WorldWideScience

Sample records for britain spatial analysis

  1. The Europeanisation of spatial planning in Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the representation of European space in images, and the significance of these images in building and reproducing policy discourses of European space. Images are understood as elements of an emerging transnational spatial policy discourse, and so are analysed in the context of ...

  2. Epidemiological analysis of data for scrapie in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Donnelly, C.; Ferguson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the control or eradication of scrapie and any other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) possibly circulating in the sheep population has become a priority in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the dev

  3. Entry to lone parenthood: an analysis of marital dissolution in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J F; Wright, R E

    1994-01-01

    "This paper examines some...socio-economic determinants of lone parenthood in Great Britain, in an attempt to understand further the reasons behind the rapid growth in lone parenthood. Since divorce and separation are the major 'causes' of lone parenthood, this paper focuses on the determinants of marital dissolution among women with dependent children. The empirical analysis is guided by hypotheses suggested by the 'economic theory of marriage'. Hazard regression equations are estimated with data collected in the 1980 Women and Employment Survey...." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  4. Geologic spatial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  5. Spatial Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data. It does so in the context of two applications: disease mapping and spatial survival analysis. Disease maps are used to highlight geographic areas with high and low prevalence, incidence, or mortality rates of a specific disease and the variability of such rates over a spatial domain. They can also be used to detect hot spots or spatial clusters that may arise owing to common environmental, demographic, or cultural effects shared by neighboring regions. Spatial survival analysis refers to the modeling and analysis for geographically referenced time-to-event data, where a subject is followed up to an event (e.g., death or onset of a disease) or is censored, whichever comes first. Spatial survival analysis is used to analyze clustered survival data when the clustering arises from geographical regions or strata. Illustrations are provided in these application domains.

  6. Beyond Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Postwar Britain witnessed the concurrent evolution of two new intellectual movements which have since become institutionalized as two major academic fields of enquiry: cultural studies and postcolonial studies. Although both fields are enormously diverse, they have developed a parallel focus arou...

  7. Britain's bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Richard

    2012-10-01

    On the 60th anniversary of Britain's first nuclear test, Richard Corfield explores how Operation Hurricane - the British effort to develop the atomic bomb in the 1940s and 1950s - compares with states such as Iran that today wish to have such devices.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  9. Professional analysis in spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis contributes to accomplishment of the three basic aims of spatial planning: it is basic element for setting spatial policies, concepts and strategies, gives basic information to inhabitants, land owners, investors, planners and helps in performing spatial policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects. Analysis in planning are generally devoted to: understand current circumstances and emerging conditions within planning decisions; determine priorities of open questions and their solutions; formulate general principles for further development.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  11. Perspectives on spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This book takes both a retrospective and prospective view of the field of spatial analysis by combining selected reprints of classic articles by Arthur Getis with current observations by leading experts in the field. Four main aspects are highlighted, dealing with spatial analysis, pattern analysis, local statistics as well as illustrative empirical applications. Researchers and students will gain an appreciation of Getis' methodological contributions to spatial analysis and the broad impact of the methods he has helped pioneer on an impressively broad array of disciplines including spatial epidemiology, demography, economics, and ecology. The volume is a compilation of high impact original contributions, as evidenced by citations, and the latest thinking on the field by leading scholars. This makes the book ideal for advanced seminars and courses in spatial analysis as well as a key resource for researchers seeking a comprehensive overview of recent advances and future directions in the field.

  12. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB. Resu

  13. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Henrys

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Great Britain currently have nitrogen (N deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads. Previous studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, whereas here we look at individual species. We used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to N in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg N scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys indicating increased fertility. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. A number of these species were either habitat dominants or possessed traits known to be influential in controlling ecosystem function. Many community dominants showing significant negative relationships with N deposition highlight a potentially significant loss of function. Some species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels. Some species also showed continuous changes as N deposition levels rose above the current critical load values. This work contributes to the growing evidence base suggesting species level impacts at low N deposition values.

  14. Nitrogen impacts on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Henrys

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of the United Kingdom currently have nitrogen (N deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads, and are predicted to continue to do so. Previous studies have shown that this excess N can be very damaging to semi-natural ecosystems. However, such studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, possibly missing the risk that increased deposition can have on individual plant species. To address this gap in knowledge, we used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain: the vascular plant database and the Botanical Society of the British Isles local change network to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to nitrogen in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. Species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels.

  15. A New Methodology of Spatial Crosscorrelation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The idea of spatial crosscorrelation was conceived of long ago. However, unlike the related spatial autocorrelation, the theory and method of spatial crosscorrelation analysis have remained undeveloped. This paper presents a set of models and working methods for spatial crosscorrelation analysis. By analogy with Moran's index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form and by means of mathematical reasoning, I derive a theoretical framework for geographical crosscorrelation analysis. First, two sets of spatial crosscorrelation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial crosscorrelation coefficient and a set of local spatial crosscorrelation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial crosscorrelation is proposed, and different scatterplots show different relationships between correlated variables. Based on the spatial crosscorrelation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial crosscorrelation) and indirect correlation (sp...

  16. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere-Williams, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry.

  17. Omnidirectional Analysis of Spatial Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Leng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space manipulators are mainly used in the spatial loading task. According to problems of the spatial loading diversity, the testing loading installing position, and the utilization ratio of a test platform, the space manipulator is asked to evaluate the position and attitude of itself. This paper proposes the Point Omnidirectional Coefficient (POC with unit attitude sphere/circle to describe attitude of the end-effector, which evaluates any points in the attainable space of the manipulators, in combination with the manipulation’s position message, and get relationships between its position and attitude of all points in the attainable space. It represents the mapping between sphere surface and plane for mission attitude constraints and the method for calculating volume of points space including attainable space, Omnidirectional space, and mission attitude space. Furthermore, the Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient based on mission or not is proposed for evaluating manipulator performance. Through analysis and simulation about 3D and 2D manipulators, the results show that the above theoretical approach is feasible and the relationships about link lengths, joints angles, attainable space, and Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient are drawn for guiding design.

  18. Spatial analysis and planning under imprecision

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Y

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with complexity, imprecision, human valuation, and uncertainty in spatial analysis and planning, providing a systematic exposure of a new philosophical and theoretical foundation for spatial analysis and planning under imprecision. Regional concepts and regionalization, spatial preference-utility-choice structures, spatial optimization with single and multiple objectives, dynamic spatial systems and their controls are analyzed in sequence.The analytical framework is based on fuzzy set theory. Basic concepts of fuzzy set theory are first discussed. Many numerical examples and emp

  19. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from twelve equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman-Monteith equations reproduce best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically-based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the twelve PET equations. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen-Hense and calibrated Blaney-Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley-Taylor, Makkink and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within the range of

  20. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  1. Local models for spatial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Christopher D

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on solutions, this second edition provides guidance to a wide variety of real-world problems. The text presents a complete introduction to key concepts and a clear mapping of the methods discussed. It also explores connections between methods. New chapters address spatial patterning in single variables and spatial relations. In addition, every chapter now includes links to key related studies. The author clearly distinguishes between local and global methods and provides more detailed coverage of geographical weighting, image texture measures, local spatial autocorrelation, and multic

  2. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H. E. Mr Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition. From 14 to 17 November 30 British companies exhibited leading edge technologies at CERN. This is Britain's 18th exhibition at CERN since 1968. Out of the 30 companies, which attended the Britain at CERN exhibition in 1998, 25 have received an order or a contract relating to CERN during the last two years. The exhibition was inaugurated on Tuesday by Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International. He was accompanied by H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse CMG, OBE, Her Majesty's Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. David Roberts, Deputy Head of Mission and Director of Trade Promotion at the British Embassy in Bern. CERN Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, underlined the major contribution of British physicists to CERN, pointing out the fact ...

  3. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  4. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Our...... residuals generalise the well-known residuals for point processes in time, used in signal processing and survival analysis. An important difference is that the conditional intensity or hazard rate of the temporal point process must be replaced by the Papangelou conditional intensity $lambda$ of the spatial...... process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...

  5. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005.......Discussion of the paper "Residual analysis for spatial point processes" by A. Baddeley, M. Hazelton, J. Møller and R. Turner. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, vol. 67, pages 617-666, 2005....

  6. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link......-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure....

  7. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL-PS

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex X-Ray &...

  8. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-nine companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherton) Ltd 5. Data Systems & Solutions (Advanced Con...

  9. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex...

  10. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials E...

  11. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs (Friday 09h00-12h00) Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors the list of lectures. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK (Pirelli Cables) 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherto...

  12. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  13. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  14. A metapopulation of the lizard Anguis fragilis (Squamata: Anguidae on a local scale in Dorset, Great Britain, as indicated by spatial distribution and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Haley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A metapopulation is a group of spatially structured populations, consisting of distinct units (subpopulations that are separated by space or barriers, and connected by dispersal movements. Evidence derived from Gaussian finite-mixture models and dispersal events suggests that slow-worms may exist in a metapopulation. The Gaussian finite-mixture models showed that slow-worms are aggregated into individual subpopulations; the movement data revealed that males are more likely to migrate than females and that they have the ability to travel sufficiently far to bridge subpopulations. Therefore, the evidence supports the metapopulation theory and that slow-worms exist in multiple small subpopulations instead of one large homogenous population.

  15. Putting Partnership Into Practice In Britain

    OpenAIRE

    William Brown

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews industrial relations developments in Britain during 1999 by assessing how New Labour's policy commitment to encouraging 'partnership' is developing in practice. After a discussion of the Employment Relations Act it considers the wider influence of European legislation. It then describes how partnership approaches have been developing in trade union policy and industrial practice. This leads to an analysis of the operation of two explicit 'social partnership' institutions, AC...

  16. Geostatistics and spatial analysis in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relethford, John H

    2008-05-01

    A variety of methods have been used to make evolutionary inferences based on the spatial distribution of biological data, including reconstructing population history and detection of the geographic pattern of natural selection. This article provides an examination of geostatistical analysis, a method used widely in geology but which has not often been applied in biological anthropology. Geostatistical analysis begins with the examination of a variogram, a plot showing the relationship between a biological distance measure and the geographic distance between data points and which provides information on the extent and pattern of spatial correlation. The results of variogram analysis are used for interpolating values of unknown data points in order to construct a contour map, a process known as kriging. The methods of geostatistical analysis and discussion of potential problems are applied to a large data set of anthropometric measures for 197 populations in Ireland. The geostatistical analysis reveals two major sources of spatial variation. One pattern, seen for overall body and craniofacial size, shows an east-west cline most likely reflecting the combined effects of past population dispersal and settlement. The second pattern is seen for craniofacial height and shows an isolation by distance pattern reflecting rapid spatial changes in the midlands region of Ireland, perhaps attributable to the genetic impact of the Vikings. The correspondence of these results with other analyses of these data and the additional insights generated from variogram analysis and kriging illustrate the potential utility of geostatistical analysis in biological anthropology.

  17. Spatial methods in areal administrative data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrative data often arise as electronic copies of paid bills generated from insurance companies including the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Such data are widely seen and analyzed in the public health area, as in investigations of cancer control, health service accessibility, and spatial epidemiology. In areas like political science and education, administrative data are also important. Administrative data are sometimes more readily available as summaries over each administrative unit (county, zip code, etc. in a particular set determined by geopolitical boundaries, or what statisticians refer to as areal data. However, the spatial dependence often present in administrative data is often ignored by health services researchers. This can lead to problems in estimating the true underlying spatial surface, including inefficient use of data and biased conclusions. In this article, we review hierarchical statistical modeling and boundary analysis (wombling methods for areal-level spatial data that can be easily carried out using freely available statistical computing packages. We also propose a new edge-domain method designed to detect geographical boundaries corresponding to abrupt changes in the areal-level surface. We illustrate our methods using county-level breast cancer late detection data from the state of Minnesota.

  18. Spatial analysis methodology applied to rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, J. [Department of Electric Engineering, EUTI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, E-28012 Madrid (Spain); Dominguez, J. [Renewable Energies Division, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    The use of geographical information systems (GISs) in studies of regional integration of renewable energies provides advantages such as speed, amount of information, analysis capacity and others. However, these characteristics make it difficult to link the results to the initial variables, and therefore to validate the GIS. This makes it hard to ascertain the reliability of both the results and their subsequent analysis. To solve these problems, a GIS-based method is proposed with renewable energies for rural electrification structured in three stages, with the aim of finding out the influence of the initial variables on the result. In the first stage, a classic sensitivity analysis of the equivalent electrification cost (LEC) is performed; the second stage involves a spatial sensitivity analysis and the third determines the stability of the results. This methodology has been verified in the application of a GIS in Lorca (Spain). (author)

  19. Spatially Resolved Analysis of Bragg Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets an inherent control of optical shrinkage in photosensitive polymers, contributing by means of spatially resolved analysis of volume holographic phase gratings. Point by point scanning of the local material response to the Gaussian intensity distribution of the recording beams is accomplished. Derived information on the local grating period and grating slant is evaluated by mapping of optical shrinkage in the lateral plane as well as through the depth of the layer. The influence of recording intensity, exposure duration and the material viscosity on the Bragg selectivity is investigated.

  20. Understanding Public Attitudes in Britain towards Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of different aspects of public attitudes towards faith schools in Britain. It examines two questions relating to government policy on this issue and two questions that ask about the perceived outcomes of this type of school. After discussing existing public opinion on this issue it uses data from the British…

  1. Spatial Data Mining using Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.N.Santhosh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining, which is refers to as Knowledge Discovery in Databases(KDD, means a process of nontrivialexaction of implicit, previously useful and unknown information such as knowledge rules, descriptions,regularities, and major trends from large databases. Data mining is evolved in a multidisciplinary field ,including database technology, machine learning, artificial intelligence, neural network, informationretrieval, and so on. In principle data mining should be applicable to the different kind of data and databasesused in many different applications, including relational databases, transactional databases, datawarehouses, object- oriented databases, and special application- oriented databases such as spatialdatabases, temporal databases, multimedia databases, and time- series databases. Spatial data mining, alsocalled spatial mining, is data mining as applied to the spatial data or spatial databases. Spatial data are thedata that have spatial or location component, and they show the information, which is more complex thanclassical data. A spatial database stores spatial data represents by spatial data types and spatialrelationships and among data. Spatial data mining encompasses various tasks. These include spatialclassification, spatial association rule mining, spatial clustering, characteristic rules, discriminant rules,trend detection. This paper presents how spatial data mining is achieved using clustering.

  2. Spatial Econometric data analysis: moving beyond traditional models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florax, R.J.G.M.; Vlist, van der A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article appraises recent advances in the spatial econometric literature. It serves as the introduction too collection of new papers on spatial econometric data analysis brought together in this special issue, dealing specifically with new extensions to the spatial econometric modeling perspecti

  3. Spatial contiguity analysis. A method for describing spatial structures of seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1-4 Av. de Bois-Preau, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France); Cailly, F. [Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    We apply spatial contiguity analysis (SCA) to study spatial structures contained in seismic images. Compared to classical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), SCA is more efficient for multivariate description and spatial filtering of this kind of images. We present SCA according to geostatistic formalism defined by Matheron. A preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables is required. Made with the help of variogram curves, this permits to underline spatial properties of these variables and defines contiguity distance and direction to apply SCA. A series of mathematical tools is defined. They allow quantifying the information held by initial variables and factorial components in terms of variance and spatial variability and exhibit data spatial structures on different scales. The method is applied to analyse a seismic data set. We compare PCA and SCA results. This data set gives us the opportunity to show the interest of preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables, and the effects of spatial direction and distance on the data decomposition in elementary structures.

  4. Spatial positioning : method development for spatial analysis of interaction in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Markhede, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In offices, knowledge sharing largely depends on everyday face-to-face interaction patterns. These interaction patterns may depend on how employees move through the office space. This thesis explores how these spatial relations influence individual choices with respect to employee movements or routes. Space syntax related research has shown a strong relationship between spatial configuration and pedestrian movement in cities, yet field of space syntax has not applied spatial analysis to the o...

  5. Spatial Analysis Of Human Capital Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdos Artur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the interdependence between labour productivity and the occupational structure of human capital in a spatial cross-section. Research indicates (see Fischer 2009 the possibility to assess the impact of the quality of human capital (measured by means of the level of education on labour productivity in a spatial cross-section.

  6. Robust geostatistical analysis of spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papritz, Andreas; Künsch, Hans Rudolf; Schwierz, Cornelia; Stahel, Werner A.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the geostatistical software tools rely on non-robust algorithms. This is unfortunate, because outlying observations are rather the rule than the exception, in particular in environmental data sets. Outliers affect the modelling of the large-scale spatial trend, the estimation of the spatial dependence of the residual variation and the predictions by kriging. Identifying outliers manually is cumbersome and requires expertise because one needs parameter estimates to decide which observation is a potential outlier. Moreover, inference after the rejection of some observations is problematic. A better approach is to use robust algorithms that prevent automatically that outlying observations have undue influence. Former studies on robust geostatistics focused on robust estimation of the sample variogram and ordinary kriging without external drift. Furthermore, Richardson and Welsh (1995) proposed a robustified version of (restricted) maximum likelihood ([RE]ML) estimation for the variance components of a linear mixed model, which was later used by Marchant and Lark (2007) for robust REML estimation of the variogram. We propose here a novel method for robust REML estimation of the variogram of a Gaussian random field that is possibly contaminated by independent errors from a long-tailed distribution. It is based on robustification of estimating equations for the Gaussian REML estimation (Welsh and Richardson, 1997). Besides robust estimates of the parameters of the external drift and of the variogram, the method also provides standard errors for the estimated parameters, robustified kriging predictions at both sampled and non-sampled locations and kriging variances. Apart from presenting our modelling framework, we shall present selected simulation results by which we explored the properties of the new method. This will be complemented by an analysis a data set on heavy metal contamination of the soil in the vicinity of a metal smelter. Marchant, B.P. and Lark, R

  7. Recent developments in spatial analysis spatial statistics, behavioural modelling, and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Getis, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, spatial analysis has become an increasingly active field, as evidenced by the establishment of educational and research programs at many universities. Its popularity is due mainly to new technologies and the development of spatial data infrastructures. This book illustrates some recent developments in spatial analysis, behavioural modelling, and computational intelligence. World renown spatial analysts explain and demonstrate their new and insightful models and methods. The applications are in areas of societal interest such as the spread of infectious diseases, migration behaviour, and retail and agricultural location strategies. In addition, there is emphasis on the uses of new technologoies for the analysis of spatial data through the application of neural network concepts.

  8. Britain and Energy Policy: Problems of Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Britain's energy policies and changing energy sources since World War II. North Sea natural gas and oil should prevent shortages in the near future. Planning is complicated by Britain's entry into the European Common Market, questionable progress in nuclear production, and the uncertain availability of Middle Eastern oil. (JR)

  9. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  10. Myxomatosis in 1950s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P W J

    2008-01-01

    In 1953 myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, broke out in Britain for the first time. It rapidly killed tens of millions of the animals from Kent to the Shetlands. Many farmers and foresters welcomed a disease that virtually eliminated a longstanding and serious agricultural pest. Others were horrified by the sight of thousands of dead and dying animals. With meat still rationed, consumers rued the loss of a cheap and nutritious foodstuff. Rough shooters deplored the loss of prey and hatters and furriers the unavailability of the fur on which their businesses depended. Rabbits also had champions within the 'establishment'; these included Winston Churchill who was personally influential in making deliberate transmission of the disease a criminal offence. The arrival in Britain of myxomatosis presented the authorities with difficult questions: should they try to contain it, spread it or do nothing; should they take advantage of rabbit depopulation and try to exterminate such a destructive animal? In the event the outbreak was allowed to run its course and rabbit extermination became government policy. This article considers who or what was responsible for the disease reaching the UK and how it then spread throughout the country. It examines the responses of government, other institutions and members of the public. Finally, it explores the impact of rabbit de-population on agriculture, the natural environment and public opinion.

  11. Rings and sector : intrasite spatial analysis of stone age sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, Durk

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with intrasite spatial analysis: the analysis of spatial patterns on site level. My main concern has been to develop a simple method for analysing Stone Age sites of a special type: those characterised by the presence of a hearth closely associated in space with an artefact scatter

  12. Book review: Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns by J. Illian, A. Penttinen, H. Stoyan and D. Stoyan. Wiley (2008), ISBN 9780470014912......Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns by J. Illian, A. Penttinen, H. Stoyan and D. Stoyan. Wiley (2008), ISBN 9780470014912...

  13. A prototype auto-human support system for spatial analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lianfa; WANG Jinfeng

    2006-01-01

    Spatial analysis is a multidisciplinary field that involves multiple influential factors, variation and uncertainty, and modeling of geospatial data is a complex procedure affected by spatial context, mechanism and assumptions. In order to make spatial modeling easier, some scholars have suggested a lot of knowledge from exploratory data analysis (EDA), specification of the model, fitness and diagnosis of the model, to interpretation of the model. Also an amount of software has improved some functionalities of spatial analysis, e.g. EDA by the dynamic link (GeoDa) and robust statistical calculation (R). However, there are few programs for spatial analysis that can automatically deal with unstructured declarative issues and uncertainty in machine modeling using the domain knowledge. Under this context, this paper suggests a prototype support system for spatial analysis that can automatically use experience and knowledge from the experts to deal with complexity and uncertainty in modeling. The knowledge base component, as the major contribution of the system, in support of the expert system shell, codes and stores declarative modeling knowledge, e.g. spatial context, mechanisms and prior knowledge to deal with declarative issues during the modeling procedure. With the open architecture, the system integrates functionalities of other components, e.g. GIS' visualization, DBMS, and robust calculation in an interactive environment. An application case of spatial sampling, design and implementation of spatial modeling with such a system is demonstrated.

  14. Purification of Spatial Tests: An IRT Analysis of Spatial and Reasoning Components in "Spatial" Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimowski, Michele F.; Wothke, Werner

    Tests of spatial ability were analyzed for their analog (visuospatial) and nonanalog (verbal reasoning) components, using factor analyses of items and test scores. The self-selected sample consisted of over 2000 clients (average age about 26 or 27) employing the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation's aptitude evaluation services in 12 metropolitan…

  15. Analysis of a spatially deconvolved solar pore

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, C Quintero; Cobo, B Ruiz; Suematsu, Y; Katsukawa, Y; Ichimoto, K

    2016-01-01

    Solar pores are active regions with large magnetic field strengths and apparent simple magnetic configurations. Their properties resemble the ones found for the sunspot umbra although pores do not show penumbra. Therefore, solar pores present themselves as an intriguing phenomenon that is not completely understood. We examine in this work a solar pore observed with Hinode/SP using two state of the art techniques. The first one is the spatial deconvolution of the spectropolarimetric data that allows removing the stray light contamination induced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. The second one is the inversion of the Stokes profiles assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium that let us to infer the atmospheric physical parameters. After applying these techniques, we found that the spatial deconvolution method does not introduce artefacts, even at the edges of the magnetic structure, where large horizontal gradients are detected on the atmospheric parameters. Moreover, we also describe the p...

  16. Spatial analysis of oil reservoirs using DFA of geophysical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We employ Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA technique to investigate spatial properties of an oil reservoir. This reservoir is situated at Bacia de Namorados, RJ, Brazil. The data corresponds to well logs of the following geophysical quantities: sonic, gamma ray, density, porosity and electrical resistivity, measured in 56 wells. We tested the hypothesis of constructing spatial models using data from fluctuation analysis over well logs. To verify this hypothesis we compare the matrix of distances among well logs with the differences among DFA-exponents of geophysical quantities using spatial correlation function and Mantel test. Our data analysis suggests that sonic profile is a good candidate to represent spatial structures. Then, we apply the clustering analysis technique to the sonic profile to identify these spatial patterns. In addition we use the Mantel test to search for correlation among DFA-exponents of geophysical quantities.

  17. Generalised recurrence plot analysis for spatial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail: marwan@agnld.uni-potsdam.de; Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Saparin, Peter [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2007-01-08

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more recurrent during the bone loss in osteoporosis.

  18. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  19. Exploiting spatial descriptions in visual scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Leon; Johannsen, Katrin; Swadzba, Agnes; De Ruiter, Jan P; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The reliable automatic visual recognition of indoor scenes with complex object constellations using only sensor data is a nontrivial problem. In order to improve the construction of an accurate semantic 3D model of an indoor scene, we exploit human-produced verbal descriptions of the relative location of pairs of objects. This requires the ability to deal with different spatial reference frames (RF) that humans use interchangeably. In German, both the intrinsic and relative RF are used frequently, which often leads to ambiguities in referential communication. We assume that there are certain regularities that help in specific contexts. In a first experiment, we investigated how speakers of German describe spatial relationships between different pieces of furniture. This gave us important information about the distribution of the RFs used for furniture-predicate combinations, and by implication also about the preferred spatial predicate. The results of this experiment are compiled into a computational model that extracts partial orderings of spatial arrangements between furniture items from verbal descriptions. In the implemented system, the visual scene is initially scanned by a 3D camera system. From the 3D point cloud, we extract point clusters that suggest the presence of certain furniture objects. We then integrate the partial orderings extracted from the verbal utterances incrementally and cumulatively with the estimated probabilities about the identity and location of objects in the scene, and also estimate the probable orientation of the objects. This allows the system to significantly improve both the accuracy and richness of its visual scene representation.

  20. Second order analysis for spatial Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    We derive summary statistics for stationary Hawkes processes which can be considered as spatial versions of classical Hawkes processes. Particularly, we derive the intensity, the pair correlation function and the Bartlett spectrum. Our results for Gaussian fertility rates and the extension...... to marked Hawkes processes are discussed....

  1. Analysis of a spatially deconvolved solar pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Shimizu, T.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.

    2016-08-01

    Solar pores are active regions with large magnetic field strengths and apparent simple magnetic configurations. Their properties resemble the ones found for the sunspot umbra although pores do not show penumbra. Therefore, solar pores present themselves as an intriguing phenomenon that is not completely understood. We examine in this work a solar pore observed with Hinode/SP using two state of the art techniques. The first one is the spatial deconvolution of the spectropolarimetric data that allows removing the stray light contamination induced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. The second one is the inversion of the Stokes profiles assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium that let us to infer the atmospheric physical parameters. After applying these techniques, we found that the spatial deconvolution method does not introduce artefacts, even at the edges of the magnetic structure, where large horizontal gradients are detected on the atmospheric parameters. Moreover, we also describe the physical properties of the magnetic structure at different heights finding that, in the inner part of the solar pore, the temperature is lower than outside, the magnetic field strength is larger than 2 kG and unipolar, and the line-of-sight velocity is almost null. At neighbouring pixels, we found low magnetic field strengths of same polarity and strong downward motions that only occur at the low photosphere, below the continuum optical depth log τ = -1. Finally, we studied the spatial relation between different atmospheric parameters at different heights corroborating the physical properties described before.

  2. Britain honours its particle physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental particle physicists figure among the winners for 2004 of Britain's most prestigious prizes for physics, awarded by the Institute of Physics (IOP). The IOP's own Paul Dirac medal and prize, goes to this year to CERN's John Ellis for "his highly influential work on particle-physics phenomenology; in particular on the properties of gluons, the Higgs boson and the top quark". One of the institute's premier wards, it is made for outstanding contributions to theoretical (including mathematical and computational) physics. The Duddell medal and prize, in memory of William du Bois Duddell, the inventor of the electromagnetic oscillograph, is awarded for outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge through the application of physics, including the invention or design of scientific instruments or the discovery of materials used in their construction. It is shared this year by Geoff Hall, of Imperial College London, Alessandro Marchioro from CERN and Peter Sharp of the Rutherfor...

  3. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  4. Spatial distribution analysis on climatic variables in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Information ecology is a new research area of modern ecology.Here describes spatial distribution analysis methods of four sorts of climatic variables, i.e. temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and sunshine fraction on Northeast China. First,Digital terrain models was built with large-scale maps and vector data. Then trend surface analysis and interpolation method were used to analyze the spatial distribution of these four kinds of climatic variables at three temporal scale: (1) monthly data; (2)mean monthly data of thirty years, and (3) mean annual data of thirty years. Ecological information system were used for graphics analysis on the spatial distribution of these climate variables.

  5. 近代以来中英盐税功能变迁比较及启示%Comparative Analysis about the Function of Salt Tax and Its Development Between Britain and China since Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕淑娜; 席传英; 韩大学

    2015-01-01

    With the social transitions in Britain and China since modern times, the functions of their salt tax have changed. In Britain, the tax structure changed from agriculture tax to industrial and commercial tax since the 16th century. In the structure, indirect tax occupied a large proportion, which mainly consisted of impost tax and consumption tax. Salt tax, as one of consumption taxes, only occupied a little proportion since the levy of 1694, and it was abolished due to people's opposition in 1825. Such tax structure continued till the early 20th century. Different from Britain, Chinese salt tax occupied a very important status and was one of the three major sources of state revenue. Such function has changed since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China. Through the comparative analysis about the function of salt tax between Britain and China, we can see that different tax is connected with its state condition. However, we can also see that the building of a state tax system must obey its citizen’s willingness and interest which are very important to the state stability and development.%近代以来,伴随着中英社会转型的进程,盐税的功能亦有所不同。英国自16世纪开始向近代社会转型,其税收结构亦由此前以农业税为主向以工商税为主转变。这种结构直至20世纪初以间接税为主,而间接税又以关税和消费税为大宗,盐税作为消费税的一种,自1694年开征以来仅占英国税收的极小份额。就是这极小的份额,亦因国民反对,于1825年废止。与英国不同,自近代以来,中国因鸦片战争被迫打开国门,政府财政收入因要满足自我需求及偿还外债等不堪重负。有鉴于此,盐税与田赋、关税一起组成政府财政收入的三大支柱。由近代以来中英盐税功能的变迁可见,一国税制理论、税制结构及税收实践皆与本国国情密切相关。然而,无论国情如何差别,盐税

  6. Geostatistics and Analysis of Spatial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2007-01-01

    This note deals with geostatistical measures for spatial correlation, namely the auto-covariance function and the semi-variogram, as well as deterministic and geostatistical methods for spatial interpolation, namely inverse distance weighting and kriging. Some semi-variogram models are mentioned......, specifically the spherical, the exponential and the Gaussian models. Equations to carry out simple og ordinary kriging are deduced. Other types of kriging are mentioned, and references to international literature, Internet addresses and state-of-the-art software in the field are given. A very simple example...... to illustrate the computations and a more realistic example with height data from an area near Slagelse, Denmark, are given. Finally, a series of attractive characteristics of kriging are mentioned, and a simple sampling strategic consideration is given based on the dependence of the kriging variance...

  7. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hualin Xie; Guiying Liu; Qu Liu; Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption ...

  8. Generalised Recurrence Plot Analysis for Spatial Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the ...

  9. 析中英两国企业所得税--应纳税额%Analysis on Corporation Tax System between China and Britain---Payable Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文杨

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise is one of the important part in the socialist market economy. Business income tax system is designed to be good or bad,which is directly related to the development of the enterprise and the prosperity of our country. Britain is the first country who estab-lished the tax system of company, which has the complete content and reasonable structure of tax. According to China's national condi-tion;I make a detailed comparison of corporation tax about payable tax amount between China and UK in order to provide some certain reference to reform and improvement.%企业作为社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,其所得税制度设计的优劣直接关系到企业的发展和国家的繁荣。英国是最早实行公司税制的国家,其税制内容完善、结构合理。本文结合我国国情,对中英两国企业所得税-应纳税额进行了比较分析,以期为我国企业所得税税制改革和完善提供一定的借鉴。

  10. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is endemic in many provinces with high incidence in mainland China, although integrated intervention measures including rodent control, environment management and vaccination have been implemented for over ten years. In this study, we conducted a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial analysis on distribution of HFRS cases for the whole country with an objective to inform priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Methods Annualized average incidence at a county level was calculated using HFRS cases reported during 1994–1998 in mainland China. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect spatial autocorrelation and clusters of HFRS incidence at the county level throughout the country. Results Spatial distribution of HFRS cases in mainland China from 1994 to 1998 was mapped at county level in the aspects of crude incidence, excess hazard and spatial smoothed incidence. The spatial distribution of HFRS cases was nonrandom and clustered with a Moran's I = 0.5044 (p = 0.001. Spatial cluster analyses suggested that 26 and 39 areas were at increased risks of HFRS (p Conclusion The application of GIS, together with spatial statistical techniques, provide a means to quantify explicit HFRS risks and to further identify environmental factors responsible for the increasing disease risks. We demonstrate a new perspective of integrating such spatial analysis tools into the epidemiologic study and risk assessment of HFRS.

  11. Spatial Analysis Methods for Health Promotion and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Robert A; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

    2016-05-01

    This article provides a review of spatial analysis methods for use in health promotion and education research and practice. Spatial analysis seeks to describe or make inference about variables with respect to the places they occur. This includes geographic differences, proximity issues, and access to resources. This is important for understanding how health outcomes differ from place to place; and in terms of understanding some of the environmental underpinnings of health outcomes data by placing it in context of geographic location. This article seeks to promote spatial analysis as a viable tool for health promotion and education research and practice. Four more commonly used spatial analysis techniques are described in-text. An illustrative example of motor vehicle collisions in a large metropolitan city is presented using these techniques. The techniques discussed are as follows: descriptive mapping, global spatial autocorrelation, cluster detection, and identification and spatial regression analysis. This article provides useful information for health promotion and education researchers and practitioners seeking to examine research questions from a spatial perspective.

  12. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Internal Wave Analysis Spatial Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains the spatial extent of the internal wave analysis. This area of interest was defined in interests of time. A cusory review of the 66 SAR...

  13. Analysis of spatially deconvolved polar faculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Suematsu, Y.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Shimizu, T.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2016-07-01

    Polar faculae are bright features that can be detected in solar limb observations and they are related to magnetic field concentrations. Although there are a large number of works studying them, some questions about their nature as their magnetic properties at different heights are still open. Thus, we aim to improve the understanding of solar polar faculae. In that sense, we infer the vertical stratification of the temperature, gas pressure, line-of-sight velocity and magnetic field vector of polar faculae regions. We performed inversions of the Stokes profiles observed with Hinode/Spectropolarimeter after removing the stray light contamination produced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. Moreover, after solving the azimuth ambiguity, we transform the magnetic field vector to local solar coordinates. The obtained results reveal that the polar faculae are constituted by hot plasma with low line-of-sight velocities and single polarity magnetic fields in the kilogauss range that are nearly perpendicular to the solar surface. We also found that the spatial location of these magnetic fields is slightly shifted respect to the continuum observations towards the disc centre. We believe that this is due to the hot wall effect that allows detecting photons that come from deeper layers located closer to the solar limb.

  14. Local spatial frequency analysis for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, John; Shafer, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A sense of vision is a prerequisite for a robot to function in an unstructured environment. However, real-world scenes contain many interacting phenomena that lead to complex images which are difficult to interpret automatically. Typical computer vision research proceeds by analyzing various effects in isolation (e.g., shading, texture, stereo, defocus), usually on images devoid of realistic complicating factors. This leads to specialized algorithms which fail on real-world images. Part of this failure is due to the dichotomy of useful representations for these phenomena. Some effects are best described in the spatial domain, while others are more naturally expressed in frequency. In order to resolve this dichotomy, we present the combined space/frequency representation which, for each point in an image, shows the spatial frequencies at that point. Within this common representation, we develop a set of simple, natural theories describing phenomena such as texture, shape, aliasing and lens parameters. We show these theories lead to algorithms for shape from texture and for dealiasing image data. The space/frequency representation should be a key aid in untangling the complex interaction of phenomena in images, allowing automatic understanding of real-world scenes.

  15. Physical activity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic adults from Great Britain: pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.

  16. Analysis of spatially deconvolved polar faculae

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, C Quintero; Cobo, B Ruiz; Shimizu, T; Ramos, A Asensio

    2016-01-01

    Polar faculae are bright features that can be detected in solar limb observations and they are related to magnetic field concentrations. Although there is a large number of works studying them, some questions about their nature as their magnetic properties at different heights are still open. Thus, we aim to improve the understanding of solar polar faculae. In that sense, we infer the vertical stratification of the temperature, gas pressure, line of sight velocity and magnetic field vector of polar faculae regions. We performed inversions of the Stokes profiles observed with Hinode/SP after removing the stray light contamination produced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. Moreover, after solving the azimuth ambiguity, we transform the magnetic field vector to local solar coordinates. The obtained results reveal that the polar faculae are constituted by hot plasma with low line of sight velocities and single polarity magnetic fields in the kilogauss range that are nearly perpendicular to th...

  17. Deflection analysis of rectangular spatial coverage truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Kirsanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An elastic spatial statically determinate truss of regular type, simulating the rectangular in plan coverage was considered. In the plane of the base the truss has two axes of symmetry. Four support structures (spherical hinge, cylindrical hinge and two vertical rods are located at its corners. An analytic solution was found for forces in the rods of the truss. Using the Maxwell-Mohr’s formula, the dependence of the deflection of the center was discovered in the truss under the influence of the concentrated force. There are five parameters of the problem in this formula: three linear dimensions, and the numbers of hinges on its lateral sides. To determine the desired patterns by means of the computer mathematics system Maple the recursion task by two parameters was solved. It was shown that dependence of the deflection on the number of panels and height of the truss detects a minimum, allowing optimizing the size of the structure.

  18. Kernel parameter dependence in spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2010-01-01

    feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply a kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) [7, 8] analysis to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemistry data from South Greenland and illustrate the dependence...

