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Sample records for britain spatial analysis

  1. Spatial distribution of the active surveillance of sheep scrapie in Great Britain: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Kieran

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the spatial distribution of sampling within the active surveillance of sheep scrapie in Great Britain. We investigated the geographic distribution of the birth holdings of sheep sampled for scrapie during 2002 – 2005, including samples taken in abattoir surveys (c. 83,100 and from sheep that died in the field ("fallen stock", c. 14,600. We mapped the birth holdings by county and calculated the sampling rate, defined as the proportion of the holdings in each county sampled by the surveys. The Moran index was used to estimate the global spatial autocorrelation across Great Britain. The contributions of each county to the global Moran index were analysed by a local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA. Results The sampling rate differed among counties in both surveys, which affected the distribution of detected cases of scrapie. Within each survey, the county sampling rates in different years were positively correlated during 2002–2005, with the abattoir survey being more strongly autocorrelated through time than the fallen stock survey. In the abattoir survey, spatial indices indicated that sampling rates in neighbouring counties tended to be similar, with few significant contrasts. Sampling rates were strongly correlated with sheep density, being highest in Wales, Southwest England and Northern England. This relationship with sheep density accounted for over 80% of the variation in sampling rate among counties. In the fallen stock survey, sampling rates in neighbouring counties tended to be different, with more statistically significant contrasts. The fallen stock survey also included a larger proportion of holdings providing many samples. Conclusion Sampling will continue to be uneven unless action is taken to make it more uniform, if more uniform sampling becomes a target. Alternatively, analyses of scrapie occurrence in these datasets can take account of the distribution of sampling. Combining

  2. Classical sheep scrapie in Great Britain: spatial analysis and identification of environmental and farm-related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río Vilas Victor J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggest that the spatial distribution of classical sheep scrapie in Great Britain is uneven and that certain flock characteristics may be associated with occurrence of the disease. However, the existence of areas of high and low disease-risk may also result from differences in the spatial distribution of environmental characteristics. In this study we explored the spatial pattern of classical scrapie in Great Britain between 2002 and 2005 and investigated the association between disease occurrence and various environmental and farm-related risk factors. Results Exploratory spatial analysis: South Wales was found to have a higher density of scrapie-positive farms than the rest of Great Britain. In addition, a small cluster of high-risk farms was identified in the center of this region in which clustering of scrapie-positive farms occurred up to a distance of approximately 40 km. Spatial modelling: A mixed-effects regression model identified flock-size and soil drainage to be significantly associated with the occurrence of scrapie in England and Wales (area under the curve (AUC 0.71 ± 0.01, 95% CI 0.68 - 0.74. The predictive risk map based on the estimated association between these factors and disease occurrence showed most of Wales to be at risk of being confirmed positive for scrapie with areas of highest risk in central and south Wales. In England, areas with the highest risk occurred mainly in the north and the midlands. Conclusion The observed distribution of scrapie in Great Britain exhibited a definite spatial pattern with south Wales identified as an area of high occurrence. In addition both flock (flock size and environmental variables (soil drainage were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of the disease. However, the model's AUC indicated unexplained variation remaining in the model and the source of this variation may lie in farm-level characteristics rather than spatially

  3. The Europeanisation of spatial planning in Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    of contestation over meanings, played out in policy debates, in documentation and in other practices of spatial planning. In particular we concentrate on how images are used together with textual references and discussions to form a persuasive component of spatial discourse. We therefore analyse...

  4. "Roots" in Britain: A Uses and Gratifications Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, K. Kyoon; Robinson, John P.

    A study was undertaken to investigate, from a uses and gratifications perspective, the effects of serious television drama shown in a foreign country. Specifically, the study examined the impact of "Roots," a highly acclaimed American television drama on slavery, in Great Britain and provided comparisons with the findings of…

  5. Epidemiological analysis of data for scrapie in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Donnelly, C.; Ferguson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the control or eradication of scrapie and any other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) possibly circulating in the sheep population has become a priority in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the

  6. Hyperspectral analysis of cultural heritage artifacts: pigment material diversity in the Gough Map of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Di; Messinger, David W.; Howell, David

    2017-08-01

    The Gough Map, one of the earliest surviving maps of Britain, was created and extensively revised over the 15th century. In 2015, the map was imaged using a hyperspectral imaging system while in the collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford University. The goal of the collection of the hyperspectral image (HSI) of the Gough Map was to address questions such as enhancement of faded text for reading and analysis of the pigments used during its creation and revision. In particular, pigment analysis of the Gough Map will help historians understand the material diversity of its composition and potentially the timeline of, and methods used in, the creation and revision of the map. Multiple analysis methods are presented to analyze a particular pigment in the Gough Map with an emphasis on understanding the within-material diversity, i.e., the number and spatial layout of distinct red pigments. One approach for understanding the number of distinct materials in a scene (i.e., endmember selection and dimensionality estimation) is the Gram matrix approach. Here, this method is used to study the within-material differences of pigments in the map with common visual color. The application is a pigment analysis tool that extracts visually common pixels (here, the red pigments) from the Gough Map and estimates the material diversity of the pixels. Results show that the Gough Map is composed of at least five kinds of dominant red pigments with a particular spatial pattern. This research provides a useful tool for historical geographers and cartographic historians to analyze the material diversity of HSI of cultural heritage artifacts.

  7. Spatial Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data. It does so in the context of two applications: disease mapping and spatial survival analysis. Disease maps are used to highlight geographic areas with high and low prevalence, incidence, or mortality rates of a specific disease and the variability of such rates over a spatial domain. They can also be used to detect hot spots or spatial clusters that may arise owing to common environmental, demographic, or cultural effects shared by neighboring regions. Spatial survival analysis refers to the modeling and analysis for geographically referenced time-to-event data, where a subject is followed up to an event (e.g., death or onset of a disease) or is censored, whichever comes first. Spatial survival analysis is used to analyze clustered survival data when the clustering arises from geographical regions or strata. Illustrations are provided in these application domains.

  8. The Chinese in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y M; Chan, C

    1997-01-01

    "This research note offers a brief historical perspective on the relationship between Hong Kong and Britain and describes the demographic profile of the Chinese community in Britain...[using] information obtained from the 1991 [UK] Census.... The data analysis shows that the Chinese population is widely dispersed and increasing rapidly, and is characterised by a high child-bearing capacity and a low rate of unemployment." excerpt

  9. Beyond Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Postwar Britain witnessed the concurrent evolution of two new intellectual movements which have since become institutionalized as two major academic fields of enquiry: cultural studies and postcolonial studies. Although both fields are enormously diverse, they have developed a parallel focus arou...... the place of individuals in terms of race, ethnicity, class and gender. Using the work of Stuart Hall, a figure uniquely positioned in both fields, 'Beyond Britain' offers a rich cultural-historical study of the evolution of both movements....

  10. Exploring the Dimensionality of Ethnic Minority Adaptation in Britain: An Analysis across Ethnic and Generational Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Phillips, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    In this article I explore the dimensionality of the long-term experiences of the main ethnic minority groups (their adaptation) in Britain. Using recent British data, I apply factor analysis to uncover the underlying number of factors behind variables deemed to be representative of the adaptation experience within the literature. I then attempt to assess the groupings of adaptation present in the data, to see whether a typology of adaptation exists (i.e. whether adaptation in different dimensions can be concomitant with others). The analyses provide an empirical evidence base to reflect on: (1) the extent of group differences in the adaptation process, which may cut across ethnic and generational lines; and (2) whether the uncovered dimensions of adaptation match existing theoretical views and empirical evidence. Results suggest that adaptation should be regarded as a multi-dimensional phenomenon where clear typologies of adaptation based on specific trade-offs (mostly cultural) appear to exist.

  11. Beyond Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Postwar Britain witnessed the concurrent evolution of two new intellectual movements which have since become institutionalized as two major academic fields of enquiry: cultural studies and postcolonial studies. Although both fields are enormously diverse, they have developed a parallel focus around...

  12. Beyond Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Postwar Britain witnessed the concurrent evolution of two new intellectual movements which have since become institutionalized as two major academic fields of enquiry: cultural studies and postcolonial studies. Although both fields are enormously diverse, they have developed a parallel focus arou...

  13. Professional analysis in spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis contributes to accomplishment of the three basic aims of spatial planning: it is basic element for setting spatial policies, concepts and strategies, gives basic information to inhabitants, land owners, investors, planners and helps in performing spatial policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects. Analysis in planning are generally devoted to: understand current circumstances and emerging conditions within planning decisions; determine priorities of open questions and their solutions; formulate general principles for further development.

  14. Presentation : Spatial Analysis and GEOmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Didier Josselin; Thérèse Libourel

    2014-01-01

    SAGEO is the annual International Conference on Spatial Analysis and GEOmatics. It aims to:  present recent and high quality research in the field of Geomatics and Spatial Analysis, bring together researchers from various disciplines, provide an exchange platform on research and development in Geomatics, on a national and international level, for public or private bodies. SAGEO is a good opportunity for two complementary research networks to meet and to discuss their points of view on spatial...

  15. Perspectives on spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This book takes both a retrospective and prospective view of the field of spatial analysis by combining selected reprints of classic articles by Arthur Getis with current observations by leading experts in the field. Four main aspects are highlighted, dealing with spatial analysis, pattern analysis, local statistics as well as illustrative empirical applications. Researchers and students will gain an appreciation of Getis' methodological contributions to spatial analysis and the broad impact of the methods he has helped pioneer on an impressively broad array of disciplines including spatial epidemiology, demography, economics, and ecology. The volume is a compilation of high impact original contributions, as evidenced by citations, and the latest thinking on the field by leading scholars. This makes the book ideal for advanced seminars and courses in spatial analysis as well as a key resource for researchers seeking a comprehensive overview of recent advances and future directions in the field.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  17. Analysis and Comparison of Naturalistic Themes in Iranian and Britain Modern Children's Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Ebrahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, children's literature given the concept of childhood, has gained a special status in the studies of humanities. Children's poetry is one of the branches of this type of literature. Naturalistic themes have the highest frequency among the themes of children poems in two countries. The population of this research consists of collections that have been published from 1921 to 2011. Children's literature was born in England in the eighteenth century and before that the first didactic books for children had come into existence in England. In addition, due to industrial growth, the emergence of the new middle class and expansion of formal education the UK was pioneering among Europe and the world countries. Therefore, to find the roots of the formation of children's literature should be referred to the UK. Therefore, in this paper Britain children’s poem has been selected to be compared with Iranian children’s poem so that by revealing the similarities and differences one can deal with the pathology of poems for children in Iran and to detect shortcomings and strengths and present some guidelines that be helpful for children and young poets as well as critics and researchers in this field. Keywords: Naturalistic themes, children literature, Iranian children's poems, Britain children's poems, comparative literature

  18. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

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    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  19. Modelling the impact of climate change on spatial patterns of disease risk: sheep blowfly strike by Lucilia sericata in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the spatial scale and temporal pattern of disease incidence is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of appropriate management and intervention strategies. It is particularly critical, given the need to understand the elevated risks linked to climate change, to allow the most likely changes in the distribution of parasites and disease vectors to be predicted under a range of climate change scenarios. Using statistical models, the spatial distribution and climatic correlates of a range of parasites and diseases have been mapped previously, but their development into dynamic, predictive tools is less common. The aim of the work described here, was to use a species distribution model to characterise the environmental determinants of the monthly occurrence of ovine cutaneous myiasis (blowfly strike) by Lucilia sericata, the most frequent primary agent of northern European myiasis, and to then use this model to describe the potential spatial changes that might be expected in response to predicted climate change in Great Britain. The model predicts that the range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios will result in an increase in the risk of strike and an elongated blowfly season. However, even for the most rapid warming scenario predictions over the next 70 years, strike is not predicted to occur throughout the winter. Nevertheless, in this latter case, parts of central and southern England are likely to become too hot and dry for strike by L. sericata, to persist in mid-summer. Under these conditions, it is possible that other, more pathogenic Mediterranean agents of myiasis, such as Wolfhartia magnifica, could potentially replace L. sericata. Where the phenology of strike is altered by climate change, as predicted here, significant changes to the timing and frequency of parasite treatments and husbandry practices, such as shearing, will be required to manage the problem. The results suggest that the modelling

  20. Summary of current knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the horse population within Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden Lisa A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust demographic information is important to understanding the risk of introduction and spread of exotic diseases as well as the development of effective disease control strategies, but is often based on datasets collected for other purposes. Thus, it is important to validate, or at least cross-reference these datasets to other sources to assess whether they are being used appropriately. The aim of this study was to use horse location data collected from different contributing industry sectors ("Stakeholder horse data" to calibrate the spatial distribution of horses as indicated by owner locations registered in the National Equine Database (the NED. Results A conservative estimate for the accurately geo-located NED horse population within GB is approximately 840,000 horses. This is likely to be an underestimate because of the exclusion of horses due to age or location criteria. In both datasets, horse density was higher in England and Wales than in Scotland. The high density of horses located in urban areas as indicated in the NED is consistent with previous reports indicating that owner location cannot always be viewed as a direct substitute for horse location. Otherwise, at a regional resolution, there are few differences between the datasets. There are inevitable biases in the stakeholder data, and leisure horses that are unaffiliated to major stakeholders are not included in these data. Despite this, the similarity in distributions of these datasets is re-assuring, suggesting that there are few regional biases in the NED. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that stakeholder data could be used to monitor possible changes in horse demographics. Given such changes in horse demographics and the advantages of stakeholder data (which include annual updates and accurate horse location, it may be appropriate to use these data for future disease modelling in conjunction with, if not in place of the NED.

  1. Retrospective analysis of Salmonella isolates recovered from animal feed in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, C; Carrique-Mas, J J; Davies, R H; Sayers, A R

    2009-12-05

    To examine feed contamination rates with Salmonella, the diversity of serovars and the antimicrobial resistance of isolates from animal feedingstuffs in Great Britain, and to compare Salmonella strains found in animal feed and in livestock, data collected under voluntary and statutory Salmonella surveillance during the period 1987 to 2006 were analysed retrospectively. The feed contamination rate decreased from 3.8 per cent in 1993 to 1.1 per cent in 2006. A total of 263 Salmonella serovars were recovered: S Mbandaka (11.2 per cent), S Tennessee (10.4 per cent), S Senftenberg (8.4 per cent), S Agona (6.4 per cent), S Montevideo (6.4 per cent) and S Ohio (3.1 per cent) were the most prevalent. S Typhimurium was recovered at a proportion of 1.6 per cent from raw ingredients and 2.4 per cent from finished feed, while S Enteritidis was recovered at a proportion of 0.5 per cent from raw ingredients and 0.6 per cent from finished feed; 14.1 per cent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 1.9 per cent were multiresistant. There was no evidence of a statistical association (Pfeed and from livestock.

  2. Progress in spatial analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Páez, Antonio; Buliung, Ron N; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together developments in spatial analysis techniques, including spatial statistics, econometrics, and spatial visualization, and applications to fields such as regional studies, transportation and land use, population and health.

  3. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star......-shaped three-dimensional objects using the radial function. It appears that the model is highly fleksiblel in the sense that it can be used to describe an object with arbitrary irregular surface. Results on the distribution of well-known local stereological volume estimators are provided....

  4. A Critical Analysis of Britain's Living, Dead and Zombie Multiculturalism: From 7/7 to the London 2012 Olympic Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Allen

    2015-01-01

      A day after the London 2012 Bid Committee succeeded in bringing the Olympic Games to Britain using the slogan "the world in one city", a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks occurred across London (7/7...

  5. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    From 14 to 17 November 30 British companies will exhibit leading edge technologies at CERN*. This is Britain's 18th exhibition at CERN since 1968. Out of the 30 companies, which attended the Britain at CERN exhibition in 1998, 25 have received an order or a contract relating to CERN during the last two years.

  6. Omnidirectional Analysis of Spatial Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Leng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space manipulators are mainly used in the spatial loading task. According to problems of the spatial loading diversity, the testing loading installing position, and the utilization ratio of a test platform, the space manipulator is asked to evaluate the position and attitude of itself. This paper proposes the Point Omnidirectional Coefficient (POC with unit attitude sphere/circle to describe attitude of the end-effector, which evaluates any points in the attainable space of the manipulators, in combination with the manipulation’s position message, and get relationships between its position and attitude of all points in the attainable space. It represents the mapping between sphere surface and plane for mission attitude constraints and the method for calculating volume of points space including attainable space, Omnidirectional space, and mission attitude space. Furthermore, the Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient based on mission or not is proposed for evaluating manipulator performance. Through analysis and simulation about 3D and 2D manipulators, the results show that the above theoretical approach is feasible and the relationships about link lengths, joints angles, attainable space, and Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient are drawn for guiding design.

  7. Impact of Climate Change on high and low flows across Great Britain: a temporal analysis and uncertainty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Lindsay; Collet, Lila

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant challenges to water management posed by both floods and droughts. In the UK, since 2000 flooding has caused over £5Bn worth of damage, and direct costs from the recent drought (2011-12) are estimated to be between £70-165M, arising from impacts on public and industrial water supply. Projections of future climate change suggest an increase in temperature and precipitation trends which may exacerbate the frequency and severity of such hazards, but there is significant uncertainty associated with these projections. It thus becomes urgent to assess the possible impact of these changes on extreme flows and evaluate the uncertainties related to these projections, particularly changes in the seasonality of such hazards. This paper aims to assess the changes in seasonality of peak and low flows across Great Britain as a result of climate change. It is based on the Future Flow database; an 11-member ensemble of transient river flow projections from January 1951 to December 2098. We analyse the daily river flow over the baseline (1961-1990) and the 2080s (2069-2098) for 281 gauging stations. For each ensemble member, annual maxima (AMAX) and minima (AMIN) are extracted for both time periods for each gauging station. The month of the year the AMAX and AMIN occur respectively are recorded for each of the 30 years in the past and the future time periods. The uncertainty of the AMAX and AMIN occurrence temporally (monthly) is assessed across the 11 ensemble members, as well as the changes to this temporal signal between the baseline and the 2080s. Ultimately, this work gives a national picture (spatially) of high and low flows occurrence temporally and allows the assessment of possible changes in hydrological dynamics as a result of climate change in a statistical framework. Results will quantify the uncertainty related to the Climate Model parameters which are cascaded into the modelling chain. This study highlights the issues

  8. Spatial analysis statistics, visualization, and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Oyana, Tonny J

    2015-01-01

    An introductory text for the next generation of geospatial analysts and data scientists, Spatial Analysis: Statistics, Visualization, and Computational Methods focuses on the fundamentals of spatial analysis using traditional, contemporary, and computational methods. Outlining both non-spatial and spatial statistical concepts, the authors present practical applications of geospatial data tools, techniques, and strategies in geographic studies. They offer a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to spatial analysis-containing hands-on problem-sets that can be worked out in MS Excel or ArcGIS-as well as detailed illustrations and numerous case studies. The book enables readers to: Identify types and characterize non-spatial and spatial data Demonstrate their competence to explore, visualize, summarize, analyze, optimize, and clearly present statistical data and results Construct testable hypotheses that require inferential statistical analysis Process spatial data, extract explanatory variables, conduct statisti...

  9. Mummification in Bronze Age Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, T. J.; Chamberlain, A.T.; Pearson, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Intentional mummification is a practice usually associated with early Egyptian or Peruvian societies, but new evidence suggests that it may also have been widespread in prehistoric Britain, and possibly in Europe more generally. Following the discovery of mummified Bronze Age skeletons at the site of Cladh Hallan in the Western Isles of Scotland, a method of analysis has been developed that can consistently identify previously mummified skeletons. The results demonstrate that Bronze Age popul...

  10. Spatial analysis and planning under imprecision

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Y

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with complexity, imprecision, human valuation, and uncertainty in spatial analysis and planning, providing a systematic exposure of a new philosophical and theoretical foundation for spatial analysis and planning under imprecision. Regional concepts and regionalization, spatial preference-utility-choice structures, spatial optimization with single and multiple objectives, dynamic spatial systems and their controls are analyzed in sequence.The analytical framework is based on fuzzy set theory. Basic concepts of fuzzy set theory are first discussed. Many numerical examples and emp

  11. Local models for spatial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Christopher D

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on solutions, this second edition provides guidance to a wide variety of real-world problems. The text presents a complete introduction to key concepts and a clear mapping of the methods discussed. It also explores connections between methods. New chapters address spatial patterning in single variables and spatial relations. In addition, every chapter now includes links to key related studies. The author clearly distinguishes between local and global methods and provides more detailed coverage of geographical weighting, image texture measures, local spatial autocorrelation, and multic

  12. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere-Williams, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry.

  13. Workplace disability diversity and job-related well-being in Britain: a WERS2004 based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Getinet A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish empirically whether there is a link between workplace disability and employee job-related well-being. Using nationally representative linked employer-employee data for Britain, I employ alternative econometric techniques to account for unobserved workplace heterogeneity. I find that workplace disability diversity is associated with lower employee well-being among people with no reported disability. Tests conducted also indicate that workplace equality policies...

  14. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  15. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    It was thirty years ago that British industry held the first ever trade fair at CERN and industrial links between Britain and the Laboratory have never looked back. Speaking at the opening of the 1998 "Britain at CERN" exhibition on 20 October, H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse, British Ambassador to Switzerland, underlined the value of CERN contracts to British industry saying that "The prize is well worth going for, I understand that contracts worth  1.5bn will be awarded over the next six years".

  16. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common features of the content, models, forms and methods of continuing professional development of public school teachers. The legislative and normative framework of teachers’ CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA, which determines the CPD content, has been highlighted; teachers’ knowledge, skills, professional values and attitudes have been characterised; the key models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD have been defined. The teachers’ CPD has been studied by foreign and Ukrainian scientists: models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD (L. Chance, A. Hollingsworth, D. Ross, E. Villegas-Reimers, non-formal teachers’ CPD (J. Scheerens, continuing professional education (Ya. Belmaz, T. Desyatov, postgraduate education (A. Kuzminskyy, V. Russol, professional education (R. Hurevych, N. Nychkalo, teacher training (T. Koshmanova, Ye. Yevtukh, teachers’ professional development (N. Klokar, V. Oliynyk. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  17. Spatial Analysis of Urban Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Cutini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban squares, despite their apparently self-evident consistency, actually represent one of the most uncertain issues of present urban planning. Denied and neglected by modern architecture, then sought after in the last decades, squares are commonly recognized as fundamental identity making elements in urban settlements as well as in their respective communities. Since their revival in the late ‘900, the design of urban squares has been a challenging task for generations of planners and urban designers, since, despite any effort, most of the squares worked out can hardly succeed in competing with the historic ones. What appears to explain the failure of most attempts is the actual uncertainty in the definition of what an urban square really is, or should be: not a mere open space, nor only a pedestrian path, nor necessarily a wide or regular space, nor always a junction of streets. Perhaps all these things together, but also something more, what makes the matter to overcome the limits of a strictly physical vision to approach social and cultural meanings. The purpose of this research is therefore to investigate around the link between spatial aspects and social issues, so as to identify the spatial features that allow an urban square to actually play a social and cultural role.  As a testing ground of such effort a wide set of Italian squares was assumed as a case studies series, in order to catch the spatial code of their success as relation and public representation places; and some configurational parameters will then be proposed for reproducing such capability, so as to actually support the planning and design of urban squares.

  18. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005.......Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005....

  19. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  20. Unemployment and marital status in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, W

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the marriage rate has declined and the divorce rate has increased in Great Britain. Becker (1981) attributes such changes to improvements in the economic status of women, in that high-wage women gain less from marriage relative to other women. However, an empirical analysis of data from the General Household Survey 1985 in Great Britain shows that male unemployment is another important determinant of changes in marital status. High rates of male unemployment reduce the incidence of marriage and increase the likelihood of divorce.

  1. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  2. Flock-level risk factors for scrapie in Great Britain: analysis of a 2002 anonymous postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivam S Kumar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2002, an anonymous postal survey of sheep farmers in Great Britain (GB was conducted to identify factors associated with the flock-level occurrence of scrapie. This survey was undertaken to update an earlier postal survey in 1998, and was the first occasion in which a large-scale postal survey had been repeated. Results The results of the 2002 survey indicated that scrapie was more likely to occur in certain geographic regions; in purebred compared to commercial flocks; in larger flocks; in flocks which lambed in group pens compared to those which lambed in individual pens; in flocks which always lambed in the same location compared to those which did not; and in farms which kept certain breeds of sheep. In addition to these factors, the likelihood of the disease occurring in homebred animals was higher in flocks which bred a greater proportion of replacement animals or which bought-in lambs. Finally, within-flock transmission following exposure was more likely to occur in hill flocks compared to other farm types; in flocks which bred a greater proportion of replacement animals; and in farms which kept a certain crossbreed of ewe. Conclusion The risk factors identified from the 1998 and 2002 anonymous postal surveys in Great Britain were similar. However, differences between the surveys were identified in the influence of region and of purchasing behaviour on the risk of scrapie. These differences are most likely a consequence of changes in farmer awareness and the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic, respectively.

  3. Geostatistics and spatial analysis in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relethford, John H

    2008-05-01

    A variety of methods have been used to make evolutionary inferences based on the spatial distribution of biological data, including reconstructing population history and detection of the geographic pattern of natural selection. This article provides an examination of geostatistical analysis, a method used widely in geology but which has not often been applied in biological anthropology. Geostatistical analysis begins with the examination of a variogram, a plot showing the relationship between a biological distance measure and the geographic distance between data points and which provides information on the extent and pattern of spatial correlation. The results of variogram analysis are used for interpolating values of unknown data points in order to construct a contour map, a process known as kriging. The methods of geostatistical analysis and discussion of potential problems are applied to a large data set of anthropometric measures for 197 populations in Ireland. The geostatistical analysis reveals two major sources of spatial variation. One pattern, seen for overall body and craniofacial size, shows an east-west cline most likely reflecting the combined effects of past population dispersal and settlement. The second pattern is seen for craniofacial height and shows an isolation by distance pattern reflecting rapid spatial changes in the midlands region of Ireland, perhaps attributable to the genetic impact of the Vikings. The correspondence of these results with other analyses of these data and the additional insights generated from variogram analysis and kriging illustrate the potential utility of geostatistical analysis in biological anthropology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H. E. Mr Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition. From 14 to 17 November 30 British companies exhibited leading edge technologies at CERN. This is Britain's 18th exhibition at CERN since 1968. Out of the 30 companies, which attended the Britain at CERN exhibition in 1998, 25 have received an order or a contract relating to CERN during the last two years. The exhibition was inaugurated on Tuesday by Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International. He was accompanied by H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse CMG, OBE, Her Majesty's Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. David Roberts, Deputy Head of Mission and Director of Trade Promotion at the British Embassy in Bern. CERN Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, underlined the major contribution of British physicists to CERN, pointing out the fact ...

  5. Associations between lamb survival and prion protein genotype: analysis of data for ten sheep breeds in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective breeding programmes, based on prion protein (PrP genotype, have been introduced throughout the European Union to reduce the risk of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. These programmes could have negative consequences on other important traits, such as fitness and production traits, if the PrP gene has pleiotropic effects or is in linkage disequilibrium with genes affecting these traits. This paper presents the results of an investigation into associations between lamb survival and PrP genotype in ten mainstream sheep breeds in Great Britain (GB. In addition, the reasons for lamb deaths were examined in order to identify any associations between these and PrP genotype. Results Survival times from birth to weaning were analysed for over 38000 lambs (2427 dead and 36096 live lambs from 128 flocks using Cox proportional hazard models for each breed, including additive animal genetic effects. No significant associations between PrP genotype and lamb survival were identified, except in the Charollais breed for which there was a higher risk of mortality in lambs of the ARR/VRQ genotype compared with those of the ARR/ARR genotype. Significant effects of birth weight, litter size, sex, age of dam and year of birth on survival were also identified. For all breeds the reasons for death changed significantly with age; however, no significant associations between reason for death and PrP genotype were found for any of the breeds. Conclusion This study found no evidence to suggest that a selective breeding programme based on PrP genotype will have a detrimental effect on lamb survival. The only significant effect of PrP genotype identified was likely to be of little consequence because an increased risk of mortality was associated with a genotype that is selected against in current breeding strategies.

  6. A metapopulation of the lizard Anguis fragilis (Squamata: Anguidae on a local scale in Dorset, Great Britain, as indicated by spatial distribution and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Haley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A metapopulation is a group of spatially structured populations, consisting of distinct units (subpopulations that are separated by space or barriers, and connected by dispersal movements. Evidence derived from Gaussian finite-mixture models and dispersal events suggests that slow-worms may exist in a metapopulation. The Gaussian finite-mixture models showed that slow-worms are aggregated into individual subpopulations; the movement data revealed that males are more likely to migrate than females and that they have the ability to travel sufficiently far to bridge subpopulations. Therefore, the evidence supports the metapopulation theory and that slow-worms exist in multiple small subpopulations instead of one large homogenous population.

  7. Spatial methods in areal administrative data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrative data often arise as electronic copies of paid bills generated from insurance companies including the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Such data are widely seen and analyzed in the public health area, as in investigations of cancer control, health service accessibility, and spatial epidemiology. In areas like political science and education, administrative data are also important. Administrative data are sometimes more readily available as summaries over each administrative unit (county, zip code, etc. in a particular set determined by geopolitical boundaries, or what statisticians refer to as areal data. However, the spatial dependence often present in administrative data is often ignored by health services researchers. This can lead to problems in estimating the true underlying spatial surface, including inefficient use of data and biased conclusions. In this article, we review hierarchical statistical modeling and boundary analysis (wombling methods for areal-level spatial data that can be easily carried out using freely available statistical computing packages. We also propose a new edge-domain method designed to detect geographical boundaries corresponding to abrupt changes in the areal-level surface. We illustrate our methods using county-level breast cancer late detection data from the state of Minnesota.

  8. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs (Friday 09h00-12h00) Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors the list of lectures. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK (Pirelli Cables) 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherto...

  9. French influence on Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgate, Robert

    1985-02-21

    Jérôme Lejeune, the French geneticist who discovered the cause of Down's syndrome, is reported to have influenced British Members of Parliament in their vote to ban research on human embryos. Lejeune, brought to Britain to address Parliament by the anti-abortion lobby, said that embryonic research was unnecessary and would not add to knowledge about congenital defects, as argued in the Warnock Committee's report. Lejeune, who is a member of the French pro-life lobby, believes that embryos are persons and should not be subjected to experimentation. His current research concerns the chemical causes of congenital defects, which he predicts may be treatable with drugs in the future.

  10. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  11. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  12. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL-PS

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex X-Ray &...

  13. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex...

  14. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials E...

  15. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-nine companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherton) Ltd 5. Data Systems & Solutions (Advanced Con...

  16. Occupational cancer in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-01-01

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed. PMID:22710673

  17. Multilinear Spatial Discriminant Analysis for Dimensionality Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sen; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang

    2017-06-01

    In the last few years, great efforts have been made to extend the linear projection technique (LPT) for multidimensional data (i.e., tensor), generally referred to as the multilinear projection technique (MPT). The vectorized nature of LPT requires high-dimensional data to be converted into vector, and hence may lose spatial neighborhood information of raw data. MPT well addresses this problem by encoding multidimensional data as general tensors of a second or even higher order. In this paper, we propose a novel multilinear projection technique, called multilinear spatial discriminant analysis (MSDA), to identify the underlying manifold of high-order tensor data. MSDA considers both the nonlocal structure and the local structure of data in the transform domain, seeking to learn the projection matrices from all directions of tensor data that simultaneously maximize the nonlocal structure and minimize the local structure. Different from multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) that aims to preserve the global structure and tensor locality preserving projection (TLPP) that is in favor of preserving the local structure, MSDA seeks a tradeoff between the nonlocal (global) and local structures so as to drive its discriminant information from the range of the non-local structure and the range of the local structure. This spatial discriminant characteristic makes MSDA have more powerful manifold preserving ability than TLPP and MPCA. Theoretical analysis shows that traditional MPTs, such as multilinear linear discriminant analysis, TLPP, MPCA, and tensor maximum margin criterion, could be derived from the MSDA model by setting different graphs and constraints. Extensive experiments on face databases (ORL, CMU PIE, and the extended Yale-B) and the Weizmann action database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MSDA method.

  18. The analysis of isurance in case of travel agency insolvency on the Czech market and the comparison with other kinds of bonding in the Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vajčnerová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the topic of customer protection. The protection covers insolvency of travel agency and comes out from the Council Directive 90/314/EEC. In the Czech Republic this Council directive is implemented into Czech law through the Act No. 159/1999 Coll. on Conducting Business in Some Areas of the Tourism Sector. Unfortunately, the act is considered to be not up to date therefore novelization is being prepared. The article describes insurance as the one and only customer protection in the Czech Republic. Simultaneously, there are set other possibilities of customer guarantee in case of travel agency bankrupt which are successfully used in other European countries. One part of the article is dedicated to detail analysis of this problem in Great Britain. The result of provided analyses and research – proposal of guarantee model through insurance section which would be a part of Association of Travel Agencies and Tour operators. The goal of the model is to clear away present weaknesses in this field.

  19. Incorporating spatial dependence in regional frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Xuebin

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of regional frequency analysis (RFA) is undermined by intersite dependence, which is usually ignored in parameter estimation. We propose a spatial index flood model where marginal generalized extreme value distributions are joined by an extreme-value copula characterized by a max-stable process for the spatial dependence. The parameters are estimated with a pairwise likelihood constructed from bivariate marginal generalized extreme value distributions. The estimators of model parameters and return levels can be more efficient than those from the traditional index flood model when the max-stable process fits the intersite dependence well. Through simulation, we compared the pairwise likelihood method with an L-moment method and an independence likelihood method under various spatial dependence models and dependence levels. The pairwise likelihood method was found to be the most efficient in mean squared error if the dependence model was correctly specified. When the dependence model was misspecified within the max-stable models, the pairwise likelihood method was still competitive relative to the other two methods. When the dependence model was not a max-stable model, the pairwise likelihood method led to serious bias in estimating the shape parameter and return levels, especially when the dependence was strong. In an illustration with annual maximum precipitation data from Switzerland, the pairwise likelihood method yielded remarkable reduction in the standard errors of return level estimates in comparison to the L-moment method.

  20. A New Methodology of Spatial Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran’s index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is derived for geographical cross-correlation modeling. First, two sets of spatial cross-correlation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial cross-correlation coefficient and local spatial cross-correlation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial cross-correlation is proposed, and the plots can be used to visually reveal the causality behind spatial systems. Based on the global cross-correlation coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial correlation) and indirect correlation (spatial cross-correlation). As an example, the methodology is applied to the relationships between China’s urbanization and economic development to illustrate how to model spatial cross-correlation phenomena. This study is an introduction to developing the theory of spatial cross-correlation, and future geographical spatial analysis might benefit from these models and indexes. PMID:25993120

  1. Hearing health network: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferreira de Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In order to meet the demands of the patient population with hearing impairment, the Hearing Health Care Network was created, consisting of primary care actions of medium and high complexity. Spatial analysis through geoprocessing is a way to understand the organization of such services. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the organization of the Hearing Health Care Network of the State of Minas Gerais. METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study using geoprocessing techniques. The absolute frequency and the frequency per 1000 inhabitants of the following variables were analyzed: assessment and diagnosis, selection and adaptation of hearing aids, follow-up, and speech therapy. The spatial analysis unit was the health micro-region. RESULTS: The assessment and diagnosis, selection, and adaptation of hearing aids and follow-up had a higher absolute number in the micro-regions with hearing health services. The follow-up procedure showed the lowest occurrence. Speech therapy showed higher occurrence in the state, both in absolute numbers, as well as per population. CONCLUSION: The use of geoprocessing techniques allowed the identification of the care flow as a function of the procedure performance frequency, population concentration, and territory distribution. All procedures offered by the Hearing Health Care Network are performed for users of all micro-regions of the state.

  2. A multi-stream analysis of the changing pattern of interregional migration in Great Britain, 1960-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, I R; Molho, I

    1998-06-01

    "This paper uses a combination of spatial and econometric modelling techniques to investigate longer term patterns and processes of change in British interregional migration.... The two major influences on the longer distance flows are found to be relative rates of employment growth and perceived environmental quality, but while the former induces marked fluctuations within the observation period, the influence of the latter factors shows little variation, with no sign of a clean break. There is, however, evidence of a sharply reduced responsiveness of migration to unemployment differentials since the mid-1970s." (EXCERPT)

  3. Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Durham

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the types of figurines found in Roman Britain. Over 1000 figurines of Late Iron Age or Roman date are known from Britain, but there has been no consideration of the group as a whole. While many individual pieces have been published in excavation reports or as notes, many more remain largely unpublished and unknown. The publication of this corpus makes the data available to a wide audience, and in particular those involved in the study of Roman material culture. While the majority of figurines are of copper alloy, there is a small number in other metals including iron and lead. The figurines from Britain comprise a wide range of types depicting Roman and Gallo-Roman deities, human figures, birds and animals. The spatial and social distribution of the major types will also be discussed.

  4. Migrant employment and the recession--the case of the Irish in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwin, F X; Nairn, A G

    1983-01-01

    "The past decade has witnessed a substantial contraction in the size of the Irishborn community in Britain. This paper uses shift share analysis to assess the extent to which job losses amongst the Irish in Britain over the years 1971-1977 may have induced return migration to Ireland. The article concludes that such 'push' factors are likely to have been relatively weak in comparison to the 'pull' of an Irish economy considerably more buoyant than that of Britain." excerpt

  5. Spectral Modelling for Spatial Network Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.; Rezvani, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.; van der Hoeven, F.D.; Attar, Ramtin; Chronis, Angelos; Hanna, Sean; Turrin, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Spatial Networks represent the connectivity structure between units of space as a weighted graph whose links are weighted as to the strength of connections. In case of urban spatial networks, the units of space correspond closely to streets and in architectural spatial networks the units correspond

  6. Participative Spatial Scenario Analysis for Alpine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Marina; Stotten, Rike; Steinbacher, Melanie; Leitinger, Georg; Tasser, Erich; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Schermer, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify. The concept of social-ecological resilience can thereby provide a framework for understanding complex interlinkages on multiple scales and from different disciplines. In our study site (Stubai Valley, Tyrol/Austria), we applied a sequence of steps including the characterization of the social-ecological system and identification of key drivers that influence farmers' management decisions. We then developed three scenarios, i.e., "trend", "positive" and "negative" future development of farming conditions and assessed respective future land use changes. Results indicate that within the "trend" and "positive" scenarios pluri-activity (various sources of income) prevents considerable changes in land use and land cover and promotes the resilience of farming systems. Contrarily, reductions in subsidies and changes in consumer behavior are the most important key drivers in the negative scenario and lead to distinct abandonment of grassland, predominantly in the sub-alpine zone of our study site. Our conceptual approach, i.e., the combination of social and ecological methods and the integration of local stakeholders' knowledge into spatial scenario analysis, resulted in highly detailed and spatially explicit results that can provide a basis for further community development recommendations.

  7. Spatial Statistical Analysis of Large Astronomical Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapudi, Istvan

    2002-12-01

    The future of astronomy will be dominated with large and complex data bases. Megapixel CMB maps, joint analyses of surveys across several wavelengths, as envisioned in the planned National Virtual Observatory (NVO), TByte/day data rate of future surveys (Pan-STARRS) put stringent constraints on future data analysis methods: they have to achieve at least N log N scaling to be viable in the long term. This warrants special attention to computational requirements, which were ignored during the initial development of current analysis tools in favor of statistical optimality. Even an optimal measurement, however, has residual errors due to statistical sample variance. Hence a suboptimal technique with significantly smaller measurement errors than the unavoidable sample variance produces results which are nearly identical to that of a statistically optimal technique. For instance, for analyzing CMB maps, I present a suboptimal alternative, indistinguishable from the standard optimal method with N3 scaling, that can be rendered N log N with a hierarchical representation of the data; a speed up of a trillion times compared to other methods. In this spirit I will present a set of novel algorithms and methods for spatial statistical analyses of future large astronomical data bases, such as galaxy catalogs, megapixel CMB maps, or any point source catalog.

  8. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and we propose diagnostic plots based on them. The residuals apply to any point process model that has a conditional intensity; the model may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence...... on spatial covariates. Some existing ad hoc methods for model checking (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity and Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases. Diagnostic tools are developed systematically, by using an analogy between our spatial residuals and the ususal residuals...... for (non-spatial) generalized linear models. The conditional intensity $\\lambda$ plays the role of the mean response. This makes it possible to adapt existing knowledge about model validation for generalized linear models to the spatial point process context, giving recommendations for diagnostic plots...

