efficient Lithuanian regions, such as Vilnius and Klaipėda, “the bottleneck” of usage of transport infrastructure and regional specific human capital is reached. It is stated that decision-making units could enhance region attractiveness for private investors by improving indirect factors in these regions. For practical significance of the study the results are compared with German regional analysis, conducted by Schaffer and other researchers (2011. Practical implications—the practical value of this work is based on giving more accurate planning tools for fund allocation decisions in Lithuanian regions while planning infrastructure and human capital development. The regional indicators were analyzed for 2010. Research type—case study.

  10. Spatial analysis of electricity demand patterns in Greece: Application of a GIS-based methodological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate various uses of electricity demand in Greece (agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial use as well as use for public and municipal authorities and street lightning) and we examine their relation with variables such as population, total area, population density and the Gross Domestic Product. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the level of prefecture. We both visualize the results of the analysis and we perform cluster and outlier analysis using the Anselin local Moran's I statistic as well as hot spot analysis using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The definition of the spatial patterns and relationships of the aforementioned variables in a GIS environment provides meaningful insight and better understanding of the regional development model in Greece and justifies the basis for an energy demand forecasting methodology. Acknowledgement: This research has been partly financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA II: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/ or inter-institutional research and innovation (CRESSENDO project; grant number 5145).

  11. Analysis of cardiac signals using spatial filling index and time-frequency domain

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    Krishnan SM

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of heart rate variation (HRV has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. HRV analysis is based on the concept that fast fluctuations may specifically reflect changes of sympathetic and vagal activity. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions. These signals are essentially non-stationary; may contain indicators of current disease, or even warnings about impending diseases. The indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random in the time scale. However, to study and pinpoint abnormalities in voluminous data collected over several hours is strenuous and time consuming. Methods This paper presents the spatial filling index and time-frequency analysis of heart rate variability signal for disease identification. Renyi's entropy is evaluated for the signal in the Wigner-Ville and Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT domain. Results This Renyi's entropy gives lower 'p' value for scalogram than Wigner-Ville distribution and also, the contours of scalogram visually show the features of the diseases. And in the time-frequency analysis, the Renyi's entropy gives better result for scalogram than the Wigner-Ville distribution. Conclusion Spatial filling index and Renyi's entropy has distinct regions for various diseases with an accuracy of more than 95%.

  12. Measuring the impact of 3D data geometric modeling on spatial analysis: Illustration with Skyview factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasebin, M.; Perret, J.; Mustière, S.; Weber, C.

    2012-10-01

    The increased availability of 3D urban data reflects a growing interest in 3D spatial analysis. As 3D spatial analysis often uses complex 3D data, studies of the potential gains of using more detailed 3D urban databases for specific uses is an important issue. First, more complex data implies an increase in time and memory usage for the analysis (and calls for more research on the efficiency of the algorithms used). Second, detailed 3D urban data are complex to produce, expensive and it is important to be well informed in order to decide whether of not to invest in such data. Currently, many studies have been led about the fitness for use of 2D data but they are very scarce concerning 3D data. This article presents a method to determine the influence of 3D modeling on the results of 3D analysis by isolating the potential sources of errors (such as roof modeling and geometric accuracy). This method is applied on two 3D datasets (LOD1 and LOD2) and a 3D indicator (the sky view factor or SVF). The results show that the significant influence of roof modeling is globally compensated by the difference in geometric modeling but that important local variations are noticed. Nevertheless, for 75% of the SVF processed the difference between the results using these two databases is lower than 2%.

  13. Serological survey using ELISA to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep and goats in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambton, S L; Smith, R P; Gillard, K; Horigan, M; Farren, C; Pritchard, G C

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep flocks and goat herds in Great Britain was undertaken. A total of 5791 sheep (384 flocks) and 522 goats (145 herds) were examined for C. burnetii antibodies using an ELISA. Overall, 53 sheep (37 flocks), and four goats (four herds), tested positive. Estimates of individual animal, between-flock/-herd and within-flock/-herd crude prevalences were 0·9%, 10·2% and 9·0%, respectively, for sheep, and 0·8%, 3% and 26·3%, respectively, for goats. With sheep, the likelihood of an animal testing positive increased with total flock size (P = 0·002) and number of breeding ewes in the flock (P = 0·021). It also increased with number of goats within a 10 km radius (P = 0·038). There was no evidence for spatial clustering of positive herds above that expected by chance alone. No analysis of risk factors was attempted for goats because of the paucity of positives. PMID:25990008

  14. Communication and Voter Turnout in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumler, Jay G.; McLeod, Jack M.

    The "limited effect" model originated by Lazarsfeld is not sufficient for full analysis of the political influences effected by television advertisements for candidates for political office. Newer political communication research indicates that, in both British and American politics, television political commercials have eroded party loyalty, have…

  15. The use of spatial and randomisation-based methods for analysis of trials with treatments randomised into rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The effect of restricted randomisations on the validity and efficiency of using spatial model as well as more common analysis of variance methods for analysing field trials was examined by simulating yields in agricultural fields with known spatial variation and analysing those using eight...