  19. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  20. Spatial analysis of BSE cases in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brus Dick J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many of the European countries affected by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, case clustering patterns have been observed. Most of these patterns have been interpreted in terms of heterogeneities in exposure of cattle to the BSE agent. Here we investigate whether spatial clustering is present in the Dutch BSE case data. Results We have found three spatial case clusters in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The clusters are geographically distinct and each cluster appears in a different birth cohort. When testing all birth cohorts together, only one significant cluster was detected. The fact that we found stronger spatial clustering when using a cohort-based analysis, is consistent with the evidence that most BSE infections occur in animals less than 12 or 18 months old. Conclusion Significant spatial case clustering is present in the Dutch BSE epidemic. The spatial clusters of BSE cases are most likely due to time-dependent heterogeneities in exposure related to feed production.

  1. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software package PySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is described

  2. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software packagePySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is

  3. A kernel version of spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2009-01-01

    . Schölkopf et al. introduce kernel PCA. Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini is an excellent reference for kernel methods in general. Bishop and Press et al. describe kernel methods among many other subjects. Nielsen and Canty use kernel PCA to detect change in univariate airborne digital camera images. The kernel...... version of PCA handles nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply kernel versions of PCA, maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis...

  4. A Spatial Analysis of Obesity in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Anura Amarasinghe; Gerard D'Souza; Cheryl Brown; Tatiana Borisova

    2006-01-01

    A spatial panel data analysis at the county level examines how individual food consumption, recreational, and lifestyle choices ? against a backdrop of changing demographic, built environment, and policy factors ? leads to obesity. Results suggest that obesity tends to be spatially autocorrelated; in addition to hereditary factors and lifestyle choices, it is also caused by sprawl and lack of land use planning. Policy measures which stimulate educational attainment, poverty alleviation, and p...

  5. An Analysis of Perturbed Quantization Steganography in the Spatial Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    steganography is also common with audio [KaP00]. Figure 1 depicts this form of steganography . Figure 1. Least Significant Bit Substitution 6...QUANTIZATION STEGANOGRAPHY IN THE SPATIAL DOMAIN THESIS Matthew D. Spisak AFIT/GIA/ENG/05-04DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY ORCE...ANALYSIS OF PERTURBED QUANTIZATION STEGANOGRAPHY IN THE SPATIAL DOMAIN THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and

  6. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Comerón Tejero, Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal background-radiation ratio SBR at the photodetector input. The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effec...

  7. Spatial analysis of snail distribution in Jiangning county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-ying; ZHOU Yun; XU De-zhong; SUN Zhi-dong; ZHOU Xiao-nong; GONG Zi-li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the spatial distribution of oncomelenia snails in Jiangning County. Methods:Cluster analysis and the Spatial Scan Statistics were performed based on the density of alive-snails in habitats and its rate infected by the S. Japonicum. Results: Although areas of snail habitats and density of the alivesnails in marshland in 2000 are higher significantly than that in mountain areas in Jiangning County, the numbers of habitats in mountain are more than that in marshland and they distributed sporadically. The snail habitats were classified into 4 in marshlands and 3 classes in mountain areas respectively in cluster analysis.Although they are mainly the one with low density of alive and infected snails, we should alert that there are also some habitats with high snail density and infection rate, which is important for the transmission of schistosomia. The analysis of Spatial Scan Statistics detected 2 significant spatial aggregations for alive-snail in marshland and 4 in mountain areas respectively with p-values less than 0. 01. There are also 2 significant spatial aggregations for infected snails in marshland. Conclusion.. The significant spatial aggregations for alivesnails and infected snails indicated that there are some factors in the habitats suitable for the survival of snails and the transmission of schistosomia.

  8. Spatial analysis of neglected diseases in Brazil, 2007 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes de Andrade Schramm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe a set of epidemiological information regarding the spatial distribution of selected neglected diseases in Brazil from 2007 to 2009 and health care infrastructure and socio-economic indicators 2010. An ecological study of the spatial analysis, based on the incidence of tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis, American cutaneous leishmaniasis, malaria and prevalence of leprosy and schistosomiasis. Maps with the spatial distribution of the prevalence and incidence rates were drawn, as well as cluster detection maps, applying spatial statistical analysis techniques. A thematic map with the total distribution of priority municipalities was developed for each disease. Malaria and schistosomiasis had the highest incidence and prevalence rates respectively. All diseases analyzed showed dependence in the spatial correlation measure. A total of 1,630 Brazilians municipalities (29% were considered by the Ministry of Health as a priority to receive control actions for at least one of the studied diseases. North and Northeast regions concentrate municipalities with at least three simultaneous diseases, which overlap with the lowest socio-economic indicators. Spatial analysis studies may contribute to a better planning and organizing health care and services, aiming to reduce the existent gap regarding scientific knowledge on neglected diseases.

  9. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  10. Application of Integration of Spatial Statistical Analysis with GIS to Regional Economic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; DU Daosheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes a few spatial statistical analysis methods for to measuring spatial autocorrelation and spatial association, discusses the criteria for the identification of spatial association by the use of global Moran Coefficient, Local Moran and Local Geary. Furthermore, a user-friendly statistical module, combining spatial statistical analysis methods with GIS visual techniques, is developed in Arcview using Avenue. An example is also given to show the usefulness of this module in identifying and quantifying the underlying spatial association patterns between economic units.

  11. Contributions to the Analysis of Spatial and Spatial-Temporal Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoest, G.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis addresses some problems in the analysis of spatial and spatial-temporal data and discusses prediction, prediction errors and identification of emission sources. European sulphur data are used as illustration. In an investigation of a spatial-temporal decomposition model for improving estimates of spatial interpolation (prediction) errors from monitoring data, the estimates were improved compared to estimates obtained by the method known as Kriging (an extension of the Wiener-Kolmogorov theory from time series to spatial processes), although the interpolated values were quite similar. A study of a random process model with an unknown, slowly varying trend and a correlated residual process is performed, using both trend estimation (smoothing) and prediction. Local polynomial methods are extended to continuous random processes. A new approach to non-parametric smoothing and to non-parametric Kriging is described. Finally, a statistical method for verifying reported sulphur emissions from European countries is presented. The method combines meteorological modeling, prior information on sulphur emissions and measurements of sulphate depositions within a Bayesian framework. 101 refs., 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Mathematical Analysis of Urban Spatial Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Cities can be considered to be among the largest and most complex artificial networks created by human beings. Due to the numerous and diverse human-driven activities, urban network topology and dynamics can differ quite substantially from that of natural networks and so call for an alternative method of analysis. The intent of the present monograph is to lay down the theoretical foundations for studying the topology of compact urban patterns, using methods from spectral graph theory and statistical physics. These methods are demonstrated as tools to investigate the structure of a number of real cities with widely differing properties: medieval German cities, the webs of city canals in Amsterdam and Venice, and a modern urban structure such as found in Manhattan. Last but not least, the book concludes by providing a brief overview of possible applications that will eventually lead to a useful body of knowledge for architects, urban planners and civil engineers.

  13. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  14. Origins of Megalithic Astronomy in Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Gail

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of free-standing stones in Britain during the Late Neolithic, there was a significant change in the lithification of people's cosmology. Such monuments continued to be erected across Britain almost until the end of the Bronze Age. It has been empirically verified that for many Bronze Age monuments erected in Scotland between 1400-900 BC, there is a common set of complex landscape and astronomical patternings. However, when and where these patterns were first introduced through standing-stone structures was unknown. Here we show that the visible astronomical-landscape variables found at Bronze Age sites on the inner isles and mainland of western Scotland were first established nearly two millennia earlier, with the erection of the first standing-stone 'great circles' in Britain: Callanish and Stenness of Scotland.

  15. A Spatial Lattice Model Applied for Meteorological Visualization and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological information has obvious spatial-temporal characteristics. Although it is meaningful to employ a geographic information system (GIS to visualize and analyze the meteorological information for better identification and forecasting of meteorological weather so as to reduce the meteorological disaster loss, modeling meteorological information based on a GIS is still difficult because meteorological elements generally have no stable shape or clear boundary. To date, there are still few GIS models that can satisfy the requirements of both meteorological visualization and analysis. In this article, a spatial lattice model based on sampling particles is proposed to support both the representation and analysis of meteorological information. In this model, a spatial sampling particle is regarded as the basic element that contains the meteorological information, and the location where the particle is placed with the time mark. The location information is generally represented using a point. As these points can be extended to a surface in two dimensions and a voxel in three dimensions, if these surfaces and voxels can occupy a certain space, then this space can be represented using these spatial sampling particles with their point locations and meteorological information. In this case, the full meteorological space can then be represented by arranging numerous particles with their point locations in a certain structure and resolution, i.e., the spatial lattice model, and extended at a higher resolution when necessary. For practical use, the meteorological space is logically classified into three types of spaces, namely the projection surface space, curved surface space, and stereoscopic space, and application-oriented spatial lattice models with different organization forms of spatial sampling particles are designed to support the representation, inquiry, and analysis of meteorological information within the three types of surfaces. Cases

  16. Spatial and temporal analysis of mass movement using dendrochronology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, R.R.; Weiss, E.E.J.; Burrough, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Tree growth and inclination on sloping land is affected by mass movement. Suitable analysis of tree growth and tree form can therefore provide considerable information on mass movement activity. This paper reports a new, automated method for studying the temporal and spatial aspects of mass movemen

  17. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Anne; Hönekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large…

  18. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands.

  19. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  20. Return migration from Canada to Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1968-07-01

    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  1. Spatial analysis of the Chania prefecture: Crete triangulation network quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    The network of trigonometric points of a region is the basis upon which any form of cartographic work is attached to the national geodetic coordinate system (data collection, processing, output presentations) and not only. The products of the cartographic work (cartographic representations), provide the background which is used in cases of spatial planning and development strategy. This trigonometric network, except that, provides to a single cartographic work, the ability to exist within a unified official state geodetic reference system, simultaneously determines the quality of the result, since the trigonometric network data that are used, have their own quality. In this paper, we present the research of spatial quality of the trigonometric network of Chania Prefecture in Crete. This analysis examines the triangulation network points, both with respect to their spatial position (distribution in space), and in their accuracy (horizontally and vertically).

  2. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and spatial analysis of the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Abrial, David; Jarrige, Nathalie; Rican, Stéphane; Garrido, Myriam; Calavas, Didier; Ducrot, Christian

    2007-06-01

    In France, despite the ban of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in hundreds of cattle born after the ban. To study the role of MBM, animal fat, and dicalcium phosphate on the risk for BSE after the feed ban, we conducted a spatial analysis of the feed industry. We used data from 629 BSE cases as well as data on use of each byproduct and market area of the feed factories. We mapped risk for BSE in 951 areas supplied by the same factories and connection with use of byproducts. A disease map of BSE with covariates was built with the hierarchical Bayesian modeling methods, based on Poisson distribution with spatial smoothing. Only use of MBM was spatially linked to risk for BSE, which highlights cross-contamination as the most probable source of infection after the feed ban.

  3. GIS application on spatial landslide analysis using statistical based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred F.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the assessment results of spatially based probabilistic three models using Geoinformation Techniques (GIT) for landslide susceptibility analysis at Penang Island in Malaysia. Landslide locations within the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, satellite images and supported with field surveys. Maps of the topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial data sets. There are ten landslide related factors were extracted from the spatial database and the frequency ratio, fuzzy logic, and bivariate logistic regression coefficients of each factor was computed. Finally, landslide susceptibility maps were drawn for study area using frequency ratios, fuzzy logic and bivariate logistic regression models. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared with actual landslide locations in study area. The verification results show that bivariate logistic regression model provides slightly higher prediction accuracy than the frequency ratio and fuzzy logic models.

  4. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Comeron, Adolfo

    2002-12-01

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal/background-radiation ratio (SBR) at the photodetector input. The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effective protection against sky background radiation for groundbased biaxial lidars is the modifying of their angular field according to a spatial-angular filtering efficiency criterion. Some effective approaches to achieve a high filtering efficiency for the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  5. Spatial eigenvector filtering for spatiotemporal crime mapping and spatial crime analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Jokar Arsanjani, J

    2015-01-01

    Spatial and spatiotemporal analyses are exceedingly relevant to determine criminogenic factors. The estimation of Poisson and negative binomial models (NBM) is complicated by spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, first, eigenvector spatial filtering (ESF) is introduced as a method for spatiotemporal m

  6. Spatial risk assessment for critical network infrastructure using sensitivity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael M·derl; Wolfgang Rauch

    2011-01-01

    The presented spatial risk assessment method allows for managing critical network infrastructure in urban areas under abnormal and future conditions caused e.g.,by terrorist attacks,infrastructure deterioration or climate change.For the spatial risk assessment,vulnerability maps for critical network infrastructure are merged with hazard maps for an interfering process.Vulnerability maps are generated using a spatial sensitivity analysis of network transport models to evaluate performance decrease under investigated thread scenarios.Thereby parameters are varied according to the specific impact of a particular threat scenario.Hazard maps are generated with a geographical information system using raster data of the same threat scenario derived from structured interviews and cluster analysis of events in the past.The application of the spatial risk assessment is exemplified by means of a case study for a water supply system,but the principal concept is applicable likewise to other critical network infrastructure.The aim of the approach is to help decision makers in choosing zones for preventive measures.

  7. Directional spatial frequency analysis of lipid distribution in atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Clyde; Reese, Eric; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert; Russell, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the growth of fibrous plaques due to the retention of cholesterol and lipids within the artery wall, which can lead to vessel occlusion and cardiac events. One way to evaluate arterial disease is to quantify the amount of lipid present in these plaques, since a higher disease burden is characterized by a higher concentration of lipid. Although therapeutic stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport to reduce cholesterol deposits in plaque has not produced significant results, this may be due to current image analysis methods which use averaging techniques to calculate the total amount of lipid in the plaque without regard to spatial distribution, thereby discarding information that may have significance in marking response to therapy. Here we use Directional Fourier Spatial Frequency (DFSF) analysis to generate a characteristic spatial frequency spectrum for atherosclerotic plaques from C57 Black 6 mice both treated and untreated with a cholesterol scavenging nanoparticle. We then use the Cauchy product of these spectra to classify the images with a support vector machine (SVM). Our results indicate that treated plaque can be distinguished from untreated plaque using this method, where no difference is seen using the spatial averaging method. This work has the potential to increase the effectiveness of current in-vivo methods of plaque detection that also use averaging methods, such as laser speckle imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume different receivers. To explicitly show the capacity scaling law of SS MIMO systems, some approximate capacity expressions for the two scenarios are derived. Next, we extend our analysis to a multiple user system with zero-forcing receivers (ZF) under spatially-independent scheduling and analyze the sum-rate. Furthermore, we provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. Our results show that the secondary system with a smaller number of transmit antennas Nt and a larger number of receive antennas Nr can achieve higher capacity at lower interference temperature Q, but at high Q the capacity follows the scaling law of the conventional MIMO systems. However, for a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system, the secondary system with small Nt and large Nr can achieve the highest capacity throughout the entire region of Q. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Ntlog2(Q(KNtNp-1)/Nt), where Np denotes the number of antennas of the primary receiver and K represents the number of secondary transmitters.

  9. Covariate selection in multivariate spatial analysis of ovine parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, V; Catelan, D; Rinaldi, L; Lagazio, C; Cringoli, G; Biggeri, A

    2011-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle and fluke infections remain one of the main constraints on health and productivity in sheep dairy production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004-2005 on ovine farms in the Campania region of southern Italy in order to evaluate the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus, Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Calicophoron daubneyi from among other parasitic infections. In the present work, we focused on the role of the ecological characteristics of the pasture environment while accounting for the underlying long range geographical risk pattern. Bayesian multivariate spatial statistical analysis was used. A systematic grid (10 km×10 km) sampling approach was used. Laboratory procedures were based on the FLOTAC technique to detect and count eggs of helminths. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was constructed by using environmental data layers. Data on each of these layers were then extracted for pasturing areas that were previously digitalized aerial images of the ovine farms. Bayesian multivariate statistical analyses, including improper multivariate conditional autoregressive models, were used to select covariates on a multivariate spatially structured risk surface. Out of the 121 tested farms, 109 were positive for H. contortus, 81 for D. dendriticum, 17 for C. daubneyi and 15 for F. hepatica. The statistical analysis highlighted a north-south long range spatially structured pattern. This geographical pattern is treated here as a confounder, because the main interest was in the causal role of ecological covariates at the level of each pasturing area. A high percentage of pasture and impermeable soil were strong predictors of F. hepatica risk and a high percentage of wood was a strong predictor of C. daubneyi. A high percentage of wood, rocks and arable soil with sparse trees explained the spatial distribution of D. dendriticum. Sparse vegetation, river, mixed soil and permeable soil explained the spatial

  10. Spatial Analysis of Maritime Traffic for Maritime Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Locations Spatial Pattern II Sample size NB NS Canoe 4 17 Kayak 8 21 Motorboat 15 10 Sailboat 5 47 Scope of Study Methodology Data Pre-cleaning Points on land...Attributes to Variates Speed Total distance Bounding Box Dedensified Trajectory Distance from shore Pattern Analysis Discrimination Classification Kayak ...Trajectories Pattern Classification Procedure Predicted: Kayak : T1,T5… Canoe: T3,T4… Sailboat: T6,… Motorboat: T2.. Actual: Kayak : T1,T5

  11. GIS-BASED SPATIAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COLLEGE GRADUATES EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004–2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were analyzed with geocoding using ArcGIS software, and the stepwise multiple linear regression method via SPSS software was used to predict the employment and to identify spatially associated enterprise and professionals demand in the future. The results show that the enterprises in Wuhan east lake high and new technology development zone increased dramatically from 2004 to 2008, and tended to distributed southeastward. Furthermore, the models built by statistical analysis suggest that the specialty of graduates major in has an important impact on the number of the employment and the number of graduates engaging in pillar industries. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis which helps to simulate the spatial distribution of the employment status is a potential tool for human resource development research.

  12. Gis-Based Spatial Statistical Analysis of College Graduates Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, R.

    2012-07-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and employment status of college graduates for proper allocation of human resources and overall arrangement of strategic industry. This study provides empirical evidence regarding the use of geocoding and spatial analysis in distribution and employment status of college graduates based on the data from 2004-2008 Wuhan Municipal Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, China. Spatio-temporal distribution of employment unit were analyzed with geocoding using ArcGIS software, and the stepwise multiple linear regression method via SPSS software was used to predict the employment and to identify spatially associated enterprise and professionals demand in the future. The results show that the enterprises in Wuhan east lake high and new technology development zone increased dramatically from 2004 to 2008, and tended to distributed southeastward. Furthermore, the models built by statistical analysis suggest that the specialty of graduates major in has an important impact on the number of the employment and the number of graduates engaging in pillar industries. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis which helps to simulate the spatial distribution of the employment status is a potential tool for human resource development research.

  13. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    , the moderate food consumer (France only), the hedonistic food consumer (France only), and the eco-moderate food consumer (Denmark only). 6. A comparison of the segment profiles across nations by MDS showed that most segments group naturally, even though there are numerous differences in the absolute scale...... means across nations for comparable segments. A cross-national cluster analysis yielded four segments which could be interpreted in a way similar to the across-nation analysis of the national segment profiles. It was also shown that the way in which the national segments are distributed across the cross...

  14. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Zhang, Lingmi; Tamura, Yukio

    2005-12-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  15. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tong; Zhang Lingmi; Tamura Yukio

    2005-01-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  16. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  17. Britain Seeks Compromise on Animal Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Nelson; 陈青

    2004-01-01

    @@ Attacks on facilities, assaults on lab staff and a distinct lack of public support have combined to make animal research a significant problem for the British government. On the one hand, it wants to support biomedical② research and bolster③ the pharmaceutical④ industry, Britain's most successful high-technology sector. But by doing so it might alienate⑤ a public that is largely ambivalent⑥about the value of animal experiments.

  18. Spatially resolved fish population analysis for designing MPAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Mosegaard, Henrik; Jensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The sandeel population analysis model (SPAM) is presented as a simulation tool for exploring the efficiency of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for sandeel stocks. SPAM simulates spatially resolved sandeel population distributions, based on a high-resolution map of all fishery-established sandbank...... habitats for settled sandeels, combined with a life-cycle model for survival, growth, and reproduction, and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for describing larval transport between the network of habitats. SPAM couples stock dynamics to ecosystem and anthropogenic forcing via well-defined drivers....... The SPAM framework was tested using ICES statistical rectangle 37F2 as an MPA, and the impact on sandeel populations within the MPA and neighbouring habitats was investigated. Increased larval spillover compensated for lost catches inside the MPA. The temporal and spatial scales of stock response to MPAs...

  19. An Information Theory Analysis of Spatial Decisions in Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages five to ten years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of cognitive entropy were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1 the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2 the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured chunking of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework.

  20. An information theory analysis of spatial decisions in cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicole M; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-01-01

    Performance in a cognitive task can be considered as the outcome of a decision-making process operating across various knowledge domains or aspects of a single domain. Therefore, an analysis of these decisions in various tasks can shed light on the interplay and integration of these domains (or elements within a single domain) as they are associated with specific task characteristics. In this study, we applied an information theoretic approach to assess quantitatively the gain of knowledge across various elements of the cognitive domain of spatial, relational knowledge, as a function of development. Specifically, we examined changing spatial relational knowledge from ages 5 to 10 years. Our analyses consisted of a two-step process. First, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis on the decisions made in 16 different tasks of spatial relational knowledge to determine which tasks were performed similarly at each age group as well as to discover how the tasks clustered together. We next used two measures of entropy to capture the gradual emergence of order in the development of relational knowledge. These measures of "cognitive entropy" were defined based on two independent aspects of chunking, namely (1) the number of clusters formed at each age group, and (2) the distribution of tasks across the clusters. We found that both measures of entropy decreased with age in a quadratic fashion and were positively and linearly correlated. The decrease in entropy and, therefore, gain of information during development was accompanied by improved performance. These results document, for the first time, the orderly and progressively structured "chunking" of decisions across the development of spatial relational reasoning and quantify this gain within a formal information-theoretic framework.

  1. Use of artificial neural network for spatial rainfall analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tsangaratos Paraskevas; Rozos Dimitrios; Benardos Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the precipitation data measured at 23 rain gauge stations over the Achaia County, Greece, were used to estimate the spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation values over a specific catchment area. The objective of this work was achieved by programming an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that uses the feed-forward back-propagation algorithm as an alternative interpolating technique. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to process the data derived by the ANN and to create a continuous surface that represented the spatial mean annual precipitation distribution.The ANN introduced an optimization procedure that was implemented during training, adjusting the hidden number of neurons and the convergence of the ANN in order to select the best network architecture. The performance of the ANN was evaluated using three standard statistical evaluation criteria applied to the study area and showed good performance. The outcomes were also compared with the results obtained from a previous study in the area of research which used a linear regression analysis for the estimation of the mean annual precipitation values giving more accurate results. The information and knowledge gained from the present study could improve the accuracy of analysis concerning hydrology and hydrogeological models, ground water studies, flood related applications and climate analysis studies.

  2. Different Ways of Thinking about Street Networks and Spatial Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Street networks, as one of the oldest infrastructures of transport in the world, play a significant role in modernization, sustainable development, and human daily activities in both ancient and modern times. Although street networks have been well studied in a variety of engineering and scientific disciplines, including for instance transport, geography, urban planning, economics, and even physics, our understanding of street networks in terms of their structure and dynamics remains limited, especially when dealing with such real-world problems as traffic jams, pollution, and human evacuations for disaster management. One goal of this special issue is to promote different ways of thinking about understanding street networks, and of conducting spatial analysis.

  3. Spatial Analysis Along Networks Statistical and Computational Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Atsuyuki

    2012-01-01

    In the real world, there are numerous and various events that occur on and alongside networks, including the occurrence of traffic accidents on highways, the location of stores alongside roads, the incidence of crime on streets and the contamination along rivers. In order to carry out analyses of those events, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of specific techniques. Spatial Analysis Along Networks provides a practical guide to the necessary statistical techniques and their computational implementation. Each chapter illustrates a specific technique, from Stochastic Point Process

  4. Reducing spatial uncertainty in climatic maps through geostatistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Ninyerola, Miquel; Pons, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Climatic maps from meteorological stations and geographical co-variables can be obtained through correlative models (Ninyerola et al., 2000)*. Nevertheless, the spatial uncertainty of the resulting maps could be reduced. The present work is a new stage over those approaches aiming to study how to obtain better results while characterizing spatial uncertainty. The study area is Catalonia (32000 km2), a region with highly variable relief (0 to 3143 m). We have used 217 stations (321 to 1244 mm) to model the annual precipitation in two steps: 1/ multiple regression using geographical variables (elevation, distance to the coast, latitude, etc) and 2/ refinement of the results by adding the spatial interpolation of the regression residuals with inverse distance weighting (IDW), regularized splines with tension (SPT) or ordinary kriging (OK). Spatial uncertainty analysis is based on an independent subsample (test set), randomly selected in previous works. The main contribution of this work is the analysis of this test set as well as the search for an optimal process of division (split) of the stations in two sets, one used to perform the multiple regression and residuals interpolation (fit set), and another used to compute the quality (test set); optimal division should reduce spatial uncertainty and improve the overall quality. Two methods have been evaluated against classical methods: (random selection RS and leave-one-out cross-validation LOOCV): selection by Euclidian 2D-distance, and selection by anisotropic 2D-distance combined with a 3D-contribution (suitable weighted) from the most representative independent variable. Both methods define a minimum threshold distance, obtained by variogram analysis, between samples. Main preliminary results for LOOCV, RS (average from 10 executions), Euclidian criterion (EU), and for anisotropic criterion (with 1.1 value, UTMY coordinate has a bit more weight than UTMX) combined with 3D criteria (A3D) (1000 factor for elevation

  5. Modeling and analysis of Schistosoma Argonaute protein molecular spatial conformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Zhang; Zhigang Shang; Xiaohui Zhang; Yuntao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the amino acid sequence composition, secondary structure, the spatial conformation of its domain and other characteristics of Argonaute protein. Methods:Bioinformatics tools and the internet server were used. Firstly, the amino acid sequence composition features of the Argonaute protein were analyzed, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Secondly, Argonaute protein’s distribution of secondary structure and its physicochemical properties were predicted. Lastly, the protein functional expression form of the domain group was established through the Phyre-based analysis on the spatial conformation of Argonaute protein domains. Results: 593 amino acids were encoded by Argonaute protein, the phylogenetic tree was constructed, and Argonaute protein’s distribution of secondary structure and its physicochemical properties were obtained through analysis. In addition, the functional expression form which comprised the N-terminal PAZ domain and C-terminal Piwi domain for the Argonaute protein was obtained with Phyre. Conclusions: The information relationship between the structure and function of the Argonaute protein can be initially established with bioinformatics tools and the internet server, and this provides the theoretical basis for further clarifying the function of Schistosoma Argonaute protein.

  6. Cartographic system for spatial distribution analysis of corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkidi, G; Márquez, J; García-Ruiz, M; Díaz-Cintra, S; Graue, E

    1994-07-01

    A combined cartographic and morphometric endothelium analyser has been developed by integrating the HISTO 2000 histological imaging and analysis system with a prototype human corneal endothelium analyser. The complete system allows the elaboration and analysis of cartographies of corneal endothelial tissue, and hence the in vitro study of the spatial distribution of corneal endothelial cells, according to their regional morphometric characteristics (cell size and polygonality). The global cartographic reconstruction is obtained by sequential integration of the data analysed for each microscopic field. Subsequently, the location of each microscopically analysed field is referred to its real position on the histologic preparation by means of X-Y co-ordinates; both are provided by micrometric optoelectronic sensors installed on the optical microscope stage. Some cartographies of an excised human corneal keratoconus button in vitro are also presented. These cartographic images allow a macroscopic view of endothelial cells analysed microscopically. Parametric colour images show the spatial distribution of endothelial cells, according to their specific morphometric parameters, and exhibit the variability in size and cellular shape which depend on the analysed area.

  7. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.

    2015-08-01

    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  8. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hauffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes.

    In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5% being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors, but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal

  9. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  10. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about pharmacists who come to work in Great Britain. Recent changes in the registration routes onto the Register of Pharmacists of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain may have affected entries from overseas: reciprocal arrangements for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand ended in June 2006; 10 new states joined the European Union in 2004 and a further two in 2007, allowing straightforward registration. Aims The aims of the paper are to extend our knowledge about the extent to which Great Britain is relying on the contribution of internationally trained pharmacists and to explore their routes of entry and demographic characteristics and compare them to those of pharmacists trained in Great Britain. Methods The August 2007 Register of Pharmacists provided the main data for analysis. Register extracts between 2002 and 2005 were also explored, allowing longitudinal comparison, and work pattern data from the 2005 Pharmacist Workforce Census were included. Results In 2007, internationally trained pharmacists represented 8.8% of the 43 262 registered pharmacists domiciled in Great Britain. The majority (40.6% had joined the Register from Europe; 33.6% and 25.8% joined via adjudication and reciprocal arrangements. Until this entry route ended for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand in 2006, annual numbers of reciprocal pharmacists increased. European pharmacists are younger (mean age 31.7 than reciprocal (40.0 or adjudication pharmacists (43.0, and the percentage of women among European-trained pharmacists is much higher (68% when compared with British-trained pharmacists (56%. While only 7.1% of pharmacists registered in Great Britain have a London address, this proportion is much higher for European (13.9%, adjudication (19.5% and reciprocal pharmacists (28.9%. The latter are more likely to

  11. Ptaquiloside in bracken spores from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Schmidt, Bjørn; Sheffield, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) are suspected of causing cancer in humans. The main carcinogen is the highly water-soluble norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside, which may be ingested by humans through food, e.g. via contaminated water, meat or milk. It has...... in a collection of spores from Britain. Ptaquiloside was present in all samples, with a maximum of 29μgg−1, which is very low compared to other parts of the fern. Considering the low abundance of spores in breathing air under normal conditions, this exposure route is likely to be secondary to milk or drinking...

  12. Corporate Ownership and Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  13. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper provides evidence that transatlantic commodity market integration began prior to the "first era of globalization" at the end of the nineteenth century. It does so by giving a long term perspective to the story of the development of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the United States......, specific periods are identified when market integration might have been possible. Using price data for wheat in America and Britain, some evidence is found that markets were integrated, but this process was continuously being interrupted by "exogenous" events, such as trade policy, war and politics...

  14. Map Analysis and Spatial Statistic: Assessment of Spatial Variability of Agriculture Land Conversion at Urban Fringe Area of Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Bowo

    2016-11-01

    Urban development has brought various effects, one of which was the marginalization of the agricultural sector. Agricultural land is gradually converted to other type of land uses which considered more profitable. Conversion of agricultural land cannot be avoided but it should be controlled. Early identification on spatial distribution and intensity of agricultural land conversion as well as its related factor is necessary. Objective of the research were (1) to assess the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion, (2) to identify factors that affecting the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion. Research was conducted at urban fringe area of Yogyakarta. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion was analysed using an index called Relative Conversion Index (RCI). Combined of map analysis and spatial statistical were used to determine the center of agricultural land conversion. Simple regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the conversion of agricultural land. The result shows that intensity of agricultural land conversion in the study area varies spatially as well as temporally. Intensity of agricultural land conversion in the period 1993-2000, involves three categories which are high, moderate and low. In the period of 2000-2007, the intensity of agricultural land conversion involves two categories which are high and low. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion in the study area has a significant correlation with three factors: population growth, fragmentation of agricultural land and distance of agricultural land to the city

  15. Acid deposition and its implications for nature conservation in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, G.L.A.; Cooke, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    A general consideration of acid deposition is given, in terms of the origins and fate of acid deposition and its effects on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Acid deposition in wetland sites in Britain is discussed, and conclusions are drawn for nature conservation in Britain. (177 refs.)

  16. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  17. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  18. Brazilian road traffic fatalities: a spatial and environmental analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTI are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1. The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. CONCLUSIONS: By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies.

  19. Effect of spatial normalization on analysis of functional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James C.; Alsop, David C.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.

    1997-04-01

    Conventional analysis of functional data often involves a normalization step in which the data are spatially aligned so that a measurement can be made across or between studies. Whether to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio or to detect significant deviations in activation from normal, the method used to register the underlying anatomies clearly impacts the viability of the analysis. Nevertheless, it is common practice to infer only homogeneous transformations, in which all parts of the image volume undergo the same mapping. To detect subtle effects or to extend the analysis to anatomies that exhibit considerable morphological variation, higher dimensional mappings to allow more accurate alignment will be crucial. We describe a Bayesian volumetric warping approach to the normalization problem, which matches local image features between MRI brain volumes, and compares its performance with a standard method (SPM'96) as well as contrast its effect on the analysis of a set of functional MRI studies against that obtained with a 9-parameter affine registration.

  20. Analysis of Spatial Data Structures for Proximity Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anupreet Walia; Jochen Teizer

    2008-01-01

    Construction is a dangerous business.According to statistics,in every of the past thirteen years more than 1000 workers died in the USA construction industry.In order to minimize the overall number of these incidents,the research presented in this paper investigates to monitor and analyze the trejectories of construction resources first in a simulated environment and later on the actual job site.Due to the complex nature of the construction environment,three dimensional (3D) positioning data of workers is hardly col-lected.Although technology is available that allows tracking construction assets in real-time,indoors and outdoors,in 3D,at the same time,the continuously changing spatial and temporal arrangement of job sites requires any successfully working data processing system to work in real-time.This research paper focuses is safety on spatial data structures that offer the capability of realigning itself and reporting the distance of the closest neighbor in real-time.This paper presents results to simulations that allow the processing of real-time location data for collision detection and proximity analysis.The presented data structures and perform-ance results to the developed algorithms demonstmte that real-time tracking and proximity detection of re-sources is feasible.

  1. Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of the Historical Extreme Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, M. R.; Moradkhani, H.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of the climate change impact on extreme hydro-climatic events is crucial for future hydrologic/hydraulic designs and water resources decision making. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of the extreme value distribution parameters with respect to time to reflect upon the impact of climate change. We develop a statistical model using the observed streamflow data of the Columbia River Basin in USA to estimate the changes of high flows as a function of time as well as other variables. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) is used to model the upper 95% flows during December through March for 31 gauge stations. In the process layer of the model the covariates including time, latitude, longitude, elevation and basin area are considered to assess the sensitivity of the model to each variable. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is used to estimate the parameters. The Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian technique models the GPD parameters spatially and borrows strength from other locations by pooling data together, while providing an explicit estimation of the uncertainties in all stages of modeling.

  2. FORMAL EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE: A SPATIAL ANALYSIS 1989-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Estanislau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the spatial distribution -total and by gender - of formal employment in Brazilian agriculture, by exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA. After collecting data and analyzing the dispersion of formal employment for men and women, it is possible to show whether there is interference from the income of this sector by gender in the location of formal employment, that refers to the 558 geographical micro-regions of the country and the Annual Relation of Social Information (RAIS was used for the years 1989, 1999 and 2009. Clear participation of the largest state of Sao Paulo in the number of formal contracts was identified on the three study periods. This trend was explained by the composition of agricultural production of the state which has products that require intensive labor, such as sugar cane, coffee and orange. Furthermore, it has been observed, when unbundled formal employment by gender, an increase in the number of hiring women to work in agriculture. This fact maintains this state as the largest applicant's formal workforce to support the expansion of plantations. However, this growth occurs in a percentage much lower than hiring manpower male, so, female participation is still limited in the universe of formal labor market.

  3. Application of computer intensive data analysis methods to the analysis of digital images and spatial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeld, Kristian

    1992-01-01

    Computer-intensive methods for data analysis in a traditional setting has developed rapidly in the last decade. The application of and adaption of some of these methods to the analysis of multivariate digital images and spatial data are explored, evaluated and compared to well established classical...... linear methods. Different strategies for selecting projections (linear combinations) of multivariate images are presented. An exploratory, iterative method for finding interesting projections originated in data analysis is compared to principal components. A method for introducing spatial context...

  4. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  5. Privatization in Britain brings winners, losers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C.M.W. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    Since privatizing British Gas in 1986, the British government has discovered that not everyone benefits from the competition that the privatization framework promoted, writes Catherine M. Waddams Price, a senior economics lecturer at the University of Leicester in Leicester, England. The sale of British Gas (BG) was part of an aggressive program launched by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher to sell Britain`s public assets to raise revenues for the government. {open_quotes}A company with more than 100,000 employees and annual revenues of almost 8 billion pounds (12 billion U.S. dollars) had been transformed from a government-owned utility to a private company in less than two years,{close_quotes} reports Price. According to Price, one consequence of privatization has been that large users who negotiate individual contracts now pay proportionately less than small users who are subject to regulated tariffs. The outcome of the emerging distribution and equity debate will help shape the United Kingdom`s gas industry in the years ahead.

  6. GIS Based Spatial Data Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Sarkar; D.P.Kanungo; A.K.Patra; Pushpendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Landslide susceptibility map delineates the potential zones for landslides occurrence.The paper presents a statistical approach through spatial data analysis in GIS for landslide susceptibility mapping in parts of Sikkim Himalaya.Six important causative factors for landslide occurrences were selected and corresponding thematic data layers were prepared in GIS.Topographic maps,satellite image,field data and published maps constitute the input data for thematic layer preparation.Numerical weights for different categories of these factors were determined based on a statistical approach and the weighted thematic layers were integrated in GIS environment to generate the landslide susceptibility map of the area.The landslide susceptibility map classifies the area into five different landslide susceptible zones i.e.,very high,high,moderate,low and very low.This map was validated using the existing landslide distribution in the area.

  7. Spatial analysis of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2013-12-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. During 1999-2011, 871 human cases of CCHF were diagnosed in Iran. A history of serologic conversion for CCHF virus was seen in 58.7% of 2,447 sheep samples, 25.0% of 1,091 cattle samples and 24.8% of 987 goat samples from different parts of Iran. Spatial analysis showed that the main foci of this disease in humans during these years were in eastern Iran (P Iran. Two livestock foci were detected in the northeastern northwestern Iran. On the basis of the results of this study, infection likely entered Iran from eastern and western neighboring countries.