  9. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  10. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. N.; Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    Multi-channel LANDSAT data are collected in several passes over agricultural areas during the growing season. How empirical Bayes modeling can be used to develop crop identification and discrimination techniques that account for spatial correlation in such data is considered. The approach models the unobservable parameters and the data separately, hoping to take advantage of the fact that the bulk of spatial correlation lies in the parameter process. The problem is then framed in terms of estimating posterior probabilities of crop types for each spatial area. Some empirical Bayes spatial estimation methods are used to estimate the logits of these probabilities.

  11. Automatic set up of SHETRAN for catchments in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Kilsby, Chris; Fowler, Hayley

    2014-05-01

    Physically-based spatially-distributed (PBSD) models may provide a robust framework for simulating catchment processes in ungauged catchments and under climatic variability. However, they are often overlooked in catchment studies in favour of their conceptual or lumped counterparts. This is because conceptual models are easy and rapid to set up, and can be finely tuned using historic data to give excellent simulation results. On the other hand PBSD models, such as SHETRAN developed at Newcastle University, require much more input data and take weeks or months to set up. To overcome these problems and to promote the use of SHETRAN, this project has set up an easy-to-use, accessible system of hydrological models across Great Britain to be used for both catchment scale studies and countrywide analysis of river flows under present and future conditions. An interface for this system has been developed to make the usually long and tedious setup of PBSD models quick and easy. A non-expert user can now set up a robust and reliable model for a catchment within Great Britain within 10 seconds, a process which would usually take weeks. The user can select a catchment from one of the 1457 boundaries identified in the National River Flow Archive, or they can upload their own catchment boundary as a shapefile. The system therefore has great flexibility for use in setting up models of gauged and ungauged catchments. PBSD models require a lot of data (DEM, geology, soil, land cover), often available in only an inappropriate format. The data behind this system is freely accessible under an academic licence and downloadable from various publicly funded bodies. These data layers have been converted into the correct format for use with SHETRAN, which is also freely available and is provided with every model set up.

  12. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Heavy Metals in Beijing Agricultural Soils Based on Spatial Autocorrelation Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Dan-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhou, Lian-Di; Li, Bao-Guo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the spatial pattern of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils using Moran’s I statistic of spatial autocorrelation. The global Moran’s I result showed that the spatial dependence of Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg changed with different spatial weight matrixes, and they had significant and positive global spatial correlations based on distance weight. The spatial dependence of the four metals was scale-dependent on distance, but these scale effects existed within a threshold distance of 13 km, 32 km, 50 km, and 29 km, respectively for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg. The maximal spatial positive correlation range was 57 km, 70 km, 57 km, and 55 km for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg, respectively and these were not affected by sampling density. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and spatial outliers and revealed that the pollution of these four metals occurred in significant High-high spatial clusters, Low-high, or even High-low spatial outliers. Thus, three major areas were identified and should be receiving more attention: the first was the northeast region of Beijing, where Cr, Zn, Ni, and Hg had significant increases. The second was the southeast region of Beijing where wastewater irrigation had strongly changed the content of metals, particularly of Cr and Zn, in soils. The third area was the urban fringe around city, where Hg showed a significant increase. PMID:21776217

  13. Spatial analysis of NDVI readings with difference sampling density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced remote sensing technologies provide research an innovative way of collecting spatial data for use in precision agriculture. Sensor information and spatial analysis together allow for a complete understanding of the spatial complexity of a field and its crop. The objective of the study was...

  14. Spatial Econometric Data analysis: Moving Beyond Traditional Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florax, R.J.G.M.; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article appraises recent advances in the spatial econometric literature. It serves as the introduction to a collection of new papers on spatial econometric data analysis brought together in this special issue, dealing specifically with new extensions to the spatial econometric modeling

  15. UTOOLS: microcomputer software for spatial analysis and landscape visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Robert J. McGaughey

    1997-01-01

    UTOOLS is a collection of programs designed to integrate various spatial data in a way that allows versatile spatial analysis and visualization. The programs were designed for watershed-scale assessments in which a wide array of resource data must be integrated, analyzed, and interpreted. UTOOLS software combines raster, attribute, and vector data into "spatial...

  16. Britain's nuclear secrets: inside Sellafield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Antigone

    2017-11-01

    Lying on the remote north west coast of England, Sellafield is one of the most secret places in UK, and even one of the most controversial nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning sites in Britain. The film director Tim Usborne let us enter into the world's first nuclear power station, revealing Britain's attempts to harness the almost limitless power of the atom. It is precisely the simplicity and the scientific rigor used in the film to speak of nuclear, which led this documentary to win the Physics Prize supported by the European Physical Society at the European Science TV and New Media Festival and Awards 2016.

  17. Spatial analysis of rural land development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong-Hoon Cho; David H. Newman

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of rural land development and density using spatial econometric models with the application of Geographical Information System (GIS). The cluster patterns of both development and high-density development indicate that the spatially continuous expansions of development and high-density development exist in relatively remote rural areas....

  18. Spatial contiguity analysis. A method for describing spatial structures of seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1-4 Av. de Bois-Preau, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France); Cailly, F. [Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    We apply spatial contiguity analysis (SCA) to study spatial structures contained in seismic images. Compared to classical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), SCA is more efficient for multivariate description and spatial filtering of this kind of images. We present SCA according to geostatistic formalism defined by Matheron. A preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables is required. Made with the help of variogram curves, this permits to underline spatial properties of these variables and defines contiguity distance and direction to apply SCA. A series of mathematical tools is defined. They allow quantifying the information held by initial variables and factorial components in terms of variance and spatial variability and exhibit data spatial structures on different scales. The method is applied to analyse a seismic data set. We compare PCA and SCA results. This data set gives us the opportunity to show the interest of preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables, and the effects of spatial direction and distance on the data decomposition in elementary structures.

  19. Unhappy Working with Men? Workplace Gender Diversity and Employee Job-Related Well-Being in Britain: A WERS2004 Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Getinet A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish empirically the link between workplace gender diversity and employee job-related well-being. Using nationally representative linked employer-employee data for Britain, I employ econometric techniques that account for unobserved workplace heterogeneity. I find that gender diversity is associated with lower employee well-being among women in several of the equations estimated. The magnitudes of the estimated effects also tend to increase with (women's) group siz...

  20. Recent developments in spatial analysis spatial statistics, behavioural modelling, and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Getis, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, spatial analysis has become an increasingly active field, as evidenced by the establishment of educational and research programs at many universities. Its popularity is due mainly to new technologies and the development of spatial data infrastructures. This book illustrates some recent developments in spatial analysis, behavioural modelling, and computational intelligence. World renown spatial analysts explain and demonstrate their new and insightful models and methods. The applications are in areas of societal interest such as the spread of infectious diseases, migration behaviour, and retail and agricultural location strategies. In addition, there is emphasis on the uses of new technologoies for the analysis of spatial data through the application of neural network concepts.

  1. Book review: Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns by J. Illian, A. Penttinen, H. Stoyan and D. Stoyan. Wiley (2008), ISBN 9780470014912......Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns by J. Illian, A. Penttinen, H. Stoyan and D. Stoyan. Wiley (2008), ISBN 9780470014912...

  2. Second order analysis for spatial Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    We derive summary statistics for stationary Hawkes processes which can be considered as spatial versions of classical Hawkes processes. Particularly, we derive the intensity, the pair correlation function and the Bartlett spectrum. Our results for Gaussian fertility rates and the extension...... to marked Hawkes processes are discussed....

  3. Union Organization in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; P Willman

    2007-01-01

    Union membership and density in Britain has experienced substantial decline since 1979. The fall in private sector membership and density has been much greater than in the public sector. The size of the union sector, measured by employer recognition, has shrunk. Membership decline has been accompanied by financial decline. Much of the decline occurred before 1997, under Conservative governments. Since 1997 and the return of a Labour government, the position has in some respects stabilized. Cu...

  4. Spatial analysis of various multiplex cinema types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seo Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the spatial characteristics and relationships of each used space according to the multiplex type. In this study, multiplexes are classified according to screen rooms and circulation systems, and each used space is quantitatively analyzed. The multiplex type based on screen rooms and moving line systems influences the relationship and characteristics of each used space in various ways. In particular, the structure of the used space of multiplexes has a significant effect on profit generation and audience convenience.

  5. Understanding fathering in Britain today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauari, Hanan; Hollingworth, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This research set out to investigate the parenting beliefs and practices of modern day fathers living in Britain today. The aim was to gain a better understanding of what 'being a father' means to parents and to what extent can there be said to be a 'common model' of fatherhood across Britain. Findings show that whilst fathers and mothers acknowledge the expectation of fathers to become more involved in childcare duties, many parents tend to hold more traditional views when it comes to the division of the childcare vs breadwinner responsibilities. Attitudes to fathering and actual fathering behaviours have been shown by our study to be influenced by a complex web of factors, with socio and economic life circumstances exerting the greatest influence on greater paternal involvement. The study found that there are far more similarities in the behaviours of fathers and their attitudes to fathering than there are differences. In the context of modern day Britain, fathers are facing similar challenges in their role as parents, giving rise to a common model of fathering within which fathers are facing similar challenges in achieving their ideal fathering role.

  6. Statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal point patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Diggle, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Written by a prominent statistician and author, the first edition of this bestseller broke new ground in the then emerging subject of spatial statistics with its coverage of spatial point patterns. Retaining all the material from the second edition and adding substantial new material, Statistical Analysis of Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Point Patterns, Third Edition presents models and statistical methods for analyzing spatially referenced point process data. Reflected in the title, this third edition now covers spatio-temporal point patterns. It explores the methodological developments from th

  7. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hualin Xie; Guiying Liu; Qu Liu; Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption ...

  8. Trends in atmospheric evaporative demand in Great Britain using high-resolution meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emma L.; Blyth, Eleanor M.; Clark, Douglas B.; Finch, Jon; Rudd, Alison C.

    2017-02-01

    Observations of climate are often available on very different spatial scales from observations of the natural environments and resources that are affected by climate change. In order to help bridge the gap between these scales using modelling, a new dataset of daily meteorological variables was created at 1 km resolution over Great Britain for the years 1961-2012, by interpolating coarser resolution climate data and including the effects of local topography. These variables were used to calculate atmospheric evaporative demand (AED) at the same spatial and temporal resolution. Two functions that represent AED were chosen: one is a standard form of potential evapotranspiration (PET) and the other is a derived PET measure used by hydrologists that includes the effect of water intercepted by the canopy (PETI). Temporal trends in these functions were calculated, with PET found to be increasing in all regions, and at an overall rate of 0.021 ± 0.021 mm day-1 decade-1 in Great Britain. PETI was found to be increasing at a rate of 0.019 ± 0.020 mm day-1 decade-1 in Great Britain, but this was not statistically significant. However, there was a trend in PETI in England of 0.023 ± 0.023 mm day-1 decade-1. The trends were found to vary by season, with spring PET increasing by 0.043 ± 0.019 mm day-1 decade-1 (0.038 ± 0.018 mm day-1 decade-1 when the interception correction is included) in Great Britain, while there is no statistically significant trend in other seasons. The trends were attributed analytically to trends in the climate variables; the overall positive trend was predominantly driven by rising air temperature, although rising specific humidity had a negative effect on the trend. Recasting the analysis in terms of relative humidity revealed that the overall effect is that falling relative humidity causes the PET to rise. Increasing downward short- and longwave radiation made an overall positive contribution to the PET trend, while decreasing wind speed made a

  9. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is endemic in many provinces with high incidence in mainland China, although integrated intervention measures including rodent control, environment management and vaccination have been implemented for over ten years. In this study, we conducted a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial analysis on distribution of HFRS cases for the whole country with an objective to inform priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Methods Annualized average incidence at a county level was calculated using HFRS cases reported during 1994–1998 in mainland China. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect spatial autocorrelation and clusters of HFRS incidence at the county level throughout the country. Results Spatial distribution of HFRS cases in mainland China from 1994 to 1998 was mapped at county level in the aspects of crude incidence, excess hazard and spatial smoothed incidence. The spatial distribution of HFRS cases was nonrandom and clustered with a Moran's I = 0.5044 (p = 0.001. Spatial cluster analyses suggested that 26 and 39 areas were at increased risks of HFRS (p Conclusion The application of GIS, together with spatial statistical techniques, provide a means to quantify explicit HFRS risks and to further identify environmental factors responsible for the increasing disease risks. We demonstrate a new perspective of integrating such spatial analysis tools into the epidemiologic study and risk assessment of HFRS.

  10. Britain and Europe: what ways forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold James

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed some of the reasons why Britain participated only half-way in the European Union and ended up voting for Bremen on 23 June 2016. It also examines the options open to the European Union and Great Britain. Europe must show that it can work by showing results. In Britain it is necessary to break the established molds of thought and reshape the structure of political parties

  11. Crash rates analysis in China using a spatial panel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonmongo Lacina Soro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The consideration of spatial externalities in traffic safety analysis is of paramount importance for the success of road safety policies. Yet, the quasi-totality of spatial dependence studies on crash rates is performed within the framework of single-equation spatial cross-sectional studies. The present study extends the spatial cross-sectional scheme to a spatial fixed-effects panel model estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The spatial units are the 31 administrative regions of mainland China over the period 2004–2013. The presence of neighborhood effects is evidenced through the Moran's I statistic. Consistent with previous studies, the analysis reveals that omitting the spatial effects in traffic safety analysis is likely to bias the estimation results. The spatial and error lags are all positive and statistically significant suggesting similarities of crash rates pattern in neighboring regions. Some other explanatory variables, such as freight traffic, the length of paved roads and the populations of age 65 and above are related to higher rates while the opposite trend is observed for the Gross Regional Product, the urban unemployment rate and passenger traffic.

  12. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Internal Wave Analysis Spatial Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains the spatial extent of the internal wave analysis. This area of interest was defined in interests of time. A cusory review of the 66 SAR...

  13. Local spatial frequency analysis for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, John; Shafer, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A sense of vision is a prerequisite for a robot to function in an unstructured environment. However, real-world scenes contain many interacting phenomena that lead to complex images which are difficult to interpret automatically. Typical computer vision research proceeds by analyzing various effects in isolation (e.g., shading, texture, stereo, defocus), usually on images devoid of realistic complicating factors. This leads to specialized algorithms which fail on real-world images. Part of this failure is due to the dichotomy of useful representations for these phenomena. Some effects are best described in the spatial domain, while others are more naturally expressed in frequency. In order to resolve this dichotomy, we present the combined space/frequency representation which, for each point in an image, shows the spatial frequencies at that point. Within this common representation, we develop a set of simple, natural theories describing phenomena such as texture, shape, aliasing and lens parameters. We show these theories lead to algorithms for shape from texture and for dealiasing image data. The space/frequency representation should be a key aid in untangling the complex interaction of phenomena in images, allowing automatic understanding of real-world scenes.

  14. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  15. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  16. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    Based on work by Pearson in 1901, Hotelling in 1933 introduced principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is often used for general feature generation and linear orthogonalization or compression by dimensionality reduction of correlated multivariate data, see Jolliffe for a comprehensive description...... version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis...

  17. Kernel parameter dependence in spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2010-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) [1] is often used for general feature generation and linear orthogonalization or compression by dimensionality reduction of correlated multivariate data, see Jolliffe [2] for a comprehensive description of PCA and related techniques. Schölkopf et al. [3] introduce...... feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply a kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) [7, 8] analysis to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemistry data from South Greenland and illustrate the dependence...

  18. Spatial analysis of BSE cases in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brus Dick J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many of the European countries affected by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, case clustering patterns have been observed. Most of these patterns have been interpreted in terms of heterogeneities in exposure of cattle to the BSE agent. Here we investigate whether spatial clustering is present in the Dutch BSE case data. Results We have found three spatial case clusters in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The clusters are geographically distinct and each cluster appears in a different birth cohort. When testing all birth cohorts together, only one significant cluster was detected. The fact that we found stronger spatial clustering when using a cohort-based analysis, is consistent with the evidence that most BSE infections occur in animals less than 12 or 18 months old. Conclusion Significant spatial case clustering is present in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The spatial clusters of BSE cases are most likely due to time-dependent heterogeneities in exposure related to feed production.

  19. Resource materials for a GIS spatial analysis course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Gary L.

    2001-01-01

    This report consists of materials prepared for a GIS spatial analysis course offered as part of the Geography curriculum at the University of Nevada, Reno and the University of California at Santa Barbara in the spring of 2000. The report is intended to share information with instructors preparing spatial-modeling training and scientists with advanced GIS expertise. The students taking this class had completed each universities GIS curriculum and had a foundation in statistics as part of a science major. This report is organized into chapters that contain the following: Slides used during lectures, Guidance on the use of Arcview, Introduction to filtering in Arcview, Conventional and spatial correlation in Arcview, Tools for fuzzification in Arcview, Data and instructions for creating using ArcSDM for simple weights-of-evidence, fuzzy logic, and neural network models for Carlin-type gold deposits in central Nevada, Reading list on spatial modeling, and Selected student spatial-modeling posters from the laboratory exercises.

  20. Spatial Assessment of Road Traffic Injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA: Spatial Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Tehranchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS and spatial analysis approach based on the global spatial autocorrelation of road traffic injuries for identifying spatial patterns. A locational spatial autocorrelation was also used for identifying traffic injury at spatial level. Data for this research study were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI based on 2004 and 2011. Moran’s I statistics were used to examine spatial patterns of road traffic injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. An assessment of Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was followed as to identify hot spots and cold spots within the study area. The results revealed that Peel and Durham have the highest collision rate for other motor vehicle with motor vehicle. Geographic weighted regression (GWR technique was conducted to test the relationships between the dependent variable, number of road traffic injury incidents and independent variables such as number of seniors, low education, unemployed, vulnerable groups, people smoking and drinking, urban density and average median income. The result of this model suggested that number of seniors and low education have a very strong correlation with the number of road traffic injury incidents.

  1. Using R to implement spatial analysis in open source environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yixi; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Bo

    2007-06-01

    R is an open source (GPL) language and environment for spatial analysis, statistical computing and graphics which provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques, and is highly extensible. In the Open Source environment it plays an important role in doing spatial analysis. So, to implement spatial analysis in the Open Source environment which we called the Open Source geocomputation is using the R data analysis language integrated with GRASS GIS and MySQL or PostgreSQL. This paper explains the architecture of the Open Source GIS environment and emphasizes the role R plays in the aspect of spatial analysis. Furthermore, one apt illustration of the functions of R is given in this paper through the project of constructing CZPGIS (Cheng Zhou Population GIS) supported by Changzhou Government, China. In this project we use R to implement the geostatistics in the Open Source GIS environment to evaluate the spatial correlation of land price and estimate it by Kriging Interpolation. We also use R integrated with MapServer and php to show how R and other Open Source software cooperate with each other in WebGIS environment, which represents the advantages of using R to implement spatial analysis in Open Source GIS environment. And in the end, we points out that the packages for spatial analysis in R is still scattered and the limited memory is still a bottleneck when large sum of clients connect at the same time. Therefore further work is to group the extensive packages in order or design normative packages and make R cooperate better with other commercial software such as ArcIMS. Also we look forward to developing packages for land price evaluation.

  2. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software package PySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is described

  3. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software packagePySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is

  4. Spatial analysis of notified cryptosporidiosis infections in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2009-12-01

    This study explored the spatial distribution of notified cryptosporidiosis cases and identified major socioeconomic factors associated with the transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Brisbane, Australia. We obtained the computerized data sets on the notified cryptosporidiosis cases and their key socioeconomic factors by statistical local area (SLA) in Brisbane for the period of 1996 to 2004 from the Queensland Department of Health and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. We used spatial empirical Bayes rates smoothing to estimate the spatial distribution of cryptosporidiosis cases. A spatial classification and regression tree (CART) model was developed to explore the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the incidence rates of cryptosporidiosis. Spatial empirical Bayes analysis reveals that the cryptosporidiosis infections were primarily concentrated in the northwest and southeast of Brisbane. A spatial CART model shows that the relative risk for cryptosporidiosis transmission was 2.4 when the value of the social economic index for areas (SEIFA) was over 1028 and the proportion of residents with low educational attainment in an SLA exceeded 8.8%. There was remarkable variation in spatial distribution of cryptosporidiosis infections in Brisbane. Spatial pattern of cryptosporidiosis seems to be associated with SEIFA and the proportion of residents with low education attainment.

  5. A new eigenfunction spatial analysis describing population genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Diniz, João Vitor Barnez P L; Rangel, Thiago Fernando; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Bini, Luis Mauricio

    2013-12-01

    Several methods of spatial analyses have been proposed to infer the relative importance of evolutionary processes on genetic population structure. Here we show how a new eigenfunction spatial analysis can be used to model spatial patterns in genetic data. Considering a sample of n local populations, the method starts by modeling the response variable (allele frequencies or phenotypic variation) against the eigenvectors sequentially extracted from a geographic distance matrix (n × n). The relationship between the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the models and the cumulative eigenvalues, which we named the spatial signal-representation (SSR) curve, can be more efficient than Moran's I correlograms in describing different patterns. The SSR curve was also applied to simulated data (under distinct scenarios of population differentiation) and to analyze spatial patterns in alleles from microsatellite data for 25 local populations of Dipteryx alata, a tree species endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado. The SSR curves are consistent with previous phylogeographical patterns of the species, revealing combined effects of isolation-by-distance and range expansion. Our analyses demonstrate that the SSR curve is a useful exploratory tool for describing spatial patterns of genetic variability and for selecting spatial eigenvectors for models aiming to explain spatial responses to environmental variables and landscape features.

  6. Assessment of tuberculosis spatial hotspot areas in Antananarivo, Madagascar, by combining spatial analysis and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovonirina, Noël Harijaona; Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Razafimahatratra, Solohery Lalaina; Raherison, Mamy Serge; Refrégier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rasolofo Razanamparany, Voahangy

    2017-08-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in Madagascar. A crucial element of TB control is the development of an easy and rapid method for the orientation of TB control strategies in the country. Our main objective was to develop a TB spatial hotspot identification method by combining spatial analysis and TB genotyping method in Antananarivo. Sputa of new pulmonary TB cases from 20 TB diagnosis and treatment centers (DTCs) in Antananarivo were collected from August 2013 to May 2014 for culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates were typed by spoligotyping on a Luminex® 200 platform. All TB patients were respectively localized according to their neighborhood residence and the spatial distribution of all pulmonary TB patients and patients with genotypic clustered isolates were scanned respectively by the Kulldorff spatial scanning method for identification of significant spatial clustering. Areas exhibiting spatial clustering of patients with genotypic clustered isolates were considered as hotspot TB areas for transmission. Overall, 467 new cases were included in the study, and 394 spoligotypes were obtained (84.4%). New TB cases were distributed in 133 of the 192 Fokontany (administrative neighborhoods) of Antananarivo (1 to 15 clinical patients per Fokontany) and patients with genotypic clustered isolates were distributed in 127 of the 192 Fokontany (1 to 13 per Fokontany). A single spatial focal point of epidemics was detected when ignoring genotypic data (p = 0.039). One Fokontany of this focal point and three additional ones were detected to be spatially clustered when taking genotypes into account (p Madagascar and will allow better TB control strategies by public health authorities.

  7. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  8. Urban Growth Analysis Using Spatial and Temporal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhira, HS; Ramachandra, TV; Jagadish, KS; Karthik, Raj S

    2003-01-01

    Urban growth identification, quantification, knowledge of rate and the trends of growth would help in regional planning for better infrastructure provision in environmentally sound way. This requires analysis of spatial and temporal data, which help in quantifying the trends of growth on spatial scale. Emerging technologies such as Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) along with Global Positioning System (GPS) help in this regard. Remote sensing aids in the collection of tem...

  9. Myxomatosis in 1950s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P W J

    2008-01-01

    In 1953 myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, broke out in Britain for the first time. It rapidly killed tens of millions of the animals from Kent to the Shetlands. Many farmers and foresters welcomed a disease that virtually eliminated a longstanding and serious agricultural pest. Others were horrified by the sight of thousands of dead and dying animals. With meat still rationed, consumers rued the loss of a cheap and nutritious foodstuff. Rough shooters deplored the loss of prey and hatters and furriers the unavailability of the fur on which their businesses depended. Rabbits also had champions within the 'establishment'; these included Winston Churchill who was personally influential in making deliberate transmission of the disease a criminal offence. The arrival in Britain of myxomatosis presented the authorities with difficult questions: should they try to contain it, spread it or do nothing; should they take advantage of rabbit depopulation and try to exterminate such a destructive animal? In the event the outbreak was allowed to run its course and rabbit extermination became government policy. This article considers who or what was responsible for the disease reaching the UK and how it then spread throughout the country. It examines the responses of government, other institutions and members of the public. Finally, it explores the impact of rabbit de-population on agriculture, the natural environment and public opinion.

  10. Spatial analysis of neglected diseases in Brazil, 2007 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes de Andrade Schramm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe a set of epidemiological information regarding the spatial distribution of selected neglected diseases in Brazil from 2007 to 2009 and health care infrastructure and socio-economic indicators 2010. An ecological study of the spatial analysis, based on the incidence of tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis, American cutaneous leishmaniasis, malaria and prevalence of leprosy and schistosomiasis. Maps with the spatial distribution of the prevalence and incidence rates were drawn, as well as cluster detection maps, applying spatial statistical analysis techniques. A thematic map with the total distribution of priority municipalities was developed for each disease. Malaria and schistosomiasis had the highest incidence and prevalence rates respectively. All diseases analyzed showed dependence in the spatial correlation measure. A total of 1,630 Brazilians municipalities (29% were considered by the Ministry of Health as a priority to receive control actions for at least one of the studied diseases. North and Northeast regions concentrate municipalities with at least three simultaneous diseases, which overlap with the lowest socio-economic indicators. Spatial analysis studies may contribute to a better planning and organizing health care and services, aiming to reduce the existent gap regarding scientific knowledge on neglected diseases.

  11. Retirement: Institutional Pathways and Individual Trajectories in Britain and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anette E. Fasang

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970s people have retired increasingly early across advanced societies. Parallel to this trend, numerous institutional early retirement pathways evolved, such as bridge unemployment and pre-retirement schemes. This article compares retirement in Britain and Germany to show how individuals progress through these institutional retirement pathways. The analysis uses longitudinal data and recent innovations in sequence analysis to capture the sequential nature of retirement as a series ...

  12. Graph Wavelets for Spatial Traffic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM ’95, 1995, pp. 100–113. [5] J. Levy-Vehel and R. Riedi, “Fractional Brownian motion and data traffic modeling: the other end of...similarity and long-range dependence, [3, 4]; and multifractality and local scaling [5, 6]. Many of the key results in traffic time scaling analysis have...as cascades: Investigating the multifractal nature of Internet WAN traffic,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM ’98, October 1998, pp. 42–55. [7] P. Abry and

  13. Mathematical Analysis of Urban Spatial Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Cities can be considered to be among the largest and most complex artificial networks created by human beings. Due to the numerous and diverse human-driven activities, urban network topology and dynamics can differ quite substantially from that of natural networks and so call for an alternative method of analysis. The intent of the present monograph is to lay down the theoretical foundations for studying the topology of compact urban patterns, using methods from spectral graph theory and statistical physics. These methods are demonstrated as tools to investigate the structure of a number of real cities with widely differing properties: medieval German cities, the webs of city canals in Amsterdam and Venice, and a modern urban structure such as found in Manhattan. Last but not least, the book concludes by providing a brief overview of possible applications that will eventually lead to a useful body of knowledge for architects, urban planners and civil engineers.

  14. Contributions to the Analysis of Spatial and Spatial-Temporal Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoest, G.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis addresses some problems in the analysis of spatial and spatial-temporal data and discusses prediction, prediction errors and identification of emission sources. European sulphur data are used as illustration. In an investigation of a spatial-temporal decomposition model for improving estimates of spatial interpolation (prediction) errors from monitoring data, the estimates were improved compared to estimates obtained by the method known as Kriging (an extension of the Wiener-Kolmogorov theory from time series to spatial processes), although the interpolated values were quite similar. A study of a random process model with an unknown, slowly varying trend and a correlated residual process is performed, using both trend estimation (smoothing) and prediction. Local polynomial methods are extended to continuous random processes. A new approach to non-parametric smoothing and to non-parametric Kriging is described. Finally, a statistical method for verifying reported sulphur emissions from European countries is presented. The method combines meteorological modeling, prior information on sulphur emissions and measurements of sulphate depositions within a Bayesian framework. 101 refs., 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. [Spatial exploratory analysis of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Prepare a tool for the exploratory study of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, that exclusively applies the spatial geographical variable (location). Observational and cross-sectional study that uses a Geographic Information System to explore the spatial nature of 13 305 road accidents recorded during 2008 and 2009 in Ciudad Juarez. Indicators were constructed that approximated the transit flow and included two variables: indices of the level of urbanization and population density. The value of the global spatial autocorrelation was positive, indicating the presence of groupings that were identified through the spatial association indicators. There are road risk clusters located in areas with a high level of urbanization, low population density, and a high transit flow level. The exploratory analysis of spatial data is a phase that precedes the use of multivariate techniques with a broader scope. The application of exploratory analysis techniques in itself makes it possible to standardize spatial groupings, identify global autocorrelation, and indicate the direction of the variables under study.

  16. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  17. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  18. Britain honours its particle physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental particle physicists figure among the winners for 2004 of Britain's most prestigious prizes for physics, awarded by the Institute of Physics (IOP). The IOP's own Paul Dirac medal and prize, goes to this year to CERN's John Ellis for "his highly influential work on particle-physics phenomenology; in particular on the properties of gluons, the Higgs boson and the top quark". One of the institute's premier wards, it is made for outstanding contributions to theoretical (including mathematical and computational) physics. The Duddell medal and prize, in memory of William du Bois Duddell, the inventor of the electromagnetic oscillograph, is awarded for outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge through the application of physics, including the invention or design of scientific instruments or the discovery of materials used in their construction. It is shared this year by Geoff Hall, of Imperial College London, Alessandro Marchioro from CERN and Peter Sharp of the Rutherfor...

  19. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  20. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  1. A Spatial Lattice Model Applied for Meteorological Visualization and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological information has obvious spatial-temporal characteristics. Although it is meaningful to employ a geographic information system (GIS to visualize and analyze the meteorological information for better identification and forecasting of meteorological weather so as to reduce the meteorological disaster loss, modeling meteorological information based on a GIS is still difficult because meteorological elements generally have no stable shape or clear boundary. To date, there are still few GIS models that can satisfy the requirements of both meteorological visualization and analysis. In this article, a spatial lattice model based on sampling particles is proposed to support both the representation and analysis of meteorological information. In this model, a spatial sampling particle is regarded as the basic element that contains the meteorological information, and the location where the particle is placed with the time mark. The location information is generally represented using a point. As these points can be extended to a surface in two dimensions and a voxel in three dimensions, if these surfaces and voxels can occupy a certain space, then this space can be represented using these spatial sampling particles with their point locations and meteorological information. In this case, the full meteorological space can then be represented by arranging numerous particles with their point locations in a certain structure and resolution, i.e., the spatial lattice model, and extended at a higher resolution when necessary. For practical use, the meteorological space is logically classified into three types of spaces, namely the projection surface space, curved surface space, and stereoscopic space, and application-oriented spatial lattice models with different organization forms of spatial sampling particles are designed to support the representation, inquiry, and analysis of meteorological information within the three types of surfaces. Cases

  2. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tuberculosis and living conditions in Salvador, Brazil: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, Carlos; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Evangelista-Filho, Delsuc; Braga, José Ueleres; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate spatial tuberculosis (TB) distribution patterns and the association between living conditions and incidence of the disease in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with neighborhood as the unit of analysis. Data was collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE). Rates of TB incidence were transformed and smoothed. Spatial analysis was applied to identify spatial auto-correlation and "hotspot" areas of high and low risk. The relationship between TB and living conditions was confirmed by spatial linear regression. The incidence of TB in Salvador displayed heterogeneous patterns, with higher rates occurring in neighborhoods with poor living conditions in 1995 - 1996. Over the study period, disease occurrence declined, particularly in less-privileged strata. In 2004 - 2005, the association between living conditions and TB was no longer observed. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of TB in Salvador previously reflected inequalities related to living conditions. Improvements in such conditions and health care for the less privileged may have contributed to observed changes.

  4. Spatial analysis of fluoride concentrations in drinking water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Namibia, the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa, is largely reliant on groundwater for its potable water demand and groundwater is a major source of naturally-occurring fluoride. This study assessed the spatial distribution of fluoride in potable water and appraised the population at risk for high fluoride intake. Analysis of ...

  5. Analysis of thrips distribution: application of spatial statistics and Kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Aleong; Bruce L. Parker; Margaret Skinner; Diantha Howard

    1991-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical technique that provides predictions for spatially and temporally correlated data. Observations of thrips distribution and density in Vermont soils are made in both space and time. Traditional statistical analysis of such data assumes that the counts taken over space and time are independent, which is not necessarily true. Therefore, to analyze...

  6. Sensing motion using spectral and spatial analysis of WLAN RSSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavitha Muthukrishnan, K.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present how motion sensing can be obtained just by observing the WLAN radio signal strength and its fluctuations. The temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of WLAN signal are analyzed. Our analysis confirms our claim that ’signal strength from access points appear to jump

  7. Spatial statistical analysis of dissatisfaction with the performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis reveals spatial clustering in the level of dissatisfaction with the performance of local government. It also reveals percentage of respondents dissatisfied with dwelling, mean sense of safety index, and percentage agree the country is going in the wrong direction, as significant predictors of the level of local ...

  8. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Spatial analysis of the distribution of these accident spots using Weighted Severity Index (WSI) was carried out. A Density-based Clustering Algorithm for. Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was used to determine accident concentrations with severity levels in a Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) environment. This work is ...

  9. Spatial and temporal expression analysis of D- myo -inositol 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1á (eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha) using SYBER-Green. The qRT-PCR data analysis indicated that the expression of the four highly conserved MIPS genes is both temporally and spatially regulated, information much needed for reverse ...

  10. Analysis of spatial pattern of settlements in the federal capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human settlements are important, seemingly static but dynamic, features of the cultural landscape that have attracted several studies due to the important role they play in human life. This paper examined the spatial distribution of settlements in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. The analysis uses vector based ...

  11. Spatial Analysis of Soil Erosion in Swaziland | Manyatsi | UNISWA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a spatial analysis was undertaken to identify the impact of the factors controlling soil erosion: land management systems, stocking pressure, soil erodibility, average slope of the land, and mean annual rainfall. A binary classification was applied to a broad land cover classes map produced from image ...

  12. Spatial analysis of digital technologies and impact on socio - cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of digital technologies and ascertain whether digital technologies have significant impact on socio - cultural values or not. Moran's index and Getis and Ord's statistic were used for cluster and hotspots analysis. The unique locations of digital technologies ...

  13. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Anne; Hönekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large…

  14. Spatial-spectral analysis of a laser scanning video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A. A.; Razumovskii, V. N.; Iatsevich, G. B.

    1980-06-01

    A spatial-spectral analysis method is considered for a laser scanning video system with the phase processing of a received signal, on a modulation frequency. Distortions caused by the system are analyzed, and a general problem is reduced for the case of a cylindrical surface. The approach suggested can also be used for scanning microwave systems.

  15. Guidance on spatial wildland fire analysis: models, tools, and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Stratton

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing need for spatial wildland fire analysis in support of incident management, fuel treatment planning, wildland-urban assessment, and land management plan development. However, little guidance has been provided to the field in the form of training, support, or research examples. This paper provides guidance to fire managers, planners, specialists,...

  16. Physical activity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic adults from Great Britain: pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.

  17. Geospatial analysis platform: Supporting strategic spatial analysis and planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naude, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of spatially incompatible statistical area boundaries (e.g. administrative boundaries differing from river catchment management boundaries), it is argued that there is also a need to move from the prevailing “container“ approach to a much more relational...

  18. Spatial-resolution analysis and optimal design of integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ChunHong; Wang, QianQian; Wang, HongXia; Lan, JinHui

    2013-11-01

    Integral imaging is a promising technology for 3D imaging and display. This paper reports the 3D spatial-resolution research based on reconstructed 3D space. Through geometric analysis of the reconstructed optical distribution from all the element images that attend recording, the relationship among microlens parameters, planar-recording resolution, and 3D spatial resolution was obtained. The effect of microlens parameter accuracy on the reconstructed position error also was discussed. The research was carried on the depth priority integral imaging system (DPII). The results can be used in the optimal design of integral imaging.

  19. GIS application on spatial landslide analysis using statistical based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred F.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the assessment results of spatially based probabilistic three models using Geoinformation Techniques (GIT) for landslide susceptibility analysis at Penang Island in Malaysia. Landslide locations within the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, satellite images and supported with field surveys. Maps of the topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial data sets. There are ten landslide related factors were extracted from the spatial database and the frequency ratio, fuzzy logic, and bivariate logistic regression coefficients of each factor was computed. Finally, landslide susceptibility maps were drawn for study area using frequency ratios, fuzzy logic and bivariate logistic regression models. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared with actual landslide locations in study area. The verification results show that bivariate logistic regression model provides slightly higher prediction accuracy than the frequency ratio and fuzzy logic models.

  20. Practical likelihood analysis for spatial generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of spatial generalized linear mixed models based on the Laplace approximation. We compare our algorithm with a set of alternative approaches for two datasets from the literature. The Rhizoctonia root rot and the Rongelap are, respectiv......We investigate an algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of spatial generalized linear mixed models based on the Laplace approximation. We compare our algorithm with a set of alternative approaches for two datasets from the literature. The Rhizoctonia root rot and the Rongelap are......, respectively, examples of binomial and count datasets modeled by spatial generalized linear mixed models. Our results show that the Laplace approximation provides similar estimates to Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood, Monte Carlo expectation maximization, and modified Laplace approximation. Some advantages...... of algorithms and convergence analysis, commonly required by simulation-based methods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  1. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and spatial analysis of the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Abrial, David; Jarrige, Nathalie; Rican, Stéphane; Garrido, Myriam; Calavas, Didier; Ducrot, Christian

    2007-06-01

    In France, despite the ban of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in hundreds of cattle born after the ban. To study the role of MBM, animal fat, and dicalcium phosphate on the risk for BSE after the feed ban, we conducted a spatial analysis of the feed industry. We used data from 629 BSE cases as well as data on use of each byproduct and market area of the feed factories. We mapped risk for BSE in 951 areas supplied by the same factories and connection with use of byproducts. A disease map of BSE with covariates was built with the hierarchical Bayesian modeling methods, based on Poisson distribution with spatial smoothing. Only use of MBM was spatially linked to risk for BSE, which highlights cross-contamination as the most probable source of infection after the feed ban.

  2. Analysis and System Design Framework for Infrared Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, B.J.; Smith, B.W.; Laubscher, B.E.; Villeneuve, P.V.; Briles, S.D.

    1999-04-05

    The authors present a preliminary analysis and design framework developed for the evaluation and optimization of infrared, Imaging Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) electro-optic systems. Commensurate with conventional interferometric spectrometers, SHS modeling requires an integrated analysis environment for rigorous evaluation of system error propagation due to detection process, detection noise, system motion, retrieval algorithm and calibration algorithm. The analysis tools provide for optimization of critical system parameters and components including : (1) optical aperture, f-number, and spectral transmission, (2) SHS interferometer grating and Littrow parameters, and (3) image plane requirements as well as cold shield, optical filtering, and focal-plane dimensions, pixel dimensions and quantum efficiency, (4) SHS spatial and temporal sampling parameters, and (5) retrieval and calibration algorithm issues.

  3. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7-percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P promotions was larger for higher-socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the population diet but would be unlikely to reduce health inequalities arising from

  4. Spatial eigenvector filtering for spatiotemporal crime mapping and spatial crime analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Jokar Arsanjani, J

    2015-01-01

    Spatial and spatiotemporal analyses are exceedingly relevant to determine criminogenic factors. The estimation of Poisson and negative binomial models (NBM) is complicated by spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, first, eigenvector spatial filtering (ESF) is introduced as a method for spatiotemporal

  5. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume different receivers. To explicitly show the capacity scaling law of SS MIMO systems, some approximate capacity expressions for the two scenarios are derived. Next, we extend our analysis to a multiple user system with zero-forcing receivers (ZF) under spatially-independent scheduling and analyze the sum-rate. Furthermore, we provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. Our results show that the secondary system with a smaller number of transmit antennas Nt and a larger number of receive antennas Nr can achieve higher capacity at lower interference temperature Q, but at high Q the capacity follows the scaling law of the conventional MIMO systems. However, for a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system, the secondary system with small Nt and large Nr can achieve the highest capacity throughout the entire region of Q. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Ntlog2(Q(KNtNp-1)/Nt), where Np denotes the number of antennas of the primary receiver and K represents the number of secondary transmitters.