  16. The spatial distribution of cancer incidence in fars province: A GIS-Based analysis of cancer registry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goli

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Analysis of the spatial distribution of cancer shows significant differences from year to year and between different areas. However, a clear spatial autocorrelation is observed, which can be of great interest and importance to researchers for future epidemiological studies, and to policymakers for applying preventive measures.

  17. Global Research on Artificial Intelligence from 1990–2014: Spatially-Explicit Bibliometric Analysis

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    Jiqiang Niu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we conducted the evaluation of artificial intelligence research from 1990–2014 by using bibliometric analysis. We introduced spatial analysis and social network analysis as geographic information retrieval methods for spatially-explicit bibliometric analysis. This study is based on the analysis of data obtained from database of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S. Our results revealed scientific outputs, subject categories and main journals, author productivity and geographic distribution, international productivity and collaboration, and hot issues and research trends. The growth of article outputs in artificial intelligence research has exploded since the 1990s, along with increasing collaboration, reference, and citations. Computer science and engineering were the most frequently-used subject categories in artificial intelligence studies. The top twenty productive authors are distributed in countries with a high investment of research and development. The United States has the highest number of top research institutions in artificial intelligence, producing most single-country and collaborative articles. Although there is more and more collaboration among institutions, cooperation, especially international ones, are not highly prevalent in artificial intelligence research as expected. The keyword analysis revealed interesting research preferences, confirmed that methods, models, and application are in the central position of artificial intelligence. Further, we found interesting related keywords with high co-occurrence frequencies, which have helped identify new models and application areas in recent years. Bibliometric analysis results from our study will greatly facilitate the understanding of the progress and trends in artificial intelligence, in particular, for those researchers interested in domain-specific AI-driven problem-solving. This will be

  18. Spatial Analysis of Urban Delinquency in 22 Regions of Tehran Megapolis

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    Ali Shamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpatial analysis of urban delinquency at the level of regions and providing security is one of the basic factors in optimum urban management. Spatial analysis of urban delinquency and interpretation of its distribution in different locations make it possible to organize and manage spaces. Tehran megalopolis, with 22 municipality regions had the highest rate urban delinquency in Iran in recent years. Preliminary study of documents at the department of social issues, located at police organization show that data related to urban delinquency are collected for each year. Data reflects this fact that one of the most important social and security problems in Tehran are the high number of delinquency and crime. On the basis of daily police report, about 15 to 20 house thefts occur in Tehran. This problem leads to devoting considerable amounts of budget and human resources to control and to provide security. Also, the problem of crime, individual and group fights, theft, stealing from pockets, car and motor cycle theft, social corruption specially, rape, drug and alcoholic beverages sales are the most important among urban delinquencies. Some of these problems are very important for police force, considering the political- security, social and cultural dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary to study and analyze the distribution of delinquency and its types in different regions of Tehran city. It can be considered as the first step to prevent and control urban delinquency. Therefore, these questions were answered in this research:1-How is the distribution of delinquencies in 22 municipality regions of Tehran city?2-How are the reciprocal relationships of the urban delinquencies in these 22 regions?3-What are the relations between distributions of urban delinquencies with population density in these 22 regions?To confront the problem, considering the literature review, urban delinquencies were analyzed at two spatial levels: 1- Micro

  19. Analysis of Regularly and Irregularly Sampled Spatial, Multivariate, and Multi-temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes different methods that are useful in the analysis of multivariate data. Some methods focus on spatial data (sampled regularly or irregularly), others focus on multitemporal data or data from multiple sources. The thesis covers selected and not all aspects of relevant data......, two examples of MAF kriging are given. In Chapter 3 the two-set case is extended to multiset canonical correlations analysis (MUSECC). Two new applications to change detection studies are described: one is a new orthogonal transformation, multivariate alteration detection (MAD), based on two...... analysis techniques in this context. Geostatistics is described in Chapter 1. Tools as the semivariogram, the cross-semivariogram and different types of kriging are described. As an independent re-invention 2-D sample semivariograms, cross-semivariograms and cova functions, and modelling of 2-D sample semi...

  20. GEO-VISUAL APPROACH FOR SPATIAL SCAN STATISTICS: AN ANALYSIS OF DENGUE FEVER OUTBREAKS IN DELHI

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    Shuchi Mala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are very few surveillance systems being used to detect disease outbreaks at present. In disease surveillance system, data related to cases and various risk factors are collected and then the collected data is transformed into meaningful information for effective disease control using statistical analysis tools. Disease outbreaks can be detected but for effective disease control, a visualization approach is required. Without appropriate visualization, it is very difficult to interpret the results of analysis. In this work, a method has been developed for geographical representation of the disease surveillance and response system for early detection of disease outbreaks using SaTScan and open source Geographic Information System software. Maps that combine the geographical location of diseases and clusters to enhance the understanding of results of statistical analysis tool are developed using QGIS library which provides many spatial algorithms and native GIS functions. This library is accessed through PyQGIS and PyQt using Python.