  8. Fish, field, habitus and madness: the first wave mental health users movement in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, N

    1999-12-01

    This paper traces and explains the emergence of the mental health users movement in Great Britain, focusing specifically upon the formation of the Mental Patients Union in the early 1970s. The analysis presented in the paper draws, to some extent, from conventional movement theory. In addition, however, it draws from the work of Pierre Bourdieu. This represents an innovation in movement analysis and the necessity of this innovation is argued for in an early section of the paper.

  9. The Determinants of VAT Introduction : A Spatial Duration Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizek, P.; Lei, J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The spatial survival models typically impose frailties, which characterize unobserved heterogeneity, to be spatially correlated. This specification relies highly on a pre-determinate covariance structure of the errors. However, the spatial effect may not only exist in the unobserved errors

  10. Multitemporal spatial pattern analysis of Tulum's tropical coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Forero, Sandra Carolina; López-Caloca, Alejandra; Silván-Cárdenas, José Luis

    2011-11-01

    The tropical coastal landscape of Tulum in Quintana Roo, Mexico has a high ecological, economical, social and cultural value, it provides environmental and tourism services at global, national, regional and local levels. The landscape of the area is heterogeneous and presents random fragmentation patterns. In recent years, tourist services of the region has been increased promoting an accelerate expansion of hotels, transportation and recreation infrastructure altering the complex landscape. It is important to understand the environmental dynamics through temporal changes on the spatial patterns and to propose a better management of this ecological area to the authorities. This paper addresses a multi-temporal analysis of land cover changes from 1993 to 2000 in Tulum using Thematic Mapper data acquired by Landsat-5. Two independent methodologies were applied for the analysis of changes in the landscape and for the definition of fragmentation patterns. First, an Iteratively Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) algorithm was used to detect and localize land cover change/no-change areas. Second, the post-classification change detection evaluated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. Landscape metrics were calculated from the results of IR-MAD and SVM. The analysis of the metrics indicated, among other things, a higher fragmentation pattern along roadways.

  11. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption change is weakened. The regions with higher energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the developed coastal areas in China, while those with lower energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the less developed western regions in China. Energy consumption change in China is mainly caused by transportation industry and non-labor intensive industry. Rapid economic development and higher industrialization rate are the main causes for faster changes in energy consumption in China. The results also indicate that spatial autoregressive model can reveal more influencing factors of energy consumption changes in China, in contrast with standard linear model. At last, this study has put forward the corresponding measures or policies for dealing with the growing trend of energy consumption in China.

  12. Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Alò Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area. Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Methods Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Results Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. Conclusion As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In

  13. An Early Medieval Tradition of Building in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Early medieval houses in Britain were largely constructed of timber. Various approaches have been adopted for interpreting the character of these buildings, since no standing structure survives. These include the study of water-logged timber, the reproduction of methods of working and the reconstruction of buildings, as well as the conventional analysis of the plans of excavations. The problems of identifying the ethnic affiliations of houses in Britain are particularly acute because the structural features which define the building traditions in England and Scotland have rarely been identified. However, it is argued that it is possible to identify a distinctive tradition of building in timber which persists from the fifth to the eleventh or even twelfth century, and is found throughout England and into southern Scotland.En la Gran Bretaña de la alta Edad Media se solían construir las viviendas de madera y por consiguiente no queda ninguna estructura en pie. Así, se han adoptado varios enfoques para interpretar las características de dichas viviendas, como el análisis de la madera saturada de agua, la recreación de la metodología de trabajo y la reconstrucción de edificios, así como los tradicionales análisis de las plantas de las construcciones en las excavaciones. La atribución étnica de las viviendas en Gran Bretaña resulta especialmente difícil porque rara vez se han identificado las tradiciones constructivas de Inglaterra y Escocia. No obstante, se ha argumentado que es posible identificar a una tradición característica de construcción en madera que se mantuvo del siglo V al siglo XI e incluso hasta el siglo XII y que se puede encontrar en toda Inglaterra y en el sur de Escocia.

  14. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (pQazvin, Zanjan and Kurdistan, the incidences were higher than the national average and these were identified as hot spots (P<0.01). As stomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration.

  15. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Subba Rao

    2014-06-01

    A study on the geochemistry of groundwater was carried out in a river basin of Andhra Pradesh to probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO$^{−}_{3}$, Cl−, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, NO$^{−}_{3}$ and F−, into two orthogonal principal components (PC1 and PC2), accounting for 75% of the total variance of the data matrix. PC1 has high positive loadings of EC, Na+, Cl−, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, Mg2+ and Ca2+, representing a salinity controlled process of geogenic (mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation), anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine (marine clay) origin. The PC2 loadings are highly positive for HCO$^{−}_{3}$, F−, pH and NO$^{−}_{3}$, attributing to the alkalinity and pollution controlled processes of geogenic and anthropogenic origins. The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin from upstream to downstream area with an increase in concentration of chemical variables, which is due to anthropogenic and marine origins with varying topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the groundwater quality shows a variation of chemical facies from Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+: HCO$^{−}_{3}$ > Cl− > SO$^{2−}_{4}$ > NO$^{−}_{3}$ > F− at high topography to Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+: Cl− > HCO$^{−}_{3}$ > SO$^{2−}_{4}$ > NO$^{−}_{3}$ > F− at low topography. With PCA, an effective tool for the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, a subset of explored wells is indexed for continuous monitoring to optimize the expensive effort.

  16. Study of academic achievements using spatial analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Velilla, C.; Sánchez-Girón, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the 2010/12 academic year the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid implemented three new degrees all of them adapted to the European Space for Higher Education. These degrees are namely: Graduate in Agricultural Engineering and Science, Graduate in Food Engineering and Graduate in Agro-Environmental Engineering. A total of 382 new incoming students were finally registered and a survey study was carried out with these students about their academic achievement with the aim of finding the level of dependence among the following variables: the final mark in their secondary studies, the option followed in the secondary studies (Art, Science and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences), the mark obtained in the entering examination to the university and in which of the two opportunities per year this examination takes place the latter mark was obtained. Similarly, another group of 77 students were evaluated independently to the former group. These students were those entering the College in the previous academic year (2009/10) and decided to change their curricula to the new ones. Subsequently, using the tools of spatial analysis of geographic information systems, we analyzed the possible relationship between the success or failure at school and the socioeconomic profile of new students in a grade. For this purpose every student was referenced assigning UTM coordinates to their postal addresses. Furthermore, all students' secondary schools were geographically coded considering their typology (public, private, and private subsidized) and fares. Each student was represented by its average geometric point in order to be correlated to their respective record. Following this procedure a map of the performance of each student could be drawn. This map can be used as a reference system, as it includes variables as the distance from the student home to the College, that can be used as a tool to calculate the probability of success or

  17. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy and associated factors in Britain: findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    OpenAIRE

    Wellings, K; Jones, K; Mercer, CH; Tanton, C.; Clifton, S; Datta, J; Copas, AJ; Erens, B; Gibson, L; Macdowall, W; Sonnenberg, P; Phelps, A.; Johnson, AM

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Unplanned pregnancy is a key public health indicator. We describe the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy, and associated factors, in a general population sample in Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales). Method We did a probability sample survey, the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), of 15 162 men and women aged 16–74 years in Britain, including 5686 women of child-bearing age (16–44 years) who were included in the pregnancy analysis, betwe...

  18. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  19. Analysis of WiMAX Physical Layer Using Spatial Multiplexing

    CERN Document Server

    Sanghoi, Pavani

    2012-01-01

    Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) has emerged as a promising solution for providing last mile internet access technology to provide high speed internet access to the users in the residential as well as in the small and medium sized enterprise sectors. IEEE 802.16e is one of the most promising and attractive candidate among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access. The emergence of WiMAX protocol has attracted various interests from almost all the fields of wireless communications. MIMO systems which are created according to the IEEE 802.16-2005 standard (WiMAX) under different fading channels can be implemented to get the benefits of both the MIMO and WiMAX technologies. In this paper analysis of higher level of modulations (i.e. M-PSK and M-QAM for different values of M) with different code rates and on WiMAX-MIMO system is presented for Rayleigh channel by focusing on spatial multiplexing MIMO technique. Signal-to Noise Ratio (SNR) vs Bit Error Rate (BER) analysis has been done.

  20. Signal Adaptive System for Space/Spatial-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin N. Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a multiple-clock-cycle implementation (MCI of a signal adaptive two-dimensional (2D system for space/spatial-frequency (S/SF signal analysis. The design is based on a method for improved S/SF representation of the analyzed 2D signals, also proposed here. The proposed MCI design optimizes critical design performances related to hardware complexity, making it a suitable system for real time implementation on an integrated chip. Additionally, the design allows the implemented system to take a variable number of clock cycles (CLKs (the only necessary ones regarding desirable—2D Wigner distribution-presentation of autoterms in different frequency-frequency points during the execution. This ability represents a major advantage of the proposed design which helps to optimize the time required for execution and produce an improved, cross-terms-free S/SF signal representation. The design has been verified by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA circuit design, capable of performing S/SF analysis of 2D signals in real time.

  1. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Herrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors.METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed.RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007 and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032. In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070.CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation.

  2. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  3. Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, Paolo; Wang, Jiaqiu; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of...

  4. High-magnitude flooding across Britain since AD 1750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil; Sangster, Heather

    2017-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers). Here, we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high-magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods). Statistically significant relationships between the British flood index, the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index are identified. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood-rich period is not unprecedented.

  5. Spatial analysis of IRAS observations of nearby spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Roger; Lo, R. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The unbiased survey of the infrared sky carried out by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) satellite has greatly accelerated advances in understanding the dust component of our own and external galaxies. However, most extragalactic studies to date have been based on the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), which has two serious limitations. First, in sources where a significant fraction of the flux is extended, significant errors may result from using PSC fluxes in comparative studies, and these errors could be systematic if the tendency to be non-pointlike depends on physical properties of the galaxy. Additionally, use of PSC fluxes rules out any direct investigation of the spatial distribution of the IRAS emission from disks in external galaxies. Since work on the Galactic IRAS results has shown that very different physical processes can make varying contributions to the observed flux, it is important to look at a wide sample of galaxies with some spatial resolution to study the relative dominance of these processes under a variety of conditions. Here, researchers report on work they are doing to carry out this program for many nearby spirals, using an analysis package that was developed for this purpose. Researchers carried out analysis for a sample of 121 nearby spirals. The fraction of the flux contained in a point source varies from 0 to 1 across the sample, all of which are well resolved at their nominal optical diameters. There is no evidence that the galaxies of smaller angular size are less likely to be resolved by IRAS at this level. The program gives results which are quite repeatable from scan to scan; the fraction f (point source flux over total flux) at 60 microns has typical errors of 0.03 when different scans are combined. Approximately two-thirds of the sample have more flux in the extended than in the nuclear component. There is a tendency for earlier-type spirals to be less centrally concentrated, but this effect is slight and the degree of

  6. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  7. Spatial Microsimulation for Rural Policy Analysis in Ireland: The Implications of CAP Reforms for the National Spatial Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, D.; Clarke, G. P.; Wiemers, E.

    2006-01-01

    Microsimulation attempts to describe economic and social events by modelling the behaviour of individual agents. These models have proved useful in evaluating the impact of policy changes at the micro level. Spatial microsimulation models contain geographic information and allow for a regional or local approach to policy analysis. This paper…

  8. Spatial Analysis of Volcanoes at Convergent Margins on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R. V.; de Silva, S. L.; Meyers, M.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most obvious patterns seen on the surface of the terrestrial planets is the distribution of volcanoes. On Earth, most volcanoes are distributed in volcanic “arcs” that signal the primary relationship between subduction and volcanism. The distributions of major composite volcanoes in volcanic arcs are thought to reflect the primary magmatic pathways from source to surface. Understanding these patterns therefore may allow fundamental controls on the organization of magmatic plumbing in arcs to be identified. Using a control dataset from the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes (de Silva and Francis, 1991; Springer-Verlag) we have examined several popular approaches to spatial analysis of volcano distribution in several volcanic arcs (Aleutian, Alaskan, Central American, Northern and Southern volcanic zones of the Andes). Restricting our analysis to major volcanoes of similar age, we find that while clustering is visually obvious in many volcanic arcs it has been rejected as a primary signal by previous analytical efforts (e.g. Bremont d'Ars et al (1995)). We show that the fractal box or grid counting method used previously does not detect clusters and statistical methods such as the Kernel Density Analysis or Single-link Cluster Analysis are better suited for cluster detection. Utilizing both ARC GIS and Matlab to conduct density analyses in combination with statistical software SPlus for the appropriate hypothesis testing methods such as the pooled variance t-test, the Welch Modified two sample t-test, and the f-test we find evidence of clustering in four volcanic arcs whose crustal thickness is greater than or equal to 40 kilometres (Central America, CVZ, NVZ, SVZ). We suggest that clustering is the surface manifestation of upper crustal diffusion of primary magmatic pathways, which in other places manifests as a single volcano. The inter-cluster distance is a thus reflection of primary magmatic pathways and thus equivalent to inter-volcano distance

  9. Spatial analysis of suicide mortality in Québec: spatial clustering and area factor correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamini Ngui, André; Apparicio, Philippe; Moltchanova, Elena; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention actions. No previous study has assessed spatial clustering of the different methods of suicide in Quebec. The aim of this study was to assess spatial clustering of suicide in Quebec between 2004 and 2007 and neighborhood level predictors of the clusters. Scan statistics was applied to detect clusters of suicides by method and by sex. Smoothed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide for each neighborhood were also estimated and their association with neighborhood characteristics was investigated using the Bayesian hierarchical spatial model. The pattern of suicide rate was different among men and women; men showed higher standardized mortality rates. The most likely clusters of suicide were found in remote rural areas. However, some neighborhoods in urban areas also had noticeable suicide clusters. Firearms suicide was most likely found in remote rural areas while poisoning and hanging suicide methods clustered in urban areas. These findings suggest that it is important to take geographical variations into account in national policy and health services planning.

  10. Spatial Stratification of Order As Used in Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert H.; Bachlechner, Martina E.

    2007-03-01

    Silicon nitride deposited on silicon substrates has application in dielectric layers for microelectronics as well as in photovoltaics. During production and operation of components involving silicon/silicon nitride interfaces, stresses and strains can build up at various temperatures resulting in component failure. Using molecular dynamics simulations the influence of temperature and rate of externally applied strain on silicon/silicon nitride interfaces has been analyzed. The primary purpose of this research is to understand the mechanisms leading to the failure of these films. Analyses involving bond lengths and angles have been developed to gain insight into these mechanisms. Methods for stratifying bond lengths and bond angles into unique sub-populations on the basis of spatial orientation have been developed, and have given much insight to how the material behaves, particularly with regards to the Poisson effect. Possible extensions of this stratification method to primitive rings will also be examined. In combination with experimental observations, this analysis will deepen our understanding of the structural properties of silicon/silicon nitride interfaces.

  11. THE STRATEGIES OF INTEGRATING SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS AND GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOZheng-yuan; LILin

    2002-01-01

    The gap between SDA(Spatial Data Analysis) and GIS (Geographical Information Systems)existed for a long time.Presently this problem still remains in spite of a lot of theoretical and practical studies which try to find the solu-tion for it.The research background and current situation about how to integrate SDA and GIS are introduced at first.The main idea of this article is to make sure what is the best scheme to bridge the gap between SDA and GIS and how to design it.There are a lot of factors to influence the standards to assess such a scheme,for instance,the attitude of users and GIS developers,the framework and related functions of current available GIS software in the market and so on.But the two most important ones of them are efficiency and flexibility of the scheme itself.Efficiency can be measured by the conve-nient extent and temporal length when it is used for carrying out SDA.Flexibility means users can define their own SDA methods.The best integration scheme should satisfy the two standards at the same time.A group of functions,which can be combined to implement any SDA method,are defined in order to design such an integration scheme.The functions are divided into five classes according to their properties.

  12. THE STRATEGIES OF INTEGRATING SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS AND GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The gap between SDA (Spatial Data Analysis) and GIS (Geographical Information Systems) existed for along time. Presently this problem still remains in spite of a lot of theoretical and practical studies which try to find the solution for it. The research background and current situation about how to integrate SDA and GIS are introduced at first. Themain idea of this article is to make sure what is the best scheme to bridge the gap between SDA and GIS and how to designit. There are a lot of factors to influence the standards to assess such a scheme, for instance, the attitude of users and GISdevelopers, the framework and related functions of current available GIS software in the market and so on. But the twomost important ones of them are efficiency and flexibility of the scheme itself. Efficiency can be measured by the convenient extent and temporal length when it is used for carrying out SDA. Flexibility means users can define their own SDAmethods. The best integration scheme should satisfy the two standards at the same time. A group of functions, which canbe combined to implement any SDA method, are defined in order to design such an integration scheme. The functions aredivided into five classes according to their properties.

  13. Housing Mobility and Downsizing at Older Ages in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James; Blundell, Richard; Oldfield, Zoë; Smith, James P

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines geographic mobility and housing downsizing at older ages in Britain and America. Americans downsize housing much more than the British largely because Americans are much more mobile. The principal reasons for greater mobility among older Americans are two fold: (1) greater spatial distribution of geographic distribution of amenities (such as warm weather) and housing costs and (2) greater institutional rigidities in subsidized British rental housing providing stronger incentives for British renters not to move. This relatively flat British housing consumption with age may have significant implications for the form and amount of consumption smoothing at older ages.

  14. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  15. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  16. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  17. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  18. Analysis of spatial inhomogeneities in cumulus clouds using high spatial resolution Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindsay; Welch, R. M.; Musil, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft observations and high resolution Landsat MSS digital data are used to determine the sizes of spatial inhomogeneities ('holes') in cumulus clouds. The majority of holes are found near cloud edges, but the larger holes tend to be found in cloud interiors. Aircraft measurements show these cloud spatial inhomogeneities in the range of 100 to 500 m, while Landsat data show them in the range of 100 m to 3 km. The number of holes per cloud decreases exponentially with increasing hole diameter. Small clouds not only have smaller holes, but also fewer holes than large clouds. Large clouds have large holes in them, as well as large numbers of the smaller holes. The total cloud area occupied by holes increases with increasing cloud size.

  19. CCPIT meet with Delegation from Sino-Britain Trade Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 25,Vice-chairman Dong Songgen met with President of SinoBritain Trade Association Stephen Phillips and the delegation during the fourth China Central Investment and Trade Expo in Hefei,Anhui.The two sides conducted exchange on further promoting economic and trade relanons between Britain and China,strengthening cooperation on coping with the financial crisis and doing more practical things for companies of the two countries.

  20. The Spatial Behaviour of Animals and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, T. S.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some common patterns of animal spatial behavior, and discusses spatial relationships that can be observed as an important component of human social behavior. Reports the results of a study relating to the interpersonal distances of people in bus queues in Britain. (JR)

  1. The Characteristics of the Systems of Continuing Pedagogical Education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common and distinctive features of the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada, the USA. The legislative and normative framework of teachers’ CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been highlighted; the levels of the systems of continuing pedagogical education have been presented; the main functions of these systems have been determined; the key models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD have been defined. Foreign and domestic scientists have studied the teachers’ CPD: teacher leadership (T. Bush, M. Clement, D. Jackson, D. Pavlou, R. Venderberghe, models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD (L. Chance, A. Hollingsworth, D. Ross, E. Villegas-Reimers, non-formal teachers’ CPD (J. Scheerens. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Cities Using Renyi Entropy and Fractal Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    Spatial distributions of cities fall into groups: one is the simple distribution with characteristic scale (e.g. exponential distribution), and the other is the complex distribution without characteristic scale (e.g. power-law distribution). The latter belongs to scale-free distributions, which can be modeled with fractal geometry. However, fractal dimension is suitable for the former distribution. In contrast, spatial entropy can be used to measure any types of urban distributions. This paper is devoted to developing multifractal parameters by means of the relation between entropy and fractal dimension. A new discovery is that normalized fractal dimension is equal to normalized entropy. Based on this finding, we can define a set of spatial indexes, which bears an analogy with the multifractal parameters. These indexes can be employed to describe both the simple distributions and complex distributions. The generalized fractal parameters are applied to the spatial density of population density of Hangzhou city...

  3. Inverse spatial principal component analysis for geophysical survey data interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingmou; Dehler, Sonya A.

    2015-04-01

    The starting point for data processing, visualization, and overlay with other data sources in geological applications often involves building a regular grid by interpolation of geophysical measurements. Typically, the sampling interval along survey lines is much higher than the spacing between survey lines because the geophysical recording system is able to operate with a high sampling rate, while the costs and slower speeds associated with operational platforms limit line spacing. However, currently available interpolating methods often smooth data observed with higher sampling rate along a survey line to accommodate the lower spacing across lines, and much of the higher resolution information is not captured in the interpolation process. In this approach, a method termed as the inverse spatial principal component analysis (isPCA) is developed to address this problem. In the isPCA method, a whole profile observation as well as its line position is handled as an entity and a survey collection of line entities is analyzed for interpolation. To test its performance, the developed isPCA method is used to process a simulated airborne magnetic survey from an existing magnetic grid offshore the Atlantic coast of Canada. The interpolation results using the isPCA method and other methods are compared with the original survey grid. It is demonstrated that the isPCA method outperforms the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Kriging (Geostatistical), and MINimum Curvature (MINC) interpolation methods in retaining detailed anomaly structures and restoring original values. In a second test, a high resolution magnetic survey offshore Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, was processed and the results are compared with other geological information. This example demonstrates the effective performance of the isPCA method in basin structure identification.

  4. High resolution or optimum resolution? Spatial analysis of the Federmesser site at Andernach, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, D; Street, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses spatial analysis at site level. It is suggested that spatial analysis has to proceed in several levels, from global to more detailed questions, and that optimum resolution should be established when applying any quantitative methods in this field. As an example, the ring and sec

  5. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis: A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the model parameters and demonstrates the consequences…

  6. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis : A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the mo

  7. Geologic spatial analysis. 1988 performance report, August 30, 1987--January 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-12-31

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  8. Integration of principal components analysis and cellular automata for spatial decisionmaking and urban simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xia(黎夏); YEH; Gar-On(叶嘉安)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues about the correlation of spatial variables during spatial decisionmaking using multicriteria evaluation (MCE) and cellular automata (CA). The correlation of spatial variables can cause the malfunction of MCE. In urban simulation, spatial factors often exhibit a high degree of correlation which is considered as an undesirable property for MCE. This study uses principal components analysis (PCA) to remove data redundancy among a large set of spatial variables and determine 'ideal points' for land development. PCA is integrated with cellular automata and geographical information systems (GIS) for the simulation of idealized urban forms for planning purposes.

  9. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan.

  10. Disciplining Medicine: Science and the Rhetoric of Medical Education Reform in Britain, 1770-1858

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly A.

    In Britain, medical education evolved significantly between roughly 1770 and 1858. The doctrines established by medical teachers in the late eighteenth century not only revised or overturned received theories of disease, physiology, and therapeutics, but also entailed new approaches to instruction. Though this educational reform process met some resistance, by the mid-nineteenth century, the new scientific perspective had displaced the traditional humanistic paradigm in medical pedagogy. In Britain, this evolution was initiated in Scotland, where its leading medical teachers would gain considerable fame for championing a new science-based educational curriculum. A contribution to the fields of rhetoric of medicine and rhetoric of science, this study investigates the rhetorical demarcation of the medical discipline in Britain during the years of medical education reform. It draws attention to how the medical discipline evolved and transformed between these years, ultimately defining itself as a science. Focusing on documents addressed to questions of pedagogical method, curricular emphases, and doctrinal disputes, this study identifies the chief arguments, assumptions, and aspirations that motivated and justified innovations in the teaching of medicine at specific British institutions and promoted broader, sweeping reform of the whole system of British medical education. The analysis of these texts highlights the complexities of medical education reform in Britain, and the diverse perspectives that coalesced to shape medical education in new ways. Moreover, these discourses serve as historical markers for how the medical discipline was (re)shaped scientifically. Finally, this study contends that disciplines are most apparently shaped through what is taught, and to understand the rhetoric of disciplinarity in British medical education reform, one must understand the history of its teaching practices.

  11. Belonging and ‘Unbelonging’: Jewish refugee and survivor women in 1950s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Angela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article analyses the life stories of female Jewish refugees and survivors in 1950s Britain in order to explore their relationship with the existing Jewish community and wider society. The paper is based on an analysis of twenty-one oral history testimonies from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust collection held at the British library. Around 50,000 Jewish refugees from Central Europe came to Britain in the 1930s after fleeing from Hitler. In addition, a relatively small number of camp survivors and former hidden children settled in the country after the war; the Board of Deputies of British Jews Demographic Unit estimates the figure at 2000. This article considers how these refugee and survivor women tried to find a place for themselves within 1950s Britain. Looking at their experiences of arrival, work and home, it reflects upon the discrimination and hostility they faced, and they ways they tried to deal with this. Finally it discusses what this meant for their sense of belonging or ‘unbelonging’. PMID:28190937

  12. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  13. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  14. Recurrence plot analysis of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by applying them to data from the Lorenz96 model. The recurrence plot based measures are able to qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.

  15. An Empirical Study Of Productivity Growth In EU28 - Spatial Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Alicja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the spatial process of productivity growth in the European Union on the foundations of the theory of New Economic Geography. The proposed model is based on the study of NUTS 2 regions and takes into consideration a spatial weights matrix in order to better describe the structure of spatial dependence between EU regions. Furthermore, our paper attempts to investigate the applicability of some new approaches to spatial modelling including parameterization of the spatial weights matrix. Our study presents an application of the spatial panel model with fixed effects to Fingleton’s theoretical framework. We suggest that the applied approach constitutes an innovation to spatial econometric studies providing additional information hence, a deeper analysis of the investigated problem.

  16. Spatial and temporal thermal analysis of acousto-optic deflectors using finite element analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2012-07-01

    Thermal effects greatly influence the optical properties of the acousto-optic deflectors (AODs). Thermal analysis plays an important role in modern AOD design. However, the lack of an effective method of analysis limits the prediction in the thermal performance. In this paper, we propose a finite element analysis model to analyze the thermal effects of a TeO(2)-based AOD. Both transducer heating and acoustic absorption are considered as thermal sources. The anisotropy of sound propagation is taken into account for determining the acoustic absorption. Based on this model, a transient thermal analysis is employed using ANSYS software. The spatial temperature distributions in the crystal and the temperature changes over time are acquired. The simulation results are validated by experimental results. The effect of heat source and heat convection on temperature distribution is discussed. This numerical model and analytical method of thermal analysis would be helpful in the thermal design and practical applications of AODs.

  17. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianhua; Qian, Tianlu; Xi, Changbai; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities. PMID:27548197

  18. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities.

  19. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianhua; Qian, Tianlu; Xi, Changbai; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen

    2016-08-18

    The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities.

  20. An analysis of trends in spatial mobility of Dutch graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, Viktor; Van Dijk, Jouke; Van Wissen, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Considerable attention in the literature has been devoted to spatial mobility as a mechanism in the transition from study to work. In this paper, the relationships between migration and both regional economic circumstances and individual characteristics are investigated using a micro-dataset on Dutc

  1. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    This paper considers spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of we...... by combining approximate Kalman filter techniques with importance sampling....

  2. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We consider spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of weed presen...... approximate Kalman filter techniques with importance sampling....

  3. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  4. Spatial analysis of BSE cases in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Brus, D.J.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In many of the European countries affected by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), case clustering patterns have been observed. Most of these patterns have been interpreted in terms of heterogeneities in exposure of cattle to the BSE agent. Here we investigate whether spatial clusteri

  5. Rockfall hazard analysis using LiDAR and spatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hengxing; Martin, C. Derek; Zhou, Chenghu; Lim, Chang Ho

    2010-05-01

    Rockfalls have been significant geohazards along the Canadian Class 1 Railways (CN Rail and CP Rail) since their construction in the late 1800s. These rockfalls cause damage to infrastructure, interruption of business, and environmental impacts, and their occurrence varies both spatially and temporally. The proactive management of these rockfall hazards requires enabling technologies. This paper discusses a hazard assessment strategy for rockfalls along a section of a Canadian railway using LiDAR and spatial modeling. LiDAR provides accurate topographical information of the source area of rockfalls and along their paths. Spatial modeling was conducted using Rockfall Analyst, a three dimensional extension to GIS, to determine the characteristics of the rockfalls in terms of travel distance, velocity and energy. Historical rockfall records were used to calibrate the physical characteristics of the rockfall processes. The results based on a high-resolution digital elevation model from a LiDAR dataset were compared with those based on a coarse digital elevation model. A comprehensive methodology for rockfall hazard assessment is proposed which takes into account the characteristics of source areas, the physical processes of rockfalls and the spatial attribution of their frequency and energy.

  6. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  7. Distributed multi-criteria model evaluation and spatial association analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Model performance, if evaluated, is often communicated by a single indicator and at an aggregated level; however, it does not embrace the trade-offs between different indicators and the inherent spatial heterogeneity of model efficiency. In this study, we simulated the water balance of the Mississippi watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated against monthly river discharge at 131 measurement stations. Its time series were bisected to allow for subsequent validation at the same gauges. Furthermore, the model was validated against evapotranspiration which was available as a continuous raster based on remote sensing. The model performance was evaluated for each of the 451 sub-watersheds using four different criteria: 1) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), 2) percent bias (PBIAS), 3) root mean square error (RMSE) normalized to standard deviation (RSR), as well as 4) a combined indicator of the squared correlation coefficient and the linear regression slope (bR2). Conditions that might lead to a poor model performance include aridity, a very flat and steep relief, snowfall and dams, as indicated by previous research. In an attempt to explain spatial differences in model efficiency, the goodness of the model was spatially compared to these four phenomena by means of a bivariate spatial association measure which combines Pearson's correlation coefficient and Moran's index for spatial autocorrelation. In order to assess the model performance of the Mississippi watershed as a whole, three different averages of the sub-watershed results were computed by 1) applying equal weights, 2) weighting by the mean observed river discharge, 3) weighting by the upstream catchment area and the square root of the time series length. Ratings of model performance differed significantly in space and according to efficiency criterion. The model performed much better in the humid Eastern region than in the arid Western region which was confirmed by the

  8. Analysis on Tourism Economic Spatial Relation of Liaoning Central City Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong; SUN; Liang; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Through the calculation and analysis of the tourism economic spatial relation,it found that Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism economic spatial relation has many problems,such as the central city is insufficient,and the low degree of spatial relations. Therefore,this article puts forward the countermeasures,which can provide theoretical and practical reference for Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism industry layout.

  9. Spatial sensitivity analysis of snow cover data in a distributed rainfall-runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowski, T.; Nossent, J.; Chormański, J.; Batelaan, O.

    2015-04-01

    As the availability of spatially distributed data sets for distributed rainfall-runoff modelling is strongly increasing, more attention should be paid to the influence of the quality of the data on the calibration. While a lot of progress has been made on using distributed data in simulations of hydrological models, sensitivity of spatial data with respect to model results is not well understood. In this paper we develop a spatial sensitivity analysis method for spatial input data (snow cover fraction - SCF) for a distributed rainfall-runoff model to investigate when the model is differently subjected to SCF uncertainty in different zones of the model. The analysis was focussed on the relation between the SCF sensitivity and the physical and spatial parameters and processes of a distributed rainfall-runoff model. The methodology is tested for the Biebrza River catchment, Poland, for which a distributed WetSpa model is set up to simulate 2 years of daily runoff. The sensitivity analysis uses the Latin-Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) algorithm, which employs different response functions for each spatial parameter representing a 4 × 4 km snow zone. The results show that the spatial patterns of sensitivity can be easily interpreted by co-occurrence of different environmental factors such as geomorphology, soil texture, land use, precipitation and temperature. Moreover, the spatial pattern of sensitivity under different response functions is related to different spatial parameters and physical processes. The results clearly show that the LH-OAT algorithm is suitable for our spatial sensitivity analysis approach and that the SCF is spatially sensitive in the WetSpa model. The developed method can be easily applied to other models and other spatial data.

  10. FRACTAL ANALYSIS APPLIED TO SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF CHINA'S VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the fractal theory, the spatial structure of China's vegetation has been analyzed quantitatively in this paper. Some conclusions are drawn as the following. 1) The relationships between size and frequency of patch area and patch shape index exist objectively for China's vegetation. 2) The relationships between perimeter and area exist objectively for China's vegetation. 3) The fractal dimension of evergreen needleleaf forests on mountains in subtropical and tropical zones is the largest, while the smallest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone, reflecting the most complex spatial structure for evergreen needleleaf forests on mountains in subtropical and tropical zones and the simplest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone. 4) The fractal dimensions of China's vegetation types tend to decrease from the subtropics to both sides. 5)The stability of spatial structure of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone is the largest, while the smallest for double-cropping rice, or double-cropping rice and temperate-like grain, and tropical evergreen economic tree plantations and orchards, reflecting the steadiest for deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf mixed forests in temperate zone and the most unstable for double-cropping rice, or double-cropping rice and temperate-like grain, and tropical evergreen economic tree plantations and orchards in spatial structure. 6) The stability of spatial structure of China's vegetation tends to decrease from the temperate zone to both sides. It is significantly pertinent to understand the formation, evolution, dynamics and complexity rule of ecosystem of vegetation.

  11. Descriptive spatial analysis of BSE in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrial, David; Calavas, Didier; Lauvergne, Nathalie; Morignat, Eric; Ducrot, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) was analysed on the 84 cases confirmed in western France (WF) between August and December 2000, when both the Mandatory Reporting System and an active surveillance on cattle at risk were running. Ninety-four percent of these cases were born between June 1993 and June 1996, and we analysed the location at birth. One disease mapping and two clustering methods (Scan of Kulldorff and the method of Besag and Newell) were used. In order to attenuate the contrasts artificially created by the standard disease mapping method (over-dispersion), we estimated the Standard Incidence Ratio (SIR) with a Bayesian method (Poisson-Gamma model) allowing a smoothing of the estimators. The geographical location of interest was the "canton", that divided the total area into 526 geographical units. The background population (2.6 million cattle) was obtained from the Agricultural Census 2000. We tested the hypothesis of a homogenous spatial distribution of the BSE risk where the expected number of BSE cases per unit area was obtained by applying the overall BSE rate in WF to each "canton", standardised on the type of breed, dairy versus beef suckler. The SIR ranged from 0.80 to 2.18 and the spatial distribution of BSE cases was significantly heterogeneous. Two spatial clusters were detected with the spatial scan statistics of Kulldorff and the method of Besag and Newell (18 to 20 observed BSE-cases per cluster with a radius of 45 km) centred on the "département" of Côtes-d'Armor and Mayenne. Another cluster was detected with the method of Besag and Newell (9 observed BSE-cases) in the "département" of Finistère. The results proved that the risk of BSE is linked to the geographical location in the area of the study.

  12. Observation and Analysis on National Year of Reading in Britain, Australia, Japan and Korea%英、澳、日、韩“国家阅读年”考察分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂丽君

    2014-01-01

    Britain is the first country that proposed the National Year of Reading concept, and has launched the National Reading Year twice. Australia, Japan,and Korea launched the National Year of Reading activities respectively in 2012, 2010, 2012. On the basis of an overview of activities of the National Year of Reading in the four countries, the author analyzed the National Year of Reading from government support, the role of public libraries, collaborators, publishing, and activity brand.%英国是世界上第一个推出国家阅读年概念的国家,分别于1998~1999年、2008年开展了两次国家阅读年活动,澳大利亚、日本、韩国等国家分别于2012年、2010年、2012年开展了国家阅读年活动。文章在概述英、澳、日、韩的国家阅读年活动基础上,从政府支持、公共图书馆的作用、合作者、宣传、活动品牌等方面对上述4国的国家阅读年进行了评析,并提出了我国开展国家阅读年活动的启示。

  13. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  14. Specialization and medical mycology in the US, Britain and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2008-03-01

    This paper attempts to bring new insights to a long-standing historical debate over medical specialization by analyzing the formation of medical mycology, a somewhat marginal biomedical discipline that emerged in the mid-twentieth century around studies of fungal disease in humans. The study of fungi predates that of bacteria and viruses, but from the 1880s it became eclipsed by bacteriology. However, in the postwar period, there were moves to establish medical mycology as an independent speciality. I trace the processes that led to the launch of professional societies in the United States, Britain and Japan, three major players in medical mycology, and more broadly in biomedicine. The analysis of the three different national contexts illustrates how geographical, medico-technological, epidemiological, political and social conditions gave the specialty a distinctive character in each country; this was further complicated by the different and changing medical fields in which fungal diseases were studied and treated. The three case studies show medical specialization as a process that is not simply cumulative but responds to specific historical events and developments.

  15. Spatial analysis of root hemiparasitic shrubs and their hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Bjørn; Bruce, David; Weinstein, Philip;

    2017-01-01

    Root hemiparasitic plants take up resources from the roots of neighbouring plants, which they use for fuelling their own growth. While taking up resources from the hosts below-ground, they may simultaneously compete with the hosts for sunlight. Suppression caused by the parasitism could result...... in openings in the vegetation structure and increased mortality levels. On the other hand, the root hemiparasites may also be constrained by the hosts, restricting the parasites to a limited number of locations within a community. These vegetation alterations and location restrictions can be referred...... to as spatial signatures of the root hemiparasites. In order to search for such spatial signatures, we investigated a population of a predominant Acacia species in Australia co-occurring with established root hemiparasitic shrubs, using intensity estimates of the Acacia and dead shrubs to be indicators...