  6. Violence in public transportation: an approach based on spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Daiane Castro Bittencourt de; Pitombo, Cira Souza; Rocha, Samille Santos; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Delgado, Juan Pedro Moreno

    2017-12-11

    To carry out a spatial analysis of the occurrence of acts of violence (specifically robberies) in public transportation, identifying the regions of greater incidence, using geostatistics, and possible causes with the aid of a multicriteria analysis in the Geographic Information System. The unit of analysis is the traffic analysis zone of the survey named Origem-Destino, carried out in Salvador, state of Bahia, in 2013. The robberies recorded by the Department of Public Security of Bahia in 2013 were located and made compatible with the limits of the traffic analysis zones and, later, associated with the respective centroids. After determining the regions with the highest probability of robbery, we carried out a geographic analysis of the possible causes in the region with the highest robbery potential, considering the factors analyzed using a multicriteria analysis in a Geographic Information System environment. The execution of the two steps of this study allowed us to identify areas corresponding to the greater probability of occurrence of robberies in public transportation. In addition, the three most vulnerable road sections (Estrada da Liberdade, Rua Pero Vaz, and Avenida General San Martin) were identified in these areas. In these sections, the factors that most contribute with the potential for robbery in buses are: F1 - proximity to places that facilitate escape, F3 - great movement of persons, and F2 - absence of policing, respectively. Indicator Kriging (geostatistical estimation) can be used to construct a spatial probability surface, which can be a useful tool for the implementation of public policies. The multicriteria analysis in the Geographic Information System environment allowed us to understand the spatial factors related to the phenomenon under analysis.

  7. Fourier mode analysis of source iteration in spatially periodic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika, M.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Larsen, E.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The standard Fourier mode analysis is an indispensable tool when designing acceleration techniques for transport iterations; however, it requires the assumption of a homogeneous infinite medium. For problems of practical interest, material heterogeneities may significantly impact iterative performance. Recent work has applied a Fourier analysis to the discretized two-dimensional transport operator with heterogeneous material properties. The results of these analyses may be difficult to interpret because the heterogeneity effects are inherently coupled to the discretization effects. Here, the authors describe a Fourier analysis of source iteration (SI) that allows the calculation of the eigenvalue spectrum for the one-dimensional continuous transport operator with spatially periodic heterogeneous media.

  8. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  9. Flood frequency estimation by national-scale continuous hydrological simulations: an application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria; Reynard, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of peak discharge for an assigned return period is a crucial issue in engineering hydrology. It is required for designing and managing hydraulic infrastructure such as dams, reservoirs and bridges. In the UK, the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) recommends the use of the index flood method to estimate the design flood as the product of a local scale factor (the index flood, IF) and a dimensionless regional growth factor (GF). For gauged catchments the IF is usually estimated as the median annual maximum flood (QMED), while for ungauged catchments it is computed through multiple linear regression models based on a set of morpho-climatic indices of the basin. The GF is estimated by fitting the annual maxima with the generalised logistic distribution (GL) using two methods depending on the record length and the target return period: single-site or pooled analysis. The single site-analysis estimates the GF from the annual maxima of the subject site alone; the pooled analysis uses data from a set of catchments hydrologically similar to the subject site. In this work estimates of floods up to 100-year return period obtained from the FEH approach are compared to those obtained using Grid-to-Grid, a continuous physically-based hydrological model. The model converts rainfall and potential evapotranspiration into river flows by modelling surface/sub-surface runoff, lateral water movements, and snow-pack. It is configured on a 1km2 grid resolution and it uses spatial datasets of topography, soil, and land cover. It was set up in Great Britain and has been evaluated for the period 1960-2014 in forward-mode (i.e. without parameter calibration) using daily meteorological forcing data. The modelled floods with a given return period (5,10, 30, 50, and 100 years) were computed from the modelled discharge annual maxima and compared to the FEH estimates for 100 catchments in Great Britain. Preliminary results suggest that there is a good agreement between modelled and

  10. Perspectives on the Holocene in Britain: human DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evison, Martin P.

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of genetically-based variation in human populations has been possible for nearly a century. Recently, DNA sequence-based methods have begun to replace protein-based methods leading to a higher resolution, but more complex results. Patterns of gene distribution may be established with statistical reliability, but understanding them in terms of history is a process of interpretation; multi-disciplinary research is essential. A brief synopsis of the Holocene in Britain is presented, based on the genetic data , but with reference to archaeology, palaeoecology, ethnology and linguistics. The genetic history of Britain is a Holocene history. Patterns of gene distributions can be seen as the consequence of social processes and of selection. The major events are: the reoccupation of Britain in the Late Upper Palaeolithic/Early Mesolithic (c. 10,000-7,500 bp), social and demographic development during the Mesolithic (7,500-6,000 bp), and the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition (6,000-4,000 bp). Interpretations of the transition based on social interaction, intermarriage and minor genetic input are most consistent with the broad evidence. An extreme indigenist position is not supported.

  11. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  12. Spatial analysis of childhood obesity and overweight in Peru, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Universidad de Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires, Argentina.; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga. Ica, Perú. estudiante de Medicina; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Instituto Nacional Cardiovascular - EsSalud. Lima, Perú. enfermera, especialista en Cuidados Intensivos; Santero, Marilina; Universidad de Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires, Argentina.; Minckas, Nicole; Universidad de Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires, Argentina. licenciada en Nutrición, magíster en Efectividad Clínica; Azañedo, Diego; Instituto de Investigación, Universidad Católica los Ángeles de Chimbote. Chimbote, Perú; Antiporta, Daniel A.; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, USA. licenciado en Nutrición, magíster en Salud Pública.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate regional prevalence and identify the spatial patterns of the degree of overweight and obesity by districts in under five years children in Peru during 2014. Materials and methods. Analysis of the information reported by the Information System Nutritional Status (SIEN) of the number of cases of overweight and obesity in children under five years recorded during 2014. Regional prevalence for overweight and obesity, and their respective confidence intervals to 95% were ca...

  13. SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF FIBROBLAST NUCLEAR CHROMOCENTERS: COMPONENT TREE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Snapp, Robert R.; Goveia, Elyse; Peet, Lindsay; Bouffard, Nicole A; Badger, Gary J.; Langevin, Helene M

    2013-01-01

    The nuclei of mouse connective tissue fibroblasts contain chromocenters which are well-defined zones of heterochromatin that can be used as positional landmarks to examine nuclear remodeling in response to a mechanical perturbation. This study used component tree analysis, an image segmentation algorithm that detects high intensity voxels that are topologically connected, to quantify the spatial organization of chromocenters in fibroblasts within whole mouse connective tissue fixed and staine...

  14. A System for Interactive Spatial Analysis via Potential Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Plumejeaud, Christine; Vincent, Jean-Marc; Grasland, Claude; Bimonte, Sandro; Mathian, Hélène; Guelton, Serge; Boulier, Joël; Gensel, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new cartographic tool for spatial analysis of social data, using the potential smoothing method. The purpose of this method is to view the spreading of a phenomenon (demographic, economical, social, etc.) in a continuous way, at a macroscopic scale, from data sampled on administrative areas. We aim to offer an interactive tool, accessible through the Web, but guarantying the confidentiality of data. The biggest difficulty is induced by the high co...

  15. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-11-23

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  16. GIS-BASED SPATIAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COLLEGE GRADUATES EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004–2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were analyzed with geocoding using ArcGIS software, and the stepwise multiple linear regression method via SPSS software was used to predict the employment and to identify spatially associated enterprise and professionals demand in the future. The results show that the enterprises in Wuhan east lake high and new technology development zone increased dramatically from 2004 to 2008, and tended to distributed southeastward. Furthermore, the models built by statistical analysis suggest that the specialty of graduates major in has an important impact on the number of the employment and the number of graduates engaging in pillar industries. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis which helps to simulate the spatial distribution of the employment status is a potential tool for human resource development research.

  17. Gis-Based Spatial Statistical Analysis of College Graduates Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, R.

    2012-07-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004-2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were analyzed with geocoding using ArcGIS software, and the stepwise multiple linear regression method via SPSS software was used to predict the employment and to identify spatially associated enterprise and professionals demand in the future. The results show that the enterprises in Wuhan east lake high and new technology development zone increased dramatically from 2004 to 2008, and tended to distributed southeastward. Furthermore, the models built by statistical analysis suggest that the specialty of graduates major in has an important impact on the number of the employment and the number of graduates engaging in pillar industries. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis which helps to simulate the spatial distribution of the employment status is a potential tool for human resource development research.

  18. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  20. Spatial Durbin model analysis macroeconomic loss due to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, D. E.; Mukhtasor

    2015-03-01

    Magnitude of the damage and losses caused by natural disasters is huge for Indonesia, therefore this study aimed to analyze the effects of natural disasters for macroeconomic losses that occurred in 115 cities/districts across Java during 2012. Based on the results of previous studies it is suspected that it contains effects of spatial dependencies in this case, so that the completion of this case is performed using a regression approach to the area, namely Analysis of Spatial Durbin Model (SDM). The obtained significant predictor variable is population, and predictor variable with a significant weighting is the number of occurrences of disasters, i.e., disasters in the region which have an impact on other neighboring regions. Moran's I index value using the weighted Queen Contiguity also showed significant results, meaning that the incidence of disasters in the region will decrease the value of GDP in other.

  1. Spatial analysis to identify disparities in Philippine public school facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaya Leah Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issues that affect school building conditions as a case study of the Philippines. Geographic information systems were utilized to investigate the allocation of public school resources and the extent of disparity in education facilities among 75 Philippine provinces. Four clusters of the provinces were identified by applying spatial statistics and regionalization techniques to the public school data. Overall, the building conditions are of high quality in the northern provinces. The greater region of the capital is overcrowded but well maintained. The eastern seaboard region and the southern provinces have poor conditions due to frequent natural calamities and the prolonged civil unrest, respectively. Since the spatial analysis result shows that the school building requirements are largely unmet, some recommendations are proposed so that they can be implemented by the government in order to improve the school facilities and mitigate the existing disparities among the four clusters of the Philippines.

  2. An Information Theory Analysis of Spatial Decisions in Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages five to ten years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of cognitive entropy were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1 the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2 the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured chunking of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework.

  3. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicole M.; Sera, Maria D.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of “cognitive entropy” were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured “chunking” of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework. PMID:25698915

  4. SPATIAL ANALYSIS TO SUPPORT GEOGRAPHIC TARGETING OF GENOTYPES TO ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn eHyman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop improvement efforts have benefited greatly from advances in available data, computing technology and methods for targeting genotypes to environments. These advances support the analysis of genotype by environment interactions to understand how well a genotype adapts to environmental conditions. This paper reviews the use of spatial analysis to support crop improvement research aimed at matching genotypes to their most appropriate environmental niches. Better data sets are now available on soils, weather and climate, elevation, vegetation, crop distribution and local conditions where genotypes are tested in experimental trial sites. The improved data are now combined with spatial analysis methods to compare environmental conditions across sites, create agro-ecological region maps and assess environment change. Climate, elevation and vegetation data sets are now widely available, supporting analyses that were much more difficult even five or ten years ago. While detailed soil data for many parts of the world remains difficult to acquire for crop improvement studies, new advances in digital soil mapping are likely to improve our capacity. Site analysis and matching and regional targeting methods have advanced in parallel to data and technology improvements. All these developments have increased our capacity to link genotype to phenotype and point to a vast potential to improve crop adaptation efforts.

  5. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Chinson, Pornpiroon; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Visser, Marjolein; Gaughan, Andrea E; Epprech, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-10-06

    In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic patterns of pig production systems in Thailand in terms of pig type (native, breeding, and fattening pigs), farm scales (smallholder and large-scale farming systems) and type of farming systems (farrow-to-finish, nursery, and finishing systems) based on a very detailed 2010 census. Second, we aimed to study the statistical spatial association between these different types of pig farming distribution and a set of spatial variables describing access to feed and markets. Over the last decades, pig population gradually increased, with a continuously increasing number of pigs per holder, suggesting a continuing intensification of the sector. The different pig-production systems showed very contrasted geographical distributions. The spatial distribution of large-scale pig farms corresponds with that of commercial pig breeds, and spatial analysis conducted using Random Forest distribution models indicated that these were concentrated in lowland urban or peri-urban areas, close to means of transportation, facilitating supply to major markets such as provincial capitals and the Bangkok Metropolitan region. Conversely the smallholders were distributed throughout the country, with higher densities located in highland, remote, and rural areas, where they supply local rural markets. A limitation of the study was that pig farming systems were defined from the number of animals per farm, resulting in their possible misclassification, but this should have a limited impact on the main patterns revealed

  6. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  7. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  8. Origins of Megalithic Astronomy in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Gail

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of free-standing stones in Britain during the Late Neolithic, there was a significant change in the lithification of people's cosmology. Such monuments continued to be erected across Britain almost until the end of the Bronze Age. It has been empirically verified that for many Bronze Age monuments erected in Scotland between 1400-900 BC, there is a common set of complex landscape and astronomical patternings. However, when and where these patterns were first introduced through standing-stone structures was unknown. Here we show that the visible astronomical-landscape variables found at Bronze Age sites on the inner isles and mainland of western Scotland were first established nearly two millennia earlier, with the erection of the first standing-stone 'great circles' in Britain: Callanish and Stenness of Scotland.

  9. Ethnic Residential Segregation by Nativity in Great Britain and the United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John; Mateos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This study examines patterns of ethnic residential integration in Great Britain and the United States. Using data from 2000/2001 censuses from these two countries, we compute segregation indexes for comparably-defined ethnic groups by nativity and for specific foreign-born groups. We find that blacks are much less segregated in Great Britain than in the U.S, and black segregation patterns by nativity tend to be consistent with spatial assimilation in the former country (the foreign born are more segregated than the native born) but not in the latter. Among Asian groups, however, segregation tends to be lower in the United States, and segregation patterns by nativity are more consistent with spatial assimilation in the U.S. but not in Great Britain. These findings suggest that intergenerational minority disadvantage persists among blacks in the U.S. and among Asians in Great Britain. We caution, however, that there are important differences in levels of segregation among specific foreign-born Asian groups, suggesting that assimilation trajectories likely differ by country of origin. Finally, the fact that segregation levels are considerably higher in the U.S. for a majority of groups, including white foreign-born groups, suggests that factors not solely related to race or physical appearance drive higher levels of ethnic residential segregation in the U.S. PMID:25392601

  10. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis : A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the

  11. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2017-04-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius (r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  12. Spatial Analysis Along Networks Statistical and Computational Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Atsuyuki

    2012-01-01

    In the real world, there are numerous and various events that occur on and alongside networks, including the occurrence of traffic accidents on highways, the location of stores alongside roads, the incidence of crime on streets and the contamination along rivers. In order to carry out analyses of those events, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of specific techniques. Spatial Analysis Along Networks provides a practical guide to the necessary statistical techniques and their computational implementation. Each chapter illustrates a specific technique, from Stochastic Point Process

  13. Spatially resolved fish population analysis for designing MPAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Mosegaard, Henrik; Jensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    habitats for settled sandeels, combined with a life-cycle model for survival, growth, and reproduction, and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for describing larval transport between the network of habitats. SPAM couples stock dynamics to ecosystem and anthropogenic forcing via well-defined drivers......The sandeel population analysis model (SPAM) is presented as a simulation tool for exploring the efficiency of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for sandeel stocks. SPAM simulates spatially resolved sandeel population distributions, based on a high-resolution map of all fishery-established sandbank...

  14. Improved dependent component analysis for hyperspectral unmixing with spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Wan, Jianwei; Huang, Bingchao; Lan, Tian

    2014-11-01

    In highly mixed hyerspectral datasets, dependent component analysis (DECA) has shown its superiority over other traditional geometric based algorithms. This paper proposes a new algorithm that incorporates DECA with the infinite hidden Markov random field (iHMRF) model, which can efficiently exploit spatial dependencies between image pixels and automatically determine the number of classes. Expectation Maximization algorithm is derived to infer the model parameters, including the endmembers, the abundances, the dirichlet distribution parameters of each class and the classification map. Experimental results based on synthetic and real hyperspectral data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Reducing spatial uncertainty in climatic maps through geostatistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Ninyerola, Miquel; Pons, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Climatic maps from meteorological stations and geographical co-variables can be obtained through correlative models (Ninyerola et al., 2000)*. Nevertheless, the spatial uncertainty of the resulting maps could be reduced. The present work is a new stage over those approaches aiming to study how to obtain better results while characterizing spatial uncertainty. The study area is Catalonia (32000 km2), a region with highly variable relief (0 to 3143 m). We have used 217 stations (321 to 1244 mm) to model the annual precipitation in two steps: 1/ multiple regression using geographical variables (elevation, distance to the coast, latitude, etc) and 2/ refinement of the results by adding the spatial interpolation of the regression residuals with inverse distance weighting (IDW), regularized splines with tension (SPT) or ordinary kriging (OK). Spatial uncertainty analysis is based on an independent subsample (test set), randomly selected in previous works. The main contribution of this work is the analysis of this test set as well as the search for an optimal process of division (split) of the stations in two sets, one used to perform the multiple regression and residuals interpolation (fit set), and another used to compute the quality (test set); optimal division should reduce spatial uncertainty and improve the overall quality. Two methods have been evaluated against classical methods: (random selection RS and leave-one-out cross-validation LOOCV): selection by Euclidian 2D-distance, and selection by anisotropic 2D-distance combined with a 3D-contribution (suitable weighted) from the most representative independent variable. Both methods define a minimum threshold distance, obtained by variogram analysis, between samples. Main preliminary results for LOOCV, RS (average from 10 executions), Euclidian criterion (EU), and for anisotropic criterion (with 1.1 value, UTMY coordinate has a bit more weight than UTMX) combined with 3D criteria (A3D) (1000 factor for elevation

  16. Spatial and temporal epidemiological analysis in the Big Data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stevens, Kim B

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent with global economic development in the last 50 years, the opportunities for the spread of existing diseases and emergence of new infectious pathogens, have increased substantially. The activities associated with the enormously intensified global connectivity have resulted in large amounts of data being generated, which in turn provides opportunities for generating knowledge that will allow more effective management of animal and human health risks. This so-called Big Data has, more recently, been accompanied by the Internet of Things which highlights the increasing presence of a wide range of sensors, interconnected via the Internet. Analysis of this data needs to exploit its complexity, accommodate variation in data quality and should take advantage of its spatial and temporal dimensions, where available. Apart from the development of hardware technologies and networking/communication infrastructure, it is necessary to develop appropriate data management tools that make this data accessible for analysis. This includes relational databases, geographical information systems and most recently, cloud-based data storage such as Hadoop distributed file systems. While the development in analytical methodologies has not quite caught up with the data deluge, important advances have been made in a number of areas, including spatial and temporal data analysis where the spectrum of analytical methods ranges from visualisation and exploratory analysis, to modelling. While there used to be a primary focus on statistical science in terms of methodological development for data analysis, the newly emerged discipline of data science is a reflection of the challenges presented by the need to integrate diverse data sources and exploit them using novel data- and knowledge-driven modelling methods while simultaneously recognising the value of quantitative as well as qualitative analytical approaches. Machine learning regression methods, which are more robust and can handle

  17. Spatial and temporal analysis of postural control in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouleme, Nathalie; Gerard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine postural control of dyslexic children using both spatial and temporal analysis. Thirty dyslexic (mean age 9.7±0.3years) and thirty non-dyslexic age-matched children participated in the study. Postural stability was evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral®. Posture was recorded in the following conditions: eyes open fixating a target (EO) and eyes closed (EC) on stable (-S-) and unstable (-U-) platforms. The findings of this study showed poor postural stability in dyslexic children with respect to the non-dyslexic children group, as demonstrated by both spatial and temporal analysis. In both groups of children postural control depends on the condition, and improves when the eyes are open on a stable platform. Dyslexic children have spectral power indices that are higher than in non-dyslexic children and they showed a shorter cancelling time. Poor postural control in dyslexic children could be due to a deficit in using sensory information most likely caused by impairment in cerebellar activity. The reliability of brain activation patterns, namely in using sensory input and cerebellar activity may explain the deficit in postural control in dyslexic children. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploratory analysis of spatial and temporal data a systematic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Andrienko, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) is about detecting and describing patterns, trends, and relations in data, motivated by certain purposes of investigation. As something relevant is detected in data, new questions arise, causing specific parts to be viewed in more detail. So EDA has a significant appeal: it involves hypothesis generation rather than mere hypothesis testing. The authors describe in detail and systemize approaches, techniques, and methods for exploring spatial and temporal data in particular. They start by developing a general view of data structures and characteristics and then build on top of this a general task typology, distinguishing between elementary and synoptic tasks. This typology is then applied to the description of existing approaches and technologies, resulting not just in recommendations for choosing methods but in a set of generic procedures for data exploration. Professionals practicing analysis will profit from tested solutions - illustrated in many examples - for reuse in the c...

  19. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.

    2015-08-01

    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  20. Cohousing in Britain - a Diggers & Dreamers Review

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Book provides a comprehensive review of what has been happening with cohousing projects in Britain to date, and particularly since 2004 publication of Thinking about Cohousing. M Field has been guest editor and devised main format and content of the book, writing various sections and engaging other contributors across the sector

  1. How Britain underdeveloped Bechuanaland protectorate: a brief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Britain declared Bechuanaland a 'protectorate' in 1885 in a move largely driven by military strategic considerations rather than by the availability of economic resources. This can give the impression that in Botswana the process of economic underdevelopment that is often associated with colonialism never took place in this ...

  2. The Brexit challenge for Britain and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjon Boriçi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the membership of the Great Britain in the European Union in 1973, the relations of Britain with the institutions and member countries of the European Union have been correct. The greatest problem of the Great Britain remains beyond any doubt the delegation of its "independence" in the European Union’s structures. For the ultra conservatives was unimaginable that a country that has never been conquered (since the times of the Romans 55 B.C. would deliver the proper sovereignty to a community of continental countries and above all to the Franco-German policies who, especially the last one, enjoys a great doubt among the British politics. The paper I present tries to explain the obstacles between British and European politics in historic, economic and diplomatic terms as well as the rise of skepticism among the European leaders themselves during the past decades following the end of the Second World War. In an academic approach, in this paper, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between European and British economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the policies of the European Union in the global era. Brexit of course represents the sharpest challenge of the moment for the Great Britain and the European Union in the global era.

  3. A national-scale seasonal hydrological forecast system: development and evaluation over Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skilful winter seasonal predictions for the North Atlantic circulation and northern Europe have now been demonstrated and the potential for seasonal hydrological forecasting in the UK is now being explored. One of the techniques being used combines seasonal rainfall forecasts provided by operational weather forecast systems with hydrological modelling tools to provide estimates of seasonal mean river flows up to a few months ahead. The work presented here shows how spatial information contained in a distributed hydrological model typically requiring high-resolution (daily or better rainfall data can be used to provide an initial condition for a much simpler forecast model tailored to use low-resolution monthly rainfall forecasts. Rainfall forecasts (hindcasts from the GloSea5 model (1996 to 2009 are used to provide the first assessment of skill in these national-scale flow forecasts. The skill in the combined modelling system is assessed for different seasons and regions of Britain, and compared to what might be achieved using other approaches such as use of an ensemble of historical rainfall in a hydrological model, or a simple flow persistence forecast. The analysis indicates that only limited forecast skill is achievable for Spring and Summer seasonal hydrological forecasts; however, Autumn and Winter flows can be reasonably well forecast using (ensemble mean rainfall forecasts based on either GloSea5 forecasts or historical rainfall (the preferred type of forecast depends on the region. Flow forecasts using ensemble mean GloSea5 rainfall perform most consistently well across Britain, and provide the most skilful forecasts overall at the 3-month lead time. Much of the skill (64 % in the 1-month ahead seasonal flow forecasts can be attributed to the hydrological initial condition (particularly in regions with a significant groundwater contribution to flows, whereas for the 3-month ahead lead time, GloSea5 forecasts account for  ∼ 70

  4. A national-scale seasonal hydrological forecast system: development and evaluation over Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria A.; Davies, Helen N.; Kay, Alison L.; Brookshaw, Anca; Scaife, Adam A.

    2017-09-01

    Skilful winter seasonal predictions for the North Atlantic circulation and northern Europe have now been demonstrated and the potential for seasonal hydrological forecasting in the UK is now being explored. One of the techniques being used combines seasonal rainfall forecasts provided by operational weather forecast systems with hydrological modelling tools to provide estimates of seasonal mean river flows up to a few months ahead. The work presented here shows how spatial information contained in a distributed hydrological model typically requiring high-resolution (daily or better) rainfall data can be used to provide an initial condition for a much simpler forecast model tailored to use low-resolution monthly rainfall forecasts. Rainfall forecasts (hindcasts) from the GloSea5 model (1996 to 2009) are used to provide the first assessment of skill in these national-scale flow forecasts. The skill in the combined modelling system is assessed for different seasons and regions of Britain, and compared to what might be achieved using other approaches such as use of an ensemble of historical rainfall in a hydrological model, or a simple flow persistence forecast. The analysis indicates that only limited forecast skill is achievable for Spring and Summer seasonal hydrological forecasts; however, Autumn and Winter flows can be reasonably well forecast using (ensemble mean) rainfall forecasts based on either GloSea5 forecasts or historical rainfall (the preferred type of forecast depends on the region). Flow forecasts using ensemble mean GloSea5 rainfall perform most consistently well across Britain, and provide the most skilful forecasts overall at the 3-month lead time. Much of the skill (64 %) in the 1-month ahead seasonal flow forecasts can be attributed to the hydrological initial condition (particularly in regions with a significant groundwater contribution to flows), whereas for the 3-month ahead lead time, GloSea5 forecasts account for ˜ 70 % of the forecast

  5. Population structure and genome-wide patterns of variation in Ireland and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Morris, Derek; Moskvina, Valentina; Kirov, George; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Wilson, James F; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2010-11-01

    Located off the northwestern coast of the European mainland, Britain and Ireland were among the last regions of Europe to be colonized by modern humans after the last glacial maximum. Further, the geographical location of Britain, and in particular of Ireland, is such that the impact of historical migration has been minimal. Genetic diversity studies applying the Y chromosome and mitochondrial systems have indicated reduced diversity and an increased population structure across Britain and Ireland relative to the European mainland. Such characteristics would have implications for genetic mapping studies of complex disease. We set out to further our understanding of the genetic architecture of the region from the perspective of (i) population structure, (ii) linkage disequilibrium (LD), (iii) homozygosity and (iv) haplotype diversity (HD). Analysis was conducted on 3654 individuals from Ireland, Britain (with regional sampling in Scotland), Bulgaria, Portugal, Sweden and the Utah HapMap collection. Our results indicate a subtle but clear genetic structure across Britain and Ireland, although levels of structure were reduced in comparison with average cross-European structure. We observed slightly elevated levels of LD and homozygosity in the Irish population compared with neighbouring European populations. We also report on a cline of HD across Europe with greatest levels in southern populations and lowest levels in Ireland and Scotland. These results are consistent with our understanding of the population history of Europe and promote Ireland and Scotland as relatively homogenous resources for genetic mapping of rare variants.

  6. The relationship between language and spatial ability an analysis of spatial language for reconstructing the solving of spatial tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Mizzi, Angel

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates how different fifth-grade students solve spatial-verbal tasks and the role of language in this process. Based on a synthesis of theoretical foundations and methodological issues for supporting the relationship between spatial ability and language, this present study examines and classifies strategies used by students as well as the obstacles they encounter when solving spatial tasks in the reconstruction method. Contents Theoretical Framework Design and Implementation Results and Discussion from the Inductive Data Analyses Target Groups Scholars and students of mathematics education Teachers of mathematics in primary and secondary schools About the Author Angel Mizzi works as a research assistant and lecturer at the University of Duisburg-Essen, where he has successfully completed his PhD studies in mathematics education.

  7. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE ABANDONMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Glavan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we performed a spatial analysis to determine the influence of selected environmental factors (forests share, elevation a.s.l., slope, aspect, flooding and the management status of an area on the spatial distribution of the abandoned agricultural land (land use class 1410, and agricultural land with forest trees (land use class 1800 in Slovenia. All these natural factors influence the management decisions of landowners. We found out that land use class 1410 is distributed over the entire country, along the south-west to the north-east axis. The majority of the land use class 1800 can be found in the south-western part of the country. On municipality level, the link between the forest and studied land uses was weak. The percentage of land use classes 1410 and 1800 grows with increasing altitude a.s.l. and slope. Land use class 1400 is more frequent in flooded areas. The percentage of the abandoned agricultural land is greater in areas with special management status (e.g. Natura 2000 areas. A strict, professional and fast implementation of the Agricultural Land Act is needed to improve the situation and prevent further agricultural land losses.

  8. Multivariate analysis of spatial-temporal scales in melanoma prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachovic, Edward; Zurbenko, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is a particularly deadly form of skin cancer arising from diverse biological and physical origins, making the characterization and quantification of relationships with recognized risk factors very complex. Melanoma has known associations with ultraviolet light exposure. Natural variations in solar electromagnetic irradiation, length of exposure, and intensity operate on different and therefore uncorrelated time scale frequencies. It is necessary to separate and investigate the principal components, such as the annual and solar cycle components, free from confounding influences. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko spatial filters applied to melanoma prevalence and environmental factors affecting solar irradiation exposure are able to identify and separate the independent space and time scale components of melanoma. Multidimensional analysis in space and time produces significantly improved model fit of what is in effect a linear regression of maps, or motion picture, in different time scales between melanoma rates and prominent factors. The resulting multivariate model coefficients of influence for each unique spatial-temporal melanoma component help quantify the relationships and are valuable to future research and prevention.

  9. Spatial analysis of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R; Pfeifer, C; Ulmer, H; Mühlberger, V; Pfeiffer, K P

    1999-05-01

    To investigate the geographical distribution of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) and morbidity for coronary heart disease, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction by spatial analysis of the standardized morbidity rates (SMR) on district level. To identify clusters by Moran's I Statistic and the Regional Spatial Autocorrelation Coefficient (RSAC) of Munasinghe and Morris. To investigate demand factor morbidity and supply factor health care infrastructure on the district level as reasons for geographical disparity. To describe characteristics of the cluster population and intervention centres. Retrospective record linkage study. All hospitals and cardiological centres in Austria (n = 150) which performed the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS). All Austrian residents who were diagnosed for myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease or angina pectoris in 1995 (n = 87,174). One 'positive' PTCA cluster (all SMRs > or =0.96) and one 'negative' PTCA cluster (all SMRs thesis of 'inverse care law'. Austrianwide no significant correlation was found between the SMR of PTCA-application and both demand factor and supply factors. Nevertheless, differences between the clusters concerning number and capacity of intervention centres and density of specialists pointed to supply factors as reasons for geographical disparity. The ongoing trend of steady expansion of existing intervention centres and establishment of new ones will reduce the extent of geographical variation in future.

  10. Spatial Analysis of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. During 1999–2011, 871 human cases of CCHF were diagnosed in Iran. A history of serologic conversion for CCHF virus was seen in 58.7% of 2,447 sheep samples, 25.0% of 1,091 cattle samples and 24.8% of 987 goat samples from different parts of Iran. Spatial analysis showed that the main foci of this disease in humans during these years were in eastern Iran (P Iran. Two livestock foci were detected in the northeastern northwestern Iran. On the basis of the results of this study, infection likely entered Iran from eastern and western neighboring countries. PMID:24166038

  11. Spatial Distribution Balance Analysis of Hospitals in Wuhan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai; Chen, Shiyi; Hu, Weilu; Wu, Zhongheng; Chao, Yi

    2016-09-30

    The spatial distribution pattern of hospitals in Wuhan indicates a core in the central urban areas and a sparse distribution in the suburbs, particularly at the center of suburbs. This study aims to improve the gravity and Huff models to analyze healthcare accessibility and resources. Results indicate that healthcare accessibility in central urban areas is better than in the suburbs, where it increasingly worsens for the suburbs. A shortage of healthcare resources is observed in large-scale and high-class hospitals in central urban areas, whereas the resources of some hospitals in the suburbs are redundant. This study proposes the multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) analysis model for the location assessment in constructing new hospitals, which can effectively ameliorate healthcare accessibility in suburban areas. This study presents implications for the planning of urban healthcare facilities.

  12. Use of spatiotemporal analysis of laboratory submission data to identify potential outbreaks of new or emerging diseases in cattle in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milnes Ailsa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New and emerging diseases of livestock may impact animal welfare, trade and public health. Early detection of outbreaks can reduce the impact of these diseases by triggering control measures that limit the number of cases that occur. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prospective spatiotemporal methods could be used to identify outbreaks of new and emerging diseases in scanning surveillance data. SaTScan was used to identify clusters of unusually high levels of submissions where a diagnosis could not be reached (DNR using different probability models and baselines. The clusters detected were subjected to a further selection process to reduce the number of false positives and a more detailed epidemiological analysis to ascertain whether they were likely to represent real outbreaks. Results 187,925 submissions of clinical material from cattle were made to the Regional Laboratory of the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA between 2002 and 2007, and the results were stored on the VLA FarmFile database. 16,925 of these were classified as DNRs and included in the analyses. Variation in the number and proportion of DNRs was found between syndromes and regions, so a spatiotemporal analysis for each DNR syndrome was done. Six clusters were identified using the Bernoulli model after applying selection criteria (e.g. size of cluster. The further epidemiological analysis revealed that one of the systemic clusters could plausibly have been due to Johne's disease. The remainder were either due to misclassification or not consistent with a single diagnosis. Conclusions Our analyses have demonstrated that spatiotemporal methods can be used to detect clusters of new or emerging diseases, identify clusters of known diseases that may not have been diagnosed and identify misclassification in the data, and highlighted the impact of data quality on the ability to detect outbreaks. Spatiotemporal methods should be used alongside

  13. Contextual neural gas for spatial clustering and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenauer, J.; Helbich, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to introduce contextual Neural Gas (CNG), a variant of the Neural Gas algorithm, which explicitly accounts for spatial dependencies within spatial data. The main idea of the CNG is to map spatially close observations to neurons, which are close with respect to their rank distance.

  14. Spatial prediction of landslide hazard using discriminant analysis and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter V. Gorsevski; Paul Gessler; Randy B. Foltz

    2000-01-01

    Environmental attributes relevant for spatial prediction of landslides triggered by rain and snowmelt events were derived from digital elevation model (DEM). Those data in conjunction with statistics and geographic information system (GIS) provided a detailed basis for spatial prediction of landslide hazard. The spatial prediction of landslide hazard in this paper is...

  15. Integrating the statistical analysis of spatial data in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. Liebhold; J. Gurevitch

    2002-01-01

    In many areas of ecology there is an increasing emphasis on spatial relationships. Often ecologists are interested in new ways of analyzing data with the objective of quantifying spatial patterns, and in designing surveys and experiments in light of the recognition that there may be underlying spatial pattern in biotic responses. In doing so, ecologists have adopted a...

  16. The spatial and temporal analysis of forest resources and institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweik, Charles M.

    This study addresses a central puzzle facing the Human Dimensions of Global Change research community: How can we understand the influence of environmental policies on human behavior when little or no information is available on the condition of forest resources? This dissertation capitalizes on new research tools, methods and approaches to overcome the "no information about the resource" problem. Specifically, I combine (1) forest mensuration techniques, (2) Global Positioning Systems, (3) Geographic Information Systems (GIS), (4) spatial statistics, (5) remote sensing, and (6) institutional analysis to analyze forest vegetation patterns. I provide explanation of these patterns by considering the incentive structures driving human decision-making and activity and do this through two studies in very different empirical settings. Both studies apply applicable theory related to human behavior and action. Both examine the incentive structures individuals face as they undertake daily activities related to forest resources. The first study, set in East Chitwan, Nepal, identifies spatial patterns in georeferenced forest inventory data and links these to patterns predicted by optimal foraging subject to institutional constraints. The second study compares forest management in one state and one national forest in Indiana, U.S.A. In this effort, I identify spatio-temporal patterns in the forest vegetation captured by a time series of Landsat multispectral images. The combination of natural forest regrowth and property manager actions in response to incentives and constraints explain these patterns. Substantively, both studies identify change in forest resources associated with combinations of the physical, human community and institutional "landscapes" in their regions. In both cases, geographic attributes of institutions (e.g., laws, rules) are found to influence the type and location of human actions. Methodologically, the two studies provide examples of how to control

  17. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    of cross-cultural comparability. 5. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward's method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were labelled the uninvolved food consumer, the careless food consumer, the rational food consumer, the conservative food consumer, the adventurous consumer......-national segments supports this interpretation. 7. The results tend to indicate a rather strong tendency towards cross-national segments. This is especially strong for the groups of conservative, uninvolved, adventurous, and careless food consumers.......Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports...

  18. Multitemporal spatial pattern analysis of Tulum's tropical coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Forero, Sandra Carolina; López-Caloca, Alejandra; Silván-Cárdenas, José Luis

    2011-11-01

    The tropical coastal landscape of Tulum in Quintana Roo, Mexico has a high ecological, economical, social and cultural value, it provides environmental and tourism services at global, national, regional and local levels. The landscape of the area is heterogeneous and presents random fragmentation patterns. In recent years, tourist services of the region has been increased promoting an accelerate expansion of hotels, transportation and recreation infrastructure altering the complex landscape. It is important to understand the environmental dynamics through temporal changes on the spatial patterns and to propose a better management of this ecological area to the authorities. This paper addresses a multi-temporal analysis of land cover changes from 1993 to 2000 in Tulum using Thematic Mapper data acquired by Landsat-5. Two independent methodologies were applied for the analysis of changes in the landscape and for the definition of fragmentation patterns. First, an Iteratively Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) algorithm was used to detect and localize land cover change/no-change areas. Second, the post-classification change detection evaluated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. Landscape metrics were calculated from the results of IR-MAD and SVM. The analysis of the metrics indicated, among other things, a higher fragmentation pattern along roadways.

  19. Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetti, Tiziana; La Rosa, Francesco; Rossi, Luca; D'Alò, Daniela; Stracci, Fabrizio

    2008-11-25

    Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area). Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM) and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units) to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In Umbria the main clusters were characterized by high risks for

  20. Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Alò Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area. Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Methods Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Results Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. Conclusion As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In

  1. A scoping review of spatial cluster analysis techniques for point-event data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Fritz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial cluster analysis is a uniquely interdisciplinary endeavour, and so it is important to communicate and disseminate ideas, innovations, best practices and challenges across practitioners, applied epidemiology researchers and spatial statisticians. In this research we conducted a scoping review to systematically search peer-reviewed journal databases for research that has employed spatial cluster analysis methods on individual-level, address location, or x and y coordinate derived data. To illustrate the thematic issues raised by our results, methods were tested using a dataset where known clusters existed. Point pattern methods, spatial clustering and cluster detection tests, and a locally weighted spatial regression model were most commonly used for individual-level, address location data (n = 29. The spatial scan statistic was the most popular method for address location data (n = 19. Six themes were identified relating to the application of spatial cluster analysis methods and subsequent analyses, which we recommend researchers to consider; exploratory analysis, visualization, spatial resolution, aetiology, scale and spatial weights. It is our intention that researchers seeking direction for using spatial cluster analysis methods, consider the caveats and strengths of each approach, but also explore the numerous other methods available for this type of analysis. Applied spatial epidemiology researchers and practitioners should give special consideration to applying multiple tests to a dataset. Future research should focus on developing frameworks for selecting appropriate methods and the corresponding spatial weighting schemes.

  2. A scoping review of spatial cluster analysis techniques for point-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Charles E; Schuurman, Nadine; Robertson, Colin; Lear, Scott

    2013-05-01

    Spatial cluster analysis is a uniquely interdisciplinary endeavour, and so it is important to communicate and disseminate ideas, innovations, best practices and challenges across practitioners, applied epidemiology researchers and spatial statisticians. In this research we conducted a scoping review to systematically search peer-reviewed journal databases for research that has employed spatial cluster analysis methods on individual-level, address location, or x and y coordinate derived data. To illustrate the thematic issues raised by our results, methods were tested using a dataset where known clusters existed. Point pattern methods, spatial clustering and cluster detection tests, and a locally weighted spatial regression model were most commonly used for individual-level, address location data (n = 29). The spatial scan statistic was the most popular method for address location data (n = 19). Six themes were identified relating to the application of spatial cluster analysis methods and subsequent analyses, which we recommend researchers to consider; exploratory analysis, visualization, spatial resolution, aetiology, scale and spatial weights. It is our intention that researchers seeking direction for using spatial cluster analysis methods, consider the caveats and strengths of each approach, but also explore the numerous other methods available for this type of analysis. Applied spatial epidemiology researchers and practitioners should give special consideration to applying multiple tests to a dataset. Future research should focus on developing frameworks for selecting appropriate methods and the corresponding spatial weighting schemes.

  3. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption change is weakened. The regions with higher energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the developed coastal areas in China, while those with lower energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the less developed western regions in China. Energy consumption change in China is mainly caused by transportation industry and non-labor intensive industry. Rapid economic development and higher industrialization rate are the main causes for faster changes in energy consumption in China. The results also indicate that spatial autoregressive model can reveal more influencing factors of energy consumption changes in China, in contrast with standard linear model. At last, this study has put forward the corresponding measures or policies for dealing with the growing trend of energy consumption in China.

  4. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  5. Study of academic achievements using spatial analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Velilla, C.; Sánchez-Girón, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the 2010/12 academic year the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid implemented three new degrees all of them adapted to the European Space for Higher Education. These degrees are namely: Graduate in Agricultural Engineering and Science, Graduate in Food Engineering and Graduate in Agro-Environmental Engineering. A total of 382 new incoming students were finally registered and a survey study was carried out with these students about their academic achievement with the aim of finding the level of dependence among the following variables: the final mark in their secondary studies, the option followed in the secondary studies (Art, Science and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences), the mark obtained in the entering examination to the university and in which of the two opportunities per year this examination takes place the latter mark was obtained. Similarly, another group of 77 students were evaluated independently to the former group. These students were those entering the College in the previous academic year (2009/10) and decided to change their curricula to the new ones. Subsequently, using the tools of spatial analysis of geographic information systems, we analyzed the possible relationship between the success or failure at school and the socioeconomic profile of new students in a grade. For this purpose every student was referenced assigning UTM coordinates to their postal addresses. Furthermore, all students' secondary schools were geographically coded considering their typology (public, private, and private subsidized) and fares. Each student was represented by its average geometric point in order to be correlated to their respective record. Following this procedure a map of the performance of each student could be drawn. This map can be used as a reference system, as it includes variables as the distance from the student home to the College, that can be used as a tool to calculate the probability of success or

  6. Landscape Change Index as a Tool for Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Piotr; Solecka, Iga; Barbara-Mastalska-Cetera

    2017-10-01

    This study analysed spatial and temporal changes in protected landscape of Ślęża Landscape Park in Poland, covering an area of 7724 ha. The main objective was to determine level of landscape change of the research area after Polish accession to European Union by comparing land-cover maps from 2004, 2009 and 2014. With the use of prepared land cover maps, we developed a database of the surface of the main elements constituting the background landscape of the research area. The data obtained made it feasible to assess the level of change in two different periods of time (2004 - 2009 and 2009 - 2014) by means of the landscape change index (LCI). This indicator is described by one value which is the result of all the change types taking place in the background landscape in a given period of time. Comparing the index of different parts of Ślęża Landscape Park helped to identify areas where the landscape changes were the highest and areas where the changes were hardly noticeable. The results show that when we take into account whole research area landscape changes are much more intense in the second of the analysed periods of time (2009 - 2014) (LCI=1,91) then in years 2004 - 2009 (LCI=0,71). The same analysis was done for each part of municipalities located within the Park. This made it possible to determine which part of the park is the most threatened by spatial transformations. In this context, it should be emphasized that the highest rates of landscape changes were recorded in the municipalities where the largest new residential area was located – in the municipalities Sobótka and Łagiewniki. Whereas municipality Dzierżoniów with a high percentage of forests inside the Park and unchanging area of arable land have the lowest landscape change index.

  7. Tucker Tensor analysis of Matern functions in spatial statistics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-11-18

    In this work, we describe advanced numerical tools for working with multivariate functions and for the analysis of large data sets. These tools will drastically reduce the required computing time and the storage cost, and, therefore, will allow us to consider much larger data sets or finer meshes. Covariance matrices are crucial in spatio-temporal statistical tasks, but are often very expensive to compute and store, especially in 3D. Therefore, we approximate covariance functions by cheap surrogates in a low-rank tensor format. We apply the Tucker and canonical tensor decompositions to a family of Matern- and Slater-type functions with varying parameters and demonstrate numerically that their approximations exhibit exponentially fast convergence. We prove the exponential convergence of the Tucker and canonical approximations in tensor rank parameters. Several statistical operations are performed in this low-rank tensor format, including evaluating the conditional covariance matrix, spatially averaged estimation variance, computing a quadratic form, determinant, trace, loglikelihood, inverse, and Cholesky decomposition of a large covariance matrix. Low-rank tensor approximations reduce the computing and storage costs essentially. For example, the storage cost is reduced from an exponential O(n^d) to a linear scaling O(drn), where d is the spatial dimension, n is the number of mesh points in one direction, and r is the tensor rank. Prerequisites for applicability of the proposed techniques are the assumptions that the data, locations, and measurements lie on a tensor (axes-parallel) grid and that the covariance function depends on a distance, ||x-y||.

  8. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper provides evidence that transatlantic commodity market integration began prior to the "first era of globalization" at the end of the nineteenth century. It does so by giving a long term perspective to the story of the development of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the United States...... and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence......, specific periods are identified when market integration might have been possible. Using price data for wheat in America and Britain, some evidence is found that markets were integrated, but this process was continuously being interrupted by "exogenous" events, such as trade policy, war and politics...

  9. Signal Adaptive System for Space/Spatial-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin N. Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a multiple-clock-cycle implementation (MCI of a signal adaptive two-dimensional (2D system for space/spatial-frequency (S/SF signal analysis. The design is based on a method for improved S/SF representation of the analyzed 2D signals, also proposed here. The proposed MCI design optimizes critical design performances related to hardware complexity, making it a suitable system for real time implementation on an integrated chip. Additionally, the design allows the implemented system to take a variable number of clock cycles (CLKs (the only necessary ones regarding desirable—2D Wigner distribution-presentation of autoterms in different frequency-frequency points during the execution. This ability represents a major advantage of the proposed design which helps to optimize the time required for execution and produce an improved, cross-terms-free S/SF signal representation. The design has been verified by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA circuit design, capable of performing S/SF analysis of 2D signals in real time.

  10. VISAR fringe analysis under extreme spatially varying shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, David; Fratanduono, Dayne

    2017-06-01

    Many VISAR velocity interferometers employ a streak camera to record fringes along the spatial axis (Y) of a target, versus time. When the shock loading (thus velocity history) varies rapidly versus Y, the fringe analysis challenges traditional algorithms since the Y-spacing of fringes can vary strongly with Y, and be significantly different than the uniform pre-shock (bias) spacing. For traditional colum-by-column analysis the intensity signal shape would be a sinusoid with rapidly varying frequency (chirped), which can confuse a traditional algorithm expecting a monochromatic peak in Fourier space. And for a traditional push-pull row-by-row approach, the phase steps are irregular. We describe preliminary success in analyzing such data in simulation. We find it useful to (a) separate the nonfringing component from the data early; (b) maximize linearity of a plot of fringing magnitude versus nonfringing intensity to choose optimal weight values; (c) when using a row-by-row approach sampling 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees phase we add a fifth sample at 360 degrees, which is averaged with the 0 degree sample and replaces it. This increases the robustness to variable phase step (following P. Hariharan). The pre-shock and post-shock regions are separately processed/concatenated. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Spatial organization of fibroblast nuclear chromocenters: component tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Robert R; Goveia, Elyse; Peet, Lindsay; Bouffard, Nicole A; Badger, Gary J; Langevin, Helene M

    2013-09-01

    The nuclei of mouse connective tissue fibroblasts contain chromocenters which are well-defined zones of heterochromatin that can be used as positional landmarks to examine nuclear remodeling in response to a mechanical perturbation. This study used component tree analysis, an image segmentation algorithm that detects high intensity voxels that are topologically connected, to quantify the spatial organization of chromocenters in fibroblasts within whole mouse connective tissue fixed and stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The component tree analysis method was applied to confocal microscopy images of whole mouse areolar connective tissue incubated for 30 min ex vivo with or without static stretch. In stretched tissue, the mean distance between chromocenters within fibroblast nuclei was significantly greater (vs. non-stretched, P stretch and no stretch. Average chromocenter distance was positively correlated with nuclear cross-sectional area (r = 0.78, P Static stretching of mouse areolar connective tissue for 30 min resulted in substantially increased separation of nuclear chromocenters in connective tissue fibroblasts. This interior remodeling of the nucleus induced by tissue stretch may impact transcriptionally active euchromatin within the inter-chromocenter space. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  12. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  13. State responses to the fiscal crisis in Britain, Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M. Kickert (Walter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow have governments, politics and administrations responded to the fiscal crisis? In this brief article, a first preliminary analysis is made how Great Britain, Germany and The Netherlands managed the crisis. The crisis consisted of three stages: First, the financial crisis causing

  14. The Characteristics of the Systems of Continuing Pedagogical Education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Myskiv, Iryna; Kravets, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    In the article the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common and distinctive features of the…

  15. Indian migrants in britain: mirror image of social linkages between Gujarat and London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.; Patel, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the social linkages between Gujarati migrants in Britain and their family members in India. It considers the home and the migrant community in the same unit of analysis rather than as separate communities. It is based on fieldwork conducted in 1998 among members of the Patidar

  16. Managers in the Making: Careers, Development and Control in Corporate Britain and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John; Edwards, Paul; Sisson, Keith

    This book presents an analysis of the processes by which managers are made in Britain and Japan. It provides a detailed comparative study of the careers, training, developmental experience, and job demands of managers in eight companies in four sectors: engineering, banking, retail, and communications. Data are from the following sources:…

  17. Analysis of Spatial Voting Patterns: An Approach in Political Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasewski, Ted

    1973-01-01

    Passage of the 26th Amendment gave young adults the right to vote. This study attempts to further student understanding of the electoral process by presenting a method for analyzing spatial voting patterns. The spatial emphasis adds another dimension to the temporal and behavioral-structural approaches in studying the American electoral system.…

  18. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is based on evaluation of various factors that cause road accidents in Lagos Metropolis. Fourteen (14) factors/drivers were identified which tend to influence an occurrence of accident on Lagos roads. In order to study the pattern of accidents in the Metropolis, several different spatial and non-spatial datasets were ...

  19. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTS' FEAR AND FEELING OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This study examined spatial pattern of crime and residents' fear and feeling of insecurity in Ile-Ife,. Nigeria. To obtain the primary data, Ile-Ife ... Key words: Crime, Fear, Insecurity, Spatial, Risk, Victimisation. Introduction. Crime is an inevitable feature ... The first defines fear as the sense of personal security in the community.

  20. Analysis of students geometry skills viewed from spatial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riastuti, Nova; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-12-01

    Geometry is one of the difficult materials for students because students must have the ability to visualize, describe the picture, draw a figure, and know the kinds of figures. This study aimisto describe the students geometry skills in resolving geometry problems viewed from spatial intelligence. This research uses a descriptive qualitative method has aim to identify students geometry skills by 6 students in eight grade of Ngawi regency, Indonesia. The subjects were 2 students with high spatial intelligence, 2 students with medium spatial intelligence, and 2 students with low spatial intelligence. Datas were collected based on written test and interview. The result of this research showed that the students geometry skills viewed from spatial intelligence includes. The results of this study indicate that there was a correlation between students' spatial intelligence with geometric skills. Students had different geometric skills in each category of spatial intelligence, although there were similarities in some geometry skill indicators. Students with low spatial intelligence had less geometry skills, thus requiring special attention from teachers. Mathematics teachers are expected to provide more practice questions that reinforce students' geometry skills including visual skills, descriptive skills, drawing skills, logical skills, applied skills.

  1. A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Upward Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballweber, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Alana Ballweber, John H. Helsdon Jr., and Tom A. Warner South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Ten tall communication towers lining the ridge in Rapid City, South Dakota provide a unique opportunity to study the phenomenon of lightning-triggered upward lightning. The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS), seeks to determine if upward positive leaders are triggered from these towers by: (1) the approach of horizontally propagating negative stepped leaders associated with either intracloud development or following a positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) return stroke, and/or (2) a +CG return stroke as it propagates through a previously formed leader network near the towers. As part of the UPLIGHTS research, two separate lightning mapping devices were used to aid in a 3D re-creation of the triggering flash, a 3D digital interferometer and a Lightning Mapping Array. Through the use of these two devices, we present findings founded on the analysis of data collected from these assets during the 2013 storm season. Specifically, we quantify the spatial and temporal relationship of the triggering flash leader activity relative to the tall objects when upward leaders develop and when upward leaders fail to develop. Furthermore, the lightning mapping devices were correlated with high-speed optical and electrical field observations to provide a further insight as to why certain flashes trigger upward lightning from tall structures and others do not.

  2. Consanguinity and late fertility: spatial analysis reveals positive association patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa, Antonella; Astolfi, Paola; Zei, Gianna; Tentoni, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    The role of consanguinity on human complex traits is an important and controversial issue. In this work we focused on the Sardinian population and examined the effect of consanguineous unions on late female fertility. During the last century the island has been characterized by a high incidence of marriages between relatives, favoured by socio economic conditions and geographical isolation, and by high fertility despite a widespread tendency to delay reproduction. Through spatial analysis techniques, we explored the geographical heterogeneity of consanguinity and late fertility, and identified in Central-Eastern Sardinia a common area with an excess of both traits, where the traits are positively associated. We found that their association did not significantly affect women's fertility in the area, despite the expected negative role of both traits. Intriguingly, this critical zone corresponds well to areas reported by previous studies as being peculiar for a high frequency of centenarians and for lower risk in pregnancy outcome. The proposed approach can be generally exploited to identify target populations on which socioeconomic, biodemographic and genetic data can be collected at the individual level, and deeper analyses carried out to disentangle the determinants of complex biological traits and to investigate their association. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  3. Redrawing the map of Great Britain from a network of human interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ratti

    Full Text Available Do regional boundaries defined by governments respect the more natural ways that people interact across space? This paper proposes a novel, fine-grained approach to regional delineation, based on analyzing networks of billions of individual human transactions. Given a geographical area and some measure of the strength of links between its inhabitants, we show how to partition the area into smaller, non-overlapping regions while minimizing the disruption to each person's links. We tested our method on the largest non-Internet human network, inferred from a large telecommunications database in Great Britain. Our partitioning algorithm yields geographically cohesive regions that correspond remarkably well with administrative regions, while unveiling unexpected spatial structures that had previously only been hypothesized in the literature. We also quantify the effects of partitioning, showing for instance that the effects of a possible secession of Wales from Great Britain would be twice as disruptive for the human network than that of Scotland.

  4. Backyard housing in Gauteng: an analysis of spatial dynamics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shapurjee, Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available spatial and land-use planning implications for municipal infrastructure provision and management. Overpopulation, unsanitary housing conditions, disease burdens, the risk of fire and vulnerability to natural hazards are just some of the challenges...

  5. The Arts Britain Ignores: The Arts of Ethnic Minorities in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naseem

    Minority group arts in Britain are discussed as a means to develop and enhance a multi-cultural society. The arts of the following ethnic groups are discussed: Bangladeshis, Chinese, Cypriots, East and Central Europeans, Indians, Pakistanis, West Indians, and Africans. Following a description of the cultural activities of each group, specific…

  6. Low income dynamics in 1990s Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Jarvis; Stephen P. Jenkins

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses low income dynamics in Britain using the first four waves of the British Household Panel Survey. There is much low income turnover: although there is a small group of people who are persistently poor, more striking is the relatively large number of low income escapers and entrants from one year to the next. Simulations using estimated low income exit and re-entry rates demonstrate the importance of repeated low income spells for explaining a person’s experience of low inco...

  7. Spatial-data sharing: Applying social-network analysis to study individual and collective behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omran, E.S.E.; Etten, van J.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial-Data Sharing (SDS) is a crucial aspect of spatial-data infrastructures. This paper introduces Social-Network Analysis to research on SDS. By mapping out relationships among social actors using Social-Network Analysis, the collective properties of SDS in organizations can be investigated.

  8. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis: A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the model parameters and demonstrates the consequences…

  9. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  10. Spatial-Temporal Analysis on Spring Festival Travel Rush in China Based on Multisource Big Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Jiwei; Ye, Qingqing; Deng, Xuankai; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    .... This study investigates the spatial-temporal characteristics of Spring Festival travel rush in 2015 through time series analysis and complex network analysis based on multisource big travel data...

  11. Research of GIS-services applicability for solution of spatial analysis tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhin, D. A.; Botygin, I. A.; Sherstneva, A. I.; Sherstnev, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments for working out the areas of applying various gis-services in the tasks of spatial analysis are discussed in this paper. Google Maps, Yandex Maps, Microsoft SQL Server are used as services of spatial analysis. All services have shown a comparable speed of analyzing the spatial data when carrying out elemental spatial requests (building up the buffer zone of a point object) as well as the preferences of Microsoft SQL Server in operating with more complicated spatial requests. When building up elemental spatial requests, internet-services show higher efficiency due to cliental data handling with JavaScript-subprograms. A weak point of public internet-services is an impossibility to handle data on a server side and a barren variety of spatial analysis functions. Microsoft SQL Server offers a large variety of functions needed for spatial analysis on the server side. The authors conclude that when solving practical problems, the capabilities of internet-services used in building up routes and completing other functions with spatial analysis with Microsoft SQL Server should be involved.

  12. Interaction of Regional Labour Markets in Russia: Spatial Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Semerikova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the help of spatial regression models and classical models of panel data the study identifies and assesses the various factors’ influence on the unemployment rate in Russian regions from 2005 to 2010. Using the spatial autoregressive lag model the authors revealed that the change (increase or decrease in the level of unemployment in one region leads to its changes in other regions. The use of spatial regression models allowed the researchers to identify the effect of higher education on the unemployment rate in the region: the higher share of the employed with higher education corresponds to the lower unemployment rate. This can’t be revealed with the help of classical models of panel data. In addition, some regional characteristics have nonlinear functional dependence of unemployment rate, which requires the algorithm modification for finding direct, indirect and total effects and their confidence intervals using the Monte Carlo approach

  13. Geometric anisotropic spatial point pattern analysis and Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Toftaker, Håkon

    We consider spatial point processes with a pair correlation function g(u) which depends only on the lag vector u between a pair of points. Our interest is in statistical models with a special kind of ‘structured’ anisotropy: g is geometric anisotropy if it is elliptical but not spherical. In part......We consider spatial point processes with a pair correlation function g(u) which depends only on the lag vector u between a pair of points. Our interest is in statistical models with a special kind of ‘structured’ anisotropy: g is geometric anisotropy if it is elliptical but not spherical....... In particular we study Cox process models with an elliptical pair correlation function, including shot noise Cox processes and log Gaussian Cox processes, and we develop estimation procedures using summary statistics and Bayesian methods. Our methodology is illustrated on real and synthetic datasets of spatial...

  14. Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lori Ann; Parcel, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and…

  15. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  16. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  17. Auditory spectral versus spatial temporal order judgment: Threshold distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey

    2017-05-01

    Some researchers suggested that one central mechanism is responsible for temporal order judgments (TOJ), within and across sensory channels. This suggestion is supported by findings of similar TOJ thresholds in same modality and cross-modality TOJ tasks. In the present study, we challenge this idea by analyzing and comparing the threshold distributions of the spectral and spatial TOJ tasks. In spectral TOJ, the tones differ in their frequency ("high" and "low") and are delivered either binaurally or monaurally. In spatial (or dichotic) TOJ, the two tones are identical but are presented asynchronously to the two ears and thus differ with respect to which ear received the first tone and which ear received the second tone ("left"/"left"). Although both tasks are regarded as measures of auditory temporal processing, a review of data published in the literature suggests that they trigger different patterns of response. The aim of the current study was to systematically examine spectral and spatial TOJ threshold distributions across a large number of studies. Data are based on 388 participants in 13 spectral TOJ experiments, and 222 participants in 9 spatial TOJ experiments. None of the spatial TOJ distributions deviated significantly from the Gaussian; while all of the spectral TOJ threshold distributions were skewed to the right, with more than half of the participants accurately judging temporal order at very short interstimulus intervals (ISI). The data do not support the hypothesis that 1 central mechanism is responsible for all temporal order judgments. We suggest that different perceptual strategies are employed when performing spectral TOJ than when performing spatial TOJ. We posit that the spectral TOJ paradigm may provide the opportunity for two-tone masking or temporal integration, which is sensitive to the order of the tones and thus provides perceptual cues that may be used to judge temporal order. This possibility should be considered when interpreting

  18. Alignment error analysis of detector array for spatial heterodyne spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Chen, Di-Hu; Li, Zhi-Wei; Luo, Hai-Yan; Hong, Jin

    2017-12-10

    Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) is a new spatial interference spectroscopy which can achieve high spectral resolution. The alignment error of the detector array can lead to a significant influence with the spectral resolution of a SHS system. Theoretical models for analyzing the alignment errors which are divided into three kinds are presented in this paper. Based on these models, the tolerance angle of these errors has been given, respectively. The result of simulation experiments shows that when the angle of slope error, tilt error, and rotation error are less than 1.21°, 1.21°, 0.066° respectively, the alignment reaches an acceptable level.

  19. Asymptotic Analysis and Spatial Coupling of Counter Braids

    OpenAIRE

    Rosnes, Eirik; Amat, Alexandre Graell i

    2016-01-01

    A counter braid (CB) is a novel counter architecture introduced by Lu et al. in 2007 for per-flow measurements on high-speed links. CBs achieve an asymptotic compression rate (under optimal decoding) that matches the entropy lower bound of the flow size distribution. In this paper, we apply the concept of spatial coupling to CBs to improve their belief propagation (BP) threshold, and analyze the performance of the resulting spatially-coupled CBs (SC-CBs). We introduce an equivalent bipartite ...

  20. Analysis of Spatial Interpolation in the Material-Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses different types of spatial interpolation for the material-point method The interpolations include quadratic elements and cubic splines in addition to the standard linear shape functions usually applied. For the small-strain problem of a vibrating bar, the best results are obta......This paper analyses different types of spatial interpolation for the material-point method The interpolations include quadratic elements and cubic splines in addition to the standard linear shape functions usually applied. For the small-strain problem of a vibrating bar, the best results...

  1. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  2. Contraceptive use and attitudes in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddens, B J; Visser, A P; Vemer, H M; Everaerd, W T; Lehert, P

    1994-01-01

    In order to update current knowledge on contraceptive use and attitudes in Great Britain (i.e. England, Scotland and Wales), a survey was conducted among 1753 randomly selected British women aged 15-45. Replies were received from 967 women (55.2%). Seventy-three percent (73%) of fertile, sexually active women who wished to avoid pregnancy were using reliable methods of contraception, viz. oral contraceptives (OCs), intrauterine devices (IUDs) or sterilization. However, it was found that adolescents and women over 40 who wished to avoid pregnancy were, nevertheless, especially likely not to be using any contraceptive method at all. The women surveyed were concerned about weight gain, cardiovascular and cancer risks associated with OC use, and infection and infertility risks associated with IUD use. Sixty percent (60%) perceived sterilization as a major and risky surgical operation. It was concluded that contraceptive practice in Britain had not improved greatly in recent years. The latest scientific findings regarding the true advantages and disadvantages of OCs, IUDs and sterilization, therefore, need to be brought to the attention of the lay public more effectively. Special efforts need to be directed towards providing adolescents and women over 40 with proper information. Physicians and the mass media could play a considerable role in this respect.

  3. Estimating Particulate Exposure from Modern Municipal Waste Incinerators in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Philippa; Freni-Sterrantino, Anna; Leal Sanchez, Maria; Ashworth, Danielle C; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Fecht, Daniela; Font, Anna; Blangiardo, Marta; Gulliver, John; Toledano, Mireille B; Elliott, Paul; de Hoogh, Kees; Fuller, Gary W; Hansell, Anna L

    2017-07-05

    Municipal Waste Incineration (MWI) is regulated through the European Union Directive on Industrial Emissions (IED), but there is ongoing public concern regarding potential hazards to health. Using dispersion modeling, we estimated spatial variability in PM10 concentrations arising from MWIs at postcodes (average 12 households) within 10 km of MWIs in Great Britain (GB) in 2003-2010. We also investigated change points in PM10 emissions in relation to introduction of EU Waste Incineration Directive (EU-WID) (subsequently transposed into IED) and correlations of PM10 with SO2, NOx, heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furan (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions. Yearly average modeled PM10 concentrations were 1.00 × 10(-5) to 5.53 × 10(-2) μg m(-3), a small contribution to ambient background levels which were typically 6.59-2.68 × 10(1) μg m(-3), 3-5 orders of magnitude higher. While low, concentration surfaces are likely to represent a spatial proxy of other relevant pollutants. There were statistically significant correlations between PM10 and heavy metal compounds (other heavy metals (r = 0.43, p = <0.001)), PAHs (r = 0.20, p = 0.050), and PCBs (r = 0.19, p = 0.022). No clear change points were detected following EU-WID implementation, possibly as incinerators were operating to EU-WID standards before the implementation date. Results will be used in an epidemiological analysis examining potential associations between MWIs and health outcomes.

  4. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianhua; Qian, Tianlu; Xi, Changbai; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen

    2016-08-18

    The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities.

  5. Backyard housing in Gauteng: An analysis of spatial dynamics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the phenomenon of backyard housing in Gauteng, a prominent driver of urban spatial change in South Africa's housing market. Backyard housing in South Africa increasingly attracts the attention of policymakers because of the large number of households that this sector accommodates. Moreover, the ...

  6. An analysis of trends in spatial mobility of Dutch graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, Viktor; Van Dijk, Jouke; Van Wissen, Leo

    Considerable attention in the literature has been devoted to spatial mobility as a mechanism in the transition from study to work. In this paper, the relationships between migration and both regional economic circumstances and individual characteristics are investigated using a micro-dataset on

  7. Use of artificial neural network for spatial rainfall analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the precipitation data measured at 23 rain gauge stations over the Achaia County, Greece, were used to estimate the spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation values over a specific catchment area. The objective of this work was achieved by programming an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) ...

  8. Preliminary analysis of interannual Caribbean Current spatial variability

    OpenAIRE

    Bryce Corlett, W.; Ezer, Tal

    2014-01-01

    2012 Poster Presentation - Old Dominion University The preliminary results shown here are an initial attempt to connect spatial variations of the Caribbean Current to eddy activity at the Meso-American Barrier Reef, as is an important driver for currents around the reef during spawning.

  9. The Application of Spatial Pattern Analysis in High School Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geography is a vital subject of the school curriculum which is creative, practical and intellectually stimulating. It tries to identify features on the field, their spatial pattern as well as give explanations to process which have generated the observed distributional patterns their location and provide scientific explanation for the ...

  10. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We consider spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of weed presen...... approximate Kalman filter techniques with importance sampling....

  11. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    This paper considers spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of we...... by combining approximate Kalman filter techniques with importance sampling....

  12. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  13. A preliminary spatial analysis of diagnosed stroke disease in Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: there have been a number of clinical studies on diagnosed Stroke disease. However, there have been few studies on the geographical disparities for stroke. This study investigates the spatial pattern of stroke disease reflecting socio-demographic characteristics in the State. Methods: stroke patients' admissions ...

  14. Bifurcation Analysis of a Spatially Extended Laser with Optical Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, K.; Krauskopf, B.; Marten, F.; Lenstra, D.

    2009-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are a new type of semiconductor laser characterized by the spatial extent of their disk-shaped output apertures. As a result, a VCSEL supports several optical modes (patterns of light) transverse to the direction of light propagation. When any laser

  15. A Spatial Analysis of Population Distribution and Housing Patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the spatial patterns of population distribution andhousing in Abraka in Delta State of Nigeria. Population is a vital componentof development in any country including Nigeria. Housing is a physical andsocial necessity of life which holds a place of strategic importance indevelopment. However, the high ...

  16. Using GIS for spatial exploratory analysis of borehole data: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is an inimitable resource that provides water to communities especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the spatial variability of the resource as well as the heterogeneity and complex nature of aquifer systems that store groundwater presents difficulties for groundwater development. Thus ...

  17. Spatial Analysis of Health Facilities in Suleja, Niger State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The locations of all hospitals and clinics in the study area were identified and mapped using a combination of spatial GIS tools. ... Hospitals showed evidence of dispersed distribution with a z-score of 5.63 implying a significant level of accessibility, while the pattern of clinic location appears to indicate an insignificant level of ...

  18. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  19. Distributed multi-criteria model evaluation and spatial association analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Model performance, if evaluated, is often communicated by a single indicator and at an aggregated level; however, it does not embrace the trade-offs between different indicators and the inherent spatial heterogeneity of model efficiency. In this study, we simulated the water balance of the Mississippi watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated against monthly river discharge at 131 measurement stations. Its time series were bisected to allow for subsequent validation at the same gauges. Furthermore, the model was validated against evapotranspiration which was available as a continuous raster based on remote sensing. The model performance was evaluated for each of the 451 sub-watersheds using four different criteria: 1) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), 2) percent bias (PBIAS), 3) root mean square error (RMSE) normalized to standard deviation (RSR), as well as 4) a combined indicator of the squared correlation coefficient and the linear regression slope (bR2). Conditions that might lead to a poor model performance include aridity, a very flat and steep relief, snowfall and dams, as indicated by previous research. In an attempt to explain spatial differences in model efficiency, the goodness of the model was spatially compared to these four phenomena by means of a bivariate spatial association measure which combines Pearson's correlation coefficient and Moran's index for spatial autocorrelation. In order to assess the model performance of the Mississippi watershed as a whole, three different averages of the sub-watershed results were computed by 1) applying equal weights, 2) weighting by the mean observed river discharge, 3) weighting by the upstream catchment area and the square root of the time series length. Ratings of model performance differed significantly in space and according to efficiency criterion. The model performed much better in the humid Eastern region than in the arid Western region which was confirmed by the

  20. Fish, field, habitus and madness: the first wave mental health users movement in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, N

    1999-12-01

    This paper traces and explains the emergence of the mental health users movement in Great Britain, focusing specifically upon the formation of the Mental Patients Union in the early 1970s. The analysis presented in the paper draws, to some extent, from conventional movement theory. In addition, however, it draws from the work of Pierre Bourdieu. This represents an innovation in movement analysis and the necessity of this innovation is argued for in an early section of the paper.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Considerations for Analysis of Single-Event Mechanisms in FinFET Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Spatial and Temporal Considerations for Analysis of Single-Event Mechanisms in FinFET Technologies Patrick Nsengiyumva, Lloyd W. Massengill...Abstract: This paper examines the sensitivity of single- event simulation results to spatial and temporal single- event model parameter values...represent the charge generated by an ion are based upon Gaussian spatial and temporal representations. The Gaussian model and basis for model parameter

  2. Analysis Of Influence Of Spatial Planning On Performance Of Regional Development At Waropen District. Papua Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The various problems in regional spatial planning in Waropen District Papua shows that the Spatial Planning RTRW of Waropen District Papua drafted in 2010 has not had a positive contribution to the settlement of spatial planning problems. This is most likely caused by the inconsistency in the spatial planning. This study tried to observe the consistency of spatial planning as well as its relation to the regional development performance. The method used to observe the consistency of the preparation of guided Spatial Planning RTRW is the analysis of comparative table followed by analysis of verbal logic. In order to determine if the preparation of Spatial Planning RTRW has already paid attention on the synergy with the surrounding regions Inter-Regional Context a map overlay was conducted followed by analysis of verbal logic. To determine the performance of the regional development a Principal Components Analysis PCA was done. The analysis results showed that inconsistencies in the spatial planning had caused a variety of problems that resulted in decreased performance of the regional development. The main problems that should receive more attention are infrastructure development growth economic growth transportation aspect and new properties.

  3. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of health care hotspots in Taiwan in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chien-Min

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial analytical techniques and models are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial anomalies (hotspots in disease regions. These analytical approaches can be used to not only identify the location of such hotspots, but also their spatial patterns. Methods In this study, we utilize spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including Global Moran's I and Local Getis-Ord statistics, to describe and map spatial clusters, and areas in which these are situated, for the 20 leading causes of death in Taiwan. In addition, we use the fit to a logistic regression model to test the characteristics of similarity and dissimilarity by gender. Results Gender is compared in efforts to formulate the common spatial risk. The mean found by local spatial autocorrelation analysis is utilized to identify spatial cluster patterns. There is naturally great interest in discovering the relationship between the leading causes of death and well-documented spatial risk factors. For example, in Taiwan, we found the geographical distribution of clusters where there is a prevalence of tuberculosis to closely correspond to the location of aboriginal townships. Conclusions Cluster mapping helps to clarify issues such as the spatial aspects of both internal and external correlations for leading health care events. This is of great aid in assessing spatial risk factors, which in turn facilitates the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies and implementation of effective health care services.

  4. Who intermarries in Britain? Explaining ethnic diversity in intermarriage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttarak, Raya; Heath, Anthony

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates trends, patterns and determinants of intermarriage (and partnership) comparing patterns among men and women and among different ethnic groups in Britain. We distinguish between endogamous (co-ethnic), majority/minority and minority/minority marriages. Hypotheses are derived from the theoretical literatures on assimilation, segmented assimilation and opportunity structures. The empirical analysis is based on the 1988-2006 General Household Surveys (N = 115,494). Consistent with assimilation theory we find that, for all ethnic minority groups, the propensity to intermarry is higher in the second generation than in the first. Consistent with ideas drawn from segmented assimilation theory, we also find that substantial differences in propensity to form majority/minority marriages persist after controls for individual characteristics such as age, educational level, generation and length of residence in Britain, with men and women of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi background having higher propensities to form endogamous partnerships. However, we also find that opportunity structures affect intermarriage propensities for all groups alike, with individuals in more diverse residential areas (as measured by the ratio of majority to minority residents in the area) having higher likelihood to form majority/minority partnerships. We conclude then that, beginning from very different starting points, all groups, both minority and the majority groups exhibit common patterns of generational change and response to opportunity structures. Even the groups that are believed to have the strongest community structures and the strongest norms supporting endogamy appear to be experiencing increasing exogamy in the second generation and in more diverse residential settings. This suggests that a weak rather than a strong version of segmented assimilation provides the best account of British patterns.

  5. An Early Medieval Tradition of Building in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Early medieval houses in Britain were largely constructed of timber. Various approaches have been adopted for interpreting the character of these buildings, since no standing structure survives. These include the study of water-logged timber, the reproduction of methods of working and the reconstruction of buildings, as well as the conventional analysis of the plans of excavations. The problems of identifying the ethnic affiliations of houses in Britain are particularly acute because the structural features which define the building traditions in England and Scotland have rarely been identified. However, it is argued that it is possible to identify a distinctive tradition of building in timber which persists from the fifth to the eleventh or even twelfth century, and is found throughout England and into southern Scotland.En la Gran Bretaña de la alta Edad Media se solían construir las viviendas de madera y por consiguiente no queda ninguna estructura en pie. Así, se han adoptado varios enfoques para interpretar las características de dichas viviendas, como el análisis de la madera saturada de agua, la recreación de la metodología de trabajo y la reconstrucción de edificios, así como los tradicionales análisis de las plantas de las construcciones en las excavaciones. La atribución étnica de las viviendas en Gran Bretaña resulta especialmente difícil porque rara vez se han identificado las tradiciones constructivas de Inglaterra y Escocia. No obstante, se ha argumentado que es posible identificar a una tradición característica de construcción en madera que se mantuvo del siglo V al siglo XI e incluso hasta el siglo XII y que se puede encontrar en toda Inglaterra y en el sur de Escocia.

  6. Spatial analysis of root hemiparasitic shrubs and their hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Bjørn; Bruce, David; Weinstein, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Root hemiparasitic plants take up resources from the roots of neighbouring plants, which they use for fuelling their own growth. While taking up resources from the hosts below-ground, they may simultaneously compete with the hosts for sunlight. Suppression caused by the parasitism could result...... in openings in the vegetation structure and increased mortality levels. On the other hand, the root hemiparasites may also be constrained by the hosts, restricting the parasites to a limited number of locations within a community. These vegetation alterations and location restrictions can be referred...... to as spatial signatures of the root hemiparasites. In order to search for such spatial signatures, we investigated a population of a predominant Acacia species in Australia co-occurring with established root hemiparasitic shrubs, using intensity estimates of the Acacia and dead shrubs to be indicators...

  7. Spatial Analysis of Crime Incidence and Adolescent Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Alyssa I.; Carnes, Fei; Oreskovic, Nicolas M.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning...

  8. using gis for spatial exploratory analysis of borehole data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    water development potential with corresponding specific capacity of 13.54 – 20.7 m2/d. Simi- larly, 24% and 34% of the study area were also identified to be good for the exploitation of groundwater with corresponding specific capacities of 8.74 – 13.55 m2/d and 5.52 – 8.74 m2/d respectively. In terms of spatial structure, ...

  9. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of Chinese inter-provincial industrial chemical oxygen demand discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xianjin; Liu, Yibo

    2012-06-01

    A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that Global Moran's I of discharge amount and intensity is on the decrease. In space, there is an evolution from an agglomeration pattern to a discretization pattern. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the agglomeration area of industrial COD discharge amount and intensity varies greatly in space with time. Stringent environmental regulations and increased funding for environmental protections are the crucial factors to cut down industrial COD discharge amount and intensity.

  10. Contingency planning for a deliberate release of smallpox in Great Britain - the role of geographical scale and contact structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Leon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the event of a release of a pathogen such as smallpox, which is human-to-human transmissible and has high associated mortality, a key question is how best to deploy containment and control strategies. Given the general uncertainty surrounding this issue, mathematical modelling has played an important role in informing the likely optimal response, in particular defining the conditions under which mass-vaccination would be appropriate. In this paper, we consider two key questions currently unanswered in the literature: firstly, what is the optimal spatial scale for intervention; and secondly, how sensitive are results to the modelling assumptions made about the pattern of human contacts? Methods Here we develop a novel mathematical model for smallpox that incorporates both information on individual contact structure (which is important if the effects of contact tracing are to be captured accurately and large-scale patterns of movement across a range of spatial scales in Great Britain. Results Analysis of this model confirms previous work suggesting that a locally targeted 'ring' vaccination strategy is optimal, and that this conclusion is actually quite robust for different socio-demographic and epidemiological assumptions. Conclusions Our method allows for intuitive understanding of the reasons why national mass vaccination is typically predicted to be suboptimal. As such, we present a general framework for fast calculation of expected outcomes during the attempted control of diverse emerging infections; this is particularly important given that parameters would need to be interactively estimated and modelled in any release scenario.

  11. Using catchment areas analysis and GIS based spatial analysis for prioritising spatial investment in non-metro South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Chéri A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available to enable targeted social facility investment for allocation of the middle-order social facilities in nonmetro areas aims will achieve more spatially balanced, sustainable and efficient allocation of services which meets the needs of both users and service...

  12. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  13. Spatial analysis and surname analysis: complementary tools for shedding light on human longevity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanto, A; Passarino, G; Senatore, A; Carotenuto, L; De Benedictis, G

    2008-03-01

    Starting from the observation that human longevity patterns show regional variations, we applied Spatial Analysis (using the Geographic Information System) and Surname Analysis to highlight the effect of the population genetic structure on such patterns. The study was carried out in Calabria, a southern Italian region which is characterized by a wide variability of geographic features (high mountains and deep valleys which created geographic isolates in the past). We identified three zones of high longevity: a male and a female longevity zone were located near the town of Cosenza (northern Calabria), while a male longevity zone was located in a mountainous and quite isolated part of the province of Reggio Calabria (southern Calabria). The latter zone was characterized by the lowest Female/Male ratio in nonagenarians observed to date. By applying surname analysis (Fisher's alpha) we found a significant negative correlation between surname abundance and index of longevity, showing that this isolated zone of male longevity presents a high level of inbreeding. On the whole, the results showed the effectiveness of spatial analysis in revealing geographical longevity patterns, and highlighted the importance of the population genetic structure in shaping such patterns.