  16. The Nexus of Place and Finance in the Analysis of Educational Attainment: A Spatial Econometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Farah

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of educational attainment and then builds upon current predictive frameworks for understanding patterns of educational attainment by applying a spatial econometric method of analysis. The research from this study enables a new approach to the policy discussion on how to improve educational attainment…

  17. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis on Regional Economic Disparity of Northeast Economic Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fei; Zhou Chenghu

    2009-01-01

    Popular regional inequality indexes such as variation coefficient and Gini coefficient can only reveal overall inequal-it),, and have limited ability in revealing spatial dependence or spatial agglomeration.Recently some methods of exploratory spatial data analysis such as spatial autocorrelation have provid-ed effective tools to analyze spatial agglomeration and cluster, which can reveal the pattern of regional inequality.This article attempts to use spatial autocorrelation at county level to get refined spatial pattern of regional disparity in Chinese northeast economic region over 2000-2006 (2001 absent).The result in-dicates that the basic trend of regional economy is an increasing concentration of growth among counties in northeast economic region, and there are two geographical clusters of poorer coun-ties including the counties in western Liaoning Province and adjacent counties in Inner Mongolia, poorer counties of Heihe, Qiqihar and Suihua in Heilongjiang Province.This article also reveals that we can use the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis as the supplementary analysis methods in regional eco-nomic analysis.

  18. Metapopulations in agricultural landscapes: a spatially explicit trade-off analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Grashof-Bokdam, C.J.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a spatially explicit trade-off analysis of species conservation in agricultural areas. A spatially explicit model is presented that integrates an applied metapopulation model with a farm management model. The model is used to calculate production possibilities frontiers of net mo

  19. Spatial-decomposition analysis of electrical conductivity in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Min; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-12-28

    The electrical conductivity of room temperature ionic liquid (IL) is investigated with molecular dynamics simulation. A trajectory of 1 μs in total is analyzed for the ionic liquid [C4mim][NTf2] (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and the anion is also called TFSI or TFSA), and the ion motions are examined in direct connection to the conductivity within the framework formulated previously [K.-M. Tu, R. Ishizuka, and N. Matubayasi, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044126 (2014)]. As a transport coefficient, the computed electrical conductivity is in fair agreement with the experiment. The conductivity is then decomposed into the autocorrelation term of Nernst-Einstein form and the cross-correlation term describing the two-body motions of ions, and the cross-correlation term is further decomposed spatially to incorporate the structural insights on ion configurations into the dynamic picture. It is observed that the ion-pair contribution to the conductivity is not spatially localized and extends beyond the first coordination shell. The extent of localization of the cross-correlation effect in the conductivity is in correspondence to that of the spatial correlation represented by radial distribution function, which persists over nanometer scale.

  20. Monitoring Method of Cow Anthrax Based on Gis and Spatial Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yang, Yong; Wang, Hongbin; Dong, Jing; Zhao, Yujun; He, Jianbin; Fan, Honggang

    Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer application system, which possesses the ability of manipulating spatial information and has been used in many fields related with the spatial information management. Many methods and models have been established for analyzing animal diseases distribution models and temporal-spatial transmission models. Great benefits have been gained from the application of GIS in animal disease epidemiology. GIS is now a very important tool in animal disease epidemiological research. Spatial analysis function of GIS can be widened and strengthened by using spatial statistical analysis, allowing for the deeper exploration, analysis, manipulation and interpretation of spatial pattern and spatial correlation of the animal disease. In this paper, we analyzed the cow anthrax spatial distribution characteristics in the target district A (due to the secret of epidemic data we call it district A) based on the established GIS of the cow anthrax in this district in combination of spatial statistical analysis and GIS. The Cow anthrax is biogeochemical disease, and its geographical distribution is related closely to the environmental factors of habitats and has some spatial characteristics, and therefore the correct analysis of the spatial distribution of anthrax cow for monitoring and the prevention and control of anthrax has a very important role. However, the application of classic statistical methods in some areas is very difficult because of the pastoral nomadic context. The high mobility of livestock and the lack of enough suitable sampling for the some of the difficulties in monitoring currently make it nearly impossible to apply rigorous random sampling methods. It is thus necessary to develop an alternative sampling method, which could overcome the lack of sampling and meet the requirements for randomness. The GIS computer application software ArcGIS9.1 was used to overcome the lack of data of sampling sites.Using ArcGIS 9.1 and GEODA

  1. ESDA-GIS Analysis of Spatial-temporal Disparity in Rural Economic Development of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of spatial-temporal perspective,by using the data of farmers’ net income per capita from 1996 to 2007 in counties of Guangxi coupled with the global and local spatial auto-correlation analysis of ESDA and GIS technology,we conduct the empirical research on the rural economic developmental disparity of counties in Guangxi and the evolving characteristics of local spatial heterogeneity.The results show that the rural economic developmental disparity of counties in Guangxi from 1996 to 2007 varies infinitesimally on the whole,and the regions with similar rural economic developmental level have spatial concentrated distribution.Based on these,the local MORAN’S I scatter diagram and LISA concentration diagram are drawn.In comparison with the traditional analytical method,the spatial analytical method of ESDA-GIS can explain the problem of spatial heterogeneity of rural economic development clearly,and have direct visual effect.

  2. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  3. SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES FOR HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ANALYSIS GOO JUN * AND JOYDEEP GHOSH* Abstract. A semi-supervised learning...

  4. Analysis of SWOT spatial and temporal samplings over continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, Sylvain; Lamy, Alain; Mognard, Nelly

    2014-05-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, collaboratively developed by NASA, CNES and CSA, is a joint oceanography/continental hydrology mission planned for launch in 2020. In June 2013, a new SWOT orbit has been selected with a 77.6° inclination, a 21 days repeat cycle and a 891 km altitude. The main satellite payload (a Ka-band SAR Interferometer), will provide 2D maps of water elevation, mask and slope over two swaths, both having a 50 km extent. These two swaths will be separated by a 20 km nadir gap. Most of the studies concerning SWOT published since 2007 have considered a former orbit with a 78° inclination, 22 day repeat orbit and a 970 km altitude and a 60 km extent for each swath. None of them have studied the newly selected orbit and the impact of the 20 km nadir gap on the spatial coverage has not been much explored. The purpose of the work presented here is to investigate the spatial and temporal coverage given this new orbit and the actual swath extent (2*50 km swaths with the 20 km nadir gap in between) and compare it to the former SWOT configuration. It is shown that the new configuration will have almost no impact on the computation of monthly averages, however it will impact the spatial coverage. Because of the nadir gap, the orbit repeatitivity and the swaths extent, 3.6% of the continental surfaces in between 78°S and 78°N will never be observed by SWOT (which was previously equal to 2.2% with the former SWOT configuration). The equatorial regions will be the most impacted, as uncovered area could go up to ~14% locally, whereas it never exceeded 9% with the previous SWOT configuration.

  5. Spatial behavior analysis at the global level using fractal geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Roger C

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that an estimate of fractal dimension can provide a useful metric for quantifying settlement patterns. This study uses fractal methods to investigate settlement patterns at a global scale showing that the scaling behavior of the pattern of the world's largest cities corresponds to that typically observed for coastlines and rivers. This serves to validate the use of fractal dimension as a scale-independent measure of settlement patterns which can be correlated with other physical features. Such a measure may be a useful validation criterion for models of human settlement and spatial behavior.

  6. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2015-01-01

    extracted directly from tissue sections. PLESA uses a sealed and pressurized sampling probe that enables the use of chloroform-containing extraction solvents for efficient in situ lipid microextraction with a spatial resolution of 400 μm. Quantification of lipid species is achieved by the inclusion...... of internal lipid standards in the extraction solvent. The analysis of lipid microextracts by nanoelectrospray ionization provides long-lasting ion spray which in conjunction with a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer enables identification and quantification of molecular lipid species using a method...

  7. Is Spatial Resolution Critical in Urbanization Velocity Analysis? Investigations in the Pearl River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhu Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid-based urbanization velocity analysis of remote sensing imagery is used to measure urban growth rates. However, it remains unclear how critical the spatial resolution of the imagery is to such grid-based approaches. This research therefore investigated how urbanization velocity estimates respond to different spatial resolutions, as determined by the grid sizes used. Landsat satellite images of the Pearl River Delta (PRD in China from the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 were hierarchically aggregated using different grid sizes. Statistical analyses of urbanization velocity derived using different spatial resolutions (or grid sizes were used to investigate the relationships between socio-economic indicators and the velocity of urbanization for 27 large cities in PRD. The results revealed that those cities with above-average urbanization velocities remain unaffected by the spatial resolution (or grid-size, and the relationships between urbanization velocities and socio-economic indicators are independent of spatial resolution (or grid sizes used. Moreover, empirical variogram models, the local variance model, and the geographical variance model all indicated that coarse resolution version (480 m of Landsat images based on aggregated pixel yielded more appropriate results than the original fine resolution version (30 m, when identifying the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation and spatial structure variability of urbanization patterns and processes. The results conclude that the most appropriate spatial resolution for investigations into urbanization velocities is not always the highest resolution. The resulting patterns of urbanization velocities at different spatial resolutions can be used as a basis for studying the spatial heterogeneity of other datasets with variable spatial resolutions, especially for evaluating the capability of a multi-resolution dataset in reflecting spatial structure and spatial autocorrelation features in an

  8. A Spatial Analysis of Driving Behavior in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soltani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAfter industrial revolution, driving vehicles became a necessity in fulfilling human needs in different aspects of life. This is a positive phenomenon but is not without negative side effects, such as, for example, accidents, air pollution, traffic jam etc. In many countries, road construction and maintenance is far behind innovations of new vehicles. In many places the road quality or size is not able to bare the traffic load, hence the reason for significant rise in accidents and human life loss in the second half of the twentieth century in developed and developing countries. That is, 1.2 million deaths worldwide are caused by vehicle accidents. Accidents are the first cause of injuries and second cause of death in the population of Iran at ages bellow 40. In vehicle accidents, three factors are involved: human, vehicle and road quality. The human factor is more apparent since it governs the other two. Since the human factor is influenced by social, economic, cultural, political and other environmental aspects, its behavior in driving varies with respect to space and time. Consequently the question addressed in this paper is as follow: is there a correlation between where does the driver live and how his driving behavior is? And how is the driver’s spatial distribution manner when it comes to improper driving behavior on the intra-city routs? The megacity of Isfahan as a touristic city is of concern in this respect. Thus the broader questions are: which are the factors involved in affecting the driving behavior of drivers in Isfahan? What are the patterns which influence driving behaviors and what are the effective factors involved in developing these behaviors? For this purpose, the drivers’ behavior of different sections of the city are evaluated based on different variables and the local roads. Finally, the worst exposed driving behaviors of domestic drivers on domestic roads are identified. Material and Methods This is a

  9. Ambiguous symbols: why there were no figurines in Neolithic Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the scarcity of representational art, and particularly of representations of the human body, in Neolithic Britain, in contrast with the Neolithic of south-east Europe. My suggestion is that this contrast can be linked with differing notions of personal identity and bodily integrity. In later Neolithic Britain, a complex mode of non-representational decoration developed, which elaborated the practice of making reference to absent persons and things by using deliberately ambiguous motifs, which connected past and present as well as remote locations.

  10. Short Communication. Restoring monoculture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. To improve the quality of monoculture plantations in China.Area of study. structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China.Material and Methods. Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations.Main results. The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure.Research highlights. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world.Key words: monoculture plantation; structure-based forest management; stand spatial structure; forest restoration

  11. Analysis of the buckling of spatial truss with cross lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Kirsanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a beam type spatial truss is proposed. The truss consists of three plane trusses with a cross lattice. The supports of the structure are modeled at the four corner points. The simple analytical dependence of the structure deflection on its size, load and a number of panels has been found for the case of an even number of panels. In the case of an odd number of panels the system is kinematically changeable, which is evident from the zero determinant of the system of equilibrium equations. The system of Maple computer algebra and the method of induction, previously proposed and developed by the author when solving the problems of planar and spatial trusses has been used. A nonmonotonic dependence of the deflection on the number of panels and the expected increase in stiffness at the increased truss height and unexpected decrease in stiffness at an increased base width have been found. The forces in some members of the truss change the sign depending on the parity of the number of panels in half of a span. Asymptotes of the solution are detected. The features of the solution allow optimizing the size of the structure.

  12. Spatial compression algorithm for the analysis of very large multivariate images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-07-15

    A method for spatially compressing data sets enables the efficient analysis of very large multivariate images. The spatial compression algorithms use a wavelet transformation to map an image into a compressed image containing a smaller number of pixels that retain the original image's information content. Image analysis can then be performed on a compressed data matrix consisting of a reduced number of significant wavelet coefficients. Furthermore, a block algorithm can be used for performing common operations more efficiently. The spatial compression algorithms can be combined with spectral compression algorithms to provide further computational efficiencies.

  13. Why are more women working in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H E; Layard, R; Owen, S J

    1985-01-01

    Using a pooled time series, cross section supply function for single year age groups of Britain women, it is determined that female labor force participation rose steadily from World War II to 1977. Until the 1970s, the main increase was among married women aged 35 and over. Possible explanations for the post World War II rise in female labor participation are: 1) part time jobs were more available to women, 2) the drop in real prices of domestic appliances, processed foods, and easy care fabrics reduced the time required to take care of a family, and 3) the effect of long term changes in the roles women see for themselves in life. Women's wages rose sharply between 1973 and 1975, by around 15%; this was due to the Equal Pay Act of 1970. In addition, the educational attainment of women relative to men was constant or declining for cohorts entering the labor force up to the 1960s. Age specific employment rates are explained by 3 kinds of variables: 1) those whose values change from year to year and are age specific--life cycle variables, 2) those whose values change from year to year but affect all ages equally--calendar time variables, and 3) those that differ between cohorts but do not change over the life cycle--cohort variables. Results show that: 1) each preschool child lowers participation by 35% each primary school child by 14% and each secondary school child by 7%; 2) the relative earnings of women are highest early in life, 3) age leads to a decline in participation at an increasing rate, and 4) vacancies registered at employment exchanges are more or less untrended between 1950 and 1974. Completed family size, education, and early unemployment and wartime work experience do not explain the strong trend in the coefficients on the cohort dummies; however, real wages do. In time series, men's wages and women's wages are highly correlated, and each is nearly as highly correlated with time. During the 1970s, the female/male ratio index in each industry rose by

  14. Sensitivity analyses of spatial population viability analysis models for species at risk and habitat conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona R; Curtis, Janelle M R; Arcese, Peter; Rosenfeld, Jordan

    2009-02-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is an effective framework for modeling species- and habitat-recovery efforts, but uncertainty in parameter estimates and model structure can lead to unreliable predictions. Integrating complex and often uncertain information into spatial PVA models requires that comprehensive sensitivity analyses be applied to explore the influence of spatial and nonspatial parameters on model predictions. We reviewed 87 analyses of spatial demographic PVA models of plants and animals to identify common approaches to sensitivity analysis in recent publications. In contrast to best practices recommended in the broader modeling community, sensitivity analyses of spatial PVAs were typically ad hoc, inconsistent, and difficult to compare. Most studies applied local approaches to sensitivity analyses, but few varied multiple parameters simultaneously. A lack of standards for sensitivity analysis and reporting in spatial PVAs has the potential to compromise the ability to learn collectively from PVA results, accurately interpret results in cases where model relationships include nonlinearities and interactions, prioritize monitoring and management actions, and ensure conservation-planning decisions are robust to uncertainties in spatial and nonspatial parameters. Our review underscores the need to develop tools for global sensitivity analysis and apply these to spatial PVA.

  15. Spherical harmonic decomposition applied to spatial-temporal analysis of human high-density EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Wingeier, Brett M.; Nunez, Paul L.; Silberstein, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate an application of spherical harmonic decomposition to analysis of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). We implement two methods and discuss issues specific to analysis of hemispherical, irregularly sampled data. Performance of the methods and spatial sampling requirements are quantified using simulated data. The analysis is applied to experimental EEG data, confirming earlier reports of an approximate frequency-wavenumber relationship in some bands.

  16. Spherical harmonic decomposition applied to spatial-temporal analysis of human high-density EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Wingeier, B M; Silberstein, R B; Wingeier, Brett M.; Nunez, Paul L.; Silberstein, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate an application of spherical harmonic decomposition to analysis of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). We implement two methods and discuss issues specific to analysis of hemispherical, irregularly sampled data. Performance of the methods and spatial sampling requirements are quantified using simulated data. The analysis is applied to experimental EEG data, confirming earlier reports of an approximate frequency-wavenumber relationship in some bands.

  17. Analysis of field-scale spatial correlations and variations of soil nutrients using geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Yu, Wenwen; Shi, Jianhan; Zhang, Peipei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-02-01

    Spatial correlations and soil nutrient variations are important for soil nutrient management. They help to reduce the negative impacts of agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Based on the sampled available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK), soil nutrient data from 2010, the spatial correlation, was analyzed, and the probabilities of the nutrient's abundance or deficiency were discussed. This paper presents a statistical approach to spatial analysis, the spatial correlation analysis (SCA), which was originally developed for describing heterogeneity in the presence of correlated variation and based on ordinary kriging (OK) results. Indicator kriging (IK) was used to assess the susceptibility of excess of soil nutrients based on crop needs. The kriged results showed there was a distinct spatial variability in the concentration of all three soil nutrients. High concentrations of these three soil nutrients were found near Anzhou. As the distance from the center of town increased, the concentration of the soil nutrients gradually decreased. Spatially, the relationship between AN and AP was negative, and the relationship between AP and AK was not clear. The IK results showed that there were few areas with a risk of AN and AP overabundance. However, almost the entire study region was at risk of AK overabundance. Based on the soil nutrient distribution results, it is clear that the spatial variability of the soil nutrients differed throughout the study region. This spatial soil nutrient variability might be caused by different fertilizer types and different fertilizing practices.

  18. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  19. Spatial and environmental connectivity analysis in a cholera vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Root, Elisabeth D; Yunus, Mohammad

    2009-02-01

    This paper develops theory and methods for vaccine trials that utilize spatial and environmental information. Satellite imagery is used to identify whether households are connected to one another via water bodies in a study area in rural Bangladesh. Then relationships between neighborhood-level cholera vaccine coverage and placebo incidence and neighborhood-level spatial variables are measured. The study hypothesis is that unvaccinated people who are environmentally connected to people who have been vaccinated will be at lower risk compared to unvaccinated people who are environmentally connected to people who have not been vaccinated. We use four datasets including: a cholera vaccine trial database, a longitudinal demographic database of the rural population from which the vaccine trial participants were selected, a household-level geographic information system (GIS) database of the same study area, and high resolution Quickbird satellite imagery. An environmental connectivity metric was constructed by integrating the satellite imagery with the vaccine and demographic databases linked with GIS. The results show that there is a relationship between neighborhood rates of cholera vaccination and placebo incidence. Thus, people are indirectly protected when more people in their environmentally connected neighborhood are vaccinated. This result is similar to our previous work that used a simpler Euclidean distance neighborhood to measure neighborhood vaccine coverage [Ali, M., Emch, M., von Seidlein, L., Yunus, M., Sack, D. A., Holmgren, J., et al. (2005). Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh. Lancet, 366(9479), 44-49]. Our new method of measuring environmental connectivity is more precise since it takes into account the transmission mode of cholera and therefore this study validates our assertion that the oral cholera vaccine provides indirect protection in addition to direct protection.

  20. Dynamics of land change in India: a fine-scale spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, P.; Roy, P. S.; Sharma, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Ramachandran, R.; Joshi, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Land is scarce in India: India occupies 2.4% of worlds land area, but supports over 1/6th of worlds human and livestock population. This high population to land ratio, combined with socioeconomic development and increasing consumption has placed tremendous pressure on India's land resources for food, feed, and fuel. In this talk, we present contemporary (1985 to 2005) spatial estimates of land change in India using national-level analysis of Landsat imageries. Further, we investigate the causes of the spatial patterns of change using two complementary lines of evidence. First, we use statistical models estimated at macro-scale to understand the spatial relationships between land change patterns and their concomitant drivers. This analysis using our newly compiled extensive socioeconomic database at village level (~630,000 units), is 100x higher in spatial resolution compared to existing datasets, and covers over 200 variables. The detailed socioeconomic data enabled the fine-scale spatial analysis with Landsat data. Second, we synthesized information from over 130 survey based case studies on land use drivers in India to complement our macro-scale analysis. The case studies are especially useful to identify unobserved variables (e.g. farmer's attitude towards risk). Ours is the most detailed analysis of contemporary land change in India, both in terms of national extent, and the use of detailed spatial information on land change, socioeconomic factors, and synthesis of case studies.

  1. Abundant Topological Outliers in Social Media Data and Their Effect on Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholt, Rene; Steiger, Enrico; Resch, Bernd; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Twitter and related social media feeds have become valuable data sources to many fields of research. Numerous researchers have thereby used social media posts for spatial analysis, since many of them contain explicit geographic locations. However, despite its widespread use within applied research, a thorough understanding of the underlying spatial characteristics of these data is still lacking. In this paper, we investigate how topological outliers influence the outcomes of spatial analyses of social media data. These outliers appear when different users contribute heterogeneous information about different phenomena simultaneously from similar locations. As a consequence, various messages representing different spatial phenomena are captured closely to each other, and are at risk to be falsely related in a spatial analysis. Our results reveal indications for corresponding spurious effects when analyzing Twitter data. Further, we show how the outliers distort the range of outcomes of spatial analysis methods. This has significant influence on the power of spatial inferential techniques, and, more generally, on the validity and interpretability of spatial analysis results. We further investigate how the issues caused by topological outliers are composed in detail. We unveil that multiple disturbing effects are acting simultaneously and that these are related to the geographic scales of the involved overlapping patterns. Our results show that at some scale configurations, the disturbances added through overlap are more severe than at others. Further, their behavior turns into a volatile and almost chaotic fluctuation when the scales of the involved patterns become too different. Overall, our results highlight the critical importance of thoroughly considering the specific characteristics of social media data when analyzing them spatially.

  2. A comprehensive analysis of a 3-P (Pa) S spatial parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Wang, Liping; Wu, Jun; Wang, Jinsong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a novel 3-degree of freedom (3-DOF) spatial parallel kinematic machine (PKM) is analyzed. The manipulator owns three main motions (two rotations and one translation) and three concomitant motions (one rotation and two translations). At first, the structure of this spatial PKM is simplified according to the characteristic of each limb. Secondly, the kinematics model of this spatial PKM is set up. In addition, the relationship between the main motions and concomitant motions is studied. The workspaces respectively based on the outputs and inputs are derived and analyzed. Furthermore, the velocity model is put forward. Two indexes based on the velocity model are employed to investigate the performance of this spatial PKM. At last, the output error model can be obtained and simulated. The comprehensive kinematics analysis in this paper is greatly useful for the future applications of this spatial PKM.

  3. Oesophageal cancer mortality in Spain: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Pérez Javier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oesophageal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Its incidence and mortality rates show a wide geographical variation at a world and regional level. Geographic mapping of age-standardized, cause-specific death rates at a municipal level could be a helpful and powerful tool for providing clues leading to a better understanding of its aetiology. Methods This study sought to describe the geographic distribution of oesophageal cancer mortality for Spain's 8077 towns, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Maps were plotted, depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the spatial pattern of the posterior probability of RR being greater than 1. Results Important differences associated with area of residence were observed in risk of dying from oesophageal cancer in Spain during the study period (1989–1998. Among men, excess risk appeared across the north of the country, along a band spanning the length of the Cantabrian coastline, Navarre, the north of Castile & León and the north-west of La Rioja. Excess risk was likewise observed in the provinces of Cadiz and part of Seville in Andalusia, the islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, and some towns in the Barcelona and Gerona areas. Among women, there was a noteworthy absence of risk along the mid-section of the Cantabrian seaboard, and increases in mortality, not observed for men, in the west of Extremadura and south-east of Andalusia. Conclusion These major gender- and area-related geographical differences in risk would seem to reflect differences in the prevalence of some well-established and modifiable risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and diet. In addition, excess risks were in evidence for both sexes in some areas, possibly suggesting the implication of certain local environmental or socio-cultural factors. From a public health standpoint, small

  4. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  5. Boom or Bust: Britain’s Nuclear Deterrent Beyond 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    today’s rapidly changing world the sentiments of author Mark Steyn strikes a chord when he states: North Korea is assisting the Iranians with their...Security? General Sir Hugh Beach, a vocal and long-term critic of British nuclear weapons, argued that, "Britain cannot claim any direct security

  6. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  7. Review Essay: Race and Electoral Politics in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain through some of the major works in this field starting from late 1980s to the present, written mainly from sociological and political science perspectives. The prime focus of these studies is to understand the dynamics of electoral participation and representation of racial minorities in Britain, chiefly Asians and Afro-Caribbeans as the largest ethnic minority groups. They examine the trends in electoral participation and representation of ethnic minorities, seek to identify the socioeconomic and political factors that have been shaping the electoral participation of minority populations, and investigate the relationship between mainstream political institutions in Britain (such as the major political parties and policy interests of ethnic minorities, in particular, vis-à-vis electoral involvement. This article presents the major strengths and findings of the literature, followed by a discussion of some of the key debates that are still unresolved. It then discusses the substantive theoretical and methodological weaknesses of the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain, and concludes by suggesting unexplored research areas for future research.

  8. Influences of Customs In Britain on English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Ya Qing

    2009-01-01

    Idioms, which reflect customs, are the essence of culture in every country. It is necessary for us to become aware of the increasing significance of idioms learning. This article will be of help to you to learn about the meaning and usages of some idioms related to customs in Britain as well as the influence of the customs on these idioms.

  9. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  10. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

    1991-01-01

    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  11. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  12. Diet, social differentiation and cultural change in Roman Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses stable isotope analyses (d 13 C and d 15 N) of human bone collagen to reconstruct the diet of three Romano-British (first to early fifth century AD) populations from Gloucestershire in South West England. Gloucestershire was an important part of Roman Britain with two major admini...... sensitive, if settlement-specific, indicator of social differentiation and culture change....

  13. Punjabi Childrearing in Britain: Development of Identity, Religion and Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, J. S.; Ghuman, Paul A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interviewed two generations of Punjabi mothers living in Britain. Found that while second-generation Punjabis are changing some traditional mores (equal treatment of boys and girls, modified system of arranged marriage), they are also eager to transmit the core values (religion, mother tongue, familial spirit) of their culture and want their…

  14. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  15. Advances in diagnosis and spatial analysis of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed.

  16. Spatial sensitivity analysis of snow cover data in a distributed rainfall–runoff model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Berezowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the availability of spatially distributed data sets for distributed rainfall–runoff modelling is strongly growing, more attention should be paid to the influence of the quality of the data on the calibration. While a lot of progress has been made on using distributed data in simulations of hydrological models, sensitivity of spatial data with respect to model results is not well understood. In this paper we develop a spatial sensitivity analysis (SA method for snow cover fraction input data (SCF for a distributed rainfall–runoff model to investigate if the model is differently subjected to SCF uncertainty in different zones of the model. The analysis was focused on the relation between the SCF sensitivity and the physical, spatial parameters and processes of a distributed rainfall–runoff model. The methodology is tested for the Biebrza River catchment, Poland for which a distributed WetSpa model is setup to simulate two years of daily runoff. The SA uses the Latin-Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT algorithm, which uses different response functions for each 4 km × 4 km snow zone. The results show that the spatial patterns of sensitivity can be easily interpreted by co-occurrence of different environmental factors such as: geomorphology, soil texture, land-use, precipitation and temperature. Moreover, the spatial pattern of sensitivity under different response functions is related to different spatial parameters and physical processes. The results clearly show that the LH-OAT algorithm is suitable for the spatial sensitivity analysis approach and that the SCF is spatially sensitive in the WetSpa model.

  17. Cartographic Modeling: Computer-assisted Analysis of Spatially Defined Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic models addressing a wide variety of applications are composed of fundamental map processing operations. These primitive operations are neither data base nor application-specific. By organizing the set of operations into a mathematical-like structure, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling framework can be developed. Among the major classes of primitive operations are those associated with reclassifying map categories, overlaying maps, determining distance and connectivity, and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods. The conceptual framework of cartographic modeling is established and techniques for characterizing neighborhoods are used as a means of demonstrating some of the more sophisticated procedures of computer-assisted map analysis. A cartographic model for assessing effective roundwood supply is briefly described as an example of a computer analysis. Most of the techniques described have been implemented as part of the map analysis package developed at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

  18. Spatial factor analysis: a new tool for estimating joint species distributions and correlations in species range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Shelton, Andrew O.;

    2015-01-01

    1. Predicting and explaining the distribution and density of species is one of the oldest concerns in ecology. Species distributions can be estimated using geostatistical methods, which estimate a latent spatial variable explaining observed variation in densities, but geostatistical methods may...... be imprecise for species with low densities or few observations. Additionally, simple geostatistical methods fail to account for correlations in distribution among species and generally estimate such cross-correlations as a post hoc exercise. 2. We therefore present spatial factor analysis (SFA), a spatial...

  19. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.

  20. Detecting the Land-Cover Changes Induced by Large-Physical Disturbances Using Landscape Metrics, Spatial Sampling, Simulation and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran’I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE. Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management.

  1. Boundaries, links and clusters: a new paradigm in spatial analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoff M; Kaufmann, Andy; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2008-12-01

    of spatial pattern.

  2. Analysis of the automated systems of planning of spatial constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.С. Барабаш

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the questions of analysis of existing SAPR and questions of development of new information technologies of planning on the basis of integration of programmatic complexes with the use of united informatively-logical model of object.

  3. Spatial calculating analysis model research of land-use change in urban fringe districts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The spatial calculating analysis model is based on GIS overlay. It compartmental-izes the research district land into three spatial parts: unchanged part,converted part and increased part. By this method we can evaluate the numerical model and dynamic degree model for existing calculating changing speed of land-use. Fur-thermore the paper raises reviving the calculating analysis model of spatial infor-mation in order to predict the dynamic changing level of all sorts of land. More concretely speaking,the model is mainly to know the changing area and changing speed (increased or decreased) of different land classifications from the micro-cosmic angle and to clearly show the spatial distribution and spatio-temporal law for changing urban lands. We discover why the situation has taken place by com-bining social and economic conditions. The result indicates that the calculating analysis model of spatial information can derive more accurate procedure of spatial transference and increase of all kinds of land from the microcosmic angle. By this model and technology,we can make the research of spatio-temporal structure evolution in land-use be more systematical and deeper. The result will benefit the planning management of urban land-use of developed districts in China in the fu-ture.

  4. Spatial analysis of elderly access to primary care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Gracia Nancy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admissions for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are considered preventable admissions, because they are unlikely to occur when good preventive health care is received. Thus, high rates of admissions for ACSCs among the elderly (persons aged 65 or above who qualify for Medicare health insurance are signals of poor preventive care utilization. The relevant geographic market to use in studying these admission rates is the primary care physician market. Our conceptual model assumes that local market conditions serving as interventions along the pathways to preventive care services utilization can impact ACSC admission rates. Results We examine the relationships between market-level supply and demand factors on market-level rates of ACSC admissions among the elderly residing in the U.S. in the late 1990s. Using 6,475 natural markets in the mainland U.S. defined by The Health Resources and Services Administration's Primary Care Service Area Project, spatial regression is used to estimate the model, controlling for disease severity using detailed information from Medicare claims files. Our evidence suggests that elderly living in impoverished rural areas or in sprawling suburban places are about equally more likely to be admitted for ACSCs. Greater availability of physicians does not seem to matter, but greater prevalence of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates, relative to U.S. medical graduates, does seem to reduce ACSC admissions, especially in poor rural areas. Conclusion The relative importance of non-physician clinicians and international medical graduates in providing primary care to the elderly in geographic areas of greatest need can inform the ongoing debate regarding whether there is an impending shortage of physicians in the United States. These findings support other authors who claim that the existing supply of physicians is perhaps adequate, however the distribution of them across

  5. A Suite of Tools for ROC Analysis of Spatial Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Rodrigues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC is widely used for assessing the performance of classification algorithms. In GIScience, ROC has been applied to assess models aimed at predicting events, such as land use/cover change (LUCC, species distribution and disease risk. However, GIS software packages offer few statistical tests and guidance tools for ROC analysis and interpretation. This paper presents a suite of GIS tools designed to facilitate ROC curve analysis for GIS users by applying proper statistical tests and analysis procedures. The tools are freely available as models and submodels of Dinamica EGO freeware. The tools give the ROC curve, the area under the curve (AUC, partial AUC, lower and upper AUCs, the confidence interval of AUC, the density of event in probability bins and tests to evaluate the difference between the AUCs of two models. We present first the procedures and statistical tests implemented in Dinamica EGO, then the application of the tools to assess LUCC and species distribution models. Finally, we interpret and discuss the ROC-related statistics resulting from various case studies.

  6. Spatial Characterization of Landscapes through Multifractal Analysis of DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evolution is driven by abiotic, biotic, and anthropic factors. The interactions among these factors and their influence at different scales create a complex dynamic. Landscapes have been shown to exhibit numerous scaling laws, from Horton’s laws to more sophisticated scaling of heights in topography and river network topology. This scaling and multiscaling analysis has the potential to characterise the landscape in terms of the statistical signature of the measure selected. The study zone is a matrix obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM (map 10 × 10 m, and height 1 m that corresponds to homogeneous region with respect to soil characteristics and climatology known as “Monte El Pardo” although the water level of a reservoir and the topography play a main role on its organization and evolution. We have investigated whether the multifractal analysis of a DEM shows common features that can be used to reveal the underlying patterns and information associated with the landscape of the DEM mapping and studied the influence of the water level of the reservoir on the applied analysis. The results show that the use of the multifractal approach with mean absolute gradient data is a useful tool for analysing the topography represented by the DEM.

  7. Integrating cross-scale analysis in the spatial and temporal domains for classification of behavioral movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since various behavioral movement patterns are likely to be valid within different, unique ranges of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., instantaneous, diurnal, or seasonal with the corresponding spatial extents, a cross-scale approach is needed for accurate classification of behaviors expressed in movement. Here, we introduce a methodology for the characterization and classification of behavioral movement data that relies on computing and analyzing movement features jointly in both the spatial and temporal domains. The proposed methodology consists of three stages. In the first stage, focusing on the spatial domain, the underlying movement space is partitioned into several zonings that correspond to different spatial scales, and features related to movement are computed for each partitioning level. In the second stage, concentrating on the temporal domain, several movement parameters are computed from trajectories across a series of temporal windows of increasing sizes, yielding another set of input features for the classification. For both the spatial and the temporal domains, the ``reliable scale'' is determined by an automated procedure. This is the scale at which the best classification accuracy is achieved, using only spatial or temporal input features, respectively. The third stage takes the measures from the spatial and temporal domains of movement, computed at the corresponding reliable scales, as input features for behavioral classification. With a feature selection procedure, the most relevant features contributing to known behavioral states are extracted and used to learn a classification model. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a dataset of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio swimming movements in testing tanks, following exposure to different drug treatments. Our results show that behavioral classification accuracy greatly increases when firstly cross-scale analysis is used to determine the best analysis scale, and

  8. Analysis of Participatory Processes in the Formulation of Spatial Plan for Nature Park Medvednica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lovrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This research aims to assess the stakeholders influence on spatial planning of Nature Park Medvednica, a mountainous protected area adjacent to Zagreb, the capital city of Croatia, which tries to hold on to the pressure of the urbanization. Because of the inexistence of spatial plan which is required with the Croatian laws, its area was significantly decreased in 2009. This kind of research has not been done yet for NP Medvednica, and it will provide a contribution to the process of developing a spatial Plan for NP Medvednica. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the framework of stakeholder analysis, for which a series of in-depth interviews with - stakeholders were performed, and documents concerning the spatial plan were analysed. The data gained was processed in MAXQDA software for qualitative analysis. Results and Conclusion: The gathered data explains which are the disadvantages of the tree processes of the formulation of the spatial plan and is giving a possible theoretical explanation or a model which can be implied in any decision making process involving stakeholders in natural resources management in within a given political and cultural context. Description of the past and current spatial planning situation of the NP Medvednica was specified and issues and stakeholders concerning the creation of the spatial plan where identified. The key conflict areas that affect the formulation of spatial plan were detected and examined. The level of participation of stakeholders in the context of fulfilment of their own interests was assessed as well as the influence on participation processes of different stakeholder groups on the formulation of the spatial plan. In order to have proper citizens and stakeholders participation some changes in the legislation should take place.

  9. Transmission parameters of the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chis Ster

    Full Text Available Despite intensive ongoing research, key aspects of the spatial-temporal evolution of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemic in Great Britain (GB remain unexplained. Here we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method for estimating epidemiological parameters of the 2001 outbreak for a range of simple transmission models. We make the simplifying assumption that infectious farms were completely observed in 2001, equivalent to assuming that farms that were proactively culled but not diagnosed with FMD were not infectious, even if some were infected. We estimate how transmission parameters varied through time, highlighting the impact of the control measures on the progression of the epidemic. We demonstrate statistically significant evidence for assortative contact patterns between animals of the same species. Predictive risk maps of the transmission potential in different geographic areas of GB are presented for the fitted models.

  10. Geospatial Analysis Requires a Different Way of Thinking: The Problem of Spatial Heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial analysis is very much dominated by a Gaussian way of thinking, which assumes that things in the world can be characterized by a well-defined mean, i.e., things are more or less similar in size. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, many things in the world lack a well-defined mean, and therefore there are far more small things than large ones. This paper attempts to argue that geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking - a Paretian way of thinking that underlies skewed distribution such as power laws, Pareto and lognormal distributions. I review two properties of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, and point out that the notion of spatial heterogeneity in current spatial statistics is only used to characterize local variance of spatial dependence. I subsequently argue for a broad perspective on spatial heterogeneity, and suggest it be formulated as a scaling law. I further discuss the implications of Paretian thinking and the scaling law for better understan...

  11. An effect of spatial resolution of remotely sensed data for vegetation analysis over an arid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Y.; Tsuchiya, K.; Setoguchi, R.