  14. Components of spatial information management in wildlife ecology: Software for statistical and modeling analysis [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne L. Beyer; Jeff Jenness; Samuel A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    Spatial information systems (SIS) is a term that describes a wide diversity of concepts, techniques, and technologies related to the capture, management, display and analysis of spatial information. It encompasses technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing, and relational database management systems (...

  15. Configraphics : Graph Theoretical Methods for Design and Analysis of Spatial Configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation reports a PhD research on mathematical-computational models, methods, and techniques for analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of spatial configurations in architecture and urban design. Spatial configuration is a technical term that refers to the particular way in which a set of

  16. Disturbance History of a Seasonal Tropical Forest in Western Thailand: A Spatial Dendroecological Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, R.S.; Vlam, M.; Rebei, K.T.; Baker, P.J.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances play an important role in forest dynamics across the globe. Researchers have mainly focused on the temporal context of disturbances, but have largely ignored the spatial patterns of tree recruitment they create. Geostatistical tools enable the analysis of spatial patterns and

  17. Spatial factor analysis: a new tool for estimating joint species distributions and correlations in species range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Shelton, Andrew O.

    2015-01-01

    be imprecise for species with low densities or few observations. Additionally, simple geostatistical methods fail to account for correlations in distribution among species and generally estimate such cross-correlations as a post hoc exercise. 2. We therefore present spatial factor analysis (SFA), a spatial...

  18. Explorative analysis of long time series of very high resolution spatial rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Emma Dybro; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Scheibel, Marc

    2017-01-01

    variables a weather generator should employ. Both principal component analysis and cluster analysis show patterns that are in accordance with our understanding of physical properties of rainfall. In particular it seems that the differences between hourly and daily extremes can be described by relatively...... and daily extreme rainfall with the purpose of identifying suitable characteristics that can be used in a spatial weather generator of similar resolution. The spatial and temporal properties of the extreme events are explored by means of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and linear models...... simple scaling across the set of variables, i.e. the level of each variable varies signicantly, but not the overall structure of the spatial precipitation. The analysis show that there is a good potential for making a spatial weather generator for high spatio-temporal precipitation for precipitation...

  19. High-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil; Sangster, Heather

    2017-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers). Here, we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high-magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods). Statistically significant relationships between the British flood index, the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index are identified. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.

  20. Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, Paolo; Wang, Jiaqiu; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of...

  1. SpatialEpiApp: A Shiny web application for the analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal disease data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Paula

    2017-11-01

    During last years, public health surveillance has been facilitated by the existence of several packages implementing statistical methods for the analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal disease data. However, these methods are still inaccesible for many researchers lacking the adequate programming skills to effectively use the required software. In this paper we present SpatialEpiApp, a Shiny web application that integrate two of the most common approaches in health surveillance: disease mapping and detection of clusters. SpatialEpiApp is easy to use and does not require any programming knowledge. Given information about the cases, population and optionally covariates for each of the areas and dates of study, the application allows to fit Bayesian models to obtain disease risk estimates and their uncertainty by using R-INLA, and to detect disease clusters by using SaTScan. The application allows user interaction and the creation of interactive data visualizations and reports showing the analyses performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  3. Housing Mobility and Downsizing at Older Ages in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James; Blundell, Richard; Oldfield, Zoë; Smith, James P

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines geographic mobility and housing downsizing at older ages in Britain and America. Americans downsize housing much more than the British largely because Americans are much more mobile. The principal reasons for greater mobility among older Americans are two fold: (1) greater spatial distribution of geographic distribution of amenities (such as warm weather) and housing costs and (2) greater institutional rigidities in subsidized British rental housing providing stronger incentives for British renters not to move. This relatively flat British housing consumption with age may have significant implications for the form and amount of consumption smoothing at older ages.

  4. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economical...... and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more comprehensive...... in the period between 1990 and 2000, based on the application of the above-mentioned data to the three spatial levels in question. This paper highlights the role of the hydrographical systems of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area as an important spatial unit of analysis to understand the metropolitan urban...

  5. SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS GOO JUN * AND JOYDEEP GHOSH* Abstract. A semi-supervised learning...

  6. Geoscience after ITPart G. Familiarization with spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundt, Hardy; Brinkkötter-Runde, Klaus

    2000-04-01

    Field based and GPS supported GIS are increasingly applied in various spatial disciplines. Such systems represent more sophisticated, time and cost effective tools than traditional field forms for data acquisition. Meanwhile, various systems are on the market. These mostly enable the user to define geo-objects by means of GPS information, supported by functionalities to collect and analyze geometric information. The digital acquisition of application specific attributes is often underrepresented within such systems. This is surprising because pen computer based GIS can be used to collect attributes in a profitable manner, thus adequately supporting the requirements of the user. Visualization and graphic displays of spatial data are helpful means to improve such a data collection process. In section one and two basic aspects of visualization and current uses of visualization techniques for field based GIS are described. Section three mentions new developments within the framework of wearable computing and augmented reality. Section four describes current activities aimed at the realization of real time online field based GIS. This includes efforts to realize an online GIS data link to improve the efficiency and the quality of fieldwork. A brief discussion in section five leads to conclusions and some key issues for future research.

  7. Part-Time Work and Activity in Voluntary Associations in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Daiga Kamerade

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates both the economic, or rational choice, and sociological theories to examine the effects of part-time working on employees' activity in voluntary associations. Using longitudinal data analysis of the British Household Panel Survey from 1993 to 2005, this study demonstrates that, in Britain, part-time work increases the likelihood of individual level involvement in expressive voluntary associations (i.e. associations orientated to relatively immediate benefits for their mem...

  8. Statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of operons in the transcriptional regulation network of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, P. B.; Wolde, P.R. ten

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of operons in the transcriptional regulation network of Escherichia coli. The analysis reveals that operons that regulate each other and operons that are coregulated tend to lie next to each other on the genome. Moreover, these pairs of operons tend to be transcribed in diverging directions. This spatial arrangement of operons allows the upstream regulatory regions to interfere with each other. This affords additional regula...

  9. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzanna Ludwiczak; Giovanni Pollicino; Elisabetta Carfagna; Stefano Benni; Daniele Torreggiani; Patrizia Tassinari

    2009-01-01

    The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The ...

  10. Spatial analysis and auralization of room acoustics using a tetrahedral microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual Garí, Sebastià V; Lachenmayr, Winfried; Mommertz, Eckard

    2017-04-01

    A compact tetrahedral microphone array is used to measure several controlled sound fields and compare the analysis of spatial room impulse responses with two methods: spatial decomposition method (SDM) and IRIS, a commercial system based on sound intensity vector analysis. Results suggest that the spatial accuracy of both methods is similar and in most cases the error is comparable to the localization uncertainty of human listeners. Furthermore, a listening test is conducted comparing three 3D-sound fields and their SDM auralizations. Results suggest that the similarity of the auralized and original sound fields depends on the target room and stimulus.

  11. Spatial compression algorithm for the analysis of very large multivariate images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-07-15

    A method for spatially compressing data sets enables the efficient analysis of very large multivariate images. The spatial compression algorithms use a wavelet transformation to map an image into a compressed image containing a smaller number of pixels that retain the original image's information content. Image analysis can then be performed on a compressed data matrix consisting of a reduced number of significant wavelet coefficients. Furthermore, a block algorithm can be used for performing common operations more efficiently. The spatial compression algorithms can be combined with spectral compression algorithms to provide further computational efficiencies.

  12. Spatial correlation analysis of cascading failures: congestions and blackouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daqing, Li; Yinan, Jiang; Rui, Kang; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-06-20

    Cascading failures have become major threats to network robustness due to their potential catastrophic consequences, where local perturbations can induce global propagation of failures. Unlike failures spreading via direct contacts due to structural interdependencies, overload failures usually propagate through collective interactions among system components. Despite the critical need in developing protection or mitigation strategies in networks such as power grids and transportation, the propagation behavior of cascading failures is essentially unknown. Here we find by analyzing our collected data that jams in city traffic and faults in power grid are spatially long-range correlated with correlations decaying slowly with distance. Moreover, we find in the daily traffic, that the correlation length increases dramatically and reaches maximum, when morning or evening rush hour is approaching. Our study can impact all efforts towards improving actively system resilience ranging from evaluation of design schemes, development of protection strategies to implementation of mitigation programs.

  13. Information analysis of a spatial database for ecological land classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank W.; Dozier, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    An ecological land classification was developed for a complex region in southern California using geographic information system techniques of map overlay and contingency table analysis. Land classes were identified by mutual information analysis of vegetation pattern in relation to other mapped environmental variables. The analysis was weakened by map errors, especially errors in the digital elevation data. Nevertheless, the resulting land classification was ecologically reasonable and performed well when tested with higher quality data from the region.

  14. A modified SUnSAL-TV algorithm for hyperspectral unmixing based on spatial homogeneity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqian, Wang; Zhenfeng, Shao; Lei, Zhang; Weixun, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    The sparse regression framework has been introduced by many works to solve the linear spectral unmixing problem due to the knowledge that a pixel is usually mixed by less endmembers compared with the endmembers in spectral libraries or the entire hyperspectral data sets. Traditional sparse unmixing techniques focus on analyzing the spectral properties of hyperspectral imagery without incorporating spatial information. But the integration of spatial information would be beneficial to promote the performance of the linear unmixing process. An algorithm called sparse unmixing via variable splitting augmented Lagrangian and total variation (SUnSAL-TV) adds a total variation spatial regularizer besides the sparsity-inducing regularizer to the final unmixing objective function. The total variation spatial regularization is helpful to promote the fractional abundance smoothness. However, the abundance smoothness varies in the image. In this paper, the spatial smoothness is estimated through homogeneity analysis. Then the spatial regularizer is weighted for each pixel by a homogeneity index. The modified algorithm, called homogeneity analysis based SUnSAL-TV (SUnSAL-TVH), integrates the spatial information with finer modelling of spatial smoothness and is supposed insensitive to the noise and more stable. Experiments on synthetic data sets are taken and indicate the validity of our algorithm.

  15. Analysis of field-scale spatial correlations and variations of soil nutrients using geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Yu, Wenwen; Shi, Jianhan; Zhang, Peipei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-02-01

    Spatial correlations and soil nutrient variations are important for soil nutrient management. They help to reduce the negative impacts of agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Based on the sampled available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK), soil nutrient data from 2010, the spatial correlation, was analyzed, and the probabilities of the nutrient's abundance or deficiency were discussed. This paper presents a statistical approach to spatial analysis, the spatial correlation analysis (SCA), which was originally developed for describing heterogeneity in the presence of correlated variation and based on ordinary kriging (OK) results. Indicator kriging (IK) was used to assess the susceptibility of excess of soil nutrients based on crop needs. The kriged results showed there was a distinct spatial variability in the concentration of all three soil nutrients. High concentrations of these three soil nutrients were found near Anzhou. As the distance from the center of town increased, the concentration of the soil nutrients gradually decreased. Spatially, the relationship between AN and AP was negative, and the relationship between AP and AK was not clear. The IK results showed that there were few areas with a risk of AN and AP overabundance. However, almost the entire study region was at risk of AK overabundance. Based on the soil nutrient distribution results, it is clear that the spatial variability of the soil nutrients differed throughout the study region. This spatial soil nutrient variability might be caused by different fertilizer types and different fertilizing practices.

  16. Application of computer intensive data analysis methods to the analysis of digital images and spatial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeld, Kristian

    1992-01-01

    Computer-intensive methods for data analysis in a traditional setting has developed rapidly in the last decade. The application of and adaption of some of these methods to the analysis of multivariate digital images and spatial data are explored, evaluated and compared to well established classical...... into the projection pursuit is presented. Examples from remote sensing are given. The ACE algorithm for computing non-linear transformations for maximizing correlation is extended and applied to obtain a non-linear transformation that maximizes autocorrelation or 'signal' in a multivariate image....... This is a generalization of the minimum /maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF's) which is a linear method. The non-linear method is compared to the linear method when analyzing a multivariate TM image from Greenland. The ACE method is shown to give a more detailed decomposition of the image than the MAF-transformation...

  17. Typology and Dynamics of Heavier Drinking Styles in Great Britain: 1978-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purshouse, Robin C; Brennan, Alan; Moyo, Daniel; Nicholls, James; Norman, Paul

    2017-05-01

    To identify a typology of heavier drinking styles in Great Britain and to identify socio-demographic trends in the typology over the period 1978-2010. We applied multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering to beverage-specific quantity-frequency measures of alcohol consumption in the repeated cross-sectional General Lifestyle Survey of Great Britain, 1978-2010. The cluster analysis focuses on the 60,043 adult respondents over this period reporting average drinking levels above the UK Government guidelines. We projected sex, age, income, education, socio-economic status and tobacco consumption variables onto the clusters to inspect socio-demographic trends in heavier drinking. We identified four stable clusters of heavier drinking: (a) high volume beer; (b) beer and spirit combination; (c) all beverage and (d) wine and spirit only. The socio-demographic characteristics of the clusters were distinct from both each other and the general population. However, all clusters had higher median incomes and higher smoking rates than the population. Increases in the prevalence of heavier drinking were driven by a 5-fold increase in the contribution of the female-dominated, wine and spirit only cluster. Recent changes in per capita alcohol consumption in Great Britain occurred within the context of a stable typology of heavier drinking styles and shifting socio-demographics. Identifying these trends is essential to better understand how drinking cultures develop over time and where potentially problematic drinking styles may emerge. Our findings suggest that careful attention to patterns and cultures of consumption is more important than relying on headline consumption data, for both understanding drinking behaviours and targeting interventions. This analysis of alcohol consumption survey data identifies four styles of heavier drinking in Great Britain, which remain unchanged over the period 1978-2010. The socio-demographic characteristics of the

  18. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  19. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  20. Women doctors: productivity in Great Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, M; Braslow, J

    1981-01-01

    There is a difference in the productivity of women doctors in Great Britain and the United States. Postulated reasons for this difference are discussed as well as the implications for medical education and meeting health manpower needs.

  1. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  2. Britain's Full-Cost Policy for Overseas Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Presents a review of the history, advantages, and disadvantages of Great Britain's full-cost policy for overseas students. Discusses the institutional policy and provision for students from abroad on the part of the last educational system. (SB)

  3. Dynamics of land change in India: a fine-scale spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, P.; Roy, P. S.; Sharma, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Ramachandran, R.; Joshi, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Land is scarce in India: India occupies 2.4% of worlds land area, but supports over 1/6th of worlds human and livestock population. This high population to land ratio, combined with socioeconomic development and increasing consumption has placed tremendous pressure on India's land resources for food, feed, and fuel. In this talk, we present contemporary (1985 to 2005) spatial estimates of land change in India using national-level analysis of Landsat imageries. Further, we investigate the causes of the spatial patterns of change using two complementary lines of evidence. First, we use statistical models estimated at macro-scale to understand the spatial relationships between land change patterns and their concomitant drivers. This analysis using our newly compiled extensive socioeconomic database at village level (~630,000 units), is 100x higher in spatial resolution compared to existing datasets, and covers over 200 variables. The detailed socioeconomic data enabled the fine-scale spatial analysis with Landsat data. Second, we synthesized information from over 130 survey based case studies on land use drivers in India to complement our macro-scale analysis. The case studies are especially useful to identify unobserved variables (e.g. farmer's attitude towards risk). Ours is the most detailed analysis of contemporary land change in India, both in terms of national extent, and the use of detailed spatial information on land change, socioeconomic factors, and synthesis of case studies.

  4. [A spatially explicit analysis of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Tobia

    2017-12-01

    In many German cities and counties, sustainable mobility concepts that strengthen pedestrian and cyclist traffic are promoted. From the perspectives of urban development, traffic planning and public healthcare, a spatially differentiated analysis of traffic accident data is decisive. 1) The identification of spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of accidents involving cyclists and pedestrians, 2) the identification of hotspots and exploration of possible underlying causes and 3) the critical discussion of benefits and challenges of the results and the derivation of conclusions. Spatio-temporal distributions of data from accident statistics in Berlin involving pedestrians and cyclists from 2011 to 2015 were analysed with geographic information systems (GIS). While the total number of accidents remains relatively stable for pedestrian and cyclist accidents, the spatial distribution analysis shows, however, that there are significant spatial clusters (hotspots) of traffic accidents with a strong concentration in the inner city area. In a critical discussion, the benefits of geographic concepts are identified, such as spatially explicit health data (in this case traffic accident data), the importance of the integration of other data sources for the evaluation of the health impact of areas (traffic accident statistics of the police), and the possibilities and limitations of spatial-temporal data analysis (spatial point-density analyses) for the derivation of decision-supported recommendations and for the evaluation of policy measures of health prevention and of health-relevant urban development.

  5. E-Cigarettes: Prevalence and Attitudes in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Dockrell, Martin; Morrison, Rory; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a means of recreational nicotine use that can potentially eliminate the need to smoke tobacco. Little is known about the prevalence of use or smokers’ attitudes toward e-cigarettes. This study describes use of and attitudes toward e-cigarettes in Britain. Methods: Respondents from three surveys were recruited from a panel of adults in Britain. Preliminary online and face-to-face qualitative research informed the development of a smokers’ ...

  6. Abundant Topological Outliers in Social Media Data and Their Effect on Spatial Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Westerholt

    Full Text Available Twitter and related social media feeds have become valuable data sources to many fields of research. Numerous researchers have thereby used social media posts for spatial analysis, since many of them contain explicit geographic locations. However, despite its widespread use within applied research, a thorough understanding of the underlying spatial characteristics of these data is still lacking. In this paper, we investigate how topological outliers influence the outcomes of spatial analyses of social media data. These outliers appear when different users contribute heterogeneous information about different phenomena simultaneously from similar locations. As a consequence, various messages representing different spatial phenomena are captured closely to each other, and are at risk to be falsely related in a spatial analysis. Our results reveal indications for corresponding spurious effects when analyzing Twitter data. Further, we show how the outliers distort the range of outcomes of spatial analysis methods. This has significant influence on the power of spatial inferential techniques, and, more generally, on the validity and interpretability of spatial analysis results. We further investigate how the issues caused by topological outliers are composed in detail. We unveil that multiple disturbing effects are acting simultaneously and that these are related to the geographic scales of the involved overlapping patterns. Our results show that at some scale configurations, the disturbances added through overlap are more severe than at others. Further, their behavior turns into a volatile and almost chaotic fluctuation when the scales of the involved patterns become too different. Overall, our results highlight the critical importance of thoroughly considering the specific characteristics of social media data when analyzing them spatially.

  7. Abundant Topological Outliers in Social Media Data and Their Effect on Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholt, Rene; Steiger, Enrico; Resch, Bernd; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Twitter and related social media feeds have become valuable data sources to many fields of research. Numerous researchers have thereby used social media posts for spatial analysis, since many of them contain explicit geographic locations. However, despite its widespread use within applied research, a thorough understanding of the underlying spatial characteristics of these data is still lacking. In this paper, we investigate how topological outliers influence the outcomes of spatial analyses of social media data. These outliers appear when different users contribute heterogeneous information about different phenomena simultaneously from similar locations. As a consequence, various messages representing different spatial phenomena are captured closely to each other, and are at risk to be falsely related in a spatial analysis. Our results reveal indications for corresponding spurious effects when analyzing Twitter data. Further, we show how the outliers distort the range of outcomes of spatial analysis methods. This has significant influence on the power of spatial inferential techniques, and, more generally, on the validity and interpretability of spatial analysis results. We further investigate how the issues caused by topological outliers are composed in detail. We unveil that multiple disturbing effects are acting simultaneously and that these are related to the geographic scales of the involved overlapping patterns. Our results show that at some scale configurations, the disturbances added through overlap are more severe than at others. Further, their behavior turns into a volatile and almost chaotic fluctuation when the scales of the involved patterns become too different. Overall, our results highlight the critical importance of thoroughly considering the specific characteristics of social media data when analyzing them spatially.

  8. Infant mortality in Brazil, 1980-2000: A spatial panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barufi Ana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important measure of human development, related to the level of welfare of a society. In order to inform public policy, various studies have tried to identify the factors that influence, at an aggregated level, infant mortality. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional pattern of infant mortality in Brazil, evaluating the effect of infrastructure, socio-economic, and demographic variables to understand its distribution across the country. Methods Regressions including socio-economic and living conditions variables are conducted in a structure of panel data. More specifically, a spatial panel data model with fixed effects and a spatial error autocorrelation structure is used to help to solve spatial dependence problems. The use of a spatial modeling approach takes into account the potential presence of spillovers between neighboring spatial units. The spatial units considered are Minimum Comparable Areas, defined to provide a consistent definition across Census years. Data are drawn from the 1980, 1991 and 2000 Census of Brazil, and from data collected by the Ministry of Health (DATASUS. In order to identify the influence of health care infrastructure, variables related to the number of public and private hospitals are included. Results The results indicate that the panel model with spatial effects provides the best fit to the data. The analysis confirms that the provision of health care infrastructure and social policy measures (e.g. improving education attainment are linked to reduced rates of infant mortality. An original finding concerns the role of spatial effects in the analysis of IMR. Spillover effects associated with health infrastructure and water and sanitation facilities imply that there are regional benefits beyond the unit of analysis. Conclusions A spatial modeling approach is important to produce reliable estimates in the analysis of panel IMR data. Substantively, this paper

  9. Violence, drug markets and racial composition: challenging stereotypes through spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Places in which there is a strong spatial connection between violence and drug activity can often evoke particular stereotypes. They are believed to be places marked by high levels of social disorganisation, unemployment, disorder and racial heterogeneity. Yet scholars have argued that the spatial relationship between drug market activity and violence is more complicated and that other factors may explain this geographical connection. In the first article of this two-part series, different types of spatial analysis were employed to describe crime concentrations of drugs and violence. Evidence was found that challenges the notion that places with drug activity are inevitably more violent. This second paper examines what factors predict these variations in drug–violence spatial patterns in Seattle when derived using different spatial methods. The findings indicate that racial composition, disorder and unemployment may not be as salient as once believed in predicting places that are violent drug markets.

  10. Spatial analysis on human brucellosis incidence in mainland China: 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Xingyu; Feng, Zijian; Li, Xiaosong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives China has experienced a sharply increasing rate of human brucellosis in recent years. Effective spatial monitoring of human brucellosis incidence is very important for successful implementation of control and prevention programmes. The purpose of this paper is to apply exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods and the empirical Bayes (EB) smoothing technique to monitor county-level incidence rates for human brucellosis in mainland China from 2004 to 2010 by examining spatial patterns. Methods ESDA methods were used to characterise spatial patterns of EB smoothed incidence rates for human brucellosis based on county-level data obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) in mainland China from 2004 to 2010. Results EB smoothed incidence rates for human brucellosis were spatially dependent during 2004–2010. The local Moran test identified significantly high-risk clusters of human brucellosis (all p values brucellosis incidence. PMID:24713215

  11. Spatial analysis of crime incidence and adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alyssa I; Carnes, Fei; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman's correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1694 reported crimes and 16,702min of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, pCrime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, pcrime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial and temporal analysis of lake sedimentation under reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Pilgrim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal land cover changes can reduce or accelerate lake sedimentation. This study was conducted to examine morphometry and bathymetry, and the long-term changes (over 75 years in sedimentation in the Lake Issaqueena reservoir, South Carolina. The watershed and catchment areas were delineated using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR based data. Trends in lake surface area and riparian buffer condition (vegetated or unvegetated were determined from historical aerial photography. From 1938 to 2009, the lake experienced a decrease in surface area of approximately 11.33 ha while catchment area increased by 6.99 ha, and lake volume decreased by 320,800.00 m3. Lake surface area decreased in years corresponding to equal coverage or largely unvegetated riparian buffers. Surface area and average annual precipitation were not correlated; therefore other factors such as soil type, riparian buffer condition and changes in land use likely contributed to sedimentation. Shift from agricultural land to forestland in this watershed resulted in a decrease in sedimentation rates by 88.28%.

  13. Evaluation of classical spatial-analysis schemes of extreme rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceresetti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainfall is classically estimated using raingauge data at raingauge locations. An important related issue is to assess return levels of extreme rainfall at ungauged sites. Classical methods consist in interpolating extreme-value models. In this paper, such methods are referred to as regionalization schemes. Our goal is to evaluate three classical regionalization schemes. Each scheme consists of an extreme-value model (block maxima, peaks over threshold taken from extreme-value theory plus a method to interpolate the parameters of the statistical model throughout the Cévennes-Vivarais region. From the interpolated parameters, the 100-yr quantile level can be estimated over this whole region. A reference regionalization scheme is made of the couple block maxima/kriging, where kriging is an optimal interpolation method. The two other schemes differ from the reference by replacing either the extreme-value model block maxima by peaks over threshold or kriging by a neural network interpolation procedure. Hyper-parameters are selected by cross-validation and the three regionalization schemes are compared by double cross-validation. Our evaluation criteria are based on the ability to interpolate the 100-yr return level both in terms of precision and spatial distribution. It turns out that the best results are obtained by the regionalization scheme combining the peaks-over-threshold method with kriging.

  14. The Characteristics of the Systems of Continuing Pedagogical Education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common and distinctive features of the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada, the USA. The legislative and normative framework of teachers’ CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been highlighted; the levels of the systems of continuing pedagogical education have been presented; the main functions of these systems have been determined; the key models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD have been defined. Foreign and domestic scientists have studied the teachers’ CPD: teacher leadership (T. Bush, M. Clement, D. Jackson, D. Pavlou, R. Venderberghe, models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD (L. Chance, A. Hollingsworth, D. Ross, E. Villegas-Reimers, non-formal teachers’ CPD (J. Scheerens. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  15. Spatially regularized multifractal analysis for fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuciu, Philippe; Wendt, Herwig; Combrexelle, Sebastien; Abry, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    Scale-free dynamics is nowadays a massively used paradigm to model infraslow macroscopic brain activity. Multifractal analysis is becoming the standard tool to characterize scale-free dynamics. It is commonly used on various modalities of neuroimaging data to evaluate whether arrhythmic fluctuations in ongoing or evoked brain activity are related to pathologies (Alzheimer, epilepsy) or task performance. The success of multifractal analysis in neurosciences remains however so far contrasted: While it lead to relevant findings on M/EEG data, less clear impact was shown when applied to fMRI data. This is mostly due to their poor time resolution and very short duration as well as to the fact that analysis remains performed voxelwise. To take advantage of the large amount of voxels recorded jointly in fMRI, the present contribution proposes the use of a recently introduced Bayesian formalism for multifractal analysis, that regularizes the estimation of the multifractality parameter of a given voxel using information from neighbor voxels. The benefits of this regularized multifractal analysis are illustrated by comparison against classical multifractal analysis on fMRI data collected on one subject, at rest and during a working memory task: Though not yet statistically significant, increased multifractality is observed in task-negative and task-positive networks, respectively.

  16. Statistical and Spatial Analysis of Borderland Ground Water Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawala, G. K.; Woocay, A.; Walton, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    The border region is growing rapidly and experiencing a sharp decline both in water quality and availability putting a strain on the quickly diminishing resource. Since water is used primarily for agricultural, domestic, commercial, livestock, mining and power generation, its rapid depletion is of major concern in the region. Tools such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Correspondence Analysis and Cluster Analysis have the potential to present new insight into this problem. The Borderland groundwater is analyzed here using some of these Multivariate Analysis methods. PCA is applied to geo-chemical data from the region and a Cluster Analysis is applied to the results in order to group wells with similar characteristics. The derived Principal Axis and well groups are presented as biplots and overlaid on a digital elevation map of the region providing a visualization of potential interactions and flow path between surface water and ground water. Simulation by this modeling technique give a valuable insight to the water chemistry and the potential pollution threats to the already water diminishing resources.

  17. Analysis of the Spatial Pattern of Strawberry Angular Leaf Spot in California Nursery Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigot, Christophe; Turechek, William; McRoberts, Neil

    2017-10-01

    In California, angular leaf spot (ALS) is a common disease in strawberry nursery production, and a major concern for nurseries wishing to export plants. As the spatial pattern of a disease can offer insight into pathogen source, mode of dissemination, and how current crop management practices affect epidemic development, an understanding of the spatial pattern of ALS would allow nursery growers to make informed decisions regarding disease management. Ninety-seven field assessments of disease incidence were performed at different nursery locations in 2014 and 2015 to quantify ALS spatial pattern under commercial conditions. Both point-pattern and geostatistical statistical procedures were used to analyze the data. The spatial pattern of ALS was characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, as indicated by high median values of the beta-binomial distribution's theta parameter (0.643), and the index of dispersion, D (4.218). The binary power law provided a robust description of the data with estimated slope and intercept parameters significantly greater than 1 and 0, respectively (P < 0.001). Spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) detected significant nonrandom spatial arrangements for 64% of the data sets. Analysis of directional disease spread showed a strong spatial association between sampling units along the same planting row. This suggests that recurrent crop operations during the growing season play a significant role in ALS spread and should be taken into account to improve disease control.

  18. [Application of spatial autocorrelation analysis to the COD, SO2 and TSP emission in Jiangsu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Xian-Jin; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Zhu, De-Ming; Lai, Li; Zhong, Tai-Yang

    2009-06-15

    Spatial autocorrelation is an effective tool of spatial statistics, which is used to disclose the spatial structure of regional disparity. There are two different scales to measure regional spatial dependence: global spatial autocorrelation and local spatial autocorrelation. Based on environmental data of 13 cities in Jiangsu province from 1990 to 2006, the regional disparity of COD, SO2 and TSP emission was discussed by using spatial autocorrelation analysis methods. The results show that total emission of COD and TSP decreased respectively from 596 353 t and 1 101 404 t in 1990 to 291 762 t and 704734 t in 2006, while total emission of SO2 kept steady. In 2006, Global Moran's I of COD, SO2 and TSP emission was 0.465 7, 0.214 2 and 0.510 1 respectively. It is identified that positive spatial autocorrelation is presented and spatial aggregation pattern of COD, SO2 and TSP emission are appeared. However, spatial aggregation pattern of COD emission appears earlier than that of SO2 and TSP, and spatial aggregation degree of COD is also higher than that of SO2 and TSP. There are different spatial patterns between southern and northern Jiangsu. In southern Jiangsu, Global Moran's I of COD, SO2 and TSP emission had increased to 0.499 7, 0.320 2 and 0.298 3 up to 2006, and spatial aggregation pattern appeared remarkably. In northern Jiangsu, most of the Global Moran's I were less than -0.2, and spatial aggregation pattern disappeared accordingly. High cluster region of COD emission is Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou, and high cluster region of SO2 emission is Suzhou and Wuxi. However, spatial pattern of TSP emission does not change much and five cities of southern Jiangsu (Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Nanjing) are still the high cluster region. The last, the research provides an important cognition to regional environment disparity and macro-environmental strategy, and a significant means to harmonious society and eco-province construction in Jiangsu province.

  19. Principal component analysis to evaluate the spatial variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using principal component analysis (PCA), the paper reduces the data dimensionality and establishes inherent distinctive attributes of major elements accounting for the highest variation in ... KEY WORDS: Graphical data visualization, Kaolin, Kaolinite, Particle size, X-Ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Multi-collinearity.

  20. Analysis of the automated systems of planning of spatial constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.С. Барабаш

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the questions of analysis of existing SAPR and questions of development of new information technologies of planning on the basis of integration of programmatic complexes with the use of united informatively-logical model of object.

  1. Spatial Analysis of Human Exposure and Vulnerability to Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disasters in coastal cities have shown an ever-increasing frequency of occurrence. Population growth and urbanisation have increased the vulnerability of properties and societies in coastal flood-prone areas. Analysis of human exposure and vulnerability is one of the main strategies used to determine the necessary ...

  2. Spatial Analysis of Soil Fertility Using Geographical Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research evaluated soil fertility condition of River Otamiri watershed in southeastern Nigeria in relation to topographic heterogeneity using GIS technique. GPS was used to determine the geodetic coordinate of the sampling points and site elevation. Soil samples were collected and analyzed using standard soil analysis ...

  3. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  4. Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Boardman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Concern about soil erosion on arable land in Britain dates back at least 40 years. Monitoring schemes and case studies have subsequently identified the areas at risk, the rates and frequencies and the major factors responsible for erosion. Initial concern focused on impacts on the farm and therefore on food production. Latterly the emphasis has shifted to off-farm impacts particularly reservoir sedimentation, muddy flooding of properties and the ecological damage to watercourses due to nutrient enrichment, pesticides and damage to fish spawning grounds from fine-sediment inputs. The shift has therefore been to concerns about a healthy and sustainable environment which includes soils. Government agencies, the water companies and the farming industry have lagged behind scientific studies in recognising and addressing erosion problems. Attempts at mitigation are now largely driven by the need to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive whereby watercourses must reach “good status” by 2015. Future changes in land use and climate will offer further challenges in terms of effective monitoring and compliance.

  5. A Discriminant Analysis Model of Alaskan Biomes Based on Spatial Climatic and Environmental Data

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, James J

    2007-01-01

    Classification of high-latitude landscapes into their appropriate biomes is important for many climate and global change-related issues. Unfortunately, large-scale, high-spatial-resolution observations of plant assemblages associated with these regions are generally unavailable, so accurate modeling of plant assemblages and biome boundaries is often needed. We built different discriminant analysis models and used them to “convert” various combinations of spatial climatic data (surface tempera...

  6. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shen-Ju Chou; Chindi Wang; Nardnisa Sintupisut; Zhen-Xian Niou; Chih-Hsu Lin; Ker-Chau Li; Chen-Hsiang Yeang

    2016-01-01

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorp...

  7. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-11-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Forest Service was analyzed along with other long-term eco-climatic data (1961 to 1991) including precipitation, air temperature, slope, aspect, elevation, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. In addition, the existing eco-region framework established by Environment Canada was evaluated for mapping SOC distribution. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, including spatial autocorrelation analysis, were employed to examine how forest SOC is spatially distributed in Canada. Correlation analysis and spatial regression modelling were applied to determine the dominant ecological factors influencing SOC patterns at the eco-region level. At the national scale, a spatial error regression model was developed to account for spatial dependency and to estimate SOC patterns based on ecological and ecosystem factors. Based on the significant variables derived from the spatial error model, a predictive SOC map in Canadian forest areas was generated. Although overall SOC distribution is influenced by climatic and topographic variables, distribution patterns are shown to differ significantly between eco-regions. These findings help to validate the eco-region classification framework for SOC zonation mapping in Canada.

  8. Detecting the Land-Cover Changes Induced by Large-Physical Disturbances Using Landscape Metrics, Spatial Sampling, Simulation and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran’I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE. Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management.

  9. Spatial analysis of elderly access to primary care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Gracia Nancy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admissions for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are considered preventable admissions, because they are unlikely to occur when good preventive health care is received. Thus, high rates of admissions for ACSCs among the elderly (persons aged 65 or above who qualify for Medicare health insurance are signals of poor preventive care utilization. The relevant geographic market to use in studying these admission rates is the primary care physician market. Our conceptual model assumes that local market conditions serving as interventions along the pathways to preventive care services utilization can impact ACSC admission rates. Results We examine the relationships between market-level supply and demand factors on market-level rates of ACSC admissions among the elderly residing in the U.S. in the late 1990s. Using 6,475 natural markets in the mainland U.S. defined by The Health Resources and Services Administration's Primary Care Service Area Project, spatial regression is used to estimate the model, controlling for disease severity using detailed information from Medicare claims files. Our evidence suggests that elderly living in impoverished rural areas or in sprawling suburban places are about equally more likely to be admitted for ACSCs. Greater availability of physicians does not seem to matter, but greater prevalence of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates, relative to U.S. medical graduates, does seem to reduce ACSC admissions, especially in poor rural areas. Conclusion The relative importance of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates in providing primary care to the elderly in geographic areas of greatest need can inform the ongoing debate regarding whether there is an impending shortage of physicians in the United States. These findings support other authors who claim that the existing supply of physicians is perhaps adequate, however the distribution of them across

  10. Analysis of Regularly and Irregularly Sampled Spatial, Multivariate, and Multi-temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes different methods that are useful in the analysis of multivariate data. Some methods focus on spatial data (sampled regularly or irregularly), others focus on multitemporal data or data from multiple sources. The thesis covers selected and not all aspects of relevant data...... maximize the variance represented by each component, MAFs maximize the spatial autocorrelation represented by each component, and MNFs maximize a measure of signal-to-noise ratio represented by each component. In the literature MAF/MNF analysis is described for regularly gridded data only. Here...... filtering of MAF/MNFs is suggested. One case study successfully shows the effect of the MNF Fourier restoration. Another case shows the superiority of the MAF/MNF analysis over ordinary non-spatial factor analysis of geochemical data in South Greenland (with a geologist's comment). Also, two examples of MAF...

  11. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Environmental Data of North Beijing District Using Hilbert-Huang Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xuezhi; He, Lihua; Wang, Wenyong; Moran, William

    2016-01-01

    Temperature, solar radiation and water are major important variables in ecosystem models which are measurable via wireless sensor networks (WSN). Effective data analysis is necessary to extract significant spatial and temporal information. In this work, information regarding the long term variation of seasonal field environment conditions is explored using Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) based analysis on the wireless sensor network data collection. The data collection network, consisting of 36 wireless nodes, covers an area of 100 square kilometres in Yanqing, the northwest of Beijing CBD, in China and data collection involves environmental parameter observations taken over a period of three months in 2011. The analysis used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD/EEMD) to break a time sequence of data down to a finite set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Both spatial and temporal properties of data explored by HHT analysis are demonstrated. Our research shows potential for better understanding the spatial-temporal relationships among environmental parameters using WSN and HHT.

  12. SPATIAL ARCHAEOLOGY USING IMAGE ANALYSIS AND MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    VOIRON-CANICIO, Christine; Doveri, Emmanuel; FUSCO, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    For the last ten years, geographers, archaeologists and historians work together around the analysis of space transformation processes at various time scales, in particular long-term ones. However, the approaches which were developed until then to study the arrangement of archaeological remains and the links they share with their environment, are on one hand most related to statistical and counting methods, and on the other hand often take into account only their functional or symbolical dime...

  13. Spatial Characterization of Landscapes through Multifractal Analysis of DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evolution is driven by abiotic, biotic, and anthropic factors. The interactions among these factors and their influence at different scales create a complex dynamic. Landscapes have been shown to exhibit numerous scaling laws, from Horton’s laws to more sophisticated scaling of heights in topography and river network topology. This scaling and multiscaling analysis has the potential to characterise the landscape in terms of the statistical signature of the measure selected. The study zone is a matrix obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM (map 10 × 10 m, and height 1 m that corresponds to homogeneous region with respect to soil characteristics and climatology known as “Monte El Pardo” although the water level of a reservoir and the topography play a main role on its organization and evolution. We have investigated whether the multifractal analysis of a DEM shows common features that can be used to reveal the underlying patterns and information associated with the landscape of the DEM mapping and studied the influence of the water level of the reservoir on the applied analysis. The results show that the use of the multifractal approach with mean absolute gradient data is a useful tool for analysing the topography represented by the DEM.

  14. Spatial charaterization of El Pardo landscape using Detrended Fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Morato, Maria Carmen; Aguado, Pedro L.; del Monte, Juan P.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2017-04-01

    The interactions among abiotic, biotic, and anthropic factors and their influence at different scales create a complex dynamic in landscape evolution. Scaling and multifractal analysis has the potential to characterize the landscape in terms of the statistical signature of the measure selected, in this case altitude. The study zone is a matrix of 2053 x 2053 pixels, with a resolution of 5m (25 m2 by pixel), obtained from a digital terrain model (DTM) using the latest informatics tools. This zone corresponds to homogeneous region with respect to soil characteristics and climatology but with topographic distinctive areas, known as "Monte de El Pardo". We found that the fluctuation statistics at different scales revealed a non-Gaussian character in the data. Generalized Hurst dimensions were calculated on several transects crossing the area studied exhibit multifractality in all of them within a certain range. Analysis of the directionality by means of a Generalized Hurst rose plot showed differences in scaling characteristics along river and reservoir direction and across it. The results show a growth of persistent behavior in all the directions and a clear anisotropy to be considered in bi-dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis.