    1997-05-01

    One of the recent trends in the development of an optical sensor of earth observation satellite is a great importance of spatial resolution and the order of 1 - 2 meter resolution sensor is under development. To cope with this trend analyses are made on the effect of extremely fine spatial resolution of land cover classification accuracy utilizing spatial resolution of 20 cm and 1 meter aerial multi-sensor data of an arid reddish land where desertification is taking place in small spatial scale. Applied methods are supervised classification with combination of multi-level slice(pallarelpiped classification) and the Mahalanobis distance. The result of analysis indicates that the difference is within several percentage for 3 categories of bare land, vegetation and shadow. It was also found that small dried sparse grass land which can be recognized in 20 cm resolution image is difficult to extract in 1 meter resolution image.

  12. Linking Neighborhood Characteristics and Drug-Related Police Interventions: A Bayesian Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of drug-related police interventions and the neighborhood characteristics influencing these spatial patterns. To this end, police officers ranked each census block group in Valencia, Spain (N = 552, providing an index of drug-related police interventions. Data from the City Statistics Office and observational variables were used to analyze neighborhood characteristics. Distance to the police station was used as the control variable. A Bayesian ecological analysis was performed with a spatial beta regression model. Results indicated that high physical decay, low socioeconomic status, and high immigrant concentration were associated with high levels of drug-related police interventions after adjustment for distance to the police station. Results illustrate the importance of a spatial approach to understanding crime.

  13. Channels of synthesis forty years on: integrated analysis of spatial economic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewings, Geoffrey J. D.; Nazara, Suahasil; Dridi, Chokri

    . Isard's vision of integrated modeling that was laid out in the 1960s book Methods of Regional Science provided a road map for the development of more sophisticated analysis of spatial economic systems. Some forty years later, we look back at this vision and trace developments in a sample of three areas - demographic-econometric integrated modeling, spatial interaction modeling, and environmental-economic modeling. Attention will be focused on methodological advances and their motivation by new developments in theory as well as innovations in the applications of these models to address new policy challenges. Underlying the discussion will be an evaluation of the way in which spatial issues have been addressed, ranging from concerns with regionalization to issues of spillovers and spatial correlation.

  14. Laminar analysis of 7T BOLD using an imposed spatial activation pattern in human V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Jonathan R; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N; Wald, Lawrence L

    2010-10-01

    With sufficient image encoding, high-resolution fMRI studies are limited by the biological point-spread of the hemodynamic signal. The extent of this spread is determined by the local vascular distribution and by the spatial specificity of blood flow regulation, as well as by measurement parameters that (i) alter the relative sensitivity of the acquisition to activation-induced hemodynamic changes and (ii) determine the image contrast as a function of vessel size. In particular, large draining vessels on the cortical surface are a major contributor to both the BOLD signal change and to the spatial bias of the BOLD activation away from the site of neuronal activity. In this work, we introduce a laminar surface-based analysis method and study the relationship between spatial localization and activation strength as a function of laminar depth by acquiring 1mm isotropic, single-shot EPI at 7 T and sampling the BOLD signal exclusively from the superficial, middle, or deep cortical laminae. We show that highly-accelerated EPI can limit image distortions to the point where a boundary-based registration algorithm accurately aligns the EPI data to the surface reconstruction. The spatial spread of the BOLD response tangential to the cortical surface was analyzed as a function of cortical depth using our surface-based analysis. Although sampling near the pial surface provided the highest signal strength, it also introduced the most spatial error. Thus, avoiding surface laminae improved spatial localization by about 40% at a cost of 36% in z-statistic, implying that optimal spatial resolution in functional imaging of the cortex can be achieved using anatomically-informed spatial sampling to avoid large pial vessels.

  15. Analysis of a distributed neural system involved in spatial information, novelty, and memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, V; White, C D; Eliez, S; Glover, G H; Reiss, A L

    2000-10-01

    Perceiving a complex visual scene and encoding it into memory involves a hierarchical distributed network of brain regions, most notably the hippocampus (HIPP), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), lingual gyrus (LNG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Lesion and imaging studies in humans have suggested that these regions are involved in spatial information processing as well as novelty and memory encoding; however, the relative contributions of these regions of interest (ROIs) are poorly understood. This study investigated regional dissociations in spatial information and novelty processing in the context of memory encoding using a 2 x 2 factorial design with factors Novelty (novel vs. repeated) and Stimulus (viewing scenes with rich vs. poor spatial information). Greater activation was observed in the right than left hemisphere; however, hemispheric effects did not differ across regions, novelty, or stimulus type. Significant novelty effects were observed in all four regions. A significant ROI x Stimulus interaction was observed - spatial information processing effects were largest effects in the LNG, significant in the PHG and HIPP and nonsignificant in the IFG. Novelty processing was stimulus dependent in the LNG and stimulus independent in the PHG, HIPP, and IFG. Analysis of the profile of Novelty x Stimulus interaction across ROIs provided evidence for a hierarchical independence in novelty processing characterized by increased dissociation from spatial information processing. Despite these differences in spatial information processing, memory performance for novel scenes with rich and poor spatial information was not significantly different. Memory performance was inversely correlated with right IFG activation, suggesting the involvement of this region in strategically flawed encoding effort. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that memory encoding accounted for only a small fraction of the variance (temporal lobe activation. The implications of these results for

  16. SOIL SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND AGRICULTURAL LAND USE OPTIMIZATION BY USING GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and process of Geographic Information System (GIS) applied in soil spatial analysis, involving the collection of soil spatial data that GIS required, spatial analysis method of soil nutrient, land use, slope and exposure of geography, crop yield and other factors, and also including acquiring soil spatial information and creating thematic map, and so on. Taking Hengjing Town in Wuxian County of Jiangsu Province as a case study and the maximum income as a principle, and applying the GIS methods and their interrelated models, we have calculated the most optimized agricultural land and the possible maximum income of Hengjing Town. According to the method, we can rationally regulate local agricultural production, and put forward some scenarios for optimizing agricultural structure of Hengjing Town. The paper puts forward an evaluation method of land adaptability based on soil spatial analysis, and offers some research clews to optimize agricultural land use constitution, so the paper will be have important reference value for soil study.

  17. Spatial-Functional Analysis of Kurdish Courtyard Houses in Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A. Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was to analyze the concept of spatial-function in courtyard house layout and its influence to the cultural and social activities. Themes such as integration, segregation, accessibility and zoning of the building space layout are required to be deliberated, in order to achieve further understanding about the Kurdish social and cultural benchmarks (norms that might have affected by the spatial configuration of the house layouts. Approach: The study was based on the analysis from selected samples of courtyard house layouts in Erbil city, through adopting the theory of space syntax and its techniques (gamma analysis method. The purpose was to interpret and identify the mutual relationship between space and social life through both scales of spatial-functional analysis. Functionally, illustration and classification of the key zones and sectors of the house; spatially, measuring the main syntactic characteristics of spatial systems (house layoutsand translating it to numerical data in order to identify their effect that forming spatial patterns. Results: The functional approach for the design of residential spaces had a clear impact on the method of formation and organization of residential spaces (functional sectors through the indicators of physical and intellectual change that affected the nature of spontaneous social interaction in the traditional Kurdish courtyard houses in the city of Erbil. Conclusion: Social variables and factors stemming from the customs and traditions of the community have a direct impact on the residential function through the way of forming and configuration of its interior spaces, which had supported by discovering Genotypic spatial-functional patterns of house layouts (study sample.

  18. Press self-regulation in Britain: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the history of press self-regulation in Britain, from the 1947 Ross Commission to the 2012 Leveson Inquiry Commission. It considers the history of the Press Council and the Press Complaints Commission, analysing the ways they developed, their work, and how they have reached their current non-status. It is argued that the existing situation in Britain is far from satisfactory, and that the press should advance more elaborate mechanisms of self-control, establishing a new regulatory body called the Public and Press Council that will be anchored in law, empowering the new regulator with greater and unprecedented authority, and equipping it with substantive sanctioning abilities. The Public and Press Council should be independent and effective, with transparent policies, processes and responsibilities. Its adjudication should be made in accordance with a written, detailed Code of Practice.

  19. Analysis of spatial and temporal extreme monsoonal rainfall over South Asia using complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Nishant [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics, Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Bookhagen, Bodo [University of California Santa Barbara, Department of Geography, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marwan, Norbert [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Juergen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt University, Department of Physics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We present a detailed analysis of summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian peninsular using nonlinear spatial correlations. This analysis is carried out employing the tools of complex networks and a measure of nonlinear correlation for point processes such as rainfall, called event synchronization. This study provides valuable insights into the spatial organization, scales, and structure of the 90th and 94th percentile rainfall events during the Indian summer monsoon (June-September). We furthermore analyse the influence of different critical synoptic atmospheric systems and the impact of the steep Himalayan topography on rainfall patterns. The presented method not only helps us in visualising the structure of the extreme-event rainfall fields, but also identifies the water vapor pathways and decadal-scale moisture sinks over the region. Furthermore a simple scheme based on complex networks is presented to decipher the spatial intricacies and temporal evolution of monsoonal rainfall patterns over the last 6 decades. (orig.)

  20. Woodland Survey of Great Britain 1971-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. M.; Smart, S. M.; Bunce, R. G. H.

    2015-08-01

    The Woodland Survey of Great Britain is a unique data set, consisting of a detailed range of ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 30 years. A set of 103 woods spread across Britain were first surveyed in 1971, which were again surveyed in 2000-2003 (for convenience referred to subsequently as the "2001 survey"). Standardised methods of describing the trees, shrubs, ground flora, soils and general habitats present were used for both sets of surveys. The sample of 1648 plots spread through 103 woodland sites located across Britain makes it probably the most extensive quantitative ecological woodland survey undertaken in Britain; it is also notable for the range of sites that have been revisited after such a long interval. The data set provides a unique opportunity to explore the effects of a range of potential drivers of woodland change that operated between 1971 and 2001. The data set is available in four discrete parts, which have been assigned the following DOIs: 10.5285/4d93f9ac-68e3-49cf-8a41-4d02a7ead81a (Kirby et al., 2013b), 10.5285/d6409d40-58fe-4fa7-b7c8-71a105b965b4 (Kirby et al., 2013d), 10.5285/fb1e474d-456b-42a9-9a10-a02c35af10d2 (Kirby et al., 2013c), 10.5285 (Kirby et al., 2013a).

  1. Britain at CERN, from 12 to 14 November 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-seven companies presented their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition from 12 to 14 November. British industry exhibited products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects were cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition was organised by BEAMA, the Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations.

  2. Strategies of Higher Education Institutions Development in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Komochkova Olga

    2015-01-01

    The current stage of higher education sector transformation in Ukraine has been indicated. The study of foreign experience, namely of Great Britain, and the use of positive aspects of such experience have been justified. Information sources of Universities UK (Universities UK Strategic Plan 2013-2018; Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group; Annual Report and Consolidated Financial Statements of UUK) and The Str...

  3. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  4. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Beaujouan, Éva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979–2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marr...

  5. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer Ahmed; Haralambos Mouratidis; David Preston

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s ...

  6. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  7. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  8. Spatial sensitivity analysis of remote sensing snow cover fraction data in a distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowski, Tomasz; Chormański, Jarosław; Nossent, Jiri; Batelaan, Okke

    2014-05-01

    Distributed hydrological models enhance the analysis and explanation of environmental processes. As more spatial input data and time series become available, more analysis is required of the sensitivity of the data on the simulations. Most research so far focussed on the sensitivity of precipitation data in distributed hydrological models. However, these results can not be compared until a universal approach to quantify the sensitivity of a model to spatial data is available. The frequently tested and used remote sensing data for distributed models is snow cover. Snow cover fraction (SCF) remote sensing products are easily available from the internet, e.g. MODIS snow cover product MOD10A1 (daily snow cover fraction at 500m spatial resolution). In this work a spatial sensitivity analysis (SA) of remotely sensed SCF from MOD10A1 was conducted with the distributed WetSpa model. The aim is to investigate if the WetSpa model is differently subjected to SCF uncertainty in different areas of the model domain. The analysis was extended to look not only at SA quantities but also to relate them to the physical parameters and processes in the study area. The study area is the Biebrza River catchment, Poland, which is considered semi natural catchment and subject to a spring snow melt regime. Hydrological simulations are performed with the distributed WetSpa model, with a simulation period of 2 hydrological years. For the SA the Latin-Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) algorithm is used, with a set of different response functions in regular 4 x 4 km grid. The results show that the spatial patterns of sensitivity can be easily interpreted by co-occurrence of different landscape features. Moreover, the spatial patterns of the SA results are related to the WetSpa spatial parameters and to different physical processes. Based on the study results, it is clear that spatial approach of SA can be performed with the proposed algorithm and the MOD10A1 SCF is spatially sensitive in

  9. An Integrative Platform for Three-dimensional Quantitative Analysis of Spatially Heterogeneous Metastasis Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldner, Ian H.; Yang, Lin; Cowdrick, Kyle R.; Wang, Qingfei; Alvarez Barrios, Wendy V.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Zhang, Yizhe; Host, Misha; Liu, Fang; Chen, Danny Z.; Zhang, Siyuan

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic microenvironments are spatially and compositionally heterogeneous. This seemingly stochastic heterogeneity provides researchers great challenges in elucidating factors that determine metastatic outgrowth. Herein, we develop and implement an integrative platform that will enable researchers to obtain novel insights from intricate metastatic landscapes. Our two-segment platform begins with whole tissue clearing, staining, and imaging to globally delineate metastatic landscape heterogeneity with spatial and molecular resolution. The second segment of our platform applies our custom-developed SMART 3D (Spatial filtering-based background removal and Multi-chAnnel forest classifiers-based 3D ReconsTruction), a multi-faceted image analysis pipeline, permitting quantitative interrogation of functional implications of heterogeneous metastatic landscape constituents, from subcellular features to multicellular structures, within our large three-dimensional (3D) image datasets. Coupling whole tissue imaging of brain metastasis animal models with SMART 3D, we demonstrate the capability of our integrative pipeline to reveal and quantify volumetric and spatial aspects of brain metastasis landscapes, including diverse tumor morphology, heterogeneous proliferative indices, metastasis-associated astrogliosis, and vasculature spatial distribution. Collectively, our study demonstrates the utility of our novel integrative platform to reveal and quantify the global spatial and volumetric characteristics of the 3D metastatic landscape with unparalleled accuracy, opening new opportunities for unbiased investigation of novel biological phenomena in situ.

  10. Factorial Kriging Analysis as a tool for explaining the complex spatial distribution of metals in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alary, Claire; Demougeot-Renard, Hélène

    2010-01-15

    Rivers flowing through urbanized and industrial areas are usually greatly damaged by anthropogenic activities discharging contaminants. Characterizing the spatial distribution of pollutants in sediments is of high importance for selecting a suitable remediation operation, but is a complex task because this spatial variability is the result of various physical and chemical mechanisms occurring at different scales. Factorial Kriging Analysis (FKA) was applied on data collected in a canalized river (Scarpe, France) for that purpose, because this geostatistical technique allows to decompose a given variable into components of different spatial correlations and map them separately. This decomposition is meaningful provided that it can be related to physical phenomena occurring at the identified spatial scales. FKA applied to Cd and Zn concentrations in sediments of the Scarpe river proved to be effective, allowing their mapping to be decomposed in a first map related to a short-range spatial correlation corresponding to hot spots interpreted as the impact of industrial and urban inputs located along the canal, and a second map related to a long-range spatial variability associated with long pollutant plumes interpreted as the effect of one major upstream pollutant input.

  11. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  12. Ultrasonic motion analysis system - measurement of temporal and spatial gait parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Hof, AL; Postema, K

    2002-01-01

    The duration of stance and swing phase and step and stride length are important parameters in human gait. In this technical note a low-cost ultrasonic motion analysis system is described that is capable of measuring these temporal and spatial parameters while subjects walk on the floor. By using the

  13. Statistics for Time-Series Spatial Data: Applying Survival Analysis to Study Land-Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninghua Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional spatial analysis and data mining methods fall short of extracting temporal information from data. This inability makes their use difficult to study changes and the associated mechanisms of many geographic phenomena of interest, for example, land-use. On the other hand, the growing availability of land-change data over multiple time…

  14. A Bayesian multidimensional scaling procedure for the spatial analysis of revealed choice data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeSarbo, WS; Kim, Y; Fong, D

    1999-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian formulation of a vector multidimensional scaling procedure for the spatial analysis of binary choice data. The Gibbs sampler is gainfully employed to estimate the posterior distribution of the specified scalar products, bilinear model parameters. The computational procedure

  15. A systematic review of the application of spatial analysis in pharmacoepidemiologic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Aletta; Hak, Eelko; Janssen, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although current reviews of the use of spatial analysis in general epidemiologic research illustrate an important and well-established role in exploring and predicting health, its application has not been reviewed in the subspecialty field of pharmacoepidemiology. METHODS: We systematically

  16. The spatial metaphor of Utopia in Russian culture and in analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivinsky, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    The spatial metaphor of Utopia is considered from a Jungian perspective along with its role in Russian culture and in analysis. Such post-Jungian concepts as the cultural complex and the archetypal story pattern of a victim are used in considering the desperate longing for a rescuer in patients' narratives and in Russian society. A clinical vignette is provided to illustrate these ideas.

  17. Translation of EEG spatial filters from resting to motor imagery using independent component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Wang

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs often use spatial filters to improve signal-to-noise ratio of task-related EEG activities. To obtain robust spatial filters, large amounts of labeled data, which are often expensive and labor-intensive to obtain, need to be collected in a training procedure before online BCI control. Several studies have recently developed zero-training methods using a session-to-session scenario in order to alleviate this problem. To our knowledge, a state-to-state translation, which applies spatial filters derived from one state to another, has never been reported. This study proposes a state-to-state, zero-training method to construct spatial filters for extracting EEG changes induced by motor imagery. Independent component analysis (ICA was separately applied to the multi-channel EEG in the resting and the motor imagery states to obtain motor-related spatial filters. The resultant spatial filters were then applied to single-trial EEG to differentiate left- and right-hand imagery movements. On a motor imagery dataset collected from nine subjects, comparable classification accuracies were obtained by using ICA-based spatial filters derived from the two states (motor imagery: 87.0%, resting: 85.9%, which were both significantly higher than the accuracy achieved by using monopolar scalp EEG data (80.4%. The proposed method considerably increases the practicality of BCI systems in real-world environments because it is less sensitive to electrode misalignment across different sessions or days and does not require annotated pilot data to derive spatial filters.

  18. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.

  19. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  20. Performance analysis of spatial multiplexing MIMO system with time reversal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Dou, Zheng; Khan, Zayed

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the performance analysis of Spatial Multiplexing(SM) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system with time reversal (TR) technology. Focus is given on the spatial multiplexing gain of MIMO than the diversity gain aspect with the notion that the idea of diversity is inseparably associated with the uncertainty of the channel. If transmitter knows Channel State Information (CSI) before transmission, potential benefits can be harvested. TR is used here, to provide Channel State Information (CSI) at the transmitter before transmission. With the features of temporal and spatial focusing, TR not only can provide immunity against fading for spatially multiplexed data stream but also help boost its Multi Stream Interference (MSI) limited performance by mitigating it. The performance analysis of SM-MIMOTR is carried out with the aim of average minimum error probability for quantity of interest data rate. The interest date rate is 19.07 Mbps, where as the average minimum error probably is set to be that of Single Input Multi Output (SIMO) maximum ratio combining system (MRC). BER of Single Input Single Output (SISO) system is also simulated for making comparison tangible. Simulation study shows that Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the system with the data rate of interest nearly coincides with that of SIMO system at the range of 10-15db and is better than SISO in all simulated Eb/No points. Additionally, from the standpoint of tread off curve, between diversity gain and spatial multiplexing gain, the non linearity nature still holds.

  1. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-20

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development.

  2. Configraphics: Graph Theoretical Methods for Design and Analysis of Spatial Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirouz Nourian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation reports a PhD research on mathematical-computational models, methods, and techniques for analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of spatial configurations in architecture and urban design. Spatial configuration is a technical term that refers to the particular way in which a set of spaces are connected to one another as a network. Spatial configuration affects safety, security, and efficiency of functioning of complex buildings by facilitating certain patterns of movement and/or impeding other patterns. In cities and suburban built environments, spatial configuration affects accessibilities and influences travel behavioural patterns, e.g. choosing walking and cycling for short trips instead of travelling by cars. As such, spatial configuration effectively influences the social, economic, and environmental functioning of cities and complex buildings, by conducting human movement patterns.In this research, graph theory is used to mathematically model spatial configurations in order to provide intuitive ways of studying and designing spatial arrangements for architects and urban designers. The methods and tools presented in this dissertation are applicable in:arranging spatial layouts based on configuration graphs, e.g. by using bubble diagrams to ensure certain spatial requirements and qualities in complex buildings; andanalysing the potential effects of decisions on the likely spatial performance of buildings and on mobility patterns in built environments for systematic comparison of designs or plans, e.g. as to their aptitude for pedestrians and cyclists.The dissertation reports two parallel tracks of work on architectural and urban configurations. The core concept of the architectural configuration track is the ‘bubble diagram’ and the core concept of the urban configuration track is the ‘easiest paths’ for walking and cycling. Walking and cycling have been chosen as the foci of this theme as they involve active physical

  3. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and

  4. A method for quantitative analysis of spatially variable physiological processes across leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Mihai; Frank, Thomas D; DeLucia, Evan H

    2006-11-01

    Many physiological processes are spatially variable across leaf surfaces. While maps of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, gene expression, water transport, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for individual leaves are readily obtained, analytical methods for quantifying spatial heterogeneity and combining information gathered from the same leaf but with different instruments are not widely used. We present a novel application of tools from the field of geographical imaging to the multivariate analysis of physiological images. Procedures for registration and resampling, cluster analysis, and classification provide a general framework for the analysis of spatially resolved physiological data. Two experiments were conducted to illustrate the utility of this approach. Quantitative analysis of images of chlorophyll fluorescence and the production of ROS following simultaneous exposure of soybean leaves to atmospheric O3 and soybean mosaic virus revealed that areas of the leaf where the operating quantum efficiency of PSII was depressed also experienced an accumulation of ROS. This correlation suggests a causal relationship between oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis. Overlaying maps of leaf surface temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence following a photoinhibition treatment indicated that areas with low operating quantum efficiency of PSII also experienced reduced stomatal conductance (high temperature). While each of these experiments explored the covariance of two processes by overlaying independent images gathered with different instruments, the same procedures can be used to analyze the covariance of information from multiple images. The application of tools from geographic image analysis to physiological processes occurring over small spatial scales will help reveal the mechanisms generating spatial variation across leaves.

  5. Traditional acupuncturists and higher education in Britain: the dual, paradoxical impact of biomedical alignment on the holistic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Assaf; Hatton, Kieron

    2015-04-01

    Traditional acupuncturists' quest for external legitimacy in Britain involves the standardization of their knowledge bases through the development of training schools and syllabi, formal educational structures, and, since the 1990s, the teaching of undergraduate courses within (or validated by) Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), a process which entails biomedical alignment of the curriculum. However, as holistic discourses were commonly used as a rhetorical strategy by CAM practitioners to distance themselves from biomedicine and as a source of public appeal, this 'mainstreaming' process evoked practitioners' concerns that their holistic claims are being compromised. An additional challenge is being posed by a group of academics and scientists in Britain who launched an attack on CAM courses taught in HEIs, accusing them of being 'unscientific' and 'non-academic' in nature. This paper explores the negotiation of all these challenges during the formalization of traditional acupuncture education in Britain, with a particular focus on the role of HEIs. The in-depth qualitative investigation draws on several data sets: participant observation in a university validated acupuncture course; in-depth interviews; and documentary analysis. The findings show how, as part of the formalization process, acupuncturists in Britain (re)negotiate their holistic, anti-reductionist discourses and claims in relation to contemporary societal, political and cultural forces. Moreover, the teaching and validation of acupuncture courses by HEIs may contribute to broadening acupuncturists' 'holistic awareness' of societal and cultural influences on individuals' and communities' ill-health. This investigation emphasises the dynamic and context-specific (rather than fixed and essentialized) nature of acupuncture practice and knowledge.

  6. Extreme Precipitation Estimation with Typhoon Morakot Using Frequency and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan and produced copious amounts of precipitation in 2009. From the point view of hydrological statistics, the impact of the precipitation from typhoon Morakot using a frequency analysis can be analyzed and discussed. The frequency curve, which was fitted mathematically to historical observed data, can be used to estimate the probability of exceedance for runoff events of a certain magnitude. The study integrates frequency analysis and spatial analysis to assess the effect of Typhoon Morakot event on rainfall frequency in the Gaoping River basin of southern Taiwan. First, extreme rainfall data are collected at sixteen stations for durations of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours and then an appropriate probability distribution was selected to analyze the impact of the extreme hydrological event. Spatial rainfall patterns for a return period of 200-yr with 24-hr duration with and without Typhoon Morakot are estimated. Results show that the rainfall amount is significantly different with long duration with and without the event for frequency analysis. Furthermore, spatial analysis shows that extreme rainfall for a return period of 200-yr is highly dependent on topography and is smaller in the southwest than that in the east. The results not only demonstrate the distinct effect of Typhoon Morakot on frequency analysis, but also could provide reference in future planning of hydrological engineering.

  7. Spatial-temporal analysis of wind power forecast errors for West-Coast Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revheim, Paal Preede; Beyer, Hans Georg [Agder Univ. (UiA), Grimstad (Norway). Dept. of Engineering Sciences

    2012-07-01

    In this paper the spatial-temporal structure of forecast errors for wind power in West-Coast Norway is analyzed. Starting on the qualitative analysis of the forecast error reduction, with respect to single site data, for the lumped conditions of groups of sites the spatial and temporal correlations of the wind power forecast errors within and between the same groups are studied in detail. Based on this, time-series regression models to be used to analytically describe the error reduction are set up. The models give an expected reduction in forecast error between 48.4% and 49%. (orig.)

  8. A Novel Model of Interaural Time Difference Based on Spatial Fourier Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiao-Li; XIE Bo-Sun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the spatial Fourier analysis, a statistical model of the individualized interaural time difference (ITD) is derived from the head-related transfer function database for a Chinese subject. The model reflects the spatial left-right symmetry and front-back asymmetry of ITD. Moreover, by using three anatomical parameters of head and pinna, the model is able to predict individualized ITD in the horizontal plane. Performance of the four subjects outside the database demonstrates that the mean of the total error is less than 20 us, while the lateral performance is inferior to that at other directions.

  9. A spatial cluster analysis of tractor overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, D.M.; Cole, H.P.; Odoi, A.; Myers, M.L.; Carey, D.I.; Westneat, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Methods: A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Results: The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55) and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97). Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002) and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (ptractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions) with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky. ?? 2012 Saman et al.

  10. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  11. Bayesian statistical modeling of spatially correlated error structure in atmospheric tracer inverse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse modeling applications in atmospheric chemistry are increasingly addressing the challenging statistical issues of data synthesis by adopting refined statistical analysis methods. This paper advances this line of research by addressing several central questions in inverse modeling, focusing specifically on Bayesian statistical computation. Motivated by problems of refining bottom-up estimates of source/sink fluxes of trace gas and aerosols based on increasingly high-resolution satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical concentrations, we address head-on the need for integrating formal spatial statistical methods of residual error structure in global scale inversion models. We do this using analytically and computationally tractable spatial statistical models, know as conditional autoregressive spatial models, as components of a global inversion framework. We develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to explore and fit these spatial structures in an overall statistical framework that simultaneously estimates source fluxes. Additional aspects of the study extend the statistical framework to utilize priors in a more physically realistic manner, and to formally address and deal with missing data in satellite retrievals. We demonstrate the analysis in the context of inferring carbon monoxide (CO sources constrained by satellite retrievals of column CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT instrument on the TERRA satellite, paying special attention to evaluating performance of the inverse approach using various statistical diagnostic metrics. This is developed using synthetic data generated to resemble MOPITT data to define a~proof-of-concept and model assessment, and then in analysis of real MOPITT data.

  12. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ludwiczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The goal is to increase the level of spatial and information detail of common databases, thus allowing higher accuracy and effectiveness of the analyses needed to achieve the goals of new generation spatial and agriculture planning. Specific in-depth analyses allowed to define techniques useful in order to reduce the increase in survey costs. Moreover, the work reports the main results regarding a multicriteria model for the analysis of the countryside defined by the research. Such model is aimed to assess the various agricultural, environmental and landscape features, vocations, expressions and attitudes, and support the definition and implementation of specific and targeted planning and programming policies.

  13. Spectral Analysis of Spatial Series Data of Pathologic Tissue: A Study on Small Intestine in ICR Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Keiji; Sumi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Ohtomo, Norio

    2009-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of spectral analysis for investigating quantitatively the spatial pattern of pathologic tissue. To interpret the results obtained from real tissue, we constructed a two-dimensional spatial model of the tissue. Spectral analysis was applied to the spatial series data, which were obtained from the real tissue and model. From the results of spectral analysis, spatial patterns of the tissue and model were characterized quantitatively in reference to the frequencies and powers of the spectral peaks in power spectral densities (PSDs). The results for the model were essentially consistent with those for the tissue. It was concluded that the model was capable of adequately explaining the spatial pattern of the tissue. It is anticipated that spectral analysis will become a useful tool for characterizing the spatial pattern of the tissue quantitatively, resulting in an automated first screening of pathological specimens.

  14. The National Landslide Database and GIS for Great Britain: construction, development, data acquisition, application and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Dashwood, Claire; Freeborough, Katy

    2014-05-01

    The National Landslide Database has been developed by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 16,500 records of landslide events, each documented as fully as possible. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and crowd-sourcing information through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domain map currently under development rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures and an understanding of causative factors and their spatial distribution, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and climate. Daily reports of landslide potential are published by BGS through the NHP and data collected for the National Landslide Database is used widely for the creation of these assessments. The National Landslide Database is freely available via an online GIS and is used by a

  15. Efficiency analysis of control algorithms in spatially distributed systems with chaotic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korus Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of examination of control algorithms for the purpose of controlling chaos in spatially distributed systems like the coupled map lattice (CML. The mathematical definition of the CML, stability analysis as well as some basic results of numerical simulation exposing complex, spatiotemporal and chaotic behavior of the CML were already presented in another paper. The main purpose of this article is to compare the efficiency of controlling chaos by simple classical algorithms in spatially distributed systems like CMLs. This comparison is made based on qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods proposed in the previous paper such as the indirect Lyapunov method, Lyapunov exponents and the net direction phase indicator. As a summary of this paper, some conclusions which can be useful for creating a more efficient algorithm of controlling chaos in spatially distributed systems are made.

  16. Spatial bandwidth analysis of fast backward Fresnel diffraction for precise computer-generated hologram design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinyang; Becker, Michael F

    2014-09-20

    Designing near-field computer-generated holograms (CGHs) for a spatial light modulator (SLM) requires backward diffraction calculations. However, direct implementation of the discrete computational model of the Fresnel diffraction integral often produces inaccurate reconstruction. Finite sizes of the SLM and the target image, as well as aliasing, are major sources of error. Here we present a new design prescription for precise near-field CGHs based on comprehensive analysis of the spatial bandwidth. We demonstrate that, by controlling two free variables related to the target image, the designed hologram is free from aliasing and can have minimum error. To achieve this, we analyze the geometry of the target image, hologram, and Fourier transform plane of the target image to derive conditions for minimizing reconstruction error due to truncation of spatial frequencies lying outside of the hologram. The design prescription is verified by examples showing reconstruction error versus controlled parameters. Finally, it is applied to precise three-dimensional image reconstruction.

  17. A Spatial Analysis of GEOID03 and GEOID09 in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifuzzaman, Kazi; Hintz, Raymond J.

    2016-06-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) recommends using a hybrid geoid model to derive orthometric heights from ellipsoid heights. The accuracy of GEOID03 and GEOID09 were assessed independently in Connecticut. The present research analyses the spatial behavior of residuals derived from the comparison of differential levelled NAVD 88 orthometric heights and GPS-derived orthometric heights (using GEOID03 & GEOID09) at 72 benchmarks in Connecticut. Both geometrical and geostatistical analyses were performed on the residuals. A planar regression model indicates a weak spatial relation for residuals derived from GEOID03. This weakness was not noted in the analysis of residuals derived from GEOID09. Results of a four-parameter regression model does not indicate any need for a correction surface. A kriging surface was created with a fitted spherical semivariogram model and suggests GEOID09 captures more spatial variability of geoid undulation than GEOID03 in Connecticut.

  18. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data...... of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  19. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  20. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economical...... and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more comprehensive...... understanding of the urban development process and its correlation not just with political-administrative borders but also to ecological systems: (b) to identify the correlations between infrastructure and socio-economical data in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area (c) to evaluate urban development dynamics...

  1. Spatial Distribution and Density of Dolines in the NW Part of Velika Kapela from GIS Based Buffer Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pahernik

    2000-01-01

    GIS based buffer analysis methods were applied for analysing spatial distribution and density of dolinas in the NW part of Velika Kapela. Results extracted from existing spatial databases indicated spatial distribution of faults, as well as a degree of relationship between direction and density of dolinas with identified lineaments. By comparing faults identified from dolina analysis, with faults identified during on-situ mapping, major tectonic blocks or units within researched area were ide...

  2. Spatial error in geocoding physician location data from the AMA Physician Masterfile: implications for spatial accessibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Sara; Freeman, Vincent L; Barrett, Richard E; Luo, Lan; Shockley, Alisa

    2012-04-01

    The accuracy of geocoding hinges on the quality of address information that serves as input to the geocoding process; however errors associated with poor address quality are rarely studied. This paper examines spatial errors that arise due to incorrect address information with respect to physician location data in the United States. Studies of spatial accessibility to physicians in the U.S. typically rely on data from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile. These data are problematic because a substantial proportion of physicians only report a mailing address, which is often the physician's home (residential) location, rather than the address for the location where health care is provided. The incorrect geocoding of physicians' practice locations based on inappropriate address information results in a form of geocoding error that has not been widely analyzed. Using data for the Chicago metropolitan region, we analyze the extent and implications of geocoding error for measurement of spatial accessibility to primary care physicians. We geocode the locations of primary care physicians based on mailing addresses and office addresses. The spatial mismatch between the two is computed at the county, zip code and point location scales. Although mailing and office address locations are quite close for many physicians, they are far apart (>20 km) for a substantial minority. Kernel density estimation is used to characterize the spatial distribution of physicians based on office and mailing addresses and to identify areas of high spatial mismatch between the two. Errors are socially and geographically uneven, resulting in overestimation of physician supply in some high-income suburban communities, and underestimation in certain central city locations where health facilities are concentrated. The resulting errors affect local measures of spatial accessibility to primary care, biasing statistical analyses of the associations between spatial access to care and

  3. Evidence for fish dispersal from spatial analysis of stream network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing spatially explicit conservation strategies for stream fishes requires an understanding of the spatial structure of dispersal within stream networks. We explored spatial patterns of stream fish dispersal by evaluating how the size and proximity of connected streams (i.e., stream network topology) explained variation in fish assemblage structure and how this relationship varied with local stream size. We used data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (n = 308 sites). We quantified stream network topology with a continuous analysis based on the rate of downstream flow accumulation from sites and with a discrete analysis based on the presence of mainstem river confluences (i.e., basin area >250 km2) within 20 fluvial km (fkm) from sites. Continuous variation in stream network topology was related to local species richness within a distance of ???10 fkm, suggesting an influence of fish dispersal within this spatial grain. This effect was explained largely by catostomid species, cyprinid species, and riverine species, but was not explained by zoogeographic regions, ecoregions, sampling period, or spatial autocorrelation. Sites near mainstem river confluences supported greater species richness and abundance of catostomid, cyprinid, and ictalurid fishes than did sites >20 fkm from such confluences. Assemblages at sites on the smallest streams were not related to stream network topology, consistent with the hypothesis that local stream size regulates the influence of regional dispersal. These results demonstrate that the size and proximity of connected streams influence the spatial distribution of fish and suggest that these influences can be incorporated into the designs of stream bioassessments and reserves to enhance management efficacy. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  4. Analysis of Pollution Hazard Intensity: A Spatial Epidemiology Case Study of Soil Pb Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hoehun; Rogerson, Peter A; Olson, James R; Han, Daikwon; Bian, Ling; Shao, Wanyun

    2016-09-14

    Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination. Spatial regression models are used to account for spatial dependencies using these explanatory variables. After accounting for covariates and multicollinearity, results of the analysis indicate that lead concentration in soils varies markedly in the vicinity of a specific foundry (Foundry A), and that proximity to railroads explained a significant amount of spatial variation in soil lead concentration. Moreover, elevated soil lead levels were identified as a concern in industrial sites, neighborhoods with a high density of old housing, a high percentage of African American population, and a low percent of occupied housing units. The use of spatial modelling allows for better identification of significant factors that are correlated with soil lead concentrations.

  5. A spatial pattern analysis of the halophytic species distribution in an arid coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreldin, Nasem; Uria-Diez, J; Mateu, J; Youssef, Ali; Stal, Cornelis; El-Bana, Magdy; Magdy, Ahmed; Goossens, Rudi

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining information about the spatial distribution of desert plants is considered as a serious challenge for ecologists and environmental modeling due to the required intensive field work and infrastructures in harsh and remote arid environments. A new method was applied for assessing the spatial distribution of the halophytic species (HS) in an arid coastal environment. This method was based on the object-based image analysis for a high-resolution Google Earth satellite image. The integration of the image processing techniques and field work provided accurate information about the spatial distribution of HS. The extracted objects were based on assumptions that explained the plant-pixel relationship. Three different types of digital image processing techniques were implemented and validated to obtain an accurate HS spatial distribution. A total of 2703 individuals of the HS community were found in the case study, and approximately 82% were located above an elevation of 2 m. The micro-topography exhibited a significant negative relationship with pH and EC (r = -0.79 and -0.81, respectively, p < 0.001). The spatial structure was modeled using stochastic point processes, in particular a hybrid family of Gibbs processes. A new model is proposed that uses a hard-core structure at very short distances, together with a cluster structure in short-to-medium distances and a Poisson structure for larger distances. This model was found to fit the data perfectly well.

  6. Analysis of Pollution Hazard Intensity: A Spatial Epidemiology Case Study of Soil Pb Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hoehun; Rogerson, Peter A.; Olson, James R.; Han, Daikwon; Bian, Ling; Shao, Wanyun

    2016-01-01

    Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination. Spatial regression models are used to account for spatial dependencies using these explanatory variables. After accounting for covariates and multicollinearity, results of the analysis indicate that lead concentration in soils varies markedly in the vicinity of a specific foundry (Foundry A), and that proximity to railroads explained a significant amount of spatial variation in soil lead concentration. Moreover, elevated soil lead levels were identified as a concern in industrial sites, neighborhoods with a high density of old housing, a high percentage of African American population, and a low percent of occupied housing units. The use of spatial modelling allows for better identification of significant factors that are correlated with soil lead concentrations. PMID:27649221

  7. Analysis of Pollution Hazard Intensity: A Spatial Epidemiology Case Study of Soil Pb Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehun Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination. Spatial regression models are used to account for spatial dependencies using these explanatory variables. After accounting for covariates and multicollinearity, results of the analysis indicate that lead concentration in soils varies markedly in the vicinity of a specific foundry (Foundry A, and that proximity to railroads explained a significant amount of spatial variation in soil lead concentration. Moreover, elevated soil lead levels were identified as a concern in industrial sites, neighborhoods with a high density of old housing, a high percentage of African American population, and a low percent of occupied housing units. The use of spatial modelling allows for better identification of significant factors that are correlated with soil lead concentrations.

  8. Gender, space, and the location changes of jobs and people: a spatial simultaneous equations analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogstra, Gerke J

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes a spatial econometric analysis of local population and employment growth in the Netherlands, with specific reference to impacts of gender and space. The simultaneous equations model used distinguishes between population- and gender-specific employment groups, and includes autoregressive and cross-regressive spatial lags to detect relations both within and among these groups. Spatial weights matrices reflecting different bands of travel times are used to calculate the spatial lags and to gauge the spatial nature of these relations. The empirical results show that although population–employment interaction is more localized for women's employment, no gender difference exists in the direction of interaction. Employment growth for both men and women is more influenced by population growth than vice versa. The interaction within employment groups is even more important than population growth. Women's, and especially men's, local employment growth mostly benefits from the same employment growth in neighboring locations. Finally, interaction between these groups is practically absent, although men's employment growth may have a negative impact on women's employment growth within small geographic areas. In summary, the results confirm the crucial roles of gender and space, and offer important insights into possible relations within and among subgroups of jobs and people.

  9. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  10. Regional flood frequency analysis using spatial proximity and basin characteristics: Quantile regression vs. parameter regression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kuk-Hyun; Palmer, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite wide use of regression-based regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) methods, the majority are based on either ordinary least squares (OLS) or generalized least squares (GLS). This paper proposes 'spatial proximity' based RFFA methods using the spatial lagged model (SLM) and spatial error model (SEM). The proposed methods are represented by two frameworks: the quantile regression technique (QRT) and parameter regression technique (PRT). The QRT develops prediction equations for flooding quantiles in average recurrence intervals (ARIs) of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 100 years whereas the PRT provides prediction of three parameters for the selected distribution. The proposed methods are tested using data incorporating 30 basin characteristics from 237 basins in Northeastern United States. Results show that generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution properly represents flood frequencies in the study gages. Also, basin area, stream network, and precipitation seasonality are found to be the most effective explanatory variables in prediction modeling by the QRT and PRT. 'Spatial proximity' based RFFA methods provide reliable flood quantile estimates compared to simpler methods. Compared to the QRT, the PRT may be recommended due to its accuracy and computational simplicity. The results presented in this paper may serve as one possible guidepost for hydrologists interested in flood analysis at ungaged sites.

  11. Spatial analysis of Neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Frössling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum infected dairy herds in Sweden were investigated. The study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. Test-positive herds were found in all parts of Sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the Moran’s I test. Possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying the local indicator of spatial association (LISA test statistic and the spatial scan statistic. Analysis based on data aggregated by postal code areas as well as analysis based on exact coordinates identified significant clusters of high prevalence in the middle parts of Sweden and low prevalence in the south. This was not expected considering the results from other European studies of N. caninum in cattle. However, the findings are supported by the distribution of previously known case herds.

  12. Application of the spatial data mining module in analysis of mining ground deformation factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Blachowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data mining methods for example those based on artificial neural networks (ANN allow extraction of information from databases and detection of otherwise hidden patterns occurring in these data and in consequence acquiring new knowledge on the analysed phenomena or processes. One of these techniques is the multivariate statistical analysis, which facilitates identification of patterns otherwise difficult to observe. In the paper an attempt of applying self-organising maps (SOM to explore and analyse spatial data related to studies of ground subsidence associated with underground mining has been described. The study has been carried out on a selected part of a former underground coal mining area in SW Poland with the aim to analyse the influence of particular ground deformation factors on the observed subsidence and the relationships between these factors. The research concerned the uppermost coal panels and the following factors: mining system, time of mining activity and inclination, thickness and depth below the ground of the exploited coal panels. It has been found that the exploratory spatial data analysis can be used to identify relationships in multidimensional data related to mining induced ground subsidence. The proposed approach may be found useful in identification of areas threatened by mining related subsidence and in creating scenarios of developing deformation zones and therefore aid spatial development of mining grounds.

  13. Where do overweight women in Ghana live? Answers from exploratory spatial data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelia A.A. Dake

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextual influence on health outcomes is increasingly becoming an important area of research. Analytical techniques such as spatial analysis help explain the variations and dynamics in health inequalities across different context and among different population groups. This paper explores spatial clustering in body mass index among Ghanaian women by analysing data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques. Overweight was a more common occurrence in urban areas than in rural areas. Close to a quarter of the clusters in Ghana, mostly those in the southern sector contained women who were overweight. Women who lived in clusters where the women were overweight were more likely to live around other clusters where the women were also overweight. The results suggest that the urban environment could be a potential contributing factor to the high levels of obesity in urban areas of Ghana. There is the need for researchers to include a spatial dimension to obesity research in Ghana paying particular attention the urban environment.

  14. Spatial analysis of myocardial infarction in Iran: National report from the Iranian myocardial infarction registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction (MI is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Iran. No spatial analysis of MI has been conducted to date. The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of MI incidence and to identify the associated factors in Iran by province. Materials and Methods: This study has two parts. One part is prospective and hospital-based, and the other part is an ecological study. In this study, the data of 20,750 new MI cases registered in Iranian Myocardial Infarction Registry in 2012 were used. For spatial analysis in global and local, spatial autocorrelation, Moran′s I, Getis-Ord, and logistic regression models were used. Data were analyzed by Stata software and ArcGIS 9.3. Results: Based on autocorrelation coefficient, a specific pattern was observed in the distribution of MI incidence in different provinces (Moran′s I: 0.75, P < 0.001. Spatial pattern of incidence was approximately the same in men and women. MI incidence was clustering in six provinces (North Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Golestan, and Mazandaran. Out of the associated factors with clustered MI in six provinces, temperature, humidity, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI could be mentioned. Hypertension, smoking, and BMI contributed to clustering with, respectively, 2.36, 1.31, and 1.31 odds ratio. Conclusion: Addressing the place-based pattern of incidence and clarifying their epidemiologic dimension, including spatial analysis, has not yet been implemented in Iran. Report on MI incidence rate by place and formal borders is useful and is used in the planning and prioritization in different levels of health system.

  15. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  16. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  17. Spatial analysis of residential fuelwood supply and demand patterns in Mexico using the WISDOM approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghilardi, Adrian; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar [CIECO, Center for Ecosystems Research, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Morelia (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    A WISDOM analysis was conducted in Mexico in order to: (1) identify fuelwood (FW) hot spots in terms of residential FW use and availability of FW resources for the year 2000, and (2) estimate net CO{sub 2} emissions from the non-renewable use of FW. WISDOM (woodfuel integrated supply/demand overview mapping) is a spatially explicit method, based on geographic information system (GIS) technology, which ranks a set of spatial units according to a group of indicators, in order to identify woodfuel priority areas or woodfuel hot spots. A comprehensive analysis was conducted, integrating full coverage national data on land cover classes, land cover change maps (1993-2000), geo-referenced population censuses (1990 and 2000), and a meticulous review of the international literature and Mexican case studies. Following a spatial multi-criteria analysis, 2395 counties (out of a country total of 2424 in year 2000) were ranked based on the number, density and annual growth rate of FW users; the percentage of households that use FW; the resilience of FW consumption, and the magnitude and likely trends of FW forest resources. The WISDOM analysis allowed the identification of 304 high priority counties (HPC), which showed a spatially aggregated pattern into 16 clusters. HPC cover 4% of Mexican territory and represent 27% of total FW consumption. We estimated that 1.3TgCO{sub 2}y{sup -1} are released to the atmosphere by non-renewable FW burning, a value that represents less than 1% of Mexican total annual CO{sub 2} emissions in 2002. The results of the analysis show that WISDOM is a useful tool for both focusing resources to critical areas where action is more needed and to obtain more accurate estimates of the impacts associated to FW use. (author)

  18. Spatial analysis of drumlins within the Arran, Guelph, and Galt drumlin fields of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, John

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction of former ice conditions and glacier dynamics in previously glaciated terrains requires understanding of the processes and controls on the development of subglacial landforms such as drumlins. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of drumlins identified from digital elevation model (DEM) data within three drumlin fields in southern Ontario, Canada (the Arran, Galt and Guelph drumlin fields) formed in the Late Wisconsin by the Ontario and Georgian Bay ice lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed field description of a partially excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field provides firther insight to compliment the geomorphometric analysis. Drumlins are identified and their morphological parameters documented using a computer-based process that allows direct comparison of forms within and between individual fields. Statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics and spatial distribution of drumlins within each of the three drumlin fields, using kernel density and nearest neighbour analysis, indicates that drumlins of particular types show distinct patterns of clustering that appear to be are related to several different factors including length of time under ice, bedrock topography, and ice velocity. Sediments exposed in an excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field show a relatively undisturbed older fluvial or glaciofluvial crudely stratified sands draped by a thin veneer of coarse grained deformation till. This stratigraphy is similar to that described from modern drumlins in Iceland and is consistent with models of drumlin formation by subglacial deformation processes. The methodology of drumlin analysis can be applied to the study of any drumlin field with an adequate coverage of digital spatial data. The ability to consistently identify and characterize drumlin morphology and distribution will allow more objective and systematic comparison of these landforms both within and between

  19. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  20. Spatial characterization of poverty in the state of Bahia: an analysis of the 2010 Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Izidro dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to make a characterization of poverty in the State of Bahia. To this end, it was made the use of spatial analysis tools, understanding that they are very important instruments to aid analysis in several areas of study. Thus, it was possible to measure the most diverse geographic scenarios faster and efficiency. This enables also greater agility in decision making, both businesses and governments in the implementation of intervention policies. And in the case of this study, the proposal for more effective public policies to combat poverty, as the study presents a multidimensional look at this issue from the proposal of the Poverty Index (IMP and compared to the Index ranking Human Development Index (HDI, which is demonstrated by the results found, the it is an efficient index for study of spatial poverty in the state of Bahia.

  1. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  2. Visualization analysis of multivariate spatial-temporal data of the Red Army Long March in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ding; Ma, Zhimin; Meng, Lumin; Li, Xia

    2009-10-01

    Recently, the visualization of spatial-temporal data in historic events is emphasized by more and more people. To provide an efficient and effective approach to meet this requirement is the duty of Geo-data modeling researchers. The aim of the paper is to ground on a new perspective to visualize the multivariate spatial-temporal data of the Red Army Long March, which is one of the most important events of the Chinese modem history. This research focuses on the extraction of relevant information from a 3-dimensional trajectory, which captures object locations in geographic space at specified temporal intervals. However, existing visualization methods cannot deal with the multivariate spatial-temporal data effectively. Thus there is a potential chance to represent and analyze this kind of data in the case study. The thesis combines two visualization methods, the Space-Time-Cube for spatial temporal data and Parallel Coordinates Plots (PCPs) for multivariable data, to develop conceptual GIS database model that facilitates the exploration and analysis of multivariate spatial-temporal data sets in the combination with 3D Space-Time-Path and 2D graphics. The designed model is supported by the geo-visualization environment and integrates diverse sets of multivariate spatial-temporal data and built-up the dynamic process and relationships. It is concluded that this way of geo-visualization can effectively manipulate a large amount of distributed data, realize the high efficient transmission of quantitative and qualitative information and also provide a new research mode in the field of the History of CPC and military affairs.

  3. Strategy and software for the statistical spatial analysis of 3D intracellular distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biot, Eric; Crowell, Elizabeth; Burguet, Jasmine; Höfte, Herman; Vernhettes, Samantha; Andrey, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The localization of proteins in specific domains or compartments in the 3D cellular space is essential for many fundamental processes in eukaryotic cells. Deciphering spatial organization principles within cells is a challenging task, in particular because of the large morphological variations between individual cells. We present here an approach for normalizing variations in cell morphology and for statistically analyzing spatial distributions of intracellular compartments from collections of 3D images. The method relies on the processing and analysis of 3D geometrical models that are generated from image stacks and that are used to build representations at progressively increasing levels of integration, ultimately revealing statistical significant traits of spatial distributions. To make this methodology widely available to end-users, we implemented our algorithmic pipeline into a user-friendly, multi-platform, and freely available software. To validate our approach, we generated 3D statistical maps of endomembrane compartments at subcellular resolution within an average epidermal root cell from collections of image stacks. This revealed unsuspected polar distribution patterns of organelles that were not detectable in individual images. By reversing the classical 'measure-then-average' paradigm, one major benefit of the proposed strategy is the production and display of statistical 3D representations of spatial organizations, thus fully preserving the spatial dimension of image data and at the same time allowing their integration over individual observations. The approach and software are generic and should be of general interest for experimental and modeling studies of spatial organizations at multiple scales (subcellular, cellular, tissular) in biological systems.

  4. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  5. A tool for the quantitative spatial analysis of mammary gland epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2004-04-09

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial analysis of complex cellular systems based on a multiscale study of neighborhood relationships. A function to measure those relationships, M, is introduced. The refined Relative Neighborhood Graph is then presented as a method to establish vicinity relationships within layered cellular structures, and particularized to epithelial cell nuclei in the mammary gland. Finally, the method is illustrated with two examples that show interactions within one population of epithelial cells and between two different populations.

  6. Providing scientific visualisation for spatial data analysis: criteria and an assessment of SAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Haining, Robert; Wise, Stephen; Signoretta, Paola

    1998-01-01

    A consistent theme in recent work on developing exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) has been the importance attached to visualization techniques, particularly following the pioneering development of packages such as REGARD by Haslett et al (1990). The focus on visual techniques is often justified in two ways: (a) the power of modern graphical interfaces means that graphics is no longer a way of simply presenting results in the form of maps or graphs, but a tool for the extraction of info...

  7. A perturbation analysis of a mechanical model for stable spatial patterning in embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentil, D. E.; Murray, J. D.

    1992-12-01

    We investigate a mechanical cell-traction mechanism that generates stationary spatial patterns. A linear analysis highlights the model's potential for these heterogeneous solutions. We use multiple-scale perturbation techniques to study the evolution of these solutions and compare our solutions with numerical simulations of the model system. We discuss some potential biological applications among which are the formation of ridge patterns, dermatoglyphs, and wound healing.

  8. Current practices in cancer spatial data analysis: a call for guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Andrew B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has long been a recognition that place matters in health, from recognition of clusters of yellow fever and cholera in the 1800s to modern day analyses of regional and neighborhood effects on cancer patterns. Here we provide a summary of discussions about current practices in the spatial analysis of georeferenced cancer data by a panel of experts recently convened at the National Cancer Institute.

  9. A Behavioral Analysis of Spatial Neglect and Its Recovery after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rengachary

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal study of recovery of left neglect following stroke using reaction time computerized assessment, we find that lateralized spatial deficits of attention and perception to be more severe than disturbance of action. Perceptual-attention deficits also show the most variability in the course of recovery, making them prime candidates for intervention. In an anatomical analysis of MRI findings, ventral frontal cortex damage was correlated with the most severe neglect, reflecting impaired fronto-parietal communication.

  10. Analysis of the spatial distribution between successive earthquakes in aftershocks series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Georgieva Marekova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The earthquake spatial distribution is being studied, using catalogs for different recent aftershock series. The quality of the available data, taking into account the completeness of the magnitude, is examined. Based on the analysis of the catalogs, it was determined that the probability densities of the inter-event distance distribution collapse into a single curve when the data were rescaled. The collapse of the data provides a clear illustration of aftershock-occurrence self-similarity in space.

  11. Young Socialist Men in Mid-Sixties Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the political, social and psychological experiences of a group of young working-class men who in the early-to-mid 1960s became active members in branches of the Labour Party Young Socialists. Concentrated in London's East End, these branches had become increasingly open...... maturation from child to adult intersected with the formation of a new and distinctive extra-parliamentary culture on the British left that came to full fruition around Britain's anti-war movement, the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign. The formation of this collection of inner lives occurred simultaneously...

  12. Domesday 2000 - a National Land Information System for Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, C. E.; Ralphs, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Domesday 2000 Project aims to ensure that by the year 2000 there will be a National Land Information System for Britain, containing up to date information on land and property ownership, value and use. It is proposed that the system will make use of distributed databases connected over a wide......-area network, to integrate data from a wide variety of sources, using GIS technology to enable interested parties to access the on-line information via locally based terminals. This article explains the background to the project, before moving on to discuss the proposed format and data holdings...

  13. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujouan, Eva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979-2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marriage at the fifth and tenth anniversaries.

  14. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Zibo City, China, 2009-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is highly endemic in mainland China, where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Zibo City is one of the most serious affected areas in Shandong Province China with the HFRS incidence increasing sharply from 2009 to 2012. However, the hotspots of HFRS in Zibo remained unclear. Thus, a spatial analysis was conducted with the aim to explore the spatial, spatial-temporal and seasonal patterns of HFRS in Zibo from 2009 to 2012, and to provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. METHODS: The study was based on the reported cases of HFRS from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Annualized incidence maps and seasonal incidence maps were produced to analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of HFRS in Zibo City. Then spatial scan statistics and space-time scan statistics were conducted to identify clusters of HFRS. RESULTS: There were 200 cases reported in Zibo City during the 4-year study period. One most likely cluster and one secondary cluster for high incidence of HFRS were identified by the space-time analysis. And the most likely cluster was found to exist at Yiyuan County in October to December 2012. The human infections in the fall and winter reflected a seasonal characteristic pattern of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The secondary cluster was detected at the center of Zibo in May to June 2009, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. CONCLUSION: To control and prevent HFRS in Zibo city, the comprehensive preventive strategy should be implemented in the southern areas of Zibo in autumn and in the northern areas of Zibo in spring.

  15. A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Urban Economic Analysis and Spatial Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Goodchild

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban economic modeling and effective spatial planning are critical tools towards achieving urban sustainability. However, in practice, many technical obstacles, such as information islands, poor documentation of data and lack of software platforms to facilitate virtual collaboration, are challenging the effectiveness of decision-making processes. In this paper, we report on our efforts to design and develop a geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI for urban economic analysis and simulation. This GCI provides an operational graphic user interface, built upon a service-oriented architecture to allow (1 widespread sharing and seamless integration of distributed geospatial data; (2 an effective way to address the uncertainty and positional errors encountered in fusing data from diverse sources; (3 the decomposition of complex planning questions into atomic spatial analysis tasks and the generation of a web service chain to tackle such complex problems; and (4 capturing and representing provenance of geospatial data to trace its flow in the modeling task. The Greater Los Angeles Region serves as the test bed. We expect this work to contribute to effective spatial policy analysis and decision-making through the adoption of advanced GCI and to broaden the application coverage of GCI to include urban economic simulations.

  16. Urban-rural gradient detection using multivariate spatial analysis and landscape metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vizzari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The gradient approach allows for an innovative representation of landscape composition and configuration not presupposing spatial discontinuities typical of the conventional methods of analysis. Also the urban-rural dichotomy can be better understood through a continuous landscape gradient whose characterization changes accordingly to natural and anthropic variables taken into account and to the spatio-temporal scale adopted for the study. The research was aimed at the analysis of an urban-rural gradient within a study area located in central Italy, using spatial indicators associated with urbanization, agriculture and natural elements. A multivariate spatial analysis (MSA of such indicators enabled the identification of urban, agricultural and natural dominated areas, as well as specific landscape transitions where the most relevant relationships between agriculture and other landscape components were detected. Landscapes derived from MSA were studied by a set of key landscape pattern metrics within a framework oriented to the structural characterization of the whole urban-rural gradient. The results showed two distinct sub-gradients: one urban-agricultural and one agricultural-natural, both characterized by different fringe areas. This application highlighted how the proposed methodology can represent a reliable approach supporting modern landscape planning and management.

  17. A spatially explicit analysis of seedling recruitment in the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal and the subsequent recruitment of new individuals into a population are important processes affecting the population dynamics, genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of plant populations. Spatial patterns of seedling recruitment were investigated in two populations of the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea using both univariate and bivariate point pattern analysis, parentage analysis and seed germination experiments. Both adults and recruits showed a clustered spatial distribution with cluster radii of c. 4-5 m. The parentage analysis resulted in offspring-dispersal distances that were slightly larger than distances obtained from the point pattern analyses. The suitability of microsites for germination differed among sites, with strong constraints in one site and almost no constraints in the other. These results provide a clear and coherent picture of recruitment patterns in a tuberous, perennial orchid. Seed dispersal is limited to a few metres from the mother plant, whereas the availability of suitable germination conditions may vary strongly from one site to the next. Because of a time lag of 3-4 yr between seed dispersal and actual recruitment, and irregular flowering and fruiting patterns of adult plants, interpretation of recruitment patterns using point patterns analyses ideally should take into account the demographic properties of orchid populations.

  18. Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Doreena; Juahir, Hafizan; Latif, Mohd Talib; Zain, Sharifuddin M.; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to investigate possible sources of air pollutants and the spatial patterns within the eight selected Malaysian air monitoring stations based on a two-year database (2008-2009). The multivariate analysis was applied on the dataset. It incorporated Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) to access the spatial patterns, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the major sources of the air pollution and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to assess the percentage contribution of each air pollutant. The HACA results grouped the eight monitoring stations into three different clusters, based on the characteristics of the air pollutants and meteorological parameters. The PCA analysis showed that the major sources of air pollution were emissions from motor vehicles, aircraft, industries and areas of high population density. The MLR analysis demonstrated that the main pollutant contributing to variability in the Air Pollutant Index (API) at all stations was particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10). Further MLR analysis showed that the main air pollutant influencing the high concentration of PM10 was carbon monoxide (CO). This was due to combustion processes, particularly originating from motor vehicles. Meteorological factors such as ambient temperature, wind speed and humidity were also noted to influence the concentration of PM10.

  19. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B M; van Bruggen, A H; Subbarao, K V; Pennings, G G

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT The epidemiology of lettuce downy mildew has been investigated extensively in coastal California. However, the spatial patterns of the disease and the distance that Bremia lactucae spores can be transported have not been determined. During 1995 to 1998, we conducted several field- and valley-scale surveys to determine spatial patterns of this disease in the Salinas valley. Geostatistical analyses of the survey data at both scales showed that the influence range of downy mildew incidence at one location on incidence at other locations was between 80 and 3,000 m. A linear relationship was detected between semivariance and lag distance at the field scale, although no single statistical model could fit the semi-variograms at the valley scale. Spatial interpolation by the inverse distance weighting method with a power of 2 resulted in plausible estimates of incidence throughout the valley. Cluster analysis in geographic information systems on the interpolated disease incidence from different dates demonstrated that the Salinas valley could be divided into two areas, north and south of Salinas City, with high and low disease pressure, respectively. Seasonal and spatial trends along the valley suggested that the distinction between the downy mildew conducive and nonconducive areas might be determined by environmental factors.

  20. Spatial-Temporal Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Mainland China: An Analysis Based on Bayesian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the spatial-temporal interaction effect within a Bayesian framework and to probe the ecological influential factors for tuberculosis. Methods: Six different statistical models containing parameters of time, space, spatial-temporal interaction and their combination were constructed based on a Bayesian framework. The optimum model was selected according to the deviance information criterion (DIC value. Coefficients of climate variables were then estimated using the best fitting model. Results: The model containing spatial-temporal interaction parameter was the best fitting one, with the smallest DIC value (−4,508,660. Ecological analysis results showed the relative risks (RRs of average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity, and air pressure were 1.00324 (95% CI, 1.00150–1.00550, 1.01010 (95% CI, 1.01007–1.01013, 0.83518 (95% CI, 0.93732–0.96138, 0.97496 (95% CI, 0.97181–1.01386, and 1.01007 (95% CI, 1.01003–1.01011, respectively. Conclusions: The spatial-temporal interaction was statistically meaningful and the prevalence of tuberculosis was influenced by the time and space interaction effect. Average temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and air pressure influenced tuberculosis. Average humidity had no influence on tuberculosis.

  1. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of the Economic and Environmental Coordination Development Degree in Liaoning Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study selects 20 indices of economic and environmental conditions over 15 years (1996–2010 for 14 cities in Liaoning province, China. We calculate the economic score and environmental score of each city by processing 4200 data points through SPSS 16.0 and establish synthesis functions between the economy and the environment. For the time dimension, we study the temporal evolution of the economic and environmental coordination development degree . Based on Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA techniques and using GeoDa, we calculate Moran's index of local spatial autocorrelation and explore the spatial distribution character of in Liaoning province through a LISA cluster map. As we found in the temporal dimension, the results show that of the 14 cities has been rising for 15 years and that increases year by year, which indicates that the economic and environmental coordination development condition has been improving from disorder to highly coordinated. A smaller gap between economic strength and environmental carrying capacity in Liaoning province exists, which means that economic development and environmental protection remain synchronized. In the spatial dimension, the highly coordinated cities have changed from a scattering to a concentration in the middle-south region of Liaoning province. Poorly coordinated cities are scattered in the northwestern region of Liaoning province.

  2. Mean field analysis of a spatial stochastic model of a gene regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, M; Murray, P J; Matzavinos, A; Chaplain, M A J

    2015-10-01

    A gene regulatory network may be defined as a collection of DNA segments which interact with each other indirectly through their RNA and protein products. Such a network is said to contain a negative feedback loop if its products inhibit gene transcription, and a positive feedback loop if a gene product promotes its own production. Negative feedback loops can create oscillations in mRNA and protein levels while positive feedback loops are primarily responsible for signal amplification. It is often the case in real biological systems that both negative and positive feedback loops operate in parameter regimes that result in low copy numbers of gene products. In this paper we investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of a single feedback loop in a eukaryotic cell. We first develop a simplified spatial stochastic model of a canonical feedback system (either positive or negative). Using a Gillespie's algorithm, we compute sample trajectories and analyse their corresponding statistics. We then derive a system of equations that describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the stochastic means. Subsequently, we examine the spatially homogeneous case and compare the results of numerical simulations with the spatially explicit case. Finally, using a combination of steady-state analysis and data clustering techniques, we explore model behaviour across a subregion of the parameter space that is difficult to access experimentally and compare the parameter landscape of our spatio-temporal and spatially-homogeneous models.

  3. Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniano, Rui; Caffell, Anwen; Holst, Malin; Hunter-Mann, Kurt; Montgomery, Janet; Müldner, Gundula; McLaughlin, Russell L; Teasdale, Matthew D; van Rheenen, Wouter; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Hardiman, Orla; Carroll, Maureen; Roskams, Steve; Oxley, John; Morgan, Colleen; Thomas, Mark G; Barnes, Ian; McDonnell, Christine; Collins, Matthew J; Bradley, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    The purported migrations that have formed the peoples of Britain have been the focus of generations of scholarly controversy. However, this has not benefited from direct analyses of ancient genomes. Here we report nine ancient genomes (∼1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman e

  4. Sending Children to School "Back Home": Multiple Moralities of Punjabi Sikh Parents in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Kaveri

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how Punjabi Sikh parents in Britain try to produce "good children" through moral reasoning about their schooling. Parents compare schooling in Britain with India and sometimes wonder about sending their children to school "back home", in the hope of immersing them in Indian culture, traditions and…

  5. A Profile of Independent Local Radio (Commercial Radio in Great Britain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, M. Kent

    Commercial and noncommercial radio in the United States and Great Britain have followed opposite paths of development. Unlike the United States, where commercial radio was the historical cornerstone of the broadcasting system, the Independent Local Radio (ILR) of Britain is the newcomer into an environment heavy with the heritage of the…

  6. The Political Economy of Educational Reform in France and Britain: 1980-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer, Cecile; de Meulemeester, Jean-Luc

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyse the role given to education and training by policy-makers in France and Britain from 1980 onwards, in relation to their overall chosen economic (and social) strategies, and highlight conjunctions between education, exchange-rate regimes, and the level of economic openness. Britain opted for a monetarist route against…

  7. Why Are Child Poverty Rates Higher in Britain than in Germany? A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We analyze why child poverty rates were much higher in Britain than in Western Germany during the 1990s, using a framework focusing on poverty transition rates. Child poverty exit rates were significantly lower, and poverty entry rates significantly higher, in Britain. We decompose these cross-national differences into differences in the…

  8. A Comparative Study on Different Connotations of the Same Color Word between Britain and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Color has a close relationship with people’s life. No matter in Britain or in China, expect owning the property of color, color words are attached with abundant symbolic meanings and cultural connotations. Because the diverse historical tradition, national psychology, religious beliefs and thinking model exit in Britain and China, the symbolized meaning of the same color words are different.

  9. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  10. Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Sampling and Equal Distance Parallel Formation Control of Unmanned Surface Bathymetric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiucai Jin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the spatial-temporal sampling of Unmanned Surface Bathymetric Vehicles (USBV is vital for depth measurement performance, which is the basis for optimum sampling of multi-USBV cooperative parallel formations. This paper’s ultimate goal is to find the optimum sampling style of multi- USBV parallel formations and to design the corresponding control law. First, the relationship between spatial-temporal sampling intervals and measurement performance is examined using the Objective Analysis method, giving an illustrative example of the sampling of two USBVs. Second, three types of spatial-temporal constraint are defined and the type of USBV is analysed, which is spatially constrained. Lastly, according to the spatially constrained USBV type, the control law for multi- USBV equal-distance parallel formations with spatial synchrony is designed based on self-propelled particles theory, which is validated in the simulations based on the USBV dynamic model.

  11. Diseases of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S

    1992-12-01

    The author describes an examination conducted in collaboration with the Nature Conservancy Council of Great Britain into the status with regard to disease, conservation and genetics of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris). Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection was detected by positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood from 2 of 23 wildcats and was tested and confirmed by FeLV isolation in one of the two cats. This is the first time the virus has been clearly demonstrated in a free-living felid, other than the domestic cat. Toxoplasmosis was detected in all cats tested, but neither feline coronavirus nor feline immunodeficiency virus was detected in any sample. The genetic analysis indicated that only 8 of 42 wildcats tested were genetically distinct. These were mainly located in the western highlands of Scotland where "relict" populations may have survived. Interbreeding with domestic cats and persecution by trapping and hunting represent major threats to the survival of the European wildcat.

  12. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design – analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany – to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  13. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lenschow

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  14. Spatial Fourier Analysis of a Free-Free Beam for Structural Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Mihir; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2014-07-01

    Free-free beams (FFB) are used to model many structures, such as missiles, rockets, MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems), etc. This paper aims to illustrate a novel structural health monitoring method-Fourier analysis of mode shapes of damaged beams-and extend it to the case of FFB. The damaged mode shapes of FFB are obtained by a finite element model and then studied using spatial Fourier analysis. The effect of noise in the mode shape data is considered and it is found that the Fourier coefficients provide a useful indication about the location and size of damage.

  15. Spatial and temporal analysis of DIII-D 3D magnetic diagnostic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, E. J.; King, J. D.; Hanson, J. M.; Logan, N. C.

    2016-11-01

    An extensive set of magnetic diagnostics in DIII-D is aimed at measuring non-axisymmetric "3D" features of tokamak plasmas, with typical amplitudes ˜10-3 to 10-5 of the total magnetic field. We describe hardware and software techniques used at DIII-D to condition the individual signals and analysis to estimate the spatial structure from an ensemble of discrete measurements. Applications of the analysis include detection of non-rotating MHD instabilities, plasma control, and validation of MHD stability and 3D equilibrium models.

  16. An Analysis on the Spatial Distribution of Population Aging Pressure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangWangzhou; Dong Suocheng; Wu Youde; Luo Renbo

    2012-01-01

    Based on comprehensive analysis of the impact of population aging to social and economic development, a comprehensive evaluation system including 18 indexes was constructed for evaluating regional pressure of population aging on social and economic development. Using statistics data of 31 regions in Chi- na from 2004 to 2008, the pressure of population aging on social and economic development, was comprehensively evaluated by using the factor analysis method. The spatial distribution of popu- lation aging in China was also analyzed. This study is to provide scientific basis for government to make strategies of coping with population aging according to regional pressure of population ag- ing on social and economic development in China.

  17. The ITE Land classification: Providing an environmental stratification of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, R G; Barr, C J; Gillespie, M K; Howard, D C

    1996-01-01

    The surface of Great Britain (GB) varies continuously in land cover from one area to another. The objective of any environmentally based land classification is to produce classes that match the patterns that are present by helping to define clear boundaries. The more appropriate the analysis and data used, the better the classes will fit the natural patterns. The observation of inter-correlations between ecological factors is the basis for interpreting ecological patterns in the field, and the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) Land Classification formalises such subjective ideas. The data inevitably comprise a large number of factors in order to describe the environment adequately. Single factors, such as altitude, would only be useful on a national basis if they were the only dominant causative agent of ecological variation.The ITE Land Classification has defined 32 environmental categories called 'land classes', initially based on a sample of 1-km squares in Great Britain but subsequently extended to all 240 000 1-km squares. The original classification was produced using multivariate analysis of 75 environmental variables. The extension to all squares in GB was performed using a combination of logistic discrimination and discriminant functions. The classes have provided a stratification for successive ecological surveys, the results of which have characterised the classes in terms of botanical, zoological and landscape features.The classification has also been applied to integrate diverse datasets including satellite imagery, soils and socio-economic information. A variety of models have used the structure of the classification, for example to show potential land use change under different economic conditions. The principal data sets relevant for planning purposes have been incorporated into a user-friendly computer package, called the 'Countryside Information System'.

  18. Potential predictability of soil moisture deficit in britain from the north atlantic oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlewell, P.; Atkinson, M.; Stephenson, D.; Easey, J.; Hollins, P.

    2003-04-01

    BACKGROUND Soil moisture deficit (SMD) is the quantity of water from rainfall or irrigation needed to return a soil to field capacity i. e. the maximum water holding capacity when free drainage can occur. In England, water loss from evaporation and transpiration from plants is low over winter and soils are at or near to field capacity until April in most years. Increasing potential evapotranspiration (PE) in April can lead to a substantial SMD developing if rainfall quantity is less than PE. In a few years with very dry winters a moderate SMD may develop in Britain over winter exacerbating a high SMD from subsequent low spring rainfall. Advance warning of high SMD may be of benefit in planning for increased demand for irrigation water. The winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may provide a means of forecasting early spring SMD since the NAO in winter is associated with climate variables determining SMD. METHODOLOGY The potential predictability of spring SMD from the winter NAO was assessed using the April SMD calculated by the UK Meteorological Office software MORECS for 1978 to 2000. This SMD is calculated for 40 km grid squares and the mean SMD for those grid squares with more than 15% of their area covered by cereals were used to represent the cereal-growing area of mainland Britain. The mean SMD for each week is calculated by MORECS, and the mean of these four values for April was used in further analysis. The SMD was regressed on Hurrell's monthly NAO indices for the winter. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION A positive effect of February NAO on April SMD was found (R^2=36%;P=0.002) indicating possible potential in forecasting. Further work is necessary to establish whether the relationship is determined by persistence of winter SMD or by lag effects on April climate, and also to determine whether rainfall or PE is the dominant intermediary factor. Since winter NAO influences the following summer rainfall in Britain (Kettlewell et al., Weather, in press), a

  19. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  20. LABOUR INPUT IN POLISH AGRICULTURE AGAINST SIZE OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS – SPATIAL ANALYSIS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Wiśniewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of spatial diversifi cation in the labour input in agriculture on the basis of these selected indicators: annual work unit (AWU per 100 ha agricultural acreage; number of people per AWU; and comparison of labour input to EU-15 standards (LI-EU. Agricultural holdings have been categorised by size into three groups: 0–10 ha (small, 10–20 ha (average, and over 20 ha (large. Labour resources were subject to a comparative study of the density rates of AWUs per 100 ha agricultural acreage in Poland and the EU (EU-15. The analysis covered all of Poland with consideration of the administrative division into sixteen voivodeships (tabular analysis and 314 poviats (townships and country districts together, including regional offi ces of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (ARiMR; cartographic analysis. The results of the Agricultural Census of 2010 were used in the study. It demonstrated a signifi cant spatial diversifi cation in labour input in agriculture in general and in each holding size group. Predominantly, the diff erences are related to historical and political factors. The analysis corroborated agrarian overpopulation in south-east Poland.