  15. Analysis of Participatory Processes in the Formulation of Spatial Plan for Nature Park Medvednica

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    Nataša Lovrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This research aims to assess the stakeholders influence on spatial planning of Nature Park Medvednica, a mountainous protected area adjacent to Zagreb, the capital city of Croatia, which tries to hold on to the pressure of the urbanization. Because of the inexistence of spatial plan which is required with the Croatian laws, its area was significantly decreased in 2009. This kind of research has not been done yet for NP Medvednica, and it will provide a contribution to the process of developing a spatial Plan for NP Medvednica. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the framework of stakeholder analysis, for which a series of in-depth interviews with - stakeholders were performed, and documents concerning the spatial plan were analysed. The data gained was processed in MAXQDA software for qualitative analysis. Results and Conclusion: The gathered data explains which are the disadvantages of the tree processes of the formulation of the spatial plan and is giving a possible theoretical explanation or a model which can be implied in any decision making process involving stakeholders in natural resources management in within a given political and cultural context. Description of the past and current spatial planning situation of the NP Medvednica was specified and issues and stakeholders concerning the creation of the spatial plan where identified. The key conflict areas that affect the formulation of spatial plan were detected and examined. The level of participation of stakeholders in the context of fulfilment of their own interests was assessed as well as the influence on participation processes of different stakeholder groups on the formulation of the spatial plan. In order to have proper citizens and stakeholders participation some changes in the legislation should take place.

  16. Isotopic evidence for residential mobility of farming communities during the transition to agriculture in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Samantha; Evans, Jane; Montgomery, Janet; Scarre, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Development of agriculture is often assumed to be accompanied by a decline in residential mobility, and sedentism is frequently proposed to provide the basis for economic intensification, population growth and increasing social complexity. In Britain, however, the nature of the agricultural transition (ca 4000 BC) and its effect on residence patterns has been intensely debated. Some authors attribute the transition to the arrival of populations who practised a system of sedentary intensive mixed farming similar to that of the very earliest agricultural regimes in central Europe, ca 5500 BC, with cultivation of crops in fixed plots and livestock keeping close to permanently occupied farmsteads. Others argue that local hunter-gatherers within Britain adopted selected elements of a farming economy and retained a mobile way of life. We use strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel from an Early Neolithic burial population in Gloucestershire, England, to evaluate the residence patterns of early farmers. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that early farming communities in Britain were residentially mobile and were not fully sedentary. Results highlight the diverse nature of settlement strategies associated with early farming in Europe and are of wider significance to understanding the effect of the transition to agriculture on residence patterns.

  17. Spatial Analysis of Linear Structures in the Exploration of Groundwater

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    Abdramane Dembele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of linear structures on major geological formations plays a crucial role in resource exploration in the Inner Niger Delta. Highlighting and mapping of the large lithological units were carried out using image fusion, spectral bands (RGB coding, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and band ratio methods. The automatic extraction method of linear structures has permitted the obtaining of a structural map with 82,659 linear structures, distributed on different stratigraphic stages. The intensity study shows an accentuation in density over 12.52% of the total area, containing 22.02% of the linear structures. The density and nodes (intersections of fractures formed by the linear structures on the different lithologies allowed to observe the behavior of the region’s aquifers in the exploration of subsoil resources. The central density, in relation to the hydrographic network of the lowlands, shows the conditioning of the flow and retention of groundwater in the region, and in-depth fluids. The node areas and high-density linear structures, have shown an ability to have rejections in deep (pores that favor the formation of structural traps for oil resources.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Spatial Accessibility to Primary Health Care in Bhutan

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    Sonam Jamtsho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information systems (GIS can be effectively utilized to carry out spatio-temporal analysis of spatial accessibility to primary healthcare services. Spatial accessibility to primary healthcare services is commonly measured using floating catchment area models which are generally defined with three variables; namely, an attractiveness component of the service centre, travel time or distance between the locations of the service centre and the population, and population demand for healthcare services. The nearest-neighbour modified two-step floating catchment area (NN-M2SFCA model is proposed for computing spatial accessibility indices for the entire country. Accessibility values from 2010 to 2013 for Bhutan were analysed both spatially and temporally by producing accessibility ranking maps, plotting Lorenz curves, and conducting spatial clustering analysis. The spatial accessibility indices of the 205 sub-districts show great disparities in healthcare accessibility in the country. The mean- and median-based classification results indicate that, in 2013, 24 percent of Bhutan’s population have poor access to primary healthcare services, 66 percent of the population have medium-level access, and 10 percent have good access.

  19. Tooth enamel oxygen "isoscapes" show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P

    2016-10-07

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ18Op) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as 'non-local' to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ18Op is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ18O values-a process known to be problematic.

  20. Tooth enamel oxygen “isoscapes” show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-10-01

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ18Op) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as ‘non-local’ to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ18Op is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ18O values-a process known to be problematic.

  1. Spatial Analysis of Macro Economic in Central Java (PDRB Analysis in Year 1993-2003

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    Eddy Kiswanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the spatial analysis macroeconomics condition in central Java from 1993-2001 base on PDRB analysis. Central Java stands in the last position in the economic in Central Java based on PDRB variable and economic growth is in the lowest category in the comparation with another provinces in Java. This is reason why Central Java is categorized as "LL" (Low low. One of the prime sectors in Central Java is small medium scale enterprises which is dominated 30% of national market, but since the economic crisis stroke in 1997 the manufacture sector, especially industry and processing had collapse. In 1996-1997, the level of manufacture growth increased to 14.4% but then decreased until minus 19.3%. This condition caused by bankruptcy to many of the industries. The poverty profile in Central Java from 1999-2003 is average 23.3% from the total population every years. Central Java stepping to number 2 in level of poverty absolute number 1. In poverty relativity level, Central Java became number 1 in Java from 2002-2003 with the level of poverty reached above the national average. This fact shows the unsuccessfully effort in reducing the poverty level.

  2. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  3. Specialization and medical mycology in the US, Britain and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2008-03-01

    This paper attempts to bring new insights to a long-standing historical debate over medical specialization by analyzing the formation of medical mycology, a somewhat marginal biomedical discipline that emerged in the mid-twentieth century around studies of fungal disease in humans. The study of fungi predates that of bacteria and viruses, but from the 1880s it became eclipsed by bacteriology. However, in the postwar period, there were moves to establish medical mycology as an independent speciality. I trace the processes that led to the launch of professional societies in the United States, Britain and Japan, three major players in medical mycology, and more broadly in biomedicine. The analysis of the three different national contexts illustrates how geographical, medico-technological, epidemiological, political and social conditions gave the specialty a distinctive character in each country; this was further complicated by the different and changing medical fields in which fungal diseases were studied and treated. The three case studies show medical specialization as a process that is not simply cumulative but responds to specific historical events and developments.

  4. Neural activity associated with metaphor comprehension: spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, María; Carretié, Luis; Hinojosa, José A; Tapia, Manuel; Mercado, Francisco; López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo

    2005-01-03

    Though neuropsychological data indicate that the right hemisphere (RH) plays a major role in metaphor processing, other studies suggest that, at least during some phases of this processing, a RH advantage may not exist. The present study explores, through a temporally agile neural signal--the event-related potentials (ERPs)--, and through source-localization algorithms applied to ERP recordings, whether the crucial phase of metaphor comprehension presents or not a RH advantage. Participants (n=24) were submitted to a S1-S2 experimental paradigm. S1 consisted of visually presented metaphoric sentences (e.g., "Green lung of the city"), followed by S2, which consisted of words that could (i.e., "Park") or could not (i.e., "Semaphore") be defined by S1. ERPs elicited by S2 were analyzed using temporal principal component analysis (tPCA) and source-localization algorithms. These analyses revealed that metaphorically related S2 words showed significantly higher N400 amplitudes than non-related S2 words. Source-localization algorithms showed differential activity between the two S2 conditions in the right middle/superior temporal areas. These results support the existence of an important RH contribution to (at least) one phase of metaphor processing and, furthermore, implicate the temporal cortex with respect to that contribution.

  5. WASTE MANAGEMENT IN POLAND (2012–2013 – SPATIAL ANALYSIS

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    Karol Kukuła

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the waste management development is a complex phenomenon described by eight diagnostic variables. The purpose of the paper is to indicate regional discrepancies in the scope of shaping of the phenomenon in 2012 and 2013. To achieve the purpose, the multivariate analysis was applied, with a particular focus on the zero unitarization method. As a result of application of the aforementioned methods, the ranking of voivodeships with respect to the level of their waste management development was obtained. Further, the voivodeships were divided into four groups: at a very high, high, moderate, and low level of the waste management development. The level of the waste management development is not evenly distributed between given voivodeships. There are signifi cant discrepancies within the investigated area between the voivodeships leading in the ranking (Mazowieckie, and the last voivodeship in the fourth group(Świętokrzyskie – [I(Qi  52.5 in 2013].

  6. Spatial temporal analysis of urban heat hazard in Tangerang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Adi; Kuswantoro; Ardiansyah; Rustanto, Andry; Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal

    2016-11-01

    Urban heat is a natural phenomenon which might caused by human activities. The human activities were represented by various types of land-use such as urban and non-urban area. The aim of this study is to identify the urban heat behavior in Tangerang City as it might threats the urban environment. This study used three types of remote sensing data namely, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and Landsat OLI-TIRS, to capture the urban heat behavior and to analysis the urban heat signature of Tangerang City in 2001, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. The result showed that urban heat signature change dynamically each month based on the sun radiation. The urban heat island covered only small part of Tangerang City in 2001, but it was significantly increased and reached 50% of the area in 2012. Based on the result on urban heat signature, the threshold for threatening condition is 30 oC which recognized from land surface temperature (LST). The effective temperature (ET) index explains that condition as warm, uncomfortable, increase stress due to sweating and blood flow and may causing cardiovascular disorder.

  7. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These

  8. Spatial analysis of stable isotope data to determine primary sources of nutrition for fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Andrew J; Connolly, Rod M

    2003-08-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to determine the ultimate autotrophic sources supporting production of three commercially important fish species over unvegetated mudflats in a subtropical estuary. Mean isotope values over the whole estuary for fish and autotroph sources were modeled to indicate feasible combinations of sources. Variability in isotope values among nine locations (separated by 3-10 km) was then used as a further test of the likelihood that sources were involved in fish nutrition. A positive spatial correlation between isotope values of a fish species and an autotroph indicates a substantial contribution from the autotroph. Spatial correlations were tested with a newly developed randomization procedure using differences between fish and autotroph values at each location, based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes combined in two-dimensional space. Both whole estuary modeling and spatial analysis showed that seagrass, epiphytic algae and particulate organic matter in the water column, including phytoplankton, are likely contributors to bream (Acanthopagrus australis) nutrition. However, spatial analysis also showed that mangroves were involved (up to 33% contribution), despite a very low contribution from whole estuary modeling. Spatial analysis on sand whiting (Sillago ciliata) demonstrated the importance of two sources, mangroves (up to 25%) and microalgae on the mudflats, considered unimportant based on whole estuary modeling. No spatial correlations were found between winter whiting (Sillago maculata) and autotrophs, either because fish moved among locations or relied on different autotrophs at different locations. Spatial correlations between consumer and source isotope values provide a useful analytical tool for identifying the role of autotrophs in foodwebs, and demonstrated here that both in situ production of microalgae and organic matter from adjacent habitats were important to fish over mudflats.

  9. Sex differences in visual-spatial working memory: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Visual-spatial working memory measures are widely used in clinical and experimental settings. Furthermore, it has been argued that the male advantage in spatial abilities can be explained by a sex difference in visual-spatial working memory. Therefore, sex differences in visual-spatial working memory have important implication for research, theory, and practice, but they have yet to be quantified. The present meta-analysis quantified the magnitude of sex differences in visual-spatial working memory and examined variables that might moderate them. The analysis used a set of 180 effect sizes from healthy males and females drawn from 98 samples ranging in mean age from 3 to 86 years. Multilevel meta-analysis was used on the overall data set to account for non-independent effect sizes. The data also were analyzed in separate task subgroups by means of multilevel and mixed-effects models. Results showed a small but significant male advantage (mean d = 0.155, 95 % confidence interval = 0.087-0.223). All the tasks produced a male advantage, except for memory for location, where a female advantage emerged. Age of the participants was a significant moderator, indicating that sex differences in visual-spatial working memory appeared first in the 13-17 years age group. Removing memory for location tasks from the sample affected the pattern of significant moderators. The present results indicate a male advantage in visual-spatial working memory, although age and specific task modulate the magnitude and direction of the effects. Implications for clinical applications, cognitive model building, and experimental research are discussed.

  10. Spatial organization of drumlins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Chris D.; Ely, Jeremy; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Ice-sheets flowing over soft sediments produce undulations in the bed, typically of metres in relief, of which drumlins are the most abundant and widely investigated. Consensus regarding their mechanism of formation has yet to be achieved. In this paper we examine the spatial organization...... of drumlins in order to provide an improved description of the phenomenon and to guide hypotheses of their formation. We review the literature highlighting contradictory findings regarding drumlin spatial organization and then use this to motivate our study based on a large sample (42 488) of drumlins from...... Canada, Britain and Norway. Are there typical arrangements in drumlin positioning and are they organized in a regular spatial manner (patterned) or are they distributed randomly? We recognize that drumlin fields are inherently patchy and therefore apply inhomogeneous spatial statistics in order to study...

  11. Spatial Structure and Diffusive Dynamics from Single-Particle Trajectories Using Spline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brian R.; Vu, Tania Q.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Single-particle tracking of biomolecular probes has provided a wealth of information about intracellular trafficking and the dynamics of proteins and lipids in the cell membrane. Conventional mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis of single-particle trajectories often assumes that probes are moving in a uniform environment. However, the observed two-dimensional motion of probe particles is influenced by the local three-dimensional geometry of the cell membrane and intracellular structures, which are rarely flat at the submicron scale. This complex geometry can lead to spatially confined trajectories that are difficult to analyze and interpret using conventional two-dimensional MSD analysis. Here we present two methods to analyze spatially confined trajectories: spline-curve dynamics analysis, which extends conventional MSD analysis to measure diffusive motion in confined trajectories; and spline-curve spatial analysis, which measures spatial structures smaller than the limits of optical resolution. We show, using simulated random walks and experimental trajectories of quantum dot probes, that differences in measured two-dimensional diffusion coefficients do not always reflect differences in underlying diffusive dynamics, but can instead be due to differences in confinement geometries of cellular structures. PMID:20409493

  12. Research on the spatial analysis method of seismic hazard for island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jing; Jiang, Jitong; Zheng, Qiuhong; Gao, Huiying

    2017-05-01

    Seismic hazard analysis(SHA) is a key component of earthquake disaster prevention field for island engineering, whose result could provide parameters for seismic design microscopically and also is the requisite work for the island conservation planning’s earthquake and comprehensive disaster prevention planning macroscopically, in the exploitation and construction process of both inhabited and uninhabited islands. The existing seismic hazard analysis methods are compared in their application, and their application and limitation for island is analysed. Then a specialized spatial analysis method of seismic hazard for island (SAMSHI) is given to support the further related work of earthquake disaster prevention planning, based on spatial analysis tools in GIS and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model. The basic spatial database of SAMSHI includes faults data, historical earthquake record data, geological data and Bouguer gravity anomalies data, which are the data sources for the 11 indices of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, and these indices are calculated by the spatial analysis model constructed in ArcGIS’s Model Builder platform.

  13. The pertussis vaccine controversy in Great Britain, 1974-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2003-09-08

    This historical essay analyzes the role played by Great Britain in the pertussis vaccine controversy of the 1970s and 1980s. Public backlash against this vaccine not only took place earlier in Britain than the United States, but also was so widespread that a series of whooping cough epidemics soon followed. As with the more recent dispute involving measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism, the United Kingdom played a primary role in defining, promoting, and ultimately exporting this controversy. This essay seeks to explain this phenomenon by situating it in Britain's long history of suspicion regarding vaccines evident among both the public and the medical profession, a theme dating back to the compulsory vaccination laws of the 19th century. It argues that anti-vaccinationism, far from being simply a new development related to the public's lack of awareness of childhood vaccine-preventable illness, actually represents a revival of a much older movement.

  14. Analysis of spatial autocorrelation patterns of heavy and super-heavy rainfall in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Iman; Doostkamian, Mehdi; Haghighi, Esmaeil; Ghafarian Malamiri, Hamid Reza; Yarahmadi, Parvane

    2017-09-01

    Rainfall is a highly variable climatic element, and rainfall-related changes occur in spatial and temporal dimensions within a regional climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial autocorrelation changes of Iran's heavy and super-heavy rainfall over the past 40 years. For this purpose, the daily rainfall data of 664 meteorological stations between 1971 and 2011 are used. To analyze the changes in rainfall within a decade, geostatistical techniques like spatial autocorrelation analysis of hot spots, based on the Getis-Ord G i statistic, are employed. Furthermore, programming features in MATLAB, Surfer, and GIS are used. The results indicate that the Caspian coast, the northwest and west of the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, the inner regions of Iran, and southern parts of Southeast and Northeast Iran, have the highest likelihood of heavy and super-heavy rainfall. The spatial pattern of heavy rainfall shows that, despite its oscillation in different periods, the maximum positive spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall includes areas of the west, northwest and west coast of the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, a negative spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall is observed in central Iran and parts of the east, particularly in Zabul. Finally, it is found that patterns of super-heavy rainfall are similar to those of heavy rainfall.

  15. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. Objective: We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? Design: With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. Results: A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7–percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P promotions was larger for higher–socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Conclusion: Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the population diet but

  16. Translation of EEG spatial filters from resting to motor imagery using independent component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Wang

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs often use spatial filters to improve signal-to-noise ratio of task-related EEG activities. To obtain robust spatial filters, large amounts of labeled data, which are often expensive and labor-intensive to obtain, need to be collected in a training procedure before online BCI control. Several studies have recently developed zero-training methods using a session-to-session scenario in order to alleviate this problem. To our knowledge, a state-to-state translation, which applies spatial filters derived from one state to another, has never been reported. This study proposes a state-to-state, zero-training method to construct spatial filters for extracting EEG changes induced by motor imagery. Independent component analysis (ICA was separately applied to the multi-channel EEG in the resting and the motor imagery states to obtain motor-related spatial filters. The resultant spatial filters were then applied to single-trial EEG to differentiate left- and right-hand imagery movements. On a motor imagery dataset collected from nine subjects, comparable classification accuracies were obtained by using ICA-based spatial filters derived from the two states (motor imagery: 87.0%, resting: 85.9%, which were both significantly higher than the accuracy achieved by using monopolar scalp EEG data (80.4%. The proposed method considerably increases the practicality of BCI systems in real-world environments because it is less sensitive to electrode misalignment across different sessions or days and does not require annotated pilot data to derive spatial filters.

  17. Caribbean immigrants in Britain and Canada: socio-economic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1988-12-01

    This paper compares the socioeconomic experiences of Caribbean immigration in Britain and Canada and shows how differing immigration trends together with changing economic circumstances influenced the process of integration. Caribbean immigrants in Canada are more recent arrivals than those in Britain and, in 1981, were still experiencing initial adjustment problems aggravated by an economy in which unemployment is still high. Unlike Britain, which has a large population born in that country of West Indian parentage, the "2nd generation" in Canada is small and mostly still in school. Despite higher levels of education and qualifications than their counterparts in Britain, Caribbean immigrants in Canada faced similar problems. Males were relatively more concentrated in manufacturing industries in Canada and in transportation in Britain, sectors which were undergoing significant structural change and experiencing high levels of unemployment. Earned income was below average in both countries but there were interesting gender differences. Caribbean women experienced the same "earnings gap", relative to men, that characterized most women in the labor force. However, Caribbean women were relatively more successful than men, as measured by unemployment rates and earned incomes. This appears to be due to their qualifications in nursing and other service occupations that continued to expand, and to be in demand in the 1970s and 1980s, when other occupations were declining in response to technological change and "post-industrial" developments. In both countries there were residual disadvantages, faced by Caribbean men and women, which cannot be statistically explained by factors such as age, education, period of immigration, or structural changes in the economy. These can be attributed, at least in part, to the institutionalized prejudice and discrimination against racial minorities which is prevalent in both societies. In absolute terms Caribbean immigrants in Canada are

  18. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  19. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-07-25

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children.

  20. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-20

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development.

  1. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children. PMID:28757577

  2. A Spatial Analysis of Poverty in Kigali, Rwanda using indicators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the poverty pattern occurring in Kigali through the use of spatial analysis techniques. It seeks to further decipher the underlying factors contributing to the emerging pattern of poverty. These kinds of information are useful to the Kigali administration as input into devising appropriate poverty reduction ...

  3. A Bayesian multidimensional scaling procedure for the spatial analysis of revealed choice data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeSarbo, WS; Kim, Y; Fong, D

    1999-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian formulation of a vector multidimensional scaling procedure for the spatial analysis of binary choice data. The Gibbs sampler is gainfully employed to estimate the posterior distribution of the specified scalar products, bilinear model parameters. The computational procedure

  4. A Spatial Analysis of Poverty in Kigali, Rwanda using indicators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study examines the poverty pattern occurring in Kigali through the use of spatial analysis techniques. It seeks to further decipher the underlying factors contributing to the emerging pattern of poverty. These kinds of information are useful to the Kigali administration as input into devising appropriate poverty.

  5. A state-of-the-art machine learning pipeline for the analysis of spatial proteomics data

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Organelle proteomics, or spatial proteomics, is the systematic study of protein sub-cellular localisation. Here, we focus on high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry-based techniques such as LOPIT and PCP and demonstrate a robust and sound analysis pipeline using state-of-the-art and novel machine learning algorithms implemented in the pRoloc R/Bioconductor package.

  6. Spatial analysis of fuel treatment options for chaparral on the Angeles national forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Jones; J. Chew; R. Silverstein; C. Stalling; J. Sullivan; J. Troutwine; D. Weise; D. Garwood

    2008-01-01

    Spatial fuel treatment schedules were developed for the chaparral vegetation type on the Angeles National Forest using the Multi-resource Analysis and Geographic Information System (MAGIS). Schedules varied by the priority given to various wildland urban interface areas and the general forest, as well as by the number of acres treated per decade. The effectiveness of...

  7. Ultrasonic motion analysis system - measurement of temporal and spatial gait parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Hof, AL; Postema, K

    The duration of stance and swing phase and step and stride length are important parameters in human gait. In this technical note a low-cost ultrasonic motion analysis system is described that is capable of measuring these temporal and spatial parameters while subjects walk on the floor. By using the

  8. Spatial and temporal analysis of forest cover changes in the Bartin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... and spatial comparison of the classified image can be performed using Geographical Information. System (GIS) to show land-use changes. GIS analysis of the classification results based on ..... activities, food safety, and sustainable forest manage- ment is to what extent these wooded buffer zones can.

  9. A systematic review of the application of spatial analysis in pharmacoepidemiologic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Aletta; Hak, Eelko; Janssen, Fanny

    PURPOSE: Although current reviews of the use of spatial analysis in general epidemiologic research illustrate an important and well-established role in exploring and predicting health, its application has not been reviewed in the subspecialty field of pharmacoepidemiology. METHODS: We systematically

  10. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF EXTREME RAINFALL ON THE SLOPE AREA OF MT. MERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhian Dharma Prayuda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall has temporal and spatial characteristics with certain pattern which are affected by topographic variations and climatology of an area. The intensity of extreme rainfall is one of important characteristics related to the trigger factors for debris flow. This research will discuss the result of analysis on short duration rainfall data in the south and west slope of Mt. Merapi. Measured hourly rainfall data in 14 rainfall stations for the last 27 years were used as analysis input. The rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relationship (IDF was derived using empirical formula of Sherman, Kimijima, Haspers, and Mononobe method. The analysis on the characteristics of extreme rainfall intensity was performed by conducting spatial interpolation using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW method. Result of analysis shows that IDF of rainfall in the research area fits to Sherman’s formula. Besides, the spatial distribution pattern of maximum rainfall intensity was assessed on the basis of area rainfall. Furthermore, the difference on the result of spatial map for one hour extreme rainfall based on isolated event and non-isolated event method can be evaluated. The result of this preliminary research is expected to be inputs in the establishment of debris flow early warning in Mt. Merapi slope area.

  11. Configraphics: Graph Theoretical Methods for Design and Analysis of Spatial Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirouz Nourian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation reports a PhD research on mathematical-computational models, methods, and techniques for analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of spatial configurations in architecture and urban design. Spatial configuration is a technical term that refers to the particular way in which a set of spaces are connected to one another as a network. Spatial configuration affects safety, security, and efficiency of functioning of complex buildings by facilitating certain patterns of movement and/or impeding other patterns. In cities and suburban built environments, spatial configuration affects accessibilities and influences travel behavioural patterns, e.g. choosing walking and cycling for short trips instead of travelling by cars. As such, spatial configuration effectively influences the social, economic, and environmental functioning of cities and complex buildings, by conducting human movement patterns.In this research, graph theory is used to mathematically model spatial configurations in order to provide intuitive ways of studying and designing spatial arrangements for architects and urban designers. The methods and tools presented in this dissertation are applicable in:arranging spatial layouts based on configuration graphs, e.g. by using bubble diagrams to ensure certain spatial requirements and qualities in complex buildings; andanalysing the potential effects of decisions on the likely spatial performance of buildings and on mobility patterns in built environments for systematic comparison of designs or plans, e.g. as to their aptitude for pedestrians and cyclists.The dissertation reports two parallel tracks of work on architectural and urban configurations. The core concept of the architectural configuration track is the ‘bubble diagram’ and the core concept of the urban configuration track is the ‘easiest paths’ for walking and cycling. Walking and cycling have been chosen as the foci of this theme as they involve active physical

  12. Configraphics: Graph Theoretical Methods for Design and Analysis of Spatial Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirouz Nourian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation reports a PhD research on mathematical-computational models, methods, and techniques for analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of spatial configurations in architecture and urban design. Spatial configuration is a technical term that refers to the particular way in which a set of spaces are connected to one another as a network. Spatial configuration affects safety, security, and efficiency of functioning of complex buildings by facilitating certain patterns of movement and/or impeding other patterns. In cities and suburban built environments, spatial configuration affects accessibilities and influences travel behavioural patterns, e.g. choosing walking and cycling for short trips instead of travelling by cars. As such, spatial configuration effectively influences the social, economic, and environmental functioning of cities and complex buildings, by conducting human movement patterns. In this research, graph theory is used to mathematically model spatial configurations in order to provide intuitive ways of studying and designing spatial arrangements for architects and urban designers. The methods and tools presented in this dissertation are applicable in: • arranging spatial layouts based on configuration graphs, e.g. by using bubble diagrams to ensure certain spatial requirements and qualities in complex buildings; and • analysing the potential effects of decisions on the likely spatial performance of buildings and on mobility patterns in built environments for systematic comparison of designs or plans, e.g. as to their aptitude for pedestrians and cyclists. The dissertation reports two parallel tracks of work on architectural and urban configurations. The core concept of the architectural configuration track is the ‘bubble diagram’ and the core concept of the urban configuration track is the ‘easiest paths’ for walking and cycling. Walking and cycling have been chosen as the foci of this theme as they involve

  13. Ambiguous symbols: why there were no figurines in Neolithic Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the scarcity of representational art, and particularly of representations of the human body, in Neolithic Britain, in contrast with the Neolithic of south-east Europe. My suggestion is that this contrast can be linked with differing notions of personal identity and bodily integrity. In later Neolithic Britain, a complex mode of non-representational decoration developed, which elaborated the practice of making reference to absent persons and things by using deliberately ambiguous motifs, which connected past and present as well as remote locations.

  14. Learning Bayesian networks from big meteorological spatial datasets. An alternative to complex network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; San Martín, Daniel; Herrera, Sixto; Santiago Cofiño, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The growing availability of spatial datasets (observations, reanalysis, and regional and global climate models) demands efficient multivariate spatial modeling techniques for many problems of interest (e.g. teleconnection analysis, multi-site downscaling, etc.). Complex networks have been recently applied in this context using graphs built from pairwise correlations between the different stations (or grid boxes) forming the dataset. However, this analysis does not take into account the full dependence structure underlying the data, gien by all possible marginal and conditional dependencies among the stations, and does not allow a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. In this talk we introduce Bayesian networks as an alternative multivariate analysis and modeling data-driven technique which allows building a joint probability distribution of the stations including all relevant dependencies in the dataset. Bayesian networks is a sound machine learning technique using a graph to 1) encode the main dependencies among the variables and 2) to obtain a factorization of the joint probability distribution of the stations given by a reduced number of parameters. For a particular problem, the resulting graph provides a qualitative analysis of the spatial relationships in the dataset (alternative to complex network analysis), and the resulting model allows for a probabilistic analysis of the dataset. Bayesian networks have been widely applied in many fields, but their use in climate problems is hampered by the large number of variables (stations) involved in this field, since the complexity of the existing algorithms to learn from data the graphical structure grows nonlinearly with the number of variables. In this contribution we present a modified local learning algorithm for Bayesian networks adapted to this problem, which allows inferring the graphical structure for thousands of stations (from observations) and/or gridboxes (from model simulations) thus providing new

  15. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.

    and the factors related to its occurrence and distribution are scarce in Denmark. A retrospective study was performed using liver inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle for the period 2011 to 2013. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore whether the data on F. hepatica infection was clustered...... in space as this could help understand whether or not the infection was driven by local environmental factors. Both global and local spatial autocorrelation techniques were used. Herd level and environmental risk factors were evaluated for their association with prevalence of F. hepatica infection using...

  16. Spatial mapping of correlation profile in Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somepalli, Bhargav; Venkitesh, Deepa; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2017-04-01

    We report an approach to spatially map the correlation profile along the sensing fiber in Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis by pulsing the pump radiation. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the influence of frequency modulation parameters of a narrow linewidth source on the width of the correlation profile and its peak position. The simulation results are validated through controlled experiments. The correlation profile is mapped over 1 km long fiber with spatial resolution of 1 m, limited only by the finite lifetime of acoustic phonons in the silica fiber.

  17. Extreme Precipitation Estimation with Typhoon Morakot Using Frequency and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan and produced copious amounts of precipitation in 2009. From the point view of hydrological statistics, the impact of the precipitation from typhoon Morakot using a frequency analysis can be analyzed and discussed. The frequency curve, which was fitted mathematically to historical observed data, can be used to estimate the probability of exceedance for runoff events of a certain magnitude. The study integrates frequency analysis and spatial analysis to assess the effect of Typhoon Morakot event on rainfall frequency in the Gaoping River basin of southern Taiwan. First, extreme rainfall data are collected at sixteen stations for durations of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours and then an appropriate probability distribution was selected to analyze the impact of the extreme hydrological event. Spatial rainfall patterns for a return period of 200-yr with 24-hr duration with and without Typhoon Morakot are estimated. Results show that the rainfall amount is significantly different with long duration with and without the event for frequency analysis. Furthermore, spatial analysis shows that extreme rainfall for a return period of 200-yr is highly dependent on topography and is smaller in the southwest than that in the east. The results not only demonstrate the distinct effect of Typhoon Morakot on frequency analysis, but also could provide reference in future planning of hydrological engineering.

  18. Interactions between rail and road safety in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W; Addison, John D

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of an investigation into ways in which the safety risks of travel on road and rail interact with each other in Great Britain, other than through physical contact such as at level crossings. The two main foci of the paper are: (1) an analysis of the 'whole journey' risks of journeys for which the national rail system is the main mode, but which also include stages by other transport modes to provide access to the railway system; and (2) an analysis of the effect on safety risk of inter-modal transfers between rail and road. On (1), walking to and from stations was estimated to account on average for 65% of the overall door-to-door risk of being killed on rail journeys; the rail system itself accounts for 21% of the risk, and other access modes account for the remaining 14%. The average distance walked to and from stations is 0.9 km per rail journey, and this walking accounts for 5% of all walking nationally. On (2), it was found that increasing rail fares to fund railway safety measures may lead passengers to switch from rail to car, but for most sensible rail safety measures, the additional risks from such diversions are small compared with the intended rail safety benefits. However, for high-cost rail safety measures funded by passengers, the additional risks from diversions may be of the same order as the intended safety benefits. The last section of the paper explores the effects of variations in the casualty rates of rail users as pedestrians and car users, because their road risks may be different from those of all road users. Such variations could alter the detailed conclusions of the paper, but the scale of such effects appears to be modest.

  19. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ludwiczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The goal is to increase the level of spatial and information detail of common databases, thus allowing higher accuracy and effectiveness of the analyses needed to achieve the goals of new generation spatial and agriculture planning. Specific in-depth analyses allowed to define techniques useful in order to reduce the increase in survey costs. Moreover, the work reports the main results regarding a multicriteria model for the analysis of the countryside defined by the research. Such model is aimed to assess the various agricultural, environmental and landscape features, vocations, expressions and attitudes, and support the definition and implementation of specific and targeted planning and programming policies.

  20. Spatial analysis and simulation of extreme coastal flooding scenarios for national-scale emergency planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyncoll David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK has a long history of coastal flooding, driven by large-scale low-pressure weather systems which can result in flooding over large spatial areas. Traditional coastal flood risk analysis is, however, often undertaken at local scales and hence does not consider the likelihood of simultaneous flooding over larger areas. The flooding within the UK over the Winter of 2013/2014 was notable both for its long duration, lasting over two months, and its spatial extent, affecting many different areas of England and Wales. It is thus apparent that to plan and prepare for these types of extreme event it is necessary to consider the likelihood of flood events arising at different locations simultaneously (i.e. to consider the spatial dependence of extreme flood events. This paper describes the application of a state-of-the-art multivariate extreme value methodology to extreme sea levels and wave conditions around the coast of England and Wales. The output of the analysis comprises a synthetic set of extreme but plausible events that explicitly captures the dependence between sea conditions at different spatial locations around the coast. These simulated extreme events can be used for emergency management and advanced flood risk analysis.

  1. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  2. An evaluation of spatial thresholding techniques in fMRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Brent R; Geliazkova, Maya P; Rowe, Daniel B

    2008-12-01

    Many fMRI experiments have a common objective of identifying active voxels in a neuroimaging dataset. This is done in single subject experiments, for example, by performing individual voxel-wise tests of the null hypothesis that the observed time course is not significantly related to an assigned reference function. A voxel activation map is then constructed by applying a thresholding rule to the resulting statistics (e.g., t-statistics). Typically the task-related activation is expected to occur in clusters of voxels rather than in isolated single voxels. A variety of spatial thresholding techniques have been proposed to reflect this belief, including smoothing the raw t-statistics, cluster size inference, and spatial mixture modeling. We study two aspects of these spatial thresholding procedures applied to single subject fMRI analysis through simulation. First, we examine the performance of these procedures in terms of sensitivity to detect voxel activation, using receiver operating characteristic curves. Second, we consider the accuracy of these spatial thresholding procedures in estimation of the size of the activation region, both in terms of bias and variance. The findings indicate that smoothing has the highest sensitivity to modest magnitude signals, but tend to overestimate the size of the activation region. Spatial mixture models estimate the size of a spatially distributed activation region well, but may be less sensitive to modest magnitude signals, indicating that additional research into more sensitive spatial mixture models is needed. Finally, the methods are illustrated with a real bilateral finger-tapping fMRI experiment. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Analysis of the impact of immigration on labour market using spatial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonyankina, Tatiana

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of immigration on employment and unemployment of a host country. The question to answer is: How does employment/unemployment in the host country change after an increase in number of immigrants? The analysis is taking into account only legal immigrants in recession period. The model is combining classical regression of cross-sectional data with spatial econometrics models where cross-section dependencies are captured by a spatial matrix. The intention is by using spatial models analyse the sensitivity of employment/unemployment rate on change in a share of immigration in a region. The used panel data are based on the Labour force survey and on available macro data in Eurostat for 3 European countries (Germany, Austria and Czech Republic) grouped into cells by NUTS regions in a recession period.

  4. Dynamic Factor Analysis of Trends in Temporal–Spatial Patterns of China’s Coal Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes coal consumption in the 31 provinces and regions of China from 1995 to 2012. Using spatial analysis in Arc geographical information systems (ArcGIS and the concept of the center of gravity in physics, we explore the regional differences in temporal-spatial coal consumption and the factors influencing them. The results show that China’s coal consumption increased yearly, especially after 2003. It exhibits a marked spatial clustering phenomenon; consumption in the south and east exceeded that in the north and west respectively. Moreover, the center of gravity of consumption gradually moved toward the southwest, indicating reducing gaps in coal consumption between the north-south and the east-west regions. Both the level of economic development and coal consumption are positively related with regional coal production. Promoting urbanization and increasing the proportion of the tertiary industry can effectively reduce coal consumption and help readjust coal consumption patterns to sustainable levels.

  5. Detecting spatial homogeneity in the World Trade Web with Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarucci, Riccardo; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Loffredo, Maria I.

    2014-05-01

    In a spatially embedded network, that is a network where nodes can be uniquely determined in a system of coordinates, links’ weights might be affected by metric distances coupling every pair of nodes (dyads). In order to assess to what extent metric distances affect relationships (link’s weights) in a spatially embedded network, we propose a methodology based on DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis). DFA is a well developed methodology to evaluate autocorrelations and estimate long-range behavior in time series. We argue it can be further extended to spatially ordered series in order to assess autocorrelations in values. A scaling exponent of 0.5 (uncorrelated data) would thereby signal a perfect homogeneous space embedding the network. We apply the proposed methodology to the World Trade Web (WTW) during the years 1949-2000 and we find, in some contrast with predictions of gravity models, a declining influence of distances on trading relationships.

  6. An analysis of spatial relation predicates in U.S. Geological Survey feature definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Holly K.; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web uses a data model called a triple, which consists of a subject -predicate - object structure. When represented as triples, geospatial data require a spatial relation term to serve as the predicate linking two spatial features. This document summarizes the approaches and procedures used during the identification of spatial relationships common between topographic features using terms from topographic data standards. This project identified verb-predicate arguments that could be used in the creation of data triples and ontologies for The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and also investigated the possibility of deriving ontology from predefined textual definitions. The primary purpose of this report is to present the data used for subsequent analysis. A summary of terms organized by basic categories is provided.

  7. Detecting spatial homogeneity in the world trade web with Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chiarucci, Riccardo; Loffredo, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In a spatially embedded network, that is a network where nodes can be uniquely determined in a system of coordinates, links' weights might be affected by metric distances coupling every pair of nodes (dyads). In order to assess to what extent metric distances affect relationships (link's weights) in a spatially embedded network, we propose a methodology based on DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis). DFA is a well developed methodology to evaluate autocorrelations and estimate long-range behaviour in time series. We argue it can be further extended to spatially ordered series in order to assess autocorrelations in values. A scaling exponent of 0.5 (uncorrelated data) would thereby signal a perfect homogeneous space embedding the network. We apply the proposed methodology to the World Trade Web (WTW) during the years 1949-2000 and we find, in some contrast with predictions of gravity models, a declining influence of distances on trading relationships.

  8. Ancestry inference using principal component analysis and spatial analysis: a distance-based analysis to account for population substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jinyoung; Han, Younghun; Gorlov, Ivan P; Busam, Jonathan A; Seldin, Michael F; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-10-16

    Accurate inference of genetic ancestry is of fundamental interest to many biomedical, forensic, and anthropological research areas. Genetic ancestry memberships may relate to genetic disease risks. In a genome association study, failing to account for differences in genetic ancestry between cases and controls may also lead to false-positive results. Although a number of strategies for inferring and taking into account the confounding effects of genetic ancestry are available, applying them to large studies (tens thousands samples) is challenging. The goal of this study is to develop an approach for inferring genetic ancestry of samples with unknown ancestry among closely related populations and to provide accurate estimates of ancestry for application to large-scale studies. In this study we developed a novel distance-based approach, Ancestry Inference using Principal component analysis and Spatial analysis (AIPS) that incorporates an Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method from spatial analysis to assign individuals to population memberships. We demonstrate the benefits of AIPS in analyzing population substructure, specifically related to the four most commonly used tools EIGENSTRAT, STRUCTURE, fastSTRUCTURE, and ADMIXTURE using genotype data from various intra-European panels and European-Americans. While the aforementioned commonly used tools performed poorly in inferring ancestry from a large number of subpopulations, AIPS accurately distinguished variations between and within subpopulations. Our results show that AIPS can be applied to large-scale data sets to discriminate the modest variability among intra-continental populations as well as for characterizing inter-continental variation. The method we developed will protect against spurious associations when mapping the genetic basis of a disease. Our approach is more accurate and computationally efficient method for inferring genetic ancestry in the large-scale genetic studies.