  1. Creating web applications for spatial epidemiological analysis and mapping in R using Rwui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonarine Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating a user friendly web based application which executes an R script allows physicians, epidemiologists, and others unfamiliar with the statistical language to perform powerful statistical analyses easily. The geographic mapping of data is an important tool in spatial epidemiological analysis, and the R project includes many tools for such analyses, but few for visualization. Hence, web applications that run R for epidemiological analysis need to be able to present the results in a geographic format. Results Rwui is a web application for creating web based applications for running R scripts. We describe updates to Rwui that enable it to create web applications for R scripts which return the results of the analysis to the web page as geographic maps. Conclusions Rwui enables statisticians to create web applications for R scripts without the need to learn web programming. Creating a web application provides users access to an R based analysis without the need to learn R. Recent updates to Rwui have increased its applicability in the field of spatial epidemiological analysis.

  2. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North-South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density.

  3. Shiatsu in Britain and Japan: Personhood, holism and embodied aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glyn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, globalisation processes are examined through the prism of shiatsu, an originally Japanese, touch-based therapy, now practised in Europe, Japan, North America, and many other places. Examining this emergent plane of therapeutic practice provides an opportunity to reflect on categories of personhood, notably that of the individual, and its place within processes of globalisation. The article is divided into two parts. In the first part the holisms inherent to East Asian medical practice and underlying notions of personhood in Japan and Britain are critically examined. The seemingly reductionistic practice of 'bodily holism' in Japan is shown to reflect socio-centred notions of the person. The concept of holism animating shiatsu in a British school in London, far from being Japanese, 'ancient', or 'timeless', is shown to reflect individualism characteristic of the New Age movement. In the second part of the paper, using an auto-phenomenological approach, a description of practitioner (my own) and client's lived experience of shiatsu is given in case study form. This illustrates how 'holism' is felt within the context of a shiatsu treatment. The aesthetic form of the shiatsu touch described is shown to be implicitly individualising. This has, it is argued, profound implications for understanding the embodied dimensions of practitioner-patient encounters, the potential efficacy of treatment, and more generally the practice of globalised East Asian 'holistic' therapies in Britain and other settings.

  4. Incorporating private lands in conservation planning: protected areas in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah F; Gaston, Kevin J

    2008-06-01

    Evaluations of the effectiveness of protected areas often report their inadequate representation of regional variation in environmental conditions, land cover, and biological diversity. One frequent contributory explanation is the heavy reliance placed upon the designation of public as opposed to private lands for statutory protection. Given that protected area designation in Britain has no such constraint, and indeed that more than half of such areas are on private lands, we tested the a priori assumption that within this region the representation of environmental conditions and land cover within statutory protected areas would be more equitable. Despite the reduction in land ownership constraints on where protected areas can be established, a marked bias in protected area coverage remains. Protected areas in Britain tend toward regions of higher elevation, soils of lower economic potential, and coastal/estuarine habitat and fail adequately to represent areas of lower elevation and woodland habitats. Improving the current situation requires not only a more systematic approach to site selection, but a more equitable and diverse portfolio of incentives for private landowners to facilitate the decision to manage sites for conservation.

  5. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North–South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density. PMID:27152211

  6. Beyond capital? The challenge for sociology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmwood, John

    2014-12-01

    This article offers a 'local', British, reading of Piketty's landmark book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, suggesting that the challenge it offers to sociological approaches to inequality is more fundamental than hitherto recognized. The variations in 'national trajectories' exposed by Piketty reveal Britain to be anomalous in terms of standard approaches to the path dependencies embedded in different welfare regimes. Using the recent work of Monica Prasad on 'settler capitalism' in the USA and the tax and debt-finance regime associated with it, the article suggests that colonialism and empire and its postwar unravelling has had deep consequences for British social stratification, albeit largely neglected by British sociologists. Finally, it points to the fact that the form of tax and debt-finance regime that has become reinforced in Britain is at the heart of recent radical reforms to higher education. These are the currently unexplicated conditions of our future practice as sociologists and, therefore, an obstacle to building a critical sociology on the foundations laid out by Piketty.

  7. The End of Roman Pottery Production in Southern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Lyne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to show that a full or partial monetary economy may have continued to operate in parts of Britain into the 2nd quarter of the 5th century at least; changing our perception of early 5th century material culture in South-East Britain from one leaving very few traces in the archaeological record to one which is an extension of that previously thought to be restricted to the period c.AD 370-410 but which can now be seen to span the period c.AD 370-430/440. Some Romano-British style pottery appears to have continued being made on a much more limited scale into the mid-5th century: a distinctive type of convex-sided dish with solid spaced bosses can be shown to have been made at or near Dorchester-upon-Thames, Portchester and Alice Holt Forest during the 5th century and continued being produced at the first-mentioned place for long enough to be copied by local Anglo-Saxon potters. Adjustments in dating mean that certain peculiarly insular types of military equipment such as the Tortworth strap-end and horse-headed buckle, hitherto dated to the last years of the 4th century, could belong to British soldiers of the early 5th century.

  8. SPATIAL GRADIENT ANALYSIS OF URBAN GREEN SPACES COMBINED WITH LANDSCAPE METRICS IN JINAN CITY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-hua; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI; YIN Hai-wei; Akira KIKUCHI

    2005-01-01

    Urban green spaces have been arisen growing concern responded to the social and environmental costs of urban sprawl. A wide range of planning and policies has been and/or will be designed to protect urban green spaces and optimize their spatial pattern. A better design or planning of urban green space can make a major contribution to quality of environment and urban life, and furthermore can decide whether we can have a sustainable development in the urban area. Information about the status quo of urban green spaces can help planners design more effectively.However, how to quantify and capture such information will be the essential question we face. In this paper, to quantify the urban green space, a new method comprising gradient analysis, landscape metrics and GIS was developed through a case of Jinan City. The results demonstrate: 1) the gradient analysis is a valid and reliable instrument to quantify the urban green space spatial pattern precisely; 2) using moving window, explicit landscape metrics were spatially realized. Compared with quantifying metrics in the entire landscape, it would be better to link pattern with process and establish an important basis for analyzing the ecological and socioeconomic functions of green spaces.

  9. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  10. Analysis of spatial relationships in three dimensions: tools for the study of nerve cell patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Mary A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple technologies have been brought to bear on understanding the three-dimensional morphology of individual neurons and glia within the brain, but little progress has been made on understanding the rules controlling cellular patterning. We describe new matlab-based software tools, now available to the scientific community, permitting the calculation of spatial statistics associated with 3D point patterns. The analyses are largely derived from the Delaunay tessellation of the field, including the nearest neighbor and Voronoi domain analyses, and from the spatial autocorrelogram. Results Our tools enable the analysis of the spatial relationship between neurons within the central nervous system in 3D, and permit the modeling of these fields based on lattice-like simulations, and on simulations of minimal-distance spacing rules. Here we demonstrate the utility of our analysis methods to discriminate between two different simulated neuronal populations. Conclusion Together, these tools can be used to reveal the presence of nerve cell patterning and to model its foundation, in turn informing on the potential developmental mechanisms that govern its establishment. Furthermore, in conjunction with analyses of dendritic morphology, they can be used to determine the degree of dendritic coverage within a volume of tissue exhibited by mature nerve cells.

  11. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77-7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04-35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region.

  12. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2011-12-29

    The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

  13. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector

  14. Analysis of three-spacecraft data using planar reciprocal vectors: methodological framework and spatial gradient estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vogt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ESA's Cluster mission, four-point array techniques are widely used to analyze space plasma phenomena such as shocks and discontinuities, waves and turbulence, and spatial gradients. Due to failures of single instruments on the Cluster spacecraft fleet, there is also need for array processing of three-point measurements. In this paper we identify planar reciprocal vectors as a generic tool for this purpose. The class of three-point techniques introduced here includes methods for discontinuity analysis, wave identification, and spatial gradient determination. Parameter vectors can be resolved fully in the spacecraft plane but further assumptions or physical constraints have to be specified to estimate the normal components. We focus on the gradient estimation problem where we check and illustrate our approach using Cluster measurements.

  15. Quantum-orbit analysis of above threshold ionization by intense spatially inhomogeneous field

    CERN Document Server

    Shaaran, T; Lewenstein, M

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of above threshold ionization (ATI) in atoms within the strong field approximation (SFA) by considering spatially inhomogeneous monochromatic laser fields. The locally enhanced field induced by resonance plasmons is an example for such inhomogeneous fields. We investigate how the individual pairs of quantum orbits contribute to the photoelectron spectra and the angular electron momentum distributions. We demonstrate that the quantum orbits have a very different behavior in the spatially inhomogeneous field when compared to the homogeneous field. In the case of inhomogeneous fields, the ionization and rescattering times differ between neighboring cycles, despite the field being monochromatic. Indeed, the contributions from one cycle may lead to a lower cutoff, while another may develop a higher cutoff. Within our model, we show that the ATI cutoff extends far beyond the semiclassical cutoff, as a function of inhomogeneity strength. Furthermore, the angular momentum distributions ...

  16. Dynamic extraction of visual evoked potentials through spatial analysis and dipole localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yang, F

    1995-08-01

    The dynamic extraction of evoked potential is a problem of great interest in EEG signal processing. In this paper, a comprehensive method is presented which integrates spatial analysis and dipole localization to make full use of the spatial-temporal information contained in the multichannel stimulation records. A realistic double boundary head model is constructed through CT scans and a two-step method devised to overcome the ill-posed nature of the forward problem of EEG caused by the low conductivity of the skull. As a result, visual evoked potentials can be effectively extracted from only two consecutive records and the dynamic information of visual evoked potential thus procured. The efficiency of the presented method has been verified by means of computer simulation and a clinical experiment.

  17. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.;

    and the factors related to its occurrence and distribution are scarce in Denmark. A retrospective study was performed using liver inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle for the period 2011 to 2013. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore whether the data on F. hepatica infection was clustered...... in space as this could help understand whether or not the infection was driven by local environmental factors. Both global and local spatial autocorrelation techniques were used. Herd level and environmental risk factors were evaluated for their association with prevalence of F. hepatica infection using......Liver fluke infection, also known as fasciolosis, is a world-wide prevalent zoonotic parasitic disease infecting a wide range of host species and is caused by Fasciola hepatica. Despite of the substantial economic and animal welfare effects of the disease, knowledge on its prevalence...

  18. Spatial gene expression quantification: a tool for analysis of in situ hybridizations in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, D.; Kaandorp, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Spatial gene expression quantification is required for modeling gene regulation in developing organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is the model system most widely applied for spatial gene expression analysis due to its unique embryonic properties: the shape does not change sig

  19. ["TECHNIKA I NAUKA" ["SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY"] (1958-)--MAGAZINE OF THE ASSOCIATION OF POLISH ENGINEERS IN GREAT BRITAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastyk-Kowalczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the history of establishment, functioning and the role of "Science and Technology"--quarterly of the Association of Polish Engineers in Great Britain--in shaping Polish technical thought in the environment of Polish engineers and technicians living in exile. The analysis of the content of the journal published in London in the years 1958-2008 made it evident that this official scientific organ of Polish technical intelligentsia edited in 500 copies reaches members of engineering, technical and scientific milieu across many continents. Despite the fact that Polish language dominates in the articles and thanks to the interdisciplinary character of their content - science and technology, biology, the humanities, sociology and others--the journal makes it possible for the reader to participate in an intellectual adventure. "Science and Technology" was created in 1958 on the initiative of Eng. Prof. Roman Wajda in Great Britain, with support of other Polish technical associations abroad, and embraced the achievements and organisational life of the Polish technical milieu dispersed around the world. On the basis of the London Society's archive materials and old annual volumes of the journal, the author listed editors-in-chief, composition of editorial committees, collaborators, determined editing costs, changeable periodicity, successive print shops, seats of editorial office that always followed the Association in Great Britain. She also showed the effort of a handful of members of editorial committees, working on a voluntary basis to obtain materials for the journal; the role of the journal linking Polish engineers and technicians in exile and its function as a link with the Country, as well as its role in the sphere of information and propaganda. Finally, the author made an analysis of the journal's content, focusing on categories of articles published in "Science and Technology" in the years 1958-2008. Methods used by the author in the article

  20. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Global proteomics approaches allow characterization of whole tissue lysates to an impressive depth. However, it is now increasingly recognized that to better understand the complexity of multicellular organisms, global protein profiling of specific spatially defined regions/substructures of tissues (i.e. spatially-resolved proteomics) is essential. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables microscopic isolation of defined regions of tissues preserving crucial spatial information. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, and that impact measurement robustness, quantification, and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a fully automated sample preparation workflow that with a single manual step allows: protein extraction, tryptic digestion, peptide cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state of the art in ultrasensitive global proteomic analysis, our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification and throughput. Using our LCM-SNaPP proteomics approach, we characterized to a depth of more than 3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in laser capture microdissected alveolar tissue containing ~4,000 cells per sample. Importantly, the data revealed quantitative changes for 350 low abundance transcription factors and signaling molecules, confirming earlier transcript-level observations and defining seven modules of coordinated transcription factor/signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting that a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. Our LCM-proteomics approach facilitates efficient, spatially-resolved, ultrasensitive global proteomics analyses in high-throughput that will be enabling for several clinical and

  1. Relative risk of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: a spatial analysis in urban area.

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    Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. METHODOLOGY: This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412, were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146. The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities.

  2. New image analysis method for the estimation of global and spatial changes in fruit microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczywek, Piotr M.; Cybulska, Justyna; Dyki, Barbara; Konopacka, Dorota; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Zdunek, Artur

    2016-04-01

    A new image analysis method for the spatial characterization of microscopy images of fruit microstructure is proposed in order to analyse the heterogeneous microstructure of unprocessed fruit and the possible inhomogeneous effects of various technological treatments on this microstructure. The micro-structure of tissue samples was characterized using the global statistics of size and shape parameters calculated for all visible objects. Global analysis was supported by a novel algorithm that allowed for drawing of the maps of the cell wall fraction from microscopy images and for the analysis of both global and local compaction or loosening of tissue. The spatial distribution of the cell wall fraction was visualised in the convenient form of bivariate histograms. To test the developed image analysis protocols, structural changes resulting from ultrasonic and osmotic treatments of apple tissue samples were studied. Peeled and cored apples were submersed in a liquid medium (distilled water or 60 °Bx sucrose solution) for 45 and 90 min with and without ultrasonic treatment. After these treatment procedures, tissue samples were cut into slices, stained and imaged using a microscope. The proposed method allowed to characterise the effects of different sample treatments.

  3. Spatial analysis of electricity demand patterns in Greece: Application of a GIS-based methodological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate various uses of electricity demand in Greece (agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial use as well as use for public and municipal authorities and street lightning) and we examine their relation with variables such as population, total area, population density and the Gross Domestic Product. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the level of prefecture. We both visualize the results of the analysis and we perform cluster and outlier analysis using the Anselin local Moran's I statistic as well as hot spot analysis using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The definition of the spatial patterns and relationships of the aforementioned variables in a GIS environment provides meaningful insight and better understanding of the regional development model in Greece and justifies the basis for an energy demand forecasting methodology. Acknowledgement: This research has been partly financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA II: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/ or inter-institutional research and innovation (CRESSENDO project; grant number 5145).

  4. Analysis of spatial variations and sources of heavy metals in farmland soils of Beijing suburbs.

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    Jianmei Zou

    Full Text Available To understand the effect of intense human activities in suburbs on environmental quality, we obtained 758 measurements of the heavy metals in certain farmland soils of the Beijing suburbs. Multivariate statistical analysis and geostatistical analysis were used to conduct a basic analysis of the heavy metal concentrations, the distribution characteristics and the sources of pollution of the farmland soils in these suburbs. The results showed the presence of eight heavy metals in the agricultural soils at levels exceeding the background values for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. In particular, all the measured Cr concentrations exceeded the background value, while As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were present at 1.13, 1.68, 1.95, 1.43, 1.63, 0.79, 0.92 and 1.36 times their background values, respectively. The results of correlation, factor and spatial structure analyses showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were strongly homologous, whereas Cr and Hg showed a degree of heterogeneity. The analysis further indicated that in addition to natural factors, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soil were mainly associated with distribution from road traffic and land use status. Different agricultural production measures in the various areas were also important factors that affected the spatial distribution of the soil Cr concentration. The major sources of Hg pollution were landfills for industrial waste and urban domestic garbage, while the spatial distribution of As was more likely to be a result of composite pollution. The regional distribution of the heavy metals indicated that except for Cr and Hg, the high heavy metal levels occurred in districts and counties with higher organic matter concentrations, such as the northwestern and southeastern suburbs of Beijing. There was no significant Ni pollution in the agricultural soils of the Beijing suburbs.

  5. A common spatial factor analysis model for measured neighborhood-level characteristics: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Rachel C; Warren, Joshua L; Herring, Amy H; Moore, Kari A B; Evenson, Kelly R; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the dimensionality of a set of neighborhood-level variables collected on participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) while appropriately accounting for the spatial structure of the data. A common spatial factor analysis model in the Bayesian setting was utilized in order to properly characterize dependencies in the data. Results suggest that use of the spatial factor model can result in more precise estimation of factor scores, improved insight into the spatial patterns in the data, and the ability to more accurately assess associations between the neighborhood environment and health outcomes.

  6. Global Research on Artificial Intelligence from 1990–2014: Spatially-Explicit Bibliometric Analysis

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    Jiqiang Niu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we conducted the evaluation of artificial intelligence research from 1990–2014 by using bibliometric analysis. We introduced spatial analysis and social network analysis as geographic information retrieval methods for spatially-explicit bibliometric analysis. This study is based on the analysis of data obtained from database of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S. Our results revealed scientific outputs, subject categories and main journals, author productivity and geographic distribution, international productivity and collaboration, and hot issues and research trends. The growth of article outputs in artificial intelligence research has exploded since the 1990s, along with increasing collaboration, reference, and citations. Computer science and engineering were the most frequently-used subject categories in artificial intelligence studies. The top twenty productive authors are distributed in countries with a high investment of research and development. The United States has the highest number of top research institutions in artificial intelligence, producing most single-country and collaborative articles. Although there is more and more collaboration among institutions, cooperation, especially international ones, are not highly prevalent in artificial intelligence research as expected. The keyword analysis revealed interesting research preferences, confirmed that methods, models, and application are in the central position of artificial intelligence. Further, we found interesting related keywords with high co-occurrence frequencies, which have helped identify new models and application areas in recent years. Bibliometric analysis results from our study will greatly facilitate the understanding of the progress and trends in artificial intelligence, in particular, for those researchers interested in domain-specific AI-driven problem-solving. This will be

  7. Representations of far-flung illnesses: the case of Ebola in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hélène; Haarhoff, Georgina

    2002-03-01

    In western cultures lay people are faced with a plethora of far-flung illnesses, relayed to them by the mass media. A number of social scientists have called for scrutiny of the link between people's patterns of thinking concerning such events, and the messages to which they are exposed. Using the outbreaks of Ebola in Africa in the mid-1990s as a vehicle, the study examines how British broadsheets and their readers, and British tabloids and their readers, make sense of this far-flung illness. Existing work on early representations of HIV/AIDS in the west is utilised to inform the research questions. In particular, this study investigates whether Ebola is constructed as a threat, how media and lay representations of Ebola interact, and whether there are different pockets of shared thinking, or a more uniform representation, in relation to Ebola in Britain. An analysis of the themes in 48 broadsheet and tabloid articles, and 50 interviews with their readers, reveals a common picture in which Ebola is represented as African. associated with African practices, and seen as posing little threat to Britain. However, group differences exist, and are characterised by a more essentialised vision of Ebola in the tabloids and their readers, in contrast to a focus on structural features linked to Ebola's escalation in the broadsheets and their readers. In terms of the media-mind relationship, beyond the similarities found between media type and their respective readers' ideas, certain key differences exist: While the newspapers make Ebola 'real' by referring to its potential to globalise. as well as to how it can be contained, lay thinkers feel detached from it, and draw an analogy between Ebola and science fiction. This is discussed as a method of symbolic coping on the part of the readers, as well as in terms of the power exerted by media imagery on lay representations of Ebola.

  8. Spatial Analysis of Urban Delinquency in 22 Regions of Tehran Megapolis

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    Ali Shamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpatial analysis of urban delinquency at the level of regions and providing security is one of the basic factors in optimum urban management. Spatial analysis of urban delinquency and interpretation of its distribution in different locations make it possible to organize and manage spaces. Tehran megalopolis, with 22 municipality regions had the highest rate urban delinquency in Iran in recent years. Preliminary study of documents at the department of social issues, located at police organization show that data related to urban delinquency are collected for each year. Data reflects this fact that one of the most important social and security problems in Tehran are the high number of delinquency and crime. On the basis of daily police report, about 15 to 20 house thefts occur in Tehran. This problem leads to devoting considerable amounts of budget and human resources to control and to provide security. Also, the problem of crime, individual and group fights, theft, stealing from pockets, car and motor cycle theft, social corruption specially, rape, drug and alcoholic beverages sales are the most important among urban delinquencies. Some of these problems are very important for police force, considering the political- security, social and cultural dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary to study and analyze the distribution of delinquency and its types in different regions of Tehran city. It can be considered as the first step to prevent and control urban delinquency. Therefore, these questions were answered in this research:1-How is the distribution of delinquencies in 22 municipality regions of Tehran city?2-How are the reciprocal relationships of the urban delinquencies in these 22 regions?3-What are the relations between distributions of urban delinquencies with population density in these 22 regions?To confront the problem, considering the literature review, urban delinquencies were analyzed at two spatial levels: 1- Micro

  9. Research on the integrative strategy of spatial statistical analysis of GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong; Han, Qi Juan; Wu, Liang

    2008-12-01

    Presently, the spacial social and natural phenomenon is studied by both the GIS technique and statistics methods. However, plenty of complex practical applications restrict these research methods. The data models and technologies exploited are full of special localization. This paper firstly sums up the requirement of spacial statistical analysis. On the base of the requirement, the universal spatial statistical models are transformed into the function tools in statistical GIS system. A pyramidal structure of three layers is brought forward. Therefore, it is feasible to combine the techniques of spacial dada management, searches and visualization in GIS with the methods of processing data in the statistic analysis. It will form an integrative statistical GIS environment with the management, analysis, application and assistant decision-making of spacial statistical information.

  10. GeoXp : An R Package for Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

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    Thibault Laurent

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present GeoXp, an R package implementing interactive graphics for exploratory spatial data analysis. We use a data set concerning public schools of the French MidiPyrenees region to illustrate the use of these exploratory techniques based on the coupling between a statistical graph and a map. Besides elementary plots like boxplots,histograms or simple scatterplots, GeoXp also couples maps with Moran scatterplots, variogram clouds, Lorenz curves and other graphical tools. In order to make the most of the multidimensionality of the data, GeoXp includes dimension reduction techniques such as principal components analysis and cluster analysis whose results are also linked to the map.

  11. Mechanism design and dynamic analysis of a large-scale spatial deployable structure for space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanling; Lin, Qiuhong; Wang, Xingze; Li, Lin; Cong, Qiang; Pan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The deployable structure is critical to the overall success of the space mission. This paper introduces a large-scale spatial deployable structure (SDS), which is developed to deploy and support the payload panels in a precise configuration once on the track. And segmental researching in the design, kinematics and dynamics analysis of SDS's prototyping system are presented. Geometric construction method and Bar-groups method are adopted to analysis the dimensions and coordinates of the SDS, which finally construct an well-determined mathematical model to raise the productivity and efficiency during optimization and analysis work. Be reasoned with the large-scale of the truss structures, flexible multibody dynamic simulations are developed, which present much more authentic stress transfer and kinematics behaviors. According to the deployment experiments of SDS's prototyping system, the correctness and validity of the flexible multibody simulation work are well proved.

  12. GEO-VISUAL APPROACH FOR SPATIAL SCAN STATISTICS: AN ANALYSIS OF DENGUE FEVER OUTBREAKS IN DELHI

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    Shuchi Mala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are very few surveillance systems being used to detect disease outbreaks at present. In disease surveillance system, data related to cases and various risk factors are collected and then the collected data is transformed into meaningful information for effective disease control using statistical analysis tools. Disease outbreaks can be detected but for effective disease control, a visualization approach is required. Without appropriate visualization, it is very difficult to interpret the results of analysis. In this work, a method has been developed for geographical representation of the disease surveillance and response system for early detection of disease outbreaks using SaTScan and open source Geographic Information System software. Maps that combine the geographical location of diseases and clusters to enhance the understanding of results of statistical analysis tool are developed using QGIS library which provides many spatial algorithms and native GIS functions. This library is accessed through PyQGIS and PyQt using Python.

  13. Collection and Integration of Local Knowledge and Experience through a Collective Spatial Analysis

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    Juan Daniel Castillo-Rosas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the convenience of adopting an approach of Collective Spatial Analysis in the P/PGIS processes, with the aim of improving the collection and integration of knowledge and local expertise in decision-making, mainly in the fields of planning and adopting territorial policies. Based on empirical evidence, as a result of the review of scientific articles from the Web of Science database, in which it is displayed how the knowledge and experience of people involved in decision-making supported by P/PGIS are collected and used, a prototype of a WEB-GSDSS application has been developed. This prototype allows a group of people to participate anonymously, in an asynchronous and distributed way, in a decision-making process to locate goods, services, or events through the convergence of their views. Via this application, two case studies for planning services in districts of Ecuador and Italy were carried out. Early results suggest that in P/PGIS local and external actors contribute their knowledge and experience to generate information that afterwards is integrated and analysed in the decision-making process. On the other hand, in a Collective Spatial Analysis, these actors analyse and generate information in conjunction with their knowledge and experience during the process of decision-making. We conclude that, although the Collective Spatial Analysis approach presented is in a subjective and initial stage, it does drive improvements in the collection and integration of knowledge and local experience, foremost among them is an interdisciplinary geo-consensus.

  14. Real-time 2D spatially selective MRI experiments: Comparative analysis of optimal control design methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, Ivan I; Vinding, Mads S; Tse, Desmond H Y; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Shah, N Jon

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for development of advanced radio-frequency (RF) pulse techniques in modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems driven by recent advancements in ultra-high magnetic field systems, new parallel transmit/receive coil designs, and accessible powerful computational facilities. 2D spatially selective RF pulses are an example of advanced pulses that have many applications of clinical relevance, e.g., reduced field of view imaging, and MR spectroscopy. The 2D spatially selective RF pulses are mostly generated and optimised with numerical methods that can handle vast controls and multiple constraints. With this study we aim at demonstrating that numerical, optimal control (OC) algorithms are efficient for the design of 2D spatially selective MRI experiments, when robustness towards e.g. field inhomogeneity is in focus. We have chosen three popular OC algorithms; two which are gradient-based, concurrent methods using first- and second-order derivatives, respectively; and a third that belongs to the sequential, monotonically convergent family. We used two experimental models: a water phantom, and an in vivo human head. Taking into consideration the challenging experimental setup, our analysis suggests the use of the sequential, monotonic approach and the second-order gradient-based approach as computational speed, experimental robustness, and image quality is key. All algorithms used in this work were implemented in the MATLAB environment and are freely available to the MRI community.

  15. Spatial Analysis Based Health and Safety Risk Assessment for Linear Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, H.; Toz, G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an on-going study that aims to develop a web-based spatial decision support system model for proactive health and safety management in linear construction projects. Currently, health and safety management is usually performed reactively instead of proactive management since hazard identification and risk assessment is mostly performed on paper based documents that are not effectively used at site. This leads to accidents and fatalities at construction sites. The proposed system automatically identifies the spatial risks according to the topographic and layout map of the site, project specification and health and safety regulations by means of spatial analysis. It enables the workers and management personnel to access the possible hazards and thematic risk map of any portion of the construction site for linear projects. Finally, the described approach provides the proposed mitigation measures for the identified hazards. The developed system is expected to raise awareness in H&S among workers and engineers, and increase participation of workers to health and safety management.

  16. Spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate data by means of digital image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Petrik, Attila; Horváth, Ákos; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-01-01

    A detailed ambient gamma dose equivalent rate mapping based on field measurements at ground level and at 1 m height was carried out at 142 sites in 80 × 90 km area in Pest County, Hungary. Detailed digital image processing analysis was carried out to identify and characterise spatial features such as outlying points, anomalous zones and linear edges in a smoothed TIN interpolated surface. The applied method proceeds from the simple shaded relief model and digital cross-sections to the more complex gradient magnitude and gradient direction maps, 2nd derivative profile curvature map, relief map and lineament density map. Each map is analysed for statistical characteristics and histogram-based image segmentation is used to delineate areas homogeneous with respect to the parameter values in these maps. Assessment of spatial anisotropy is implemented by 2D autocorrelogram and directional variogram analyses. The identified spatial features are related to underlying geological and tectonic conditions using GIS technology. Results show that detailed digital image processing is efficient in revealing the pattern present in field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rates and they are related to regional scale tectonic zones and surface sedimentary lithological conditions in the study area.

  17. SPATIAL ANALYSIS BASED HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LINEAR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Atay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an on-going study that aims to develop a web-based spatial decision support system model for proactive health and safety management in linear construction projects. Currently, health and safety management is usually performed reactively instead of proactive management since hazard identification and risk assessment is mostly performed on paper based documents that are not effectively used at site. This leads to accidents and fatalities at construction sites. The proposed system automatically identifies the spatial risks according to the topographic and layout map of the site, project specification and health and safety regulations by means of spatial analysis. It enables the workers and management personnel to access the possible hazards and thematic risk map of any portion of the construction site for linear projects. Finally, the described approach provides the proposed mitigation measures for the identified hazards. The developed system is expected to raise awareness in H&S among workers and engineers, and increase participation of workers to health and safety management.

  18. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  19. Analysis of stress and natural frequencies of high-speed spatial parallel mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈修龙; 李文彬; 邓昱; 李云峰

    2013-01-01

    In order to grasp the dynamic behaviors of 4-UPS-UPU high-speed spatial parallel mechanism, the stress of driving limbs and natural frequencies of parallel mechanism were investigated. Based on flexible multi-body dynamics theory, the dynamics model of 4-UPS-UPU high-speed spatial parallel mechanism without considering geometric nonlinearity was derived. The stress of driving limbs and natural frequencies of 4-UPS-UPU parallel mechanism with specific parameters were analyzed. The relationship between the basic parameters of parallel mechanism and its dynamic behaviors, such as stress of driving limbs and natural frequencies of parallel mechanism, were discussed. The numerical simulation results show that the stress and natural frequencies are relatively sensitive to the section parameters of driving limbs, the characteristic parameters of material on driving limbs, and the mass of moving platform. The researches can provide important theoretical base of the analysis of dynamic behaviors and optimal design for high-speed spatial parallel mechanism.

  20. A clustering analysis of eddies' spatial distribution in the South China Sea

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    J. Yi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation is important for studying the mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS. To investigate such spatial variations, this study made a clustering analysis on eddies' distribution using the K-means approach. Results showed that clustering tendency of anticyclonic eddies (AEs and cyclonic eddies (CEs were weak but not random, and the number of clusters were proved greater than four. Finer clustering results showed 10 regions where AEs densely populated and 6 regions for CEs in the SCS. Previous studies confirmed these partitions and possible generation mechanisms were related. Comparisons between AEs and CEs revealed that patterns of AE are relatively more aggregated than those of CE, and specific distinctions were summarized: (1 to the southwest of Luzon Island, AEs and CEs are generated spatially apart; AEs are likely located north of 14° N and closer to shore, while CEs are to the south and further offshore; (2 the Central SCS and Nansha Trough are mostly dominated by AEs; (3 along 112° E, clusters of AEs and CEs are located sequentially apart, and the pair off Vietnam represents the dipole eddies; (4 to the southwest of Dongsha Islands, AEs are concentrated to the east of CEs. Overlaps of AEs and CEs in the northeastern and Southern SCS were further examined considering seasonal variations. The northeastern overlap represented near-concentric distributions while the southern one was a mixed effect of seasonal variations, complex circulations and topography influences.

  1. A clustering analysis of eddies' spatial distribution in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation is important for studying the mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS. To investigate such spatial variations, this study made a clustering analysis on eddies' distribution using the K-means approach. Results showed that clustering tendency of anticyclonic eddies (AEs and cyclonic eddies (CEs were weak but not random, and the number of clusters were proved greater than four. Finer clustering results showed 10 regions where AEs densely populated and 6 regions for CEs in the SCS. Previous studies confirmed these partitions and possible generation mechanisms were related. Comparisons between AEs and CEs revealed that patterns of AE are relatively more aggregated than those of CE, and specific distinctions were summarized: (1 to the southwest of Luzon Island, AEs and CEs are generated spatially apart; AEs are likely located north of 14° N and closer to shore, while CEs are to the south and further offshore. (2 The central SCS and Nansha Trough are mostly dominated by AEs. (3 Along 112° E, clusters of AEs and CEs are located sequentially apart, and the pairs off Vietnam represent the dipole structures. (4 To the southwest of the Dongsha Islands, AEs are concentrated to the east of CEs. Overlaps of AEs and CEs in the northeastern and southern SCS were further examined considering seasonal variations. The northeastern overlap represented near-concentric distributions while the southern one was a mixed effect of seasonal variations, complex circulations and topography influences.

  2. Spatial analysis of future East Asian seasonal temperature using two regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yura; Jun, Mikyoung; Min, Seung-Ki; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    CORDEX-East Asia, a branch of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) initiative, provides high-resolution climate simulations for the domain covering East Asia. This study analyzes temperature data from regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX - East Asia region, accounting for the spatial dependence structure of the data. In particular, we assess similarities and dissimilarities of the outputs from two RCMs, HadGEM3-RA and RegCM4, over the region and over time. A Bayesian functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach is used to simultaneously model the temperature patterns from the two RCMs for the current and future climate. We exploit nonstationary spatial models to handle the spatial dependence structure of the temperature variable, which depends heavily on latitude and altitude. For a seasonal comparison, we examine changes in the winter temperature in addition to the summer temperature data. We find that the temperature increase projected by RegCM4 tends to be smaller than the projection of HadGEM3-RA for summers, and that the future warming projected by HadGEM3-RA tends to be weaker for winters. Also, the results show that there will be a warming of 1-3°C over the region in 45 years. More specifically, the warming pattern clearly depends on the latitude, with greater temperature increases in higher latitude areas, which implies that warming may be more severe in the northern part of the domain.

  3. Big Data Geo-Analytical Tool Development for Spatial Analysis Uncertainty Visualization and Quantification Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Bauer, J. R.; Baker, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    As big data computing capabilities are increasingly paired with spatial analytical tools and approaches, there is a need to ensure uncertainty associated with the datasets used in these analyses is adequately incorporated and portrayed in results. Often the products of spatial analyses, big data and otherwise, are developed using discontinuous, sparse, and often point-driven data to represent continuous phenomena. Results from these analyses are generally presented without clear explanations of the uncertainty associated with the interpolated values. The Variable Grid Method (VGM) offers users with a flexible approach designed for application to a variety of analyses where users there is a need to study, evaluate, and analyze spatial trends and patterns while maintaining connection to and communicating the uncertainty in the underlying spatial datasets. The VGM outputs a simultaneous visualization representative of the spatial data analyses and quantification of underlying uncertainties, which can be calculated using data related to sample density, sample variance, interpolation error, uncertainty calculated from multiple simulations. In this presentation we will show how we are utilizing Hadoop to store and perform spatial analysis through the development of custom Spark and MapReduce applications that incorporate ESRI Hadoop libraries. The team will present custom 'Big Data' geospatial applications that run on the Hadoop cluster and integrate with ESRI ArcMap with the team's probabilistic VGM approach. The VGM-Hadoop tool has been specially built as a multi-step MapReduce application running on the Hadoop cluster for the purpose of data reduction. This reduction is accomplished by generating multi-resolution, non-overlapping, attributed topology that is then further processed using ESRI's geostatistical analyst to convey a probabilistic model of a chosen study region. Finally, we will share our approach for implementation of data reduction and topology generation

  4. ANALYSIS OF PRO-POOR GROWTH AMONG THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ - BRAZIL: SPATIAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Ribeiro Justo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the for-poor growth among the municipal districts of the State of Ceará in 2003. Initially it explores the recent literature of the theme as well as of the spatial econometric. Soon after it makes the spatial analysis of the variables through maps and in more robust way through the Exploratory Analysis of Given Spatial (AEDE being used the LISA methodology (Local Indicators of Spatial Association and the statistics I of Moran. Estimates the elasticity income-poverty and elasticity inequality-poverty. The tests indicated the need to incorporate variables in the estimates that learn the spatial externalities. The results suggest for-poor growth in the municipal districts from Ceará in agreement with results aggregate for the Ceará state appointed in recent literature.

  5. Research Update: Spatially resolved mapping of electronic structure on atomic level by multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belianinov, Alex, E-mail: belianinova@ornl.gov; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Lin, Wenzhi; Jesse, Stephen; Pan, Minghu; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Center for Nanophase Material Science, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37922 (United States); Sales, Brian C.; Sefat, Athena S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37922 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Atomic level spatial variability of electronic structure in Fe-based superconductor FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} (T{sub c} = 15 K) is explored using current-imaging tunneling-spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data differentiates regions of dissimilar electronic behavior that can be identified with the segregation of chalcogen atoms, as well as boundaries between terminations and near neighbor interactions. Subsequent clustering analysis allows identification of the spatial localization of these dissimilar regions. Similar statistical analysis of modeled calculated density of states of chemically inhomogeneous FeTe{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} structures further confirms that the two types of chalcogens, i.e., Te and Se, can be identified by their electronic signature and differentiated by their local chemical environment. This approach allows detailed chemical discrimination of the scanning tunneling microscopy data including separation of atomic identities, proximity, and local configuration effects and can be universally applicable to chemically and electronically inhomogeneous surfaces.