  9. Evidence for fish dispersal from spatial analysis of stream network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing spatially explicit conservation strategies for stream fishes requires an understanding of the spatial structure of dispersal within stream networks. We explored spatial patterns of stream fish dispersal by evaluating how the size and proximity of connected streams (i.e., stream network topology) explained variation in fish assemblage structure and how this relationship varied with local stream size. We used data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (n = 308 sites). We quantified stream network topology with a continuous analysis based on the rate of downstream flow accumulation from sites and with a discrete analysis based on the presence of mainstem river confluences (i.e., basin area >250 km2) within 20 fluvial km (fkm) from sites. Continuous variation in stream network topology was related to local species richness within a distance of ???10 fkm, suggesting an influence of fish dispersal within this spatial grain. This effect was explained largely by catostomid species, cyprinid species, and riverine species, but was not explained by zoogeographic regions, ecoregions, sampling period, or spatial autocorrelation. Sites near mainstem river confluences supported greater species richness and abundance of catostomid, cyprinid, and ictalurid fishes than did sites >20 fkm from such confluences. Assemblages at sites on the smallest streams were not related to stream network topology, consistent with the hypothesis that local stream size regulates the influence of regional dispersal. These results demonstrate that the size and proximity of connected streams influence the spatial distribution of fish and suggest that these influences can be incorporated into the designs of stream bioassessments and reserves to enhance management efficacy. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  10. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.

    2014-11-01

    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as "Muon Central Slice Theorem". Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction.

  11. Temporally and spatially constrained ICA of fMRI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xia, Maogeng; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2014-01-01

    Constrained independent component analysis (CICA) is capable of eliminating the order ambiguity that is found in the standard ICA and extracting the desired independent components by incorporating prior information into the ICA contrast function. However, the current CICA method produces constraints that are based on only one type of prior information (temporal/spatial), which may increase the dependency of CICA on the accuracy of the prior information. To improve the robustness of CICA and to reduce the impact of the accuracy of prior information on CICA, we proposed a temporally and spatially constrained ICA (TSCICA) method that incorporated two types of prior information, both temporal and spatial, as constraints in the ICA. The proposed approach was tested using simulated fMRI data and was applied to a real fMRI experiment using 13 subjects who performed a movement task. Additionally, the performance of TSCICA was compared with the ICA method, the temporally CICA (TCICA) method and the spatially CICA (SCICA) method. The results from the simulation and from the real fMRI data demonstrated that TSCICA outperformed TCICA, SCICA and ICA in terms of robustness to noise. Moreover, the TSCICA method displayed better robustness to prior temporal/spatial information than the TCICA/SCICA method.

  12. Motor expertise and performance in spatial tasks: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Jansen, Petra

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to provide a summary of findings relevant to the influence of motor expertise on performance in spatial tasks and to examine potential moderators of this effect. Studies of relevance were those in which individuals involved in activities presumed to require motor expertise were compared to non-experts in such activities. A final set of 62 effect sizes from 33 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed an overall advantage in favor of motor experts in spatial tasks (d=0.38). However, the magnitude of that effect was moderated by expert type (athlete, open skills/ball sports, runner/cyclist, gymnast/dancers, musicians), stimulus type (2D, blocks, bodies, others), test category (mental rotation, spatial perception, spatial visualization), specific test (Mental Rotations Test, generic mental rotation, disembedding, rod-and-frame test, other), and publication status. These findings are discussed in the context of embodied cognition and the potential role of activities requiring motor expertise in promoting good spatial performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  14. The changing media representation of T. E. Lawrence and celebrity culture in Britain, 1919-1935

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new analysis of representations of T. E. Lawrence to explore how the media created celebrity identities in interwar Britain. Examining his appearance in seventeen national newspapers and in newsreels between 1919 and 1935, it shows how earlier press depictions that borrowed from Lowell Thomas’s portrayal of him as the mythical ‘Lawrence of Arabia’ were disrupted by a nascent media-driven celebrity culture which aimed to uncover intimate details of the lives of the so-c...

  15. South Asian Languages in Britain: Criteria for Description and Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladina, Safder

    1985-01-01

    Using Hindi and Urdu as examples, illustrates the shortcomings in the definition of South Asian languages that has been attempted in Britain so far. Argues that description and definition of a language have to include aspects of culture, religion, script, politics, and the speakers' own perception of their language and language choice. (SED)

  16. Strategies of Higher Education Institutions Development in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komochkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The current stage of higher education sector transformation in Ukraine has been indicated. The study of foreign experience, namely of Great Britain, and the use of positive aspects of such experience have been justified. Information sources of Universities UK (Universities UK Strategic Plan 2013-2018; Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher…

  17. Training for Europe--Should Britain Follow the German Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Although the German dual system is frequently touted as a model, it has disadvantages. Much of the cost fall on trainees, it takes a long time to achieve adult status and pay, and young workers are given few responsibilities. It is not recommended for adaptation in Britain. (SK)

  18. Children's Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Campbell, Lori Ann; Zhong, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child"…

  19. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  20. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range

  1. book and video reviews battles in britain and their political

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOOK AND VIDEO REVIEWS. BATTLES IN BRITAIN AND THEIR POLITICAL. BACKGROUND, 1066-1746. William Seymour. Wordsworth, Ware (Herts): 1997. 232 & 231 pages. Illustrated, maps. ISBN I 85326 672 8. R61-00. William. Seymour has produced the field guide to British battlefields for which military historians ...

  2. Muslim Schools in Britain: Challenging Mobilisations or Logical Developments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Nasar

    2007-01-01

    There are currently over 100 independent and seven state-funded Muslim schools in Britain yet their place within the British education system remains a hotly debated issue. This article argues that Muslim mobilisations for the institutional and financial incorporation of more Muslim schools into the national framework are best understood as an…

  3. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  4. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  5. The History of Language Learning and Teaching in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an introduction, based on the most recent research available, to the history of language learning and teaching (HoLLT) in Britain. After an overview of the state of research, I consider which languages have been learnt, why and how that has changed; the role of teachers and tests in determining what was taught; changes in how…

  6. Potential Effects of Drought on Tree Dieback in Great Britain and Implications for Forest Management in Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianjun; Berry, Pam

    2017-04-01

    The drought and heat stress has alerted the composition, structure and biogeography of forests globally, whilst the projected severe and widespread droughts are potentially increasing. This challenges the sustainable forest management to better cope with future climate and maintain the forest ecosystem functions and services. Many studies have investigated the climate change impacts on forest ecosystem but less considered the climate extremes like drought. In this study, we implement a dynamic ecosystem model based on a version of LPJ-GUESS parameterized with European tree species and apply to Great Britain at a finer spatial resolution of 5*5 km. The model runs for the baseline from 1961 to 2011 and projects to the latter 21st century using 100 climate scenarios generated from MaRIUS project to tackle the climate model uncertainty. We will show the potential impacts of climate change on forest ecosystem and vegetation transition in Great Britain by comparing the modelled conditions in the 2030s and the 2080s relative to the baseline. In particular, by analyzing the modelled tree mortality, we will show the tree dieback patterns in response to drought for various species, and assess their drought vulnerability across Great Britain. We also use species distribution modelling to project the suitable climate space for selected tree species using the same climate scenarios. Aided by these two modelling approaches and based on the corresponding modelling results, we will discuss the implications for adaptation strategy for forest management, especially in extreme drought conditions. The gained knowledge and lessons for Great Britain are considered to be transferable in many other regions.

  7. Spatial analysis of Neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Frössling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum infected dairy herds in Sweden were investigated. The study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. Test-positive herds were found in all parts of Sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the Moran’s I test. Possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying the local indicator of spatial association (LISA test statistic and the spatial scan statistic. Analysis based on data aggregated by postal code areas as well as analysis based on exact coordinates identified significant clusters of high prevalence in the middle parts of Sweden and low prevalence in the south. This was not expected considering the results from other European studies of N. caninum in cattle. However, the findings are supported by the distribution of previously known case herds.

  8. Mass spectrometry based imaging techniques for spatially resolved analysis of molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMatros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants are composed of a multitude of tissues with specific functions, reflected by distinct profiles for transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Comprehensive analysis of metabolites and proteins has advanced tremendously within recent years, and this progress has been driven by the rapid development of sophisticated mass spectrometrical techniques. In most of the current omics-studies, analysis is performed on whole organ or whole plant extracts, rendering to the loss of spatial information. Mass spectrometry based imaging (MSI techniques have opened a new avenue to obtain information on the spatial distribution of metabolites and of proteins. Pioneered in the field of medicine, the approaches are now applied to study the spatial profiles of molecules in plant systems. A range of different plant organs and tissues have been successfully analyzed by MSI, and patterns of various classes of metabolites from primary and secondary metabolism could be obtained. It can be envisaged that MSI approaches will substantially contribute to build spatially resolved biochemical networks.

  9. Spatial analysis of myocardial infarction in Iran: National report from the Iranian myocardial infarction registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction (MI is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Iran. No spatial analysis of MI has been conducted to date. The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of MI incidence and to identify the associated factors in Iran by province. Materials and Methods: This study has two parts. One part is prospective and hospital-based, and the other part is an ecological study. In this study, the data of 20,750 new MI cases registered in Iranian Myocardial Infarction Registry in 2012 were used. For spatial analysis in global and local, spatial autocorrelation, Moran′s I, Getis-Ord, and logistic regression models were used. Data were analyzed by Stata software and ArcGIS 9.3. Results: Based on autocorrelation coefficient, a specific pattern was observed in the distribution of MI incidence in different provinces (Moran′s I: 0.75, P < 0.001. Spatial pattern of incidence was approximately the same in men and women. MI incidence was clustering in six provinces (North Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Golestan, and Mazandaran. Out of the associated factors with clustered MI in six provinces, temperature, humidity, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI could be mentioned. Hypertension, smoking, and BMI contributed to clustering with, respectively, 2.36, 1.31, and 1.31 odds ratio. Conclusion: Addressing the place-based pattern of incidence and clarifying their epidemiologic dimension, including spatial analysis, has not yet been implemented in Iran. Report on MI incidence rate by place and formal borders is useful and is used in the planning and prioritization in different levels of health system.

  10. A comparative analysis of two highly spatially resolved European atmospheric emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.; Tchepel, O.; Schaap, M.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.

    2013-08-01

    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling. This research performs an inter-comparative analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS - High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System - DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 × 12 km2 was used to compare the three datasets spatially. The inter-comparative analysis was performed by source sector (SNAP - Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) with emission totals for selected pollutants. It included the computation of difference maps (to focus on the spatial variability of emission differences) and a linear regression analysis to calculate the coefficients of determination and to quantitatively measure differences. From the spatial analysis, greater differences were found for residential/commercial combustion (SNAP02), solvent use (SNAP06) and road transport (SNAP07). These findings were related to the different spatial disaggregation that was conducted by the TNO and HERMES

  11. Spatial and Temporal Dust Source Variability in Northern China Identified Using Advanced Remote Sensing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramelli, A.; Pasqui, M.; Barbour, J.; Kirschbaum, D.; Bottai, L.; Busillo, C.; Calastrini, F.; Guarnieri, F.; Small, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to provide a detailed characterization of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the regional and local dust source areas within the desert of the Alashan Prefecture (Inner Mongolia, China). This problem was approached through multi-scale remote sensing analysis of vegetation changes. The primary requirements for this regional analysis are high spatial and spectral resolution data, accurate spectral calibration and good temporal resolution with a suitable temporal baseline. Landsat analysis and field validation along with the low spatial resolution classifications from MODIS and AVHRR are combined to provide a reliable characterization of the different potential dust-producing sources. The representation of intra-annual and inter-annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) trend to assess land cover discrimination for mapping potential dust source using MODIS and AVHRR at larger scale is enhanced by Landsat Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA). The combined methodology is to determine the extent to which Landsat can distinguish important soils types in order to better understand how soil reflectance behaves at seasonal and inter-annual timescales. As a final result mapping soil surface properties using SMA is representative of responses of different land and soil cover previously identified by NDVI trend. The results could be used in dust emission models even if they are not reflecting aggregate formation, soil stability or particle coatings showing to be critical for accurately represent dust source over different regional and local emitting areas.

  12. Application of spatially gridded temperature and land cover data sets for urban heat island analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin; Xian, George Z.

    2014-01-01

    Two gridded data sets that included (1) daily mean temperatures from 2006 through 2011 and (2) satellite-derived impervious surface area, were combined for a spatial analysis of the urban heat-island effect within the Dallas-Ft. Worth Texas region. The primary advantage of using these combined datasets included the capability to designate each 1 × 1 km grid cell of available temperature data as urban or rural based on the level of impervious surface area within the grid cell. Generally, the observed differences in urban and rural temperature increased as the impervious surface area thresholds used to define an urban grid cell were increased. This result, however, was also dependent on the size of the sample area included in the analysis. As the spatial extent of the sample area increased and included a greater number of rural defined grid cells, the observed urban and rural differences in temperature also increased. A cursory comparison of the spatially gridded temperature observations with observations from climate stations suggest that the number and location of stations included in an urban heat island analysis requires consideration to assure representative samples of each (urban and rural) environment are included in the analysis.

  13. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.

  14. The Evolution of Spatial Representation During Complex Visual Data Analysis: Knowing When and How to be Exact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schunn, Christian D; Saner, Lelyn D; Trafton, J. G; Trickett, Susan B; Kirschenbaum, Susan K; Knepp, Michael; Shoup, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    ... (weather forecasting, submarine target motion analysis, and fMRI data analysis). Internal spatial representations are coded from spontaneous gestures made during cued-recall summaries of problem solving activities...

  15. Model Interpretation of Topological Spatial Analysis for the Visually Impaired (Blind Implemented in Google Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Franco Porto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological innovations promote the availability of geographic information on the Internet through Web GIS such as Google Earth and Google Maps. These systems contribute to the teaching and diffusion of geographical knowledge that instigates the recognition of the space we live in, leading to the creation of a spatial identity. In these products available on the Web, the interpretation and analysis of spatial information gives priority to one of the human senses: vision. Due to the fact that this representation of information is transmitted visually (image and vectors, a portion of the population is excluded from part of this knowledge because categories of analysis of geographic data such as borders, territory, and space can only be understood by people who can see. This paper deals with the development of a model of interpretation of topological spatial analysis based on the synthesis of voice and sounds that can be used by the visually impaired (blind.The implementation of a prototype in Google Maps and the usability tests performed are also examined. For the development work it was necessary to define the model of topological spatial analysis, focusing on computational implementation, which allows users to interpret the spatial relationships of regions (countries, states and municipalities, recognizing its limits, neighborhoods and extension beyond their own spatial relationships . With this goal in mind, several interface and usability guidelines were drawn up to be used by the visually impaired (blind. We conducted a detailed study of the Google Maps API (Application Programming Interface, which was the environment selected for prototype development, and studied the information available for the users of that system. The prototype was developed based on the synthesis of voice and sounds that implement the proposed model in C # language and in .NET environment. To measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the prototype, usability

  16. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  17. Modeling Spatial Autocorrelation in Spatial Interaction Data: A Comparison of Spatial Econometric and Spatial Filtering Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Griffith, Daniel A

    2006-01-01

    The need to account for spatial autocorrelation is well known in spatial analysis. Many spatial statistics and spatial econometric texts detail the way spatial autocorrelation can be identified and modelled in the case of object and field data. The literature on spatial autocorrelation is much less developed in the case of spatial interaction data. The focus of interest in this paper is on the problem of spatial autocorrelation in a spatial interaction context. The paper aims to illustrate th...

  18. Ethnic minority unemployment and local labour market conditions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldhouse, E A; Gould, M I

    1998-05-01

    "The authors use the 2% Individual Sample of Anonymised Records (SAR) in conjunction with area-based census data for pseudo travel-to-work areas, to explore the relative importance of individual characteristics and area characteristics on ethnic minority unemployment rates [in Great Britain].... The most important differences in the propensity to unemployment are shown to be between individuals, and, compared with whites, ethnic minority groups are shown to be disadvantaged wherever they live.... In all, it is argued that at the spatial scale which is identifiable in the Individual SAR, ethnic minority unemployment cannot be attributed to geographical distribution, though data at a finer geographical scale are needed to test this hypothesis more fully." excerpt

  19. Spatial analysis of freeze-on plumes within the Greenland ice-sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysinger Vieli, Gwendolyn J.-M. C.

    2017-04-01

    Large, englacial, near-basal, plume-like structures have been observed in recent radio echo sounding surveys over the Greenland and Antarctica ice-sheet. The mechanism behind the formation is not fully understood. However, these features may be caused by a range of factors and processes, such as ice dynamics, basal conditions, ice rheology and transient ice-sheet history. Here I will, by means of a spatial analysis, identify and quantify factors related to these plume-like structures. I use data sets such as bed and surface topographies, as well as parameters obtained from these surfaces (e.g. ice flow and velocities, surface slopes, accumulation rates) and estimated geothermal heat fluxes. This allows me to investigate potential constraints and relationships between the observed complex, near-basal layer structures and the prevailing spatial conditions. The results of this analysis are consistent with the existing hypothesis of basal freeze-on.

  20. [Geographic information system based spatial analysis on chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area, Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Wu, Liping; Lin, Kun

    2007-05-01

    To explore the spatial features of arsenic contamination and its association with chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area of Thailand. Geographic information system(GIS) was built up with integration of arsenic concentration in varied environmental media and occurring location data of chronic arsenism patients. Then, the spatial interpolation (IDW), buffer zoning, query and rank correlation analysis were applied. Groundwater and surface farming land were classified according to local environmental arsenic standards; the relative risk areas were identified. The incidence of chronic arsenic poisoning was significantly correlated with arsenic level in groundwater and soil type (P water soluble arsenic in soil (P > 0.05). The arsenic content in drinking water could be critical to chronic arsenic poisoning. The soil type could be an important factor affecting such poisoning. Trend analysis in GIS could provide a valuable tool for understanding the pollution situation and disease surveillance.

  1. Spatial characterization of poverty in the state of Bahia: an analysis of the 2010 Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Izidro dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to make a characterization of poverty in the State of Bahia. To this end, it was made the use of spatial analysis tools, understanding that they are very important instruments to aid analysis in several areas of study. Thus, it was possible to measure the most diverse geographic scenarios faster and efficiency. This enables also greater agility in decision making, both businesses and governments in the implementation of intervention policies. And in the case of this study, the proposal for more effective public policies to combat poverty, as the study presents a multidimensional look at this issue from the proposal of the Poverty Index (IMP and compared to the Index ranking Human Development Index (HDI, which is demonstrated by the results found, the it is an efficient index for study of spatial poverty in the state of Bahia.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Precipitation in Guizhou Based on TRMM 3B42 Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Fengtai; Cao, Guangjie; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xuemei

    2017-08-01

    Precipitation is an important part of the earth’s climate system. This article makes full use of the advantages of remote sensing images. In this paper, the TRMM 3B42 satellite precipitation from 1998 to 2013 is selected as the data source and Guizhou Province as the research area. The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of precipitation in Guizhou Province are studied by linear trend estimation, linear regression analysis and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The conclusion as below: Precipitation shows a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest in Guizhou Province. From the seasonal scale, Precipitation is mainly concentrated in summer and the least precipitation in winter. Over the past 16 years, precipitation in Guizhou Province has shown a fluctuating change. Summer precipitation trend is more obvious. And winter precipitation is not obvious.

  3. Spatial distribution of suicide incidence rates in municipalities in the state of Espírito Santo (Brazil), 2003-2007: spatial analysis to identify risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macente, Luciene Bolzam; Zandonade, Eliana

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the spatial distribution of suicide incidence rate in a residential municipality of the state of Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil, from 2003 to 2007. Ecologic study of the exploratory kind, based on secondary data. Deaths per suicide, which took place in each municipality of ES, were included in the data according to information provided by the Mortality Information System. For the spatial data analysis, a Bayesian approach was used (Global empirical and Local Bayesian ones) to correct epidemiological rates. Moran's I index was calculated to a worldwide spatial level dependence, and Local Moran (LISA) to a local spatial correlation. The following software applications were used: Excel; R 2.6.2; SPSS 11.5 and TerraView 3.3.1. The geographical localization of the municipalities that showed an incidence rate characterized as the average for suicide after adjustment (EBest Global) forms a corridor in the countryside. Some common characteristics among these municipalities are: a) immigration (Italians, Pomeranians/ Germans); b) rural population (average of 53%); c) supporting economy (agriculture, husbandry and livestock). A global and local spatial correlation was found among the municipalities (p identified the spatial context where the greatest death incidence rate per suicide occurred in the state of ES, during the mentioned period.

  4. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Zibo City, China, 2009-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is highly endemic in mainland China, where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Zibo City is one of the most serious affected areas in Shandong Province China with the HFRS incidence increasing sharply from 2009 to 2012. However, the hotspots of HFRS in Zibo remained unclear. Thus, a spatial analysis was conducted with the aim to explore the spatial, spatial-temporal and seasonal patterns of HFRS in Zibo from 2009 to 2012, and to provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. METHODS: The study was based on the reported cases of HFRS from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Annualized incidence maps and seasonal incidence maps were produced to analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of HFRS in Zibo City. Then spatial scan statistics and space-time scan statistics were conducted to identify clusters of HFRS. RESULTS: There were 200 cases reported in Zibo City during the 4-year study period. One most likely cluster and one secondary cluster for high incidence of HFRS were identified by the space-time analysis. And the most likely cluster was found to exist at Yiyuan County in October to December 2012. The human infections in the fall and winter reflected a seasonal characteristic pattern of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The secondary cluster was detected at the center of Zibo in May to June 2009, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. CONCLUSION: To control and prevent HFRS in Zibo city, the comprehensive preventive strategy should be implemented in the southern areas of Zibo in autumn and in the northern areas of Zibo in spring.

  5. Difference Image Analysis: Extension to a Spatially Varying Photometric Scale Factor and Other Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Bramich, D. M.; Horne, Keith; Albrow, M. D.; Tsapras, Y; Snodgrass, C.; Street, R. A.; Hundertmark, M; Kains, Noe; Ferro, A. Arellano; Jaimes, R. Figuera; Giridhar, Sunetra

    2012-01-01

    We present a general framework for matching the point-spread function (PSF), photometric scaling, and sky background between two images, a subject which is commonly referred to as difference image analysis (DIA). We introduce the new concept of a spatially varying photometric scale factor which will be important for DIA applied to wide-field imaging data in order to adapt to transparency and airmass variations across the field-of-view. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to separately control the...

  6. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S J; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W

    2017-08-18

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  7. A tool for the quantitative spatial analysis of mammary gland epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2004-04-09

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial analysis of complex cellular systems based on a multiscale study of neighborhood relationships. A function to measure those relationships, M, is introduced. The refined Relative Neighborhood Graph is then presented as a method to establish vicinity relationships within layered cellular structures, and particularized to epithelial cell nuclei in the mammary gland. Finally, the method is illustrated with two examples that show interactions within one population of epithelial cells and between two different populations.

  8. A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Wave-Generated Foam Patterns in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF WAVE–GENERATED FOAM PATTERNS IN...14. SUBJECT TERMS Wave Breaking, Foam, Obliquely Descending Eddies, Aerial Imagery, Image Processing 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17...converted to still images and were georectified, georeferenced, and post processed . The size, shape, and evolution of the wave generated foam patterns

  9. A Spatial Analysis and Game Theoretical Approach Over the Disputed Islands in the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    waters up to 12 nautical miles. That action found a strong and dedicated opposition on the Turkish side. UNCLOS-III came into force in 1994, and in...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) Throughout history...including perimeter, area, population, distance to Greece, distance to Turkey, and territorial water area. After applying spatial analysis to two

  10. The spatial metaphor of Utopia in Russian culture and in analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivinsky, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    The spatial metaphor of Utopia is considered from a Jungian perspective along with its role in Russian culture and in analysis. Such post-Jungian concepts as the cultural complex and the archetypal story pattern of a victim are used in considering the desperate longing for a rescuer in patients' narratives and in Russian society. A clinical vignette is provided to illustrate these ideas. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. A perturbation analysis of a mechanical model for stable spatial patterning in embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentil, D. E.; Murray, J. D.

    1992-12-01

    We investigate a mechanical cell-traction mechanism that generates stationary spatial patterns. A linear analysis highlights the model's potential for these heterogeneous solutions. We use multiple-scale perturbation techniques to study the evolution of these solutions and compare our solutions with numerical simulations of the model system. We discuss some potential biological applications among which are the formation of ridge patterns, dermatoglyphs, and wound healing.

  12. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S. J.; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W.

    2017-11-01

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  13. OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit: Analyzing Spatially Defined Samples Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Raad, Markus [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de Rond, Tristan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rübel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Northen, Trent R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Bowen, Benjamin P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has primarily been applied in localizing biomolecules within biological matrices. Although well-suited, the application of MSI for comparing thousands of spatially defined spotted samples has been limited. One reason for this is a lack of suitable and accessible data processing tools for the analysis of large arrayed MSI sample sets. In this paper, the OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit (OMAAT) is a software package that addresses the challenges of analyzing spatially defined samples in MSI data sets. OMAAT is written in Python and is integrated with OpenMSI (http://openmsi.nersc.gov), a platform for storing, sharing, and analyzing MSI data. By using a web-based python notebook (Jupyter), OMAAT is accessible to anyone without programming experience yet allows experienced users to leverage all features. OMAAT was evaluated by analyzing an MSI data set of a high-throughput glycoside hydrolase activity screen comprising 384 samples arrayed onto a NIMS surface at a 450 μm spacing, decreasing analysis time >100-fold while maintaining robust spot-finding. The utility of OMAAT was demonstrated for screening metabolic activities of different sized soil particles, including hydrolysis of sugars, revealing a pattern of size dependent activities. Finally, these results introduce OMAAT as an effective toolkit for analyzing spatially defined samples in MSI. OMAAT runs on all major operating systems, and the source code can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/biorack/omaat.

  14. An integrated analysis-synthesis array system for spatial sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hua, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Hao; Hsieh, Yu-Hao

    2015-03-01

    An integrated recording and reproduction array system for spatial audio is presented within a generic framework akin to the analysis-synthesis filterbanks in discrete time signal processing. In the analysis stage, a microphone array "encodes" the sound field by using the plane-wave decomposition. Direction of arrival of plane-wave components that comprise the sound field of interest are estimated by multiple signal classification. Next, the source signals are extracted by using a deconvolution procedure. In the synthesis stage, a loudspeaker array "decodes" the sound field by reconstructing the plane-wave components obtained in the analysis stage. This synthesis stage is carried out by pressure matching in the interior domain of the loudspeaker array. The deconvolution problem is solved by truncated singular value decomposition or convex optimization algorithms. For high-frequency reproduction that suffers from the spatial aliasing problem, vector panning is utilized. Listening tests are undertaken to evaluate the deconvolution method, vector panning, and a hybrid approach that combines both methods to cover frequency ranges below and above the spatial aliasing frequency. Localization and timbral attributes are considered in the subjective evaluation. The results show that the hybrid approach performs the best in overall preference. In addition, there is a trade-off between reproduction performance and the external radiation.

  15. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  16. Spatial analysis and attributable mortality to outdoor air pollutants in ‎Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar ‎ Jafari

    2017-03-01

    and respiratory problems, reduced lung function, chronic bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary cancer, and even death. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to perform a spatial analysis of air pollution and mortality in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this ecological study, the spatial analysis of particulate matter 10 μm (PM10, PM2.5, ozone (O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was performed using the geographic information system. Additionally, the evaluation of the premature deaths attributable to these pollutants was carried out through the AirQ software version 2.2. Results: According to the results of the spatial analysis, the eastern part of Isfahan had higher concentration of air pollutants, compared to other directions. There were 481, 493, 117, 102, and 54 mortality cases attributed to PM10, PM2.5, O3, SO2, and NO2, respectively. In addition, PM10 was found to have the highest health effects among other pollutants. Conclusion: As the findings of this study indicated, PM10 had the highest concentration in Isfahan city. With respect to the fact that air pollutants accounted for almost 15.8% of the total mortality rate in this city, there is an argent need to adapt some strategies to reduce the emissions of air pollutants.

  17. Winners and losers in flexible labor markets: the fate of women with chronic illness in contrasting policy environments--Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Bo; Holland, Paula; Diderichsen, Finn

    2003-01-01

    This study compares employment rates among men and women with and without chronic illness in the contrasting policy environments of Britain and Sweden, through analysis of household surveys for 1979-1995. Professional and managerial groups were winners in both countries, including during recession....... By the 1990s, employment rates for healthy Swedish women were uniformly high across the social groups and almost comparable with those of their male counterparts; rates for women and men with a chronic illness were also comparable, albeit at a lower overall rate. The greatest losers were male and female...... unskilled manual workers in Britain. British women with a chronic illness in the 1990s had less than half the employment rates of healthy women. Such social inequalities were much smaller and less consistent in Sweden, where the impact of illness was softened for all social groups. In Britain, workless men...

  18. Impact on contraceptive practice of making emergency hormonal contraception available over the counter in Great Britain: repeated cross sectional surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, C; Meltzer, H.; Majeed, A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact on contraceptive practice of making emergency hormonal contraception available over the counter. DESIGN: Analysis of data on contraceptive practice for women aged 16-49 years in the period 2000-2 from the Omnibus Survey, a multipurpose survey in which around 7600 adults living in private households are interviewed each year. SETTING: Private households in Great Britain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Use of different types of contraception and rates of unprotected sex...

  19. Spatial extreme value analysis to project extremes of large-scale indicators for severe weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M

    2013-09-01

    Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts (Wmax) and 0-6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently provides a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having extreme energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional extreme value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to extreme river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such extreme events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A spatial pattern analysis of the halophytic species distribution in an arid coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreldin, Nasem; Uria-Diez, J; Mateu, J; Youssef, Ali; Stal, Cornelis; El-Bana, Magdy; Magdy, Ahmed; Goossens, Rudi

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining information about the spatial distribution of desert plants is considered as a serious challenge for ecologists and environmental modeling due to the required intensive field work and infrastructures in harsh and remote arid environments. A new method was applied for assessing the spatial distribution of the halophytic species (HS) in an arid coastal environment. This method was based on the object-based image analysis for a high-resolution Google Earth satellite image. The integration of the image processing techniques and field work provided accurate information about the spatial distribution of HS. The extracted objects were based on assumptions that explained the plant-pixel relationship. Three different types of digital image processing techniques were implemented and validated to obtain an accurate HS spatial distribution. A total of 2703 individuals of the HS community were found in the case study, and approximately 82% were located above an elevation of 2 m. The micro-topography exhibited a significant negative relationship with pH and EC (r = -0.79 and -0.81, respectively, p processes, in particular a hybrid family of Gibbs processes. A new model is proposed that uses a hard-core structure at very short distances, together with a cluster structure in short-to-medium distances and a Poisson structure for larger distances. This model was found to fit the data perfectly well.

  1. Spatial-Temporal Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Mainland China: An Analysis Based on Bayesian Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Yang, Kun; Wang, Chao; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Liu, Qingrong; Gehendra, Mahara; Zhang, Yingjie; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-05-05

    To explore the spatial-temporal interaction effect within a Bayesian framework and to probe the ecological influential factors for tuberculosis. Six different statistical models containing parameters of time, space, spatial-temporal interaction and their combination were constructed based on a Bayesian framework. The optimum model was selected according to the deviance information criterion (DIC) value. Coefficients of climate variables were then estimated using the best fitting model. The model containing spatial-temporal interaction parameter was the best fitting one, with the smallest DIC value (-4,508,660). Ecological analysis results showed the relative risks (RRs) of average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity, and air pressure were 1.00324 (95% CI, 1.00150-1.00550), 1.01010 (95% CI, 1.01007-1.01013), 0.83518 (95% CI, 0.93732-0.96138), 0.97496 (95% CI, 0.97181-1.01386), and 1.01007 (95% CI, 1.01003-1.01011), respectively. The spatial-temporal interaction was statistically meaningful and the prevalence of tuberculosis was influenced by the time and space interaction effect. Average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and air pressure influenced tuberculosis. Average humidity had no influence on tuberculosis.

  2. Spatial-Temporal Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Mainland China: An Analysis Based on Bayesian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the spatial-temporal interaction effect within a Bayesian framework and to probe the ecological influential factors for tuberculosis. Methods: Six different statistical models containing parameters of time, space, spatial-temporal interaction and their combination were constructed based on a Bayesian framework. The optimum model was selected according to the deviance information criterion (DIC value. Coefficients of climate variables were then estimated using the best fitting model. Results: The model containing spatial-temporal interaction parameter was the best fitting one, with the smallest DIC value (−4,508,660. Ecological analysis results showed the relative risks (RRs of average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity, and air pressure were 1.00324 (95% CI, 1.00150–1.00550, 1.01010 (95% CI, 1.01007–1.01013, 0.83518 (95% CI, 0.93732–0.96138, 0.97496 (95% CI, 0.97181–1.01386, and 1.01007 (95% CI, 1.01003–1.01011, respectively. Conclusions: The spatial-temporal interaction was statistically meaningful and the prevalence of tuberculosis was influenced by the time and space interaction effect. Average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and air pressure influenced tuberculosis. Average humidity had no influence on tuberculosis.

  3. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: I. spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of strongly weathered soils under sugarcane and soybean/wheat rotation was quantitatively assessed on 33 fields in two regions in São Paulo State, Brazil: Araras (15 fields with sugarcane and Assis (11 fields with sugarcane and seven fields with soybean/wheat rotation. Statistical methods used were: nested analysis of variance (for 11 fields, semivariance analysis and analysis of variance within and between fields. Spatial levels from 50 m to several km were analyzed. Results are discussed with reference to a previously published study carried out in the surroundings of Passo Fundo (RS. Similar variability patterns were found for clay content, organic C content and cation exchange capacity. The fields studied are quite homogeneous with respect to these relatively stable soil characteristics. Spatial variability of other characteristics (resin extractable P, pH, base- and Al-saturation and also soil colour, varies with region and, or land use management. Soil management for sugarcane seems to have induced modifications to greater depths than for soybean/wheat rotation. Surface layers of soils under soybean/wheat present relatively little variation, apparently as a result of very intensive soil management. The major part of within-field variation occurs at short distances (< 50 m in all study areas. Hence, little extra information would be gained by increasing sampling density from, say, 1/km² to 1/50 m². For many purposes, the soils in the study regions can be mapped with the same observation density, but residual variance will not be the same in all areas. Bulk sampling may help to reveal spatial patterns between 50 and 1.000 m.

  4. Analysis of a spatial gene expression database for sea anemone Nematostella vectensis during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botman, Daniel; Jansson, Fredrik; Röttinger, Eric; Martindale, Mark Q; de Jong, Johann; Kaandorp, Jaap A

    2015-09-24

    The spatial distribution of many genes has been visualized during the embryonic development in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in the last decade. In situ hybridization images are available in the Kahi Kai gene expression database, and a method has been developed to quantify spatial gene expression patterns of N. vectensis. In this paper, gene expression quantification is performed on a wide range of gene expression patterns from this database and descriptions of observed expression domains are stored in a separate database for further analysis. Spatial gene expression from suitable in situ hybridization images has been quantified with the GenExp program. A correlation analysis has been performed on the resulting numerical gene expression profiles for each stage. Based on the correlated clusters of spatial gene expression and detailed descriptions of gene expression domains, various mechanisms for developmental gene expression are proposed. In the blastula and gastrula stages of development in N. vectensis, its continuous sheet of cells is partitioned into correlating gene expression domains. During progressing development, these regions likely correspond to different fates. A statistical analysis shows that genes generally remain expressed during the planula stages in those major regions that they occupy at the end of gastrulation. Observed shifts in gene expression domain boundaries suggest that elongation in the planula stage mainly occurs in the vegetal ring under the influence of the gene Rx. The secondary body axis in N. vectensis is proposed to be determined at the mid blastula transition. Early gene expression domains in N. vectensis appear to maintain a positional order along the primary body axis. Early determination in N. vectensis occurs in two stages: expression in broad circles and rings in the blastula is consolidated during gastrulation, and more complex expression patterns appear in the planula within these broad regions

  5. SAS/IML Macros for a Multivariate Analysis of Variance Based on Spatial Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Nevalainen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new nonparametric multivariate extensions of the univariate sign methods have been proposed. Randles (2000 introduced an affine invariant multivariate sign test for the multivariate location problem. Later on, Hettmansperger and Randles (2002 considered an affine equivariant multivariate median corresponding to this test. The new methods have promising efficiency and robustness properties. In this paper, we review these developments and compare them with the classical multivariate analysis of variance model. A new SAS/IML tool for performing a spatial sign based multivariate analysis of variance is introduced.

  6. OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit: Analyzing Spatially Defined Samples Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Raad, Markus; de Rond, Tristan; Rübel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    ://openmsinersc.gov), a platform for storing, sharing, and analyzing MSI data. By using a web-based python notebook (Jupyter), OMAAT is accessible to anyone without programming experience yet allows experienced users to leverage all features. OMAAT was :evaluated by analyzing an MSI data set of a high-throughput glycoside...... processing tools for the analysis of large arrayed MSI sample sets. The OpenMSI Arrayed Analysis Toolkit (OMAAT) is a software package that addresses the challenges of analyzing spatially defined samples in MSI data sets. OMAAT is written in Python and is integrated with OpenMSI (http...

  7. LABOUR INPUT IN POLISH AGRICULTURE AGAINST SIZE OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS – SPATIAL ANALYSIS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Wiśniewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of spatial diversifi cation in the labour input in agriculture on the basis of these selected indicators: annual work unit (AWU per 100 ha agricultural acreage; number of people per AWU; and comparison of labour input to EU-15 standards (LI-EU. Agricultural holdings have been categorised by size into three groups: 0–10 ha (small, 10–20 ha (average, and over 20 ha (large. Labour resources were subject to a comparative study of the density rates of AWUs per 100 ha agricultural acreage in Poland and the EU (EU-15. The analysis covered all of Poland with consideration of the administrative division into sixteen voivodeships (tabular analysis and 314 poviats (townships and country districts together, including regional offi ces of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (ARiMR; cartographic analysis. The results of the Agricultural Census of 2010 were used in the study. It demonstrated a signifi cant spatial diversifi cation in labour input in agriculture in general and in each holding size group. Predominantly, the diff erences are related to historical and political factors. The analysis corroborated agrarian overpopulation in south-east Poland.

  8. Creating web applications for spatial epidemiological analysis and mapping in R using Rwui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonarine Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating a user friendly web based application which executes an R script allows physicians, epidemiologists, and others unfamiliar with the statistical language to perform powerful statistical analyses easily. The geographic mapping of data is an important tool in spatial epidemiological analysis, and the R project includes many tools for such analyses, but few for visualization. Hence, web applications that run R for epidemiological analysis need to be able to present the results in a geographic format. Results Rwui is a web application for creating web based applications for running R scripts. We describe updates to Rwui that enable it to create web applications for R scripts which return the results of the analysis to the web page as geographic maps. Conclusions Rwui enables statisticians to create web applications for R scripts without the need to learn web programming. Creating a web application provides users access to an R based analysis without the need to learn R. Recent updates to Rwui have increased its applicability in the field of spatial epidemiological analysis.

  9. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2011-12-29

    The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

  10. A Spatial Analysis of Atmospheric Ammonia and Ammonium in the U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sutton

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As measures are implemented internationally to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions, attention is falling on the contribution of NH3 emissions to acidification, nitrogen eutrophication, and aerosol formation. In the U.K., a monitoring network has been established to measure the spatial distribution and long-term trends in atmospheric gaseous NH3 and aerosol NH4+. At the same time, an atmospheric chemistry and transport model, FRAME, has been developed with a focus on reduced nitrogen (NHx. The monitoring data are important to evaluate the model, while the model is essential for a more detailed spatial assessment. The national network is established with over 80 sampling locations. Measurements of NH3 and NH4+ (at up to 50 sites have been made using a new low-cost denuder-filterpack system. Additionally, improved passive sampling methods for NH3 have been applied to explore local variability. The measurements confirm the high spatial variability of NH3 (annual means 0.06 to 11 mg NH3 m�3, consistent with its nature as a primary pollutant emitted from ground-level sources, while NH4+, being a slowly formed secondary product, shows much less spatial variability (0.14 to 2.4 mg NH4+ m�3. These features are reproduced in the FRAME model, which provides estimates at a 5-km level. Analysis of the underlying NH3 emission inventory shows that sheep emissions may have been underestimated and nonagricultural sources overestimated relative to emissions from cattle. The combination of model and measurements is applied to estimate spatial patterns of dry deposition to different vegetation types. The combined approach provides the basis to assess NHx responses across the U.K. to international emission controls.

  11. Analysis Framework of China’s Grain Production System: A Spatial Resilience Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhuan Ge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s grain production has transformed from absolute shortage to a current structural oversupply. High-intensity production introduced further challenges for the eco-environment, smallholder livelihood, and the man-land interrelationship. Driven by urban-rural transformation, research on food security patterns and grain production has expanded into a new field. To analyze the challenges and required countermeasures for China’s grain production system (GPS, this study constructed a theoretical GPS framework based on space resilience. Firstly, a new GPS concept was proposed and a functional system was established for protecting the regional food security, thus guaranteeing smallholder livelihood, stabilizing urban-rural transformation, and sustaining the eco-environment in terms of economic, social, and ecological attributes of the GPS. Secondly, based on a cross-scale interaction analysis that varied from a smallholder scale to a global scale, the systematic crisis of the GPS was analyzed. Thirdly, a cross-scale analytic framework of the GPS was formed from the perspective of spatial resilience, integrating both inner and external disturbance factors of the GPS. Both spatial heterogeneity and connectivity of internal and external disturbance factors are important contents of system space resilience. Finally, the hierarchy of spatial resilience of GPS became clear. The transformation of labor force and the land use transition form key thresholds of the GPS. In summary: based on protecting the basic functions of the GPS, the cross-scale effect of systematic disturbance factors and relevant countermeasures for spatial resilience are effectively influenced by the coordination of the interests of multiple stakeholders; spatial resilience is an effective analytical tool for GPS regulation, providing a reference for revealing the inherent mechanism and functional evolution of the GPS in the process of urban-rural transformation.

  12. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector

  13. Analysis of spatial distribution of Tehran Metropolis urban services using models of urban planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorestani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of spatial distribution of urban services in order to provide equitable access to opportunities and reduced regional disparities, and earning the highest citizen satisfaction are among the main challenges facing urban management. This requires knowledge of the current status of spatial distribution of public services in the city, followed by optimal resource allocation under varying circumstances. This analytical-comparative study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of urban public services, and rank different districts of Tehran in terms of benefiting from public services. To achieve this goal, quantitative models of planning, including factor analysis, composite Human Development Index, taxonomical model and standardization method were used. For the final ranking of districts of Tehran, the sum of numerical value of each district was calculated in four ways. Based on this method, districts 1, 3, 22, 12 and 6 were ranked first to fifth, and districts 13, 10, 8, 17 and 14 were ranked last, respectively. Using cluster analysis model, different districts of Tehran metropolis were clustered on the basis of numerical value of districts in the models used. Based on above-mentioned results, districts 1, 3, 12, 22, 6 and 21, with a final score of 66 and above, included in the first cluster and identified as over-developed districts; and districts 14, 10, 8 and 17, with a final score of 13 or less, included in the fifth cluster and identified as disadvantaged districts.

  14. Analysis of spatial relationships in three dimensions: tools for the study of nerve cell patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Mary A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple technologies have been brought to bear on understanding the three-dimensional morphology of individual neurons and glia within the brain, but little progress has been made on understanding the rules controlling cellular patterning. We describe new matlab-based software tools, now available to the scientific community, permitting the calculation of spatial statistics associated with 3D point patterns. The analyses are largely derived from the Delaunay tessellation of the field, including the nearest neighbor and Voronoi domain analyses, and from the spatial autocorrelogram. Results Our tools enable the analysis of the spatial relationship between neurons within the central nervous system in 3D, and permit the modeling of these fields based on lattice-like simulations, and on simulations of minimal-distance spacing rules. Here we demonstrate the utility of our analysis methods to discriminate between two different simulated neuronal populations. Conclusion Together, these tools can be used to reveal the presence of nerve cell patterning and to model its foundation, in turn informing on the potential developmental mechanisms that govern its establishment. Furthermore, in conjunction with analyses of dendritic morphology, they can be used to determine the degree of dendritic coverage within a volume of tissue exhibited by mature nerve cells.

  15. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  16. Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

  17. Spatial analysis of HIV infection and associated individual characteristics in Burundi: indications for effective prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankanira, Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Niyongabo, Théodore; Laurent, Christian

    2016-02-04

    Adequate resource allocation is critical in the battle against HIV/AIDS, especially in Africa. The determination of the location and nature of HIV services to implement must comply with the geographic, social and behavioral characteristics of patients. We therefore investigated the spatial heterogeneity of HIV prevalence in Burundi and then assessed the association of social and behavioral characteristics with HIV infection accounting for the spatial heterogeneity. We used data from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey. We analyzed these data with a geostatistical approach (which takes into account spatial autocorrelation) by i) interpolating HIV data using the kernel density estimation, ii) identifying the spatial clusters with high and low HIV prevalence using the Kulldorff spatial scan statistics, and then iii) performing a multivariate spatial logistic regression. Overall HIV prevalence was 1.4 %. The interpolated data showed the great spatial heterogeneity of HIV prevalence (from 0 to 10 %), independently of administrative boundaries. A cluster with high HIV prevalence was found in the capital city and adjacent areas (3.9 %; relative risk 3.7, p analysis, HIV infection was significantly associated with the female sex (posterior odds ratio [POR] 1.36, 95 % credible interval [CrI] 1.13-1.64), an older age (POR 1.97, 95 % CrI 1.26-3.08), the level of education (POR 1.50, 95 % CrI 1.22-1.84), the marital status (POR 1.86, 95 % CrI 1.23-2.80), a higher wealth index (POR 2.11, 95 % CrI 1.77-2.51), the sexual activity (POR 1.76, 95 % CrI 1.04-2.96), and a history of sexually transmitted infection (POR 2.03, 95 % CrI 1.56-2.64). Our study, which shows where and towards which populations HIV resources should be allocated, could help national health policy makers develop an effective HIV intervention in Burundi. Our findings support the strategy of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for country-specific, in-depth analyses of HIV epidemics to

  18. [Analysis of spatial distribution of artemisinin in Artemisia annua in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Qiu, Zhi-Dong; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    Geo-herbals are preferred by long-term clinical application of Chinese medicine, they are produced in a specific area and affected by the specific production and processing methods. Geo-herbals have a high reputation, compared with other regions produced by the same kind of herbs with good quality, efficacy and stable quality characteristics. Geo-herbal is a unique concept that has been formed by the history of Chinese civilization for thousands of years and the history of Chinese medicine. According to the definition of geo-herbal, it can be seen that there are some differences in the quality and efficacy of the same kind of medicinal herbs in different regions, and there is some similarity in the specific area. In this study, the spatial distribution characteristics of artemisinin in Artemisia annua were analyzed by spatial statistical analysis. ①The spatial autocorrelation of artemisinin content was analyzed by "I coefficient". The results showed that the content of artemisinin in each province was significant and positive spatial autocorrelation. The content of artemisinin in each province was not randomly distributed, but with a clear spatial aggregation characteristics. ②The spatial variability of artemisinin content was analyzed by "G statistic". The results showed that the area with high content of artemisinin was distributed in the southwest region, and the content of artemisinin was concentrated in the space, which tends to accumulate at high value. The content of artemisinin in Tianjin and Liaoning province is low, and it tends to accumulate at low value, while the content of artemisinin in other provinces is the transition zone of high and low value. ③Based on the index of artemisinin in each province, the spatial correlation of artemisinin content in each region was analyzed by "moran scatter plot". The results showed that the content of artemisinin in nine provinces such as Guangxi and Chongqing belonged to high value gathering area. ④Based on

  19. [Spatial regression analysis of relationship between schistosome infection rate of Oncomelania hupensis snails and climate factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-yan; Iu, Jian-bing; Xiao, Ying; Zhou, Xiao-rong; Jiang, Yong; Dai, Ling-feng; Cai, Shun-xiang

    2015-04-01

    To explore the relationship between the schistosome infection rate of O. hupensis snails and the climate factors in endemic areas of schistosomiasis, so as to provide the evidence for improving the snail control. The snail and climate data of 18 counties in Hubei Province in 2009 were collected to obtain the infection rate of O. hupensis snails and to fit the spatial regression models. The multiple linear regression model showed that the residuals were autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.182 8, P snails was positively correlated with the annual average temperature (P 0.05). The spatial regression models could be well applied in the analysis of the relationship between the O. hupensis snails and climate factors. The annual average temperature is the primary climate factor influencing the infection of O. hupensis snails.

  20. Calibration and analysis of spatially resolved x-ray absorption spectra from a nonuniform plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, P F; Hansen, S B; Pikuz, S A; Shelkovenko, T A; Hammer, D A

    2012-07-01

    We report here the calibration and analysis techniques used to obtain spatially resolved density and temperature measurements of a pair of imploding aluminum wires from x-ray absorption spectra. A step wedge is used to measure backlighter fluence at the film, allowing transmission through the sample to be measured with an accuracy of ±14% or better. A genetic algorithm is used to search the allowed plasma parameter space and fit synthetic spectra with 20 μm spatial resolution to the measured spectra, taking into account that the object plasma nonuniformity must be physically reasonable. The inferred plasma conditions must be allowed to vary along the absorption path in order to obtain a fit to the spectral data. The temperature is estimated to be accurate to within ±25% and the density to within a factor of two. This information is used to construct two-dimensional maps of the density and temperature of the object plasma.

  1. Calibration and analysis of spatially resolved x-ray absorption spectra from a nonuniform plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, P. F.; Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, 439 Rhodes Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    We report here the calibration and analysis techniques used to obtain spatially resolved density and temperature measurements of a pair of imploding aluminum wires from x-ray absorption spectra. A step wedge is used to measure backlighter fluence at the film, allowing transmission through the sample to be measured with an accuracy of {+-}14% or better. A genetic algorithm is used to search the allowed plasma parameter space and fit synthetic spectra with 20 {mu}m spatial resolution to the measured spectra, taking into account that the object plasma nonuniformity must be physically reasonable. The inferred plasma conditions must be allowed to vary along the absorption path in order to obtain a fit to the spectral data. The temperature is estimated to be accurate to within {+-}25% and the density to within a factor of two. This information is used to construct two-dimensional maps of the density and temperature of the object plasma.

  2. A spatial analysis of private well water Escherichia coli contamination in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolik, Julia; Maier, Allison; Evans, Gerald; Belanger, Paul; Hall, Geoffrey; Joyce, Alan; Majury, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Research to date has provided limited insight into the complexity of water-borne pathogen transmission. Private well water supplies have been identified as a significant pathway in infectious disease transmission in both the industrialised and the developing world. Using over 90,000 private well water submission records representing approximately 30,000 unique well locations in south-eastern Ontario, Canada, a spatial analysis was performed in order to delineate clusters with elevated risk of E. coli contamination using 5 years of data (2008-2012). Analyses were performed for all years independently and subsequently compared to each other. Numerous statistically significant clusters were identified and both geographic stability and variation over time were examined. Through the identification of spatial and temporal patterns, this study provides the basis for future investigations into the underlying causes of bacterial groundwater contamination, while identifying geographic regions that merit particular attention to public health interventions and improvement of water quality.

  3. Spatial analysis for prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus - A state investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Siti Salsabilah Nabilah; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Mohamed, Nordin

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and non-communicable disease, which is characterized as the cause of premature deaths in the world. Unfortunately, Malaysia is one of the many countries facing this epidemic. Based on the increasing current trend of T2DM patients' cases from the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) Report from 2009 to 2012, there were approximately 2.6 million adults aged 18 years and above living with diabetes disease in Malaysia. Thus, this study aims to (i) perform preliminary spatial analysis for the prevalence of T2DM patients based on some factors, (ii) map the findings of the analyses according to some spatial properties, and (iii) analyze the pattern of diagnosed T2DM patients based on the studied factors. The studied population is one of the highest prevalence states of T2DM in Malaysia. This study is expected to reveal some demographic patterns that probably significant to this alarming epidemic.

  4. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in examining scaling properties of the spatial patterns of soil water storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Biswas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the scaling properties of soil water storage is crucial in transferring locally measured fluctuations to larger scales and vice-versa. Studies based on remotely sensed data have shown that the variability in surface soil water has clear scaling properties (i.e., statistically self similar over a wider range of spatial scales. However, the scaling property of soil water storage to a certain depth at a field scale is not well understood. The major challenges in scaling analysis for soil water are the presence of localized trends and nonstationarities in the spatial series. The objective of this study was to characterize scaling properties of soil water storage variability through multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA. A field experiment was conducted in a sub-humid climate at Alvena, Saskatchewan, Canada. A north-south transect of 624-m long was established on a rolling landscape. Soil water storage was monitored weekly between 2002 and 2005 at 104 locations along the transect. The spatial scaling property of the surface 0 to 40 cm depth was characterized using the MFDFA technique for six of the soil water content series (all gravimetrically determined representing soil water storage after snowmelt, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. For the studied transect, scaling properties of soil water storage are different between drier periods and wet periods. It also appears that local controls such as site topography and texture (that dominantly control the pattern during wet states results in multiscaling property. The nonlocal controls such as evapotranspiration results in the reduction of the degree of multiscaling and improvement in the simple scaling. Therefore, the scaling property of soil water storage is a function of both soil moisture status and the spatial extent considered.

  5. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Global proteomics approaches allow characterization of whole tissue lysates to an impressive depth. However, it is now increasingly recognized that to better understand the complexity of multicellular organisms, global protein profiling of specific spatially defined regions/substructures of tissues (i.e. spatially-resolved proteomics) is essential. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables microscopic isolation of defined regions of tissues preserving crucial spatial information. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, and that impact measurement robustness, quantification, and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a fully automated sample preparation workflow that with a single manual step allows: protein extraction, tryptic digestion, peptide cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state of the art in ultrasensitive global proteomic analysis, our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification and throughput. Using our LCM-SNaPP proteomics approach, we characterized to a depth of more than 3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in laser capture microdissected alveolar tissue containing ~4,000 cells per sample. Importantly, the data revealed quantitative changes for 350 low abundance transcription factors and signaling molecules, confirming earlier transcript-level observations and defining seven modules of coordinated transcription factor/signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting that a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. Our LCM-proteomics approach facilitates efficient, spatially-resolved, ultrasensitive global proteomics analyses in high-throughput that will be enabling for several clinical and

  6. 'spup' - an R package for uncertainty propagation analysis in spatial environmental modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Kasia; Heuvelink, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Computer models have become a crucial tool in engineering and environmental sciences for simulating the behaviour of complex static and dynamic systems. However, while many models are deterministic, the uncertainty in their predictions needs to be estimated before they are used for decision support. Currently, advances in uncertainty propagation and assessment have been paralleled by a growing number of software tools for uncertainty analysis, but none has gained recognition for a universal applicability and being able to deal with case studies with spatial models and spatial model inputs. Due to the growing popularity and applicability of the open source R programming language we undertook a project to develop an R package that facilitates uncertainty propagation analysis in spatial environmental modelling. In particular, the 'spup' package provides functions for examining the uncertainty propagation starting from input data and model parameters, via the environmental model onto model predictions. The functions include uncertainty model specification, stochastic simulation and propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques, as well as several uncertainty visualization functions. Uncertain environmental variables are represented in the package as objects whose attribute values may be uncertain and described by probability distributions. Both numerical and categorical data types are handled. Spatial auto-correlation within an attribute and cross-correlation between attributes is also accommodated for. For uncertainty propagation the package has implemented the MC approach with efficient sampling algorithms, i.e. stratified random sampling and Latin hypercube sampling. The design includes facilitation of parallel computing to speed up MC computation. The MC realizations may be used as an input to the environmental models called from R, or externally. Selected visualization methods that are understandable by non-experts with limited background in

  7. Press self-regulation in Britain: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the history of press self-regulation in Britain, from the 1947 Ross Commission to the 2012 Leveson Inquiry Commission. It considers the history of the Press Council and the Press Complaints Commission, analysing the ways they developed, their work, and how they have reached their current non-status. It is argued that the existing situation in Britain is far from satisfactory, and that the press should advance more elaborate mechanisms of self-control, establishing a new regulatory body called the Public and Press Council that will be anchored in law, empowering the new regulator with greater and unprecedented authority, and equipping it with substantive sanctioning abilities. The Public and Press Council should be independent and effective, with transparent policies, processes and responsibilities. Its adjudication should be made in accordance with a written, detailed Code of Practice.

  8. Groundwater Quality: Analysis of Its Temporal and Spatial Variability in a Karst Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Castro, Roger; Pacheco Ávila, Julia; Ye, Ming; Cabrera Sansores, Armando

    2017-06-15

    This study develops an approach based on hierarchical cluster analysis for investigating the spatial and temporal variation of water quality governing processes. The water quality data used in this study were collected in the karst aquifer of Yucatan, Mexico, the only source of drinking water for a population of nearly two million people. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the quality data of all the sampling periods lumped together. This was motivated by the observation that, if water quality does not vary significantly in time, two samples from the same sampling site will belong to the same cluster. The resulting distribution maps of clusters and box-plots of the major chemical components reveal the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality. Principal component analysis was used to verify the results of cluster analysis and to derive the variables that explained most of the variation of the groundwater quality data. Results of this work increase the knowledge about how precipitation and human contamination impact groundwater quality in Yucatan. Spatial variability of groundwater quality in the study area is caused by: a) seawater intrusion and groundwater rich in sulfates at the west and in the coast, b) water rock interactions and the average annual precipitation at the middle and east zones respectively, and c) human contamination present in two localized zones. Changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation cause temporal variation by diluting groundwater in the aquifer. This approach allows to analyze the variation of groundwater quality controlling processes efficiently and simultaneously. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  9. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Liu

    Full Text Available Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  10. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  11. Spatial analysis of electricity demand patterns in Greece: Application of a GIS-based methodological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate various uses of electricity demand in Greece (agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial use as well as use for public and municipal authorities and street lightning) and we examine their relation with variables such as population, total area, population density and the Gross Domestic Product. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the level of prefecture. We both visualize the results of the analysis and we perform cluster and outlier analysis using the Anselin local Moran's I statistic as well as hot spot analysis using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The definition of the spatial patterns and relationships of the aforementioned variables in a GIS environment provides meaningful insight and better understanding of the regional development model in Greece and justifies the basis for an energy demand forecasting methodology. Acknowledgement: This research has been partly financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA II: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/ or inter-institutional research and innovation (CRESSENDO project; grant number 5145).

  12. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  13. Britain at CERN, from 12 to 14 November 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-seven companies presented their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition from 12 to 14 November. British industry exhibited products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects were cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition was organised by BEAMA, the Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations.

  14. E-Cigarettes: Prevalence and Attitudes in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Rory; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a means of recreational nicotine use that can potentially eliminate the need to smoke tobacco. Little is known about the prevalence of use or smokers’ attitudes toward e-cigarettes. This study describes use of and attitudes toward e-cigarettes in Britain. Methods: Respondents from three surveys were recruited from a panel of adults in Britain. Preliminary online and face-to-face qualitative research informed the development of a smokers’ survey (486 smokers who had used e-cigarettes and 894 smokers who had not). Representative samples of adults in Britain were then constructed from the panel for population surveys in 2010 (12,597 adults, including 2,297 smokers) and 2012 (12,432 adults, including 2,093 smokers), generating estimates of the prevalence of e-cigarette use and trial in Great Britain. Results: Awareness, trial, and current use increased between 2010 and 2012; for example, current use more than doubled from 2.7% of smokers in 2010 to 6.7% in 2012. The proportion of ever-users currently using e-cigarettes was around one-third in both years. In 2012, 1.1% of ex-smokers reported current e-cigarette use, and a further 2.7% reported past use. Approximately 0.5% of never-smokers reported having tried e-cigarettes. Conclusions: While we found evidence supporting the view that e-cigarette use may be a bridge to quitting, we found very little evidence of e-cigarette use among adults who had never smoked. British smokers would benefit from information about the effective use, risks, and benefits of e-cigarettes, as this might enable the use of e-cigarettes to improve public health. PMID:23703732

  15. The rhetoric of disfigurement in First World War Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Biernoff, Suzannah

    2011-01-01

    Summary During the First World War, the horror of facial mutilation was evoked in journalism, poems, memoirs and fiction; but in Britain it was almost never represented visually outside the professional contexts of clinical medicine and medical history. This article asks why, and offers an account of British visual culture in which visual anxiety and aversion are of central importance. By comparing the rhetoric of disfigurement to the parallel treatment of amputees, an asymmetrical picture em...

  16. Employment opportunities and pre-marital births in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Ermisch, John

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, nearly two-fifths of births in Britain were outside marriage. This study estimates the impact of employment opportunities in the local labour market on the probability that a childless never married woman has a birth outside marriage. It uses the unemployment rate in the travel-to-work area in which the woman lives as the indicator of employment opportunities. The estimates indicate poorer employment opportunities increase the pre-marital first birth rate and discourage union formation.

  17. The feminist appropriation of pregnancy testing in 1970s Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Olszynko-Gryn, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    This article restores pregnancy testing to its significant position in the history of the women’s liberation movement in 1970s Britain. It shows how feminists appropriated the pregnancy test kit, a medical technology which then resembled a small chemistry set, and used it as a political tool for demystifying medicine, empowering women and providing a more accessible, less judgmental alternative to the NHS. While the majority of testees were young women hoping for a negative result, many other...

  18. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  19. Twice Versus Direct Migrants: East African Sikh Settlers in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Bhachu, Parminder

    1990-01-01

    This paper has three main aims:first, it attempts to document salient features of a settler population of the twice migrant East African Sikhs,whose orientations and patterns of settlement, are different from that of the directly migrant groups who constitute the majority South Asian population in Britain. It analyses the major features of the organisation of the community, namely community values, its structure, economic organisation, the influence of a strong communications network, the con...

  20. A Common Spatial Factor Analysis Model for Measured Neighborhood-Level Characteristics: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Rachel C.; Warren, Joshua L.; Herring, Amy H.; Moore, Kari A.B.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the dimensionality of a set of neighborhood-level variables collected on participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) while appropriately accounting for the spatial structure of the data. A common spatial factor analysis model in the Bayesian setting was utilized in order to properly characterize dependencies in the data. Results suggest that use of the spatial factor model can result in more precise estimation of factor scores, improved insight into the spatial patterns in the data, and the ability to more accurately assess associations between the neighborhood environment and health outcomes. PMID:26372887

  1. The impact of car ownership and public transport usage on cancer screening coverage: Empirical evidence using a spatial analysis in England

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A spatial analysis has been conducted in England, with the aim to examine the impact of car ownership and public transport usage on breast and cervical cancer screening coverage. District-level cancer screening coverage data (in proportions) and UK census data have been collected and linked. Their effects on cancer screening coverage were modelled by using both non-spatial and spatial models to control for spatial correlation. Significant spatial correlation has been observed and thus spatial...

  2. Rethinking Folk Culture in Twentieth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. The use of spatial and randomisation-based methods for analysis of trials with treatments randomised into rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The effect of restricted randomisations on the validity and efficiency of using spatial model as well as more common analysis of variance methods for analysing field trials was examined by simulating yields in agricultural fields with known spatial variation and analysing those using eight...... different statistical models. Some of the models took into account the restrictions on the randomisation and some matched the true generated spatial variation. Two different types of spatial variations were generated. The results showed that the type I error was controlled if the correct spatial model...... was applied or if the model took into account the restrictions on the randomisation. If the model did not include the correct spatial model nor reflected the randomisation, the type I error could be much higher than the nominal value. The power of the tests could be increased if the model paid attention...

  4. Global Research on Artificial Intelligence from 1990–2014: Spatially-Explicit Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqiang Niu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we conducted the evaluation of artificial intelligence research from 1990–2014 by using bibliometric analysis. We introduced spatial analysis and social network analysis as geographic information retrieval methods for spatially-explicit bibliometric analysis. This study is based on the analysis of data obtained from database of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S. Our results revealed scientific outputs, subject categories and main journals, author productivity and geographic distribution, international productivity and collaboration, and hot issues and research trends. The growth of article outputs in artificial intelligence research has exploded since the 1990s, along with increasing collaboration, reference, and citations. Computer science and engineering were the most frequently-used subject categories in artificial intelligence studies. The top twenty productive authors are distributed in countries with a high investment of research and development. The United States has the highest number of top research institutions in artificial intelligence, producing most single-country and collaborative articles. Although there is more and more collaboration among institutions, cooperation, especially international ones, are not highly prevalent in artificial intelligence research as expected. The keyword analysis revealed interesting research preferences, confirmed that methods, models, and application are in the central position of artificial intelligence. Further, we found interesting related keywords with high co-occurrence frequencies, which have helped identify new models and application areas in recent years. Bibliometric analysis results from our study will greatly facilitate the understanding of the progress and trends in artificial intelligence, in particular, for those researchers interested in domain-specific AI-driven problem-solving. This will be

  5. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.

  6. The Impact of Future Offshore Wind Farms on Wind Power Generation in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Drew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the coming years the geographical distribution of wind farms in Great Britain is expected to change significantly. Following the development of the “round 3” wind zones (circa 2025, most of the installed capacity will be located in large offshore wind farms. However, the impact of this change in wind-farm distribution on the characteristics of national wind generation is largely unknown. This study uses a 34-year reanalysis dataset (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA from National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA-GMAO to produce a synthetic hourly time series of GB-aggregated wind generation based on: (1 the “current” wind farm distribution; and (2 a “future” wind farm distribution scenario. The derived data are used to estimate a climatology of extreme wind power events in Great Britain for each wind farm distribution. The impact of the changing wind farm distribution on the wind-power statistics is significant. The annual mean capacity factor increased from 32.7% for the current wind farm distribution to 39.7% for the future distribution. In addition, there are fewer periods of prolonged low generation and more periods of prolonged high generation. Finally, the frequency and magnitude of ramping in the nationally aggregated capacity factor remains largely unchanged. However, due to the increased capacity of the future distribution, in terms of power output, the magnitude of the ramping increases by a factor of 5.

  7. Individual Educational Paths in the Universities of Russia and Great Britain (Theoretical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Shaposhnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the necessity for higher education institutions to form and realize students' individual educational paths in the learning process, which is stated in the Federal Law on Education and FSES HPE of the third generation. The article presents an overview of the different approaches to the definition of the term «individual educational path» (IEP. It also gives a brief overview of the existing terms in the Russian terminological system, which are close in meaning to the term above. The author formulates her own tentative definition of the term «IEP» which is based on the analysis made. The article further addresses the solution to the problem of the individualization of higher education learning process in Great Britain, which is described through the term «Personal Development Planning». The meaning of the term is shown through the set of actions: planning, doing things, recording of the self experience, reviewing and evaluating, using the personal knowledge derived from reflection and self understanding as well as own learning abilities to plan future actions. In conclusion, the meanings of the terms «IEP» and «PDP» are compared. The author emphasires the importance of studying Great Britain's experience - the practice of solving problems connected with the individualization of the university learning process and the possibilities to use it to facilitate the implementation of students' individual educational paths in Russian higher education institutions.

  8. Big Data Geo-Analytical Tool Development for Spatial Analysis Uncertainty Visualization and Quantification Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Bauer, J. R.; Baker, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    As big data computing capabilities are increasingly paired with spatial analytical tools and approaches, there is a need to ensure uncertainty associated with the datasets used in these analyses is adequately incorporated and portrayed in results. Often the products of spatial analyses, big data and otherwise, are developed using discontinuous, sparse, and often point-driven data to represent continuous phenomena. Results from these analyses are generally presented without clear explanations of the uncertainty associated with the interpolated values. The Variable Grid Method (VGM) offers users with a flexible approach designed for application to a variety of analyses where users there is a need to study, evaluate, and analyze spatial trends and patterns while maintaining connection to and communicating the uncertainty in the underlying spatial datasets. The VGM outputs a simultaneous visualization representative of the spatial data analyses and quantification of underlying uncertainties, which can be calculated using data related to sample density, sample variance, interpolation error, uncertainty calculated from multiple simulations. In this presentation we will show how we are utilizing Hadoop to store and perform spatial analysis through the development of custom Spark and MapReduce applications that incorporate ESRI Hadoop libraries. The team will present custom 'Big Data' geospatial applications that run on the Hadoop cluster and integrate with ESRI ArcMap with the team's probabilistic VGM approach. The VGM-Hadoop tool has been specially built as a multi-step MapReduce application running on the Hadoop cluster for the purpose of data reduction. This reduction is accomplished by generating multi-resolution, non-overlapping, attributed topology that is then further processed using ESRI's geostatistical analyst to convey a probabilistic model of a chosen study region. Finally, we will share our approach for implementation of data reduction and topology generation

  9. Spatial-Temporal Feature Analysis on Single-Trial Event Related Potential for Rapid Face Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yun; Cai, Bangyu; Wang, Yueming; Wang, Yiwen

    2017-01-01

    The event-related potential (ERP) is the brain response measured in electroencephalography (EEG), which reflects the process of human cognitive activity. ERP has been introduced into brain computer interfaces (BCIs) to communicate the computer with the subject's intention. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG, most ERP studies are based on grand-averaging over many trials. Recently single-trial ERP detection attracts more attention, which enables real time processing tasks as rapid face identification. All the targets needed to be retrieved may appear only once, and there is no knowledge of target label for averaging. More interestingly, how the features contribute temporally and spatially to single-trial ERP detection has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we propose to implement a local-learning-based (LLB) feature extraction method to investigate the importance of spatial-temporal components of ERP in a task of rapid face identification using single-trial detection. Comparing to previous methods, LLB method preserves the nonlinear structure of EEG signal distribution, and analyze the importance of original spatial-temporal components via optimization in feature space. As a data-driven methods, the weighting of the spatial-temporal component does not depend on the ERP detection method. The importance weights are optimized by making the targets more different from non-targets in feature space, and regularization penalty is introduced in optimization for sparse weights. This spatial-temporal feature extraction method is evaluated on the EEG data of 15 participants in performing a face identification task using rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. Comparing with other methods, the proposed spatial-temporal analysis method uses sparser (only 10% of the total) features, and could achieve comparable performance (98%) of single-trial ERP detection as the whole features across different detection methods. The interesting finding is that the N250 is

  10. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and

  11. Nanoscale spatial analysis of clay minerals containing cesium by synchrotron radiation photoemission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toru; Shimoyama, Iwao; Matsumura, Daiju; Tsuji, Takuya; Nishihata, Yasuo; Kogure, Toshihiro; Ohkochi, Takuo; Yasui, Akira; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation photoemission electron microscope (SR-PEEM) was applied to demonstrate the pinpoint analysis of micrometer-sized weathered biotite clay particles with artificially adsorbed cesium (Cs) atoms. Despite the insulating properties of the clay, we observed the spatial distributions of constituent elements (Si, Al, Cs, Mg, and Fe) without charging issues and clarified reciprocal site-correlations among these elements with nanometer resolution. We found that Cs atoms were likely to be adsorbed evenly over the entire particle; however, we identified an occupational conflict between Cs and Mg atoms, implying that Cs sorption involves ion exchange processes. Spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of the Cs4,5 M-edge region showed Cs to be present in a monocation state (Cs+) as typically observed for Cs compounds. Further pinpoint XAS measurements were also performed at the Fe L2,3-edge to determine the chemical valence of the Fe atoms. The shapes of the spectra were similar to those for Fe2O3, indicating that Fe in the clay was in a 3+ oxidation state. From these observations, we infer that charge compensation facilitates Cs adsorption in the vicinity of a substitution site where Si4+ ions are replaced by Fe3+ ions in SiO4 tetrahedral sheets. Our results demonstrate the utility of SR-PEEM as a tool for spatially resolved chemical analyses of various environmental substances, which is not limited by the poor conductivity of samples.

  12. SPATIAL ANALYSIS BASED HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LINEAR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Atay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an on-going study that aims to develop a web-based spatial decision support system model for proactive health and safety management in linear construction projects. Currently, health and safety management is usually performed reactively instead of proactive management since hazard identification and risk assessment is mostly performed on paper based documents that are not effectively used at site. This leads to accidents and fatalities at construction sites. The proposed system automatically identifies the spatial risks according to the topographic and layout map of the site, project specification and health and safety regulations by means of spatial analysis. It enables the workers and management personnel to access the possible hazards and thematic risk map of any portion of the construction site for linear projects. Finally, the described approach provides the proposed mitigation measures for the identified hazards. The developed system is expected to raise awareness in H&S among workers and engineers, and increase participation of workers to health and safety management.

  13. A spatial point pattern analysis in Drosophila blastoderm embryos evaluating the potential inheritance of transcriptional states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng He

    Full Text Available The Drosophila blastoderm embryo undergoes rapid cycles of nuclear division. This poses a challenge to genes that need to reliably sense the concentrations of morphogen molecules to form desired expression patterns. Here we investigate whether the transcriptional state of hunchback (hb, a target gene directly activated by the morphogenetic protein Bicoid (Bcd, exhibits properties indicative of inheritance between mitotic cycles. To achieve this, we build a dataset of hb transcriptional states at the resolution of individual nuclei in embryos at early cycle 14. We perform a spatial point pattern (SPP analysis to evaluate the spatial relationships among the nuclei that have distinct numbers of hb gene copies undergoing active transcription in snapshots of embryos. Our statistical tests and simulation studies reveal properties of dispersed clustering for nuclei with both or neither copies of hb undergoing active transcription. Modeling of nuclear lineages from cycle 11 to cycle 14 suggests that these two types of nuclei can achieve spatial clustering when, and only when, the transcriptional states are allowed to propagate between mitotic cycles. Our results are consistent with the possibility where the positional information encoded by the Bcd morphogen gradient may not need to be decoded de novo at all mitotic cycles in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo.

  14. Spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate data by means of digital image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Petrik, Attila; Horváth, Ákos; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-01-01

    A detailed ambient gamma dose equivalent rate mapping based on field measurements at ground level and at 1 m height was carried out at 142 sites in 80 × 90 km area in Pest County, Hungary. Detailed digital image processing analysis was carried out to identify and characterise spatial features such as outlying points, anomalous zones and linear edges in a smoothed TIN interpolated surface. The applied method proceeds from the simple shaded relief model and digital cross-sections to the more complex gradient magnitude and gradient direction maps, 2nd derivative profile curvature map, relief map and lineament density map. Each map is analysed for statistical characteristics and histogram-based image segmentation is used to delineate areas homogeneous with respect to the parameter values in these maps. Assessment of spatial anisotropy is implemented by 2D autocorrelogram and directional variogram analyses. The identified spatial features are related to underlying geological and tectonic conditions using GIS technology. Results show that detailed digital image processing is efficient in revealing the pattern present in field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rates and they are related to regional scale tectonic zones and surface sedimentary lithological conditions in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A clustering analysis of eddies' spatial distribution in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation is important for studying the mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS. To investigate such spatial variations, this study made a clustering analysis on eddies' distribution using the K-means approach. Results showed that clustering tendency of anticyclonic eddies (AEs and cyclonic eddies (CEs were weak but not random, and the number of clusters were proved greater than four. Finer clustering results showed 10 regions where AEs densely populated and 6 regions for CEs in the SCS. Previous studies confirmed these partitions and possible generation mechanisms were related. Comparisons between AEs and CEs revealed that patterns of AE are relatively more aggregated than those of CE, and specific distinctions were summarized: (1 to the southwest of Luzon Island, AEs and CEs are generated spatially apart; AEs are likely located north of 14° N and closer to shore, while CEs are to the south and further offshore. (2 The central SCS and Nansha Trough are mostly dominated by AEs. (3 Along 112° E, clusters of AEs and CEs are located sequentially apart, and the pairs off Vietnam represent the dipole structures. (4 To the southwest of the Dongsha Islands, AEs are concentrated to the east of CEs. Overlaps of AEs and CEs in the northeastern and southern SCS were further examined considering seasonal variations. The northeastern overlap represented near-concentric distributions while the southern one was a mixed effect of seasonal variations, complex circulations and topography influences.

  16. A spatial analysis of the association between restaurant density and body mass index in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Simon; Campbell, M Karen; Gilliland, Jason; Sarma, Sisira

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the association between fast-food restaurant density and adult body mass index (BMI) in Canada. Individual-level BMI and confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey master file. Locations of the fast-food and full-service chain restaurants and other non-chain restaurants were obtained from the 2008 Infogroup Canada business database. Food outlet density (fast-food, full-service and other) per 10,000 population was calculated for each Forward Sortation Area (FSA). Global (Moran's I) and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation of BMI were assessed. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial auto-regressive error (SARE) methods were used to assess the association between local food environment and adult BMI in Canada. Global and local spatial autocorrelation of BMI were found in our univariate analysis. We found that OLS and SARE estimates were very similar in our multivariate models. An additional fast-food restaurant per 10,000 people at the FSA-level is associated with a 0.022kg/m(2) increase in BMI. On the other hand, other restaurant density is negatively related to BMI. Fast-food restaurant density is positively associated with BMI in Canada. Results suggest that restricting availability of fast-food in local neighborhoods may play a role in obesity prevention. © 2013.

  17. Spatial analysis and modeling of climate variables in the Cuitzeo Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Adrián Leal Nares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic information with sufficient quality and spatially distributed is an essential requirement for developing research in several disciplines, such as Hydrology, Agronomy, Climatology and Ecology. In the present paper we attempt to reach to a model of the spatial distribution of precipitation and temperature in the lake Cuitzeo basin, based on interpolation methods using climatic and geographic variables and supported by the application of correlation analysis, simple and multiple regression and the use of geographic information systems. Three models were developed: one including 17 stations within the basin (Basin model; a second including 24 stations located at less than 10 km from the basin’s water shed (Buffer 10 model; and a third using 30 stations located at less than 20 km from the catchment’s water divide (Buffer 20 model. Based on the results of confidence analysis, the final average temperature map was the regression map resulting from the Buffer 20 model corrected by the addition of the anomaly map, with R2=0.72 and RMSE of 0.64 oC. In precipitation maps, the highest confidence results were derived from the data from the Buffer 20 model. The final annual precipitation map was obtained from the regression map without correction by residuals, with R2=0.746 and RMSE=55.51 oC. Confidence analysis shows that both models had statistically significant determination coefficients (Prob. > F=0.05, however, models could be improved by the availability of more stations within the basin, given that the quantity and quality of data is a variable having an effect on the output of model application. The resulting final maps are relevant for modeling the spatial distribution of types of vegetation cover and of plant species, because climate, together with altitude, slope, exposure and other factors, is fundamental for determining the distribution of plant communities and of their component species.

  18. Collection and Integration of Local Knowledge and Experience through a Collective Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Daniel Castillo-Rosas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the convenience of adopting an approach of Collective Spatial Analysis in the P/PGIS processes, with the aim of improving the collection and integration of knowledge and local expertise in decision-making, mainly in the fields of planning and adopting territorial policies. Based on empirical evidence, as a result of the review of scientific articles from the Web of Science database, in which it is displayed how the knowledge and experience of people involved in decision-making supported by P/PGIS are collected and used, a prototype of a WEB-GSDSS application has been developed. This prototype allows a group of people to participate anonymously, in an asynchronous and distributed way, in a decision-making process to locate goods, services, or events through the convergence of their views. Via this application, two case studies for planning services in districts of Ecuador and Italy were carried out. Early results suggest that in P/PGIS local and external actors contribute their knowledge and experience to generate information that afterwards is integrated and analysed in the decision-making process. On the other hand, in a Collective Spatial Analysis, these actors analyse and generate information in conjunction with their knowledge and experience during the process of decision-making. We conclude that, although the Collective Spatial Analysis approach presented is in a subjective and initial stage, it does drive improvements in the collection and integration of knowledge and local experience, foremost among them is an interdisciplinary geo-consensus.

  19. GeoXp : An R Package for Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Laurent

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present GeoXp, an R package implementing interactive graphics for exploratory spatial data analysis. We use a data set concerning public schools of the French MidiPyrenees region to illustrate the use of these exploratory techniques based on the coupling between a statistical graph and a map. Besides elementary plots like boxplots,histograms or simple scatterplots, GeoXp also couples maps with Moran scatterplots, variogram clouds, Lorenz curves and other graphical tools. In order to make the most of the multidimensionality of the data, GeoXp includes dimension reduction techniques such as principal components analysis and cluster analysis whose results are also linked to the map.

  20. ANALYSIS OF PRO-POOR GROWTH AMONG THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ - BRAZIL: SPATIAL APPROACH

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    Wellington Ribeiro Justo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the for-poor growth among the municipal districts of the State of Ceará in 2003. Initially it explores the recent literature of the theme as well as of the spatial econometric. Soon after it makes the spatial analysis of the variables through maps and in more robust way through the Exploratory Analysis of Given Spatial (AEDE being used the LISA methodology (Local Indicators of Spatial Association and the statistics I of Moran. Estimates the elasticity income-poverty and elasticity inequality-poverty. The tests indicated the need to incorporate variables in the estimates that learn the spatial externalities. The results suggest for-poor growth in the municipal districts from Ceará in agreement with results aggregate for the Ceará state appointed in recent literature.