  6. Strategic-spatial analysis of the implementation of business opening politics of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César F. Cárdenas Dávila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the Mexican implementation strategy of trade policy openness due to the globalization trend, urging the country to create a series of trade agreements and treaties on free movement of goods and regional integration, becoming the country with the network of the world's largest trade agreements, increasing its presence and Mexican companies in international markets. Similarly, a spatial analysis of the last five governmental periods, comprising 26 years of foreign trade policy and its impact on foreign investors, foreign trade and main multinationals in Mexico, forcing them to centering in competitive productive processes and  improving their internal organization, innovation and development

  7. NEW WIND-INDUCED RESPONSES ANALYSIS METHOD OF SPATIAL STRUCTURES IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN WITH MODE COMPENSATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳丽; 董石麟

    2002-01-01

    Large span spatial lattice structures have many natural frequencies in a narrow frequency range, the conventional frequency domain method is difficult to contain all significant contribution modes. Through numerical examples, it is found that some high order modes are likely to be overlooked because of their higher positions of modal order, in spite of their significance to wind response. According to the contributions of modes to strain energy of system, the paper presented an efficient method to compensate the errors owing to missing out some significant high order modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through a numerical analysis of the wind responses of a spherical dome.

  8. SPATIAL CORRELATION DESCRIPTION OF DEFORMATION OBJECT BASED ON FUZZY CLUSTERING AND GEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The methods of deformation analysis and modeling at single point are realized easily now,but available approaches do not make full use of the information from monitoring points and can not reveal integrated deformation regularity of a deformable body.This paper presents a fuzzy clusetering method to analyze the correlative relations of multiple points in space,and then the spatial model for a practical dangerous rockmass in the area of Three Gorges,Yangtze River is established,in which the correlation of six points in space is analyzed by geological investigation and fuzzy set theory.

  9. LABOUR INPUT IN POLISH AGRICULTURE AGAINST SIZE OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS – SPATIAL ANALYSIS*

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of spatial diversifi cation in the labour input in agriculture on the basis of these selected indicators: annual work unit (AWU) per 100 ha agricultural acreage; number of people per AWU; and comparison of labour input to EU-15 standards (LI-EU). Agricultural holdings have been categorised by size into three groups: 0–10 ha (small), 10–20 ha (average), and over 20 ha (large). Labour resources were subject to a comparative study of t...

  10. Spatial embedded reinforcement of 20-node block element for analysis PC bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiheng LONG; Xianting DU; Weizhen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The formula for the contribution of prestressed reinforcement on embedded reinforcement element is derived according to the mechanical behavior of PC bridges and the foundational principle of finite element method. Mechanical concept is definite and examples val-idate the calculation results. Reinforcement element model allows generating a finite element mesh without taking into consideration the layout of reinforcements. Furthermore, the prestressing tendon may pass through the concrete elements in an arbitrary manner. It is an effective approach that the no-node loads are diverted from the tendons to the adjacent concrete elements. A useful arithmetic analysis of the spatial curved tendon PC Bridges is provided.

  11. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  12. Spatial analysis of campylobacter infection in the Canadian province of Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Dennis O

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study describes population level variations in campylobacter incidence within the Canadian province of Manitoba, and the relationship to sociodemographic and landscape related characteristics. Using data derived from the Manitoba Health Public Health Branch communicable disease surveillance database, the study applied a number of spatial and ecological techniques to visualize, explore and model campylobacter incidence for the years 1996 to 2004. Analytical techniques used in the study included spatial smoothing, the spatial scan statistic, the Gini coefficient, and Poisson regression analysis. Results The study demonstrated marked and statistically significant geographic variability in the rates of campylobacter incidence in Manitoba.. The incidence of campylobacter was observed to be significantly higher in populations living in rural and agricultural areas of the province, with the highest rates occurring in populations living in proximity to high densities of farm animals (cows, pigs, chickens. The study also observed that the age specific pattern of campylobacter incidence in rural Manitoba was very different than the urban pattern, with the incidence rate in the 0–4 year age group seven times higher in rural Manitoba than in the City of Winnipeg. Conclusion The study demonstrates the value of a deploying a diverse set of spatial techniques to better understand the dynamics of an enteric disease such as campylobacter infection. The study concludes that there may be three distinct mechanisms for the transmission of campylobacter in Manitoba which are operating simultaneously. These include broad population exposure to a centralized food system endemically infected with the campylobacter organism, exposure to local level factors such as farm animals or contaminated water, and exposure to campylobacter infection through foreign travel.

  13. Spatial analysis of "crazy quilts", a class of potentially random aesthetic artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-01-01

    Human artefacts in general are highly structured and often display ordering principles such as translational, reflectional or rotational symmetry. In contrast, human artefacts that are intended to appear random and non symmetrical are very rare. Furthermore, many studies show that humans find it extremely difficult to recognize or reproduce truly random patterns or sequences. Here, we attempt to model two-dimensional decorative spatial patterns produced by humans that show no obvious order. "Crazy quilts" represent a historically important style of quilt making that became popular in the 1870s, and lasted about 50 years. Crazy quilts are unusual because unlike most human artefacts, they are specifically intended to appear haphazard and unstructured. We evaluate the degree to which this intention was achieved by using statistical techniques of spatial point pattern analysis to compare crazy quilts with regular quilts from the same region and era and to evaluate the fit of various random distributions to these two quilt classes. We found that the two quilt categories exhibit fundamentally different spatial characteristics: The patch areas of crazy quilts derive from a continuous random distribution, while area distributions of regular quilts consist of Gaussian mixtures. These Gaussian mixtures derive from regular pattern motifs that are repeated and we suggest that such a mixture is a distinctive signature of human-made visual patterns. In contrast, the distribution found in crazy quilts is shared with many other naturally occurring spatial patterns. Centroids of patches in the two quilt classes are spaced differently and in general, crazy quilts but not regular quilts are well-fitted by a random Strauss process. These results indicate that, within the constraints of the quilt format, Victorian quilters indeed achieved their goal of generating random structures.

  14. Spatial analysis of "crazy quilts", a class of potentially random aesthetic artefacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesche Westphal-Fitch

    Full Text Available Human artefacts in general are highly structured and often display ordering principles such as translational, reflectional or rotational symmetry. In contrast, human artefacts that are intended to appear random and non symmetrical are very rare. Furthermore, many studies show that humans find it extremely difficult to recognize or reproduce truly random patterns or sequences. Here, we attempt to model two-dimensional decorative spatial patterns produced by humans that show no obvious order. "Crazy quilts" represent a historically important style of quilt making that became popular in the 1870s, and lasted about 50 years. Crazy quilts are unusual because unlike most human artefacts, they are specifically intended to appear haphazard and unstructured. We evaluate the degree to which this intention was achieved by using statistical techniques of spatial point pattern analysis to compare crazy quilts with regular quilts from the same region and era and to evaluate the fit of various random distributions to these two quilt classes. We found that the two quilt categories exhibit fundamentally different spatial characteristics: The patch areas of crazy quilts derive from a continuous random distribution, while area distributions of regular quilts consist of Gaussian mixtures. These Gaussian mixtures derive from regular pattern motifs that are repeated and we suggest that such a mixture is a distinctive signature of human-made visual patterns. In contrast, the distribution found in crazy quilts is shared with many other naturally occurring spatial patterns. Centroids of patches in the two quilt classes are spaced differently and in general, crazy quilts but not regular quilts are well-fitted by a random Strauss process. These results indicate that, within the constraints of the quilt format, Victorian quilters indeed achieved their goal of generating random structures.

  15. Spatial Isolation and Temporal Variation in Fitness and Condition Facilitate Divergence in a Migratory Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Claudia; Mettler, Raeann; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Segelbacher, Gernot; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2015-01-01

    A novel migratory polymorphism evolved within the last 60 years in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) breeding sympatrically in southwestern Germany. While most individuals winter in the traditional areas in the Mediterranean, a growing number of blackcaps started migrating to Britain instead. The rapid microevolution of this new strategy has been attributed to assortative mating and better physical condition of birds wintering in Britain. However, the isolating barriers as well as the physical condition of birds are not well known. In our study, we examined whether spatial isolation occurred among individuals with distinct migratory behaviour and birds with different arrival dates also differed in physical and genetic condition. We caught blackcaps in six consecutive years upon arrival on the breeding grounds and assigned them via stable isotope analysis to their wintering areas. Analysis of the vegetation structure within blackcap territories revealed different microhabitat preferences of birds migrating to distinct wintering areas. Blackcaps arriving early on the breeding grounds had higher survival rates, better body condition and higher multilocus heterozygosities than later arriving birds. We did however not find an effect of parasite infection status on arrival time. Our results suggest that early arriving birds have disproportionate effects on population dynamics. Allochrony and habitat isolation may thus act together to facilitate ongoing divergence in hybrid zones, and migratory divides in particular. PMID:26656955

  16. EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE MEDICAL LIBRARIAN IN GREAT BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUSSELL, M P

    1964-01-01

    This paper describes the education of the librarians under whose care the medical libraries of Great Britain have flourished and the way junior assistants now move toward higher qualification. It expresses the hope that the changed Library Association syllabus gives the medical library assistant an earlier chance of using his knowledge of medical library practice in the papers presented; that the inclusion of medical material in the examination will encourage library schools to provide appropriate instruction in this field, thus achieving a system like that in the United States. For its encouragement of continuing education for the senior librarian, our debt is acknowledged to the Medical Section or Group of the Library Association, which through its meetings gives opportunity for cooperation and discussion of suggestions for further improvement.

  17. An Overview of the Smart Grid in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Nick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the current status of the development of the smart grid in Great Britain (GB. The definition, policy and technical drivers, incentive mechanisms, technological focus, and the industry's progress in developing the smart grid are described. In particular, the Low Carbon Networks Fund and Electricity Network Innovation Competition projects, together with the rollout of smart metering, are detailed. A more observable, controllable, automated, and integrated electricity network will be supported by these investments in conjunction with smart meter installation. It is found that the focus has mainly been on distribution networks as well as on real-time flows of information and interaction between suppliers and consumers facilitated by improved information and communications technology, active power flow management, demand management, and energy storage. The learning from the GB smart grid initiatives will provide valuable guidelines for future smart grid development in GB and other countries.

  18. Bottom currents and shelf sediments, southwest of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D.; Sommerville, J. H.; Stanford, P. N.

    1980-04-01

    The shelf sediments southwest of Britain range from large boulders to muddy fine sands. The large boulders, which occur in patches, were probably dropped from icebergs. A reworked basal bed forms an extensive pavement over which well to very well sorted medium to fine sands are transported, whilst muddy sediments occur between sandbanks. Measurements of boundary layer currents show that the threshold friction velocities for the sands are exceeded by maximum tidal flows over most of the area. Repeated selective entrainment by tidal currents, in a virtually closed sediment system, is proposed as the mechanism for the formation of these very well sorted mobile sands, which have a mean size close to that of the most easily entrained grains and size frequency distributions approaching log-normality.

  19. The veterinary medicine industry in Britain in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, T A B; Godley, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Economic historians have focused research effort on accounting for the growth and significance of Britain's pharmaceutical industry, but little effort has so far been directed at the veterinary medicine industry, which formed an important part of the wider sector. This article addresses that gap. Factors responsible for that sector's relative insignificance until the 1950s included a general tendency to slaughter rather than to treat sick animals, the absence of advanced medicines until the innovation of sulpha drugs and antibiotics, and difficult relations with the wider pharmaceutical industry. Thereafter output of veterinary medicines increased dramatically, arising from an exponential growth in the demand for intensively farmed poultry meat. Since the 1980s a decline in the use of drugs in agriculture has caused the industry to concentrate on the health needs of domestic animals rather than those of livestock.

  20. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  1. Multivariate spatial analysis of a heavy rain event in a densely populated delta city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; Bruni, Guenda; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    maps describing individual location and types of buildings, and maps on categorical socioeconomic statistics (1 Ha of spatial resolution). On the basis of the quality and availability of the mentioned information, spatial and temporal units of analysis will be discussed and defined. Aggregation of single occurrences for binary variables will be performed, while simple interpolations or averages will be used in case of continuous or categorical data. To determine spatial clustering within each variable, Nearest Neighbor Distance and Spatial Autocorrelation tests will be carried out. When appropriate, the Getis-Ord Gi* test will be used to identify single variable clusters. Finally, with the purpose of inferring possible associations between the available spatially distributed variables, a Mantel test will be applied to variables with a probed non-random spatial pattern. The results of this paper will allow to determine if the environmental characteristics described by the available data can provide additional explanation of the variability of rain-related damage in a delta city which is willing to become climate-proof.

  2. Spatial Analysis of the Distribution, Risk Factors and Access to Medical Resources of Patients with Hepatitis B in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Xi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high morbidity of hepatitis B in China, many epidemiological studies based on classic medical statistical analysis have been started but lack spatial information. However, spatial information such as the spatial distribution, autocorrelation and risk factors of the disease is of great help in studying patients with hepatitis B. This study examined 2851 cases of hepatitis B that were hospitalized in Shenzhen in 2010 and studied the spatial distribution, risk factors and spatial access to health services using spatial interpolation, Pearson correlation analysis and the improved two-step floating catchment area method. The results showed that the spatial distribution of hepatitis B, along with risk factors as well as spatial access to the regional medical resources, was uneven and mainly concentrated in the south and southwest of Shenzhen in 2010. In addition, the distribution characteristics of hepatitis B revealed a positive correlation between four types of service establishments and risk factors for the disease. The Pearson correlation coefficients are 0.566, 0.515, 0.626, 0.538 corresponding to bath centres, beauty salons, massage parlours and pedicure parlours (p < 0.05. Additionally, the allocation of medical resources for hepatitis B is adequate, as most patients could be treated at nearby hospitals.

  3. Gradient analysis of landscape spatial and temporal pattern changes in Beijing metropolitan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gradient based landscape metrics analysis is now widely used to study the landscape pattern changes in respond to the urbanization.In order to discover the trend of spatio-temporal changes in Beijing metropolitan area during the past 15 years,several landscape metrics are computed using a moving window along a 96 km long transect across Beijing metropolitan area from west to east.Specially,the spatial extent of sub-landscape,which is determined by the moving window’s size,is profoundly examined.The results show that the metrics varies smoothly and regularly along the selected transect when the window size is greater than 6 km×6 km,and irregularly fluctuated for the smaller window size,that the spatial and temporal landscape characteristics of Beijing city match the hypothetical framework of spatio-temporal urban sprawl in the form of alternating processes of diffusion and coalescence well,and that some new trends of the urban sprawl style in Beijing metropolitan area,such as leap-frog manner,are also detected by the gradient landscape analysis.

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations in bacterial communities of the Yellow Sea by T-RFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyuan WANG; Xiaolu JIANG; Ya HE; Huashi GUAN

    2009-01-01

    Four typical coastal sites (rocky shore, sandy shore, mud flat shore, and artificial harbor) at the Yellow Sea were chosen to investigate the spatial and seasonal variations in bacterial communities. This was accomplished by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR amplified 16S rDNA fragments. Two kinds of tetrameric restriction enzymes, HhaI and MspI, were used in the experiment to depict the bacterial community diversity in different marine environments. It was found that the community compositions digested by the two enzymes separately were different. However, the results of bacterial community diversity derived from them were similar. The MDA analysis results of T-RFLP profiles coming from HhaI and MspI both exhibited a significant seasonal community shift for bacteria and a relatively low spatial variation among the four locations. With HhaI as the sample, the pair wise T-tests also revealed that variations were minor between each pair of marine environments, with R ranging from 0.198 to 0.349. However, the bacterial community structure in the mud flat site depicted a larger difference than each of the other three sites (R ranging from 0.282 to 0.349).

  5. Reevaluation of Stratospheric Ozone Trends From SAGE II Data Using a Simultaneous Temporal and Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, R. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a new method of regression for sparsely sampled data sets for use with time-series analysis, in particular the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II ozone data set. Non-uniform spatial, temporal, and diurnal sampling present in the data set result in biased values for the long-term trend if not accounted for. This new method is performed close to the native resolution of measurements and is a simultaneous temporal and spatial analysis that accounts for potential diurnal ozone variation. Results show biases, introduced by the way data is prepared for use with traditional methods, can be as high as 10%. Derived long-term changes show declines in ozone similar to other studies but very different trends in the presumed recovery period, with differences up to 2% per decade. The regression model allows for a variable turnaround time and reveals a hemispheric asymmetry in derived trends in the middle to upper stratosphere. Similar methodology is also applied to SAGE II aerosol optical depth data to create a new volcanic proxy that covers the SAGE II mission period. Ultimately this technique may be extensible towards the inclusion of multiple data sets without the need for homogenization.

  6. Spatial-temporal analysis of building surface temperatures in Hung Hom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Shen, Yueqian

    2015-12-01

    This thesis presents a study on spatial-temporal analysis of building surface temperatures in Hung Hom. Observations were collected from Aug 2013 to Oct 2013 at a 30-min interval, using iButton sensors (N=20) covering twelve locations in Hung Hom. And thermal images were captured in PolyU from 05 Aug 2013 to 06 Aug 2013. A linear regression model of iButton and thermal records is established to calibrate temperature data. A 3D modeling system is developed based on Visual Studio 2010 development platform, using ArcEngine10.0 component, Microsoft Access 2010 database and C# programming language. The system realizes processing data, spatial analysis, compound query and 3D face temperature rendering and so on. After statistical analyses, building face azimuths are found to have a statistically significant relationship with sun azimuths at peak time. And seasonal building temperature changing also corresponds to the sun angle and sun azimuth variations. Building materials are found to have a significant effect on building surface temperatures. Buildings with lower albedo materials tend to have higher temperatures and larger thermal conductivity material have significant diurnal variations. For the geographical locations, the peripheral faces of campus have higher temperatures than the inner faces during day time and buildings located at the southeast are cooler than the western. Furthermore, human activity is found to have a strong relationship with building surface temperatures through weekday and weekend comparison.

  7. ANALYSIS ON SPATIAL FEATURES OF LUCC BASED ON REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In view of the large quantities of areas, complex landform and dynamic change of resources and environment in China, China has already funded abundantly a series of macro remote sensing investigation projects in land use/ cover change(LUCC) since 1990. Supported by the achievements of such projects, Chinese resources, environmental and remote sensing database (CRERS) was created. In this paper, we standardized the LUCC dataset of CRERS at scale of 1km, which facilitated the study of spatial features of LUCC in China. The analysis on the spatial features of LUCC and their causes of formation in China are based on the CRERS supported by the technologies of Geographic Information System (GIS). The whole research was based on the grade index of land use, ecological environmental index and index of population density. Based on the correlation analysis, we found that the special features of LUCC were closely related with those of ecological environment and population density, which resulted from that areas with better ecological environment and high production potential of land were easy and convenient for human being to live, which, furthermore, led to the aggravation of excessive exploitation of land resources there.

  8. ANALYSIS ON SPATIAL FEATURES OF LUCC BASED ON REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOZhi-qiang; DENGXiang-zheng

    2002-01-01

    In view of the large quantities of areas,complex landform and dynamic change of resources and environ-ment in China,China has already funded abundantly a series of macro remote sensing investigation projects in land use cover change(LUCC) since 1990.Supported by the achievements of such projects,Chinese resources,environmental and remote sensing database(CRERS) was created.In this paper,we standardized the LUCC dataset of CRERS at scale of 1km,which facilitated the study of spatial features of LUCC in China.The analysis on the spatial features of LUCC and their causes of formation in China are based on the CRERS supported by the technologies of Geographic Information System(GIS) .The whole research was based on the grade index of land use,ecological environmental index and index of population density.Based on the correlation analysis,we found that the special features of LUCC were closely related with those of ecological environment and population density,which resulted form that areas with better ecological environ-ment and high production potential of land were easy and convenient for human being to live,which,furthermore,led to the aggravation of excessive exploitation of land resources there.

  9. Analysis of Regularly and Irregularly Sampled Spatial, Multivariate, and Multi-temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1994-01-01

    -variograms are described. As a new way of setting up a well-balanced kriging support the Delaunay triangulation is suggested. Two case studies show the usefulness of 2-D semivariograms of geochemical data from areas in central Spain (with a geologist's comment) and South Greenland, and kriging/cokriging of an undersampled...... filtering of MAF/MNFs is suggested. One case study successfully shows the effect of the MNF Fourier restoration. Another case shows the superiority of the MAF/MNF analysis over ordinary non-spatial factor analysis of geochemical data in South Greenland (with a geologist's comment). Also, two examples of MAF...... are considered as repetitions. Three case studies show the strength of the methods; one uses SPOT High Resolution Visible (HRV) multispectral (XS) data covering economically important pineapple and coffee plantations near Thika, Kiambu District, Kenya, the other two use Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering...

  10. Application of Spatial and Network Analysis to Evaluate Shelter Plan for Tsunami Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for evaluating shelter plan for emergency evacuation prior to a tsunami based on service area analysis. The evacuation service areas are generated using both spatial and network analysis based on Geographic Information System (GIS. A case study in Pacitan city, East Java Province, Indonesia which is located in the South coastal area of Java Island, is picked as study area. The field has a possibility of suffering tsunami disaster because of the movement of Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate. The simulation result shows that the current evacuation shelters arranged by local government are not easy to access if tsunami occurs. About 50% of the residents do not have enough time to evacuate to the shelters because many shelters are located far from residential area. Utilizing public buildings around residential area for temporary shelters proposed in this study, about 96% residents in inundation area have sufficient time to evacuate to the shelters.

  11. Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Low-Cost Ultrasonic Motion Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Qi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications.

  12. Fourier mode analysis of slab-geometry transport iterations in spatially periodic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E; Zika, M

    1999-04-01

    We describe a Fourier analysis of the diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) and transport-synthetic acceleration (TSA) iteration schemes for a spatially periodic, but otherwise arbitrarily heterogeneous, medium. Both DSA and TSA converge more slowly in a heterogeneous medium than in a homogeneous medium composed of the volume-averaged scattering ratio. In the limit of a homogeneous medium, our heterogeneous analysis contains eigenvalues of multiplicity two at ''resonant'' wave numbers. In the presence of material heterogeneities, error modes corresponding to these resonant wave numbers are ''excited'' more than other error modes. For DSA and TSA, the iteration spectral radius may occur at these resonant wave numbers, in which case the material heterogeneities most strongly affect iterative performance.

  13. Fourier mode analysis of slab-geometry transport iterations in spatially periodic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E W; Zika, M R

    1999-05-07

    We describe a Fourier analysis of the diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) and transport-synthetic acceleration (TSA) iteration schemes for a spatially periodic, but otherwise arbitrarily heterogeneous, medium. Both DSA and TSA converge more slowly in a heterogeneous medium than in a homogeneous medium composed of the volume-averaged scattering ratio. In the limit of a homogeneous medium, our heterogeneous analysis contains eigenvalues of multiplicity two at ''resonant'' wave numbers. In the presence of material heterogeneities, error modes corresponding to these resonant wave numbers are ''excited'' more than other error modes. For DSA and TSA, the iteration spectral radius may occur at these resonant wave numbers, in which case the material heterogeneities most strongly affect iterative performance.

  14. Analysis on sensitivity and landscape ecological spatial structure of site resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article establishes a set of indicators and standards for landscape ecological sensitivity analysis of site resources by using thetheories and approaches of landscape ecology.It uses landscape diversity index( H), evenness(E), natural degree(N), contrast degree(C)to study spatial structure and landscape heterogeneity of site resources and thus provides a qualitative-quantitative evaluation method for landplanning and management of small, medium scale areas.The analysis of Yantian District, Shenzhen of China showed that Wutong Mountainbelonged to high landscape ecological sensitivity area, Sanzhoutian Reservoir and Shangping Reservoir were medium landscape sensitivity areaand high ecological sensitivity area; Dameisha and Xiaomeisha belonged to medium sensitivity area caused by the decline of natural ecologicalareas.Shatoujiao, Yantian Pier belonged to low sensitivity area but urban landscape ecological development had reshaped and influenced theirlandscape ecological roles in a great extent.Suggestions on planning, protection goals and development intensity of each site or district wereraised.

  15. Spatial point analysis based on dengue surveys at household level in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Junior, João B; Maciel, Ivan J; Barcellos, Christovam; Souza, Wayner V; Carvalho, Marilia S; Nascimento, Nazareth E; Oliveira, Renato M; Morais-Neto, Otaliba; Martelli, Celina MT

    2008-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) affects nonimunne human populations in tropical and subtropical regions. In the Americas, dengue has drastically increased in the last two decades and Brazil is considered one of the most affected countries. The high frequency of asymptomatic infection makes difficult to estimate prevalence of infection using registered cases and to locate high risk intra-urban area at population level. The goal of this spatial point analysis was to identify potential high-risk intra-urban areas of dengue, using data collected at household level from surveys. Methods Two household surveys took place in the city of Goiania (~1.1 million population), Central Brazil in the year 2001 and 2002. First survey screened 1,586 asymptomatic individuals older than 5 years of age. Second survey 2,906 asymptomatic volunteers, same age-groups, were selected by multistage sampling (census tracts; blocks; households) using available digital maps. Sera from participants were tested by dengue virus-specific IgM/IgG by EIA. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to detect the spatial varying risk over the region. Initially without any fixed covariates, to depict the overall risk map, followed by a model including the main covariates and the year, where the resulting maps show the risk associated with living place, controlled for the individual risk factors. This method has the advantage to generate smoothed risk factors maps, adjusted by socio-demographic covariates. Results The prevalence of antibody against dengue infection was 37.3% (95%CI [35.5–39.1]) in the year 2002; 7.8% increase in one-year interval. The spatial variation in risk of dengue infection significantly changed when comparing 2001 with 2002, (ORadjusted = 1.35; p < 0.001), while controlling for potential confounders using GAM model. Also increasing age and low education levels were associated with dengue infection. Conclusion This study showed spatial heterogeneity in the risk areas of dengue

  16. Spatial analysis of climatic cycles of a detrital aquifer by mean of Indicator Kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Fernández-Chacón, Francisca; Jiménez-Sánchez, Jorge; Chica-Olmo, Mario

    2016-04-01

    In a previous work, spectral analysis was carried out to investigate the climate cycles in a detrital aquifer located in southern Spain. The Vega de Granada aquifer is located in an alluvial plain surrounded by mountains. The aquifer has a superposition of Quaternary sedimentary materials showing a broad range of permeabilities. This aquifer is the receptor of a drainage basin of 2900 km2 and has a surface of around 200 km2. Its alluvial sediments attain a thickness of 250 m in the middle. The sediment sizes are mainly gravel, sands, silts and clay, with frequent spatial changes. The transmissivity of the range from 40000 m2/day to 100 m2/day and the effective porosity ranging between 1% and 10%. The main inputs into the aquifer come from the infiltration of surface runoff and the infiltration of rainfall water. More than 50 piezometric data series were studied with monthly temporal unit. The studied period has a span of more than 30 years. The main climatic cycles are annual, NAO, ENSO and semiannual. For this study, confidence levels of <90%, 90%, 95%, and 99% were established. The spatial distribution in the aquifer of climate cycles and their confidence levels were studied by mean Indicator Kriging. This methodology is based on geostatistical non-parametric methods. For this purpose, the confidence levels were codified in indicator variables. Overall, eleven experimental variograms were calculated and it fitted to a spherical model. In this sense, the spatial behavior of the climate cycles is quite similar in all cases. The estimation results are presented as binary maps that show areas where every cycle appears with a maximum spatial probability. Basically, the interpretation of these maps indicates a close connection to main recharge areas of the aquifer. On the other hand, the changes in permeability in the aquifer are considerable, which may explain in some cases the spatial variations in the spectra calculated. Acknowledgments: This research has been

  17. Spatial point analysis based on dengue surveys at household level in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Renato M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV affects nonimunne human populations in tropical and subtropical regions. In the Americas, dengue has drastically increased in the last two decades and Brazil is considered one of the most affected countries. The high frequency of asymptomatic infection makes difficult to estimate prevalence of infection using registered cases and to locate high risk intra-urban area at population level. The goal of this spatial point analysis was to identify potential high-risk intra-urban areas of dengue, using data collected at household level from surveys. Methods Two household surveys took place in the city of Goiania (~1.1 million population, Central Brazil in the year 2001 and 2002. First survey screened 1,586 asymptomatic individuals older than 5 years of age. Second survey 2,906 asymptomatic volunteers, same age-groups, were selected by multistage sampling (census tracts; blocks; households using available digital maps. Sera from participants were tested by dengue virus-specific IgM/IgG by EIA. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM was used to detect the spatial varying risk over the region. Initially without any fixed covariates, to depict the overall risk map, followed by a model including the main covariates and the year, where the resulting maps show the risk associated with living place, controlled for the individual risk factors. This method has the advantage to generate smoothed risk factors maps, adjusted by socio-demographic covariates. Results The prevalence of antibody against dengue infection was 37.3% (95%CI [35.5–39.1] in the year 2002; 7.8% increase in one-year interval. The spatial variation in risk of dengue infection significantly changed when comparing 2001 with 2002, (ORadjusted = 1.35; p Conclusion This study showed spatial heterogeneity in the risk areas of dengue when using a spatial multivariate approach in a short time interval. Data from household surveys pointed out that low prevalence areas

  18. Spatial analysis of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil (2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellina Yamamura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in the municipality of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, and to identify spatial and space-time clusters for the risk of occurrence of these events. METHODS This is a descriptive, ecological study that considered the hospitalizations records of the Hospital Information System of residents of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, from 2006 to 2012. Only the cases with recorded addresses were considered for the spatial analyses, and they were also geocoded. We resorted to Kernel density estimation to identify the densest areas, local empirical Bayes rate as the method for smoothing the incidence rates of hospital admissions, and scan statistic for identifying clusters of risk. Softwares ArcGis 10.2, TerraView 4.2.2, and SaTScanTM were used in the analysis. RESULTS We identified 169 hospitalizations due to tuberculosis. Most were of men (n = 134; 79.2%, averagely aged 48 years (SD = 16.2. The predominant clinical form was the pulmonary one, which was confirmed through a microscopic examination of expectorated sputum (n = 66; 39.0%. We geocoded 159 cases (94.0%. We observed a non-random spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis concentrated in the northern and western regions of the municipality. Through the scan statistic, three spatial clusters for risk of hospitalizations due to tuberculosis were identified, one of them in the northern region of the municipality (relative risk [RR] = 3.4; 95%CI 2.7–4,4; the second in the central region, where there is a prison unit (RR = 28.6; 95%CI 22.4–36.6; and the last one in the southern region, and area of protection for hospitalizations (RR = 0.2; 95%CI 0.2–0.3. We did not identify any space-time clusters. CONCLUSIONS The investigation showed priority areas for the control and surveillance of tuberculosis, as well as the profile of the affected population, which shows

  19. Spatial analysis of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil (2006-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Mellina; de Freitas, Isabela Moreira; Santo, Marcelino; Chiaravalloti, Francisco; Popolin, Marcela Antunes Paschoal; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Crispim, Juliane Almeida; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis in the municipality of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, and to identify spatial and space-time clusters for the risk of occurrence of these events. METHODS This is a descriptive, ecological study that considered the hospitalizations records of the Hospital Information System of residents of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, from 2006 to 2012. Only the cases with recorded addresses were considered for the spatial analyses, and they were also geocoded. We resorted to Kernel density estimation to identify the densest areas, local empirical Bayes rate as the method for smoothing the incidence rates of hospital admissions, and scan statistic for identifying clusters of risk. Softwares ArcGis 10.2, TerraView 4.2.2, and SaTScanTM were used in the analysis. RESULTS We identified 169 hospitalizations due to tuberculosis. Most were of men (n = 134; 79.2%), averagely aged 48 years (SD = 16.2). The predominant clinical form was the pulmonary one, which was confirmed through a microscopic examination of expectorated sputum (n = 66; 39.0%). We geocoded 159 cases (94.0%). We observed a non-random spatial distribution of avoidable hospitalizations due to tuberculosis concentrated in the northern and western regions of the municipality. Through the scan statistic, three spatial clusters for risk of hospitalizations due to tuberculosis were identified, one of them in the northern region of the municipality (relative risk [RR] = 3.4; 95%CI 2.7–4,4); the second in the central region, where there is a prison unit (RR = 28.6; 95%CI 22.4–36.6); and the last one in the southern region, and area of protection for hospitalizations (RR = 0.2; 95%CI 0.2–0.3). We did not identify any space-time clusters. CONCLUSIONS The investigation showed priority areas for the control and surveillance of tuberculosis, as well as the profile of the affected population, which shows important

  20. An Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Urban Crimes by Spatial Database (the Case of Islamabad in Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohamadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The city of Zanjan in recent decades has enjoyed a considerable growth in population and physical size. However, rapid irregular growth in the number of population has caused in unfavorable formation of informal settlement areas in the city. Islamabad is of the largest informal accommodation regions in Zanjan which is built as a consequence of massive rural migration during 1970s. Although the area, for the time being, is considered within the boundaries of official areas of the city, it is suffering from different skeletal, service, demographic, social and cultural malfunctions. This paper aims at identifying and analyzing the spatial patterns of the conflicts and criminal behaviors happening in Islamabad and discuss crime facilitators in the region using statistical models and Geographical Information Systems. Material & Method This study is based on analytic-comparative method. The spatial distributions of conflicts and criminal behaviors in Islamabad Zanjan are identified using statistical methods such as Mean center, Standard Deviation Distance, Standard Deviation Ellipse, Tests for Clustering, Nearest Neighborhood Index (NNI and Quartic Kernel Density Estimation. Discussion of Results & Conclusions According to the findings of the study, one of the focal areas of crime is located in this informal settlement region. Specifically, certain crimes are concentrated in this region, while most of the other parts of the city remain clear. Islamabad region, one of the most crime-spotted districts of Zanjan is among the largest informal settlement areas, as a result of massive rural migration in 1970s. Newer census indicates that 39439 people i.e. more than 11.2 percent of Zanjan's population, live in Islamabad, while it has only 1.8% of the total living space in Zanjan. So this region suffers from a very high rate of density. It contains 422 people per hectares, while the relative population density of Zanjan is 69 person per hectare

  1. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    Landslides in Great Britain (GB) pose a risk to infrastructure, property and livelihoods. Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in GB by searching electronic archives of local and regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) are responsible for updating and maintaining records of GB landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of approximately 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. Here we aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events and (ii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the LexisNexis digital archive of 568 local and regional newspapers published in the UK. The first step in the methodology was to construct Boolean search criteria that optimised the balance between minimising the number of irrelevant articles (e.g. "a landslide victory") and maximising those referring to landslide events. This keyword search was then applied to the LexisNexis archive of newspapers for all articles published between 1 January and 31 December 2012, resulting in 1,668 articles. These articles were assessed to determine whether they related to a landslide event. Of the 1,668 articles, approximately 30% (~700) referred to landslide events, with others referring to landslides more generally or themes unrelated to landslides. Examples of information obtained from newspaper articles included: date/time of landslide occurrence, spatial location, size, impact, landslide type and triggering mechanism, although the amount of detail and precision attainable from individual articles was variable. Of the 700 articles found for

  2. Cost Analysis of Spatial Data Production as Part of Business Intelligence Within the Mapping Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, A.; Erkek, B.; Çolak, S.

    2012-07-01

    Business intelligence is becoming an important strategic tool for business management. Companies have invested significant resources in applications for customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), e-commerce, among others, which collect vast amounts of data. Today, these same companies are realizing that no matter how robust their application feature sets are, without an equally robust BI mechanism to make use of the collected data, these applications are ultimately coming up short. They do not provide actionable information to end users nor can they give a global understanding among all the organization's information from the various databases for accounting, CRM, and so on. General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) is the leader organizations in Turkey on the field of mapping-land registry-cadastre. GDLRC has executed spatial based projects on the way National Spatial Data Infrastructure especially from the beginnings of 2000s. such as; Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (TUSAGA-Aktif), Geo-Metadata Portal (HBB), Orthophoto-Base Map Production and web services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastral Renovation Project (TKMP), Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (TAKBIS), Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure Project (TNSDI), Ottoman Land Registry Archive Information System (TARBIS). Most of this project has been completed. Some software has been developed within the mentioned project, especially reporting for management level to take decision. In the year of 2010 a new law launched and forced to reorganization of General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. The new structural changes effected to whole organization, management understanding, carrier understanding so on. Even in mapping department which is spatial data producer, now there is no technician, there is no section; there are new carrier as experts. Because of that, all procedures and

  3. Spatial analysis spotlighting early childhood leprosy transmission in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josafá Gonçalves Barreto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children. METHODOLOGY: We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal. Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (p<0.01. Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26-6.59; p<0.0001. Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3% lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8% were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5% showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8% were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide

  4. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  5. Application of spatial Markov chains to the analysis of the temporal-spatial evolution of soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Men, Cong; Wang, Xiujuan; Xu, Fei; Yu, Wenwen

    Soil and water conservation in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of China is important, and soil erosion is a significant issue. In the present study, spatial Markov chains were applied to explore the impacts of the regional context on soil erosion in the Xiangxi River watershed, and Thematic Mapper remote sensing data from 1999 and 2007 were employed. The results indicated that the observed changes in soil erosion were closely related to the soil erosion levels of the surrounding areas. When neighboring regions were not considered, the probability that moderate erosion transformed into slight and severe erosion was 0.8330 and 0.0049, respectively. However, when neighboring regions that displayed intensive erosion were considered, the probabilities were 0.2454 and 0.7513, respectively. Moreover, the different levels of soil erosion in neighboring regions played different roles in soil erosion. If the erosion levels in the neighboring region were lower, the probability of a high erosion class transferring to a lower level was relatively high. In contrast, if erosion levels in the neighboring region were higher, the probability was lower. The results of the present study provide important information for the planning and implementation of soil conservation measures in the study area.

  6. Exploratory spatial data analysis of the distribution of regional per capita GDP in Yangtze Delta, China: 1994-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the spatial economy theory and the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technology, this paper studies the space-time dynamics of regional per capita GDP in the Yangtze Delta. A sample of 74 regions in the Yangtze Delta over the period of 1994 to 2004 provides clear evidence of global and local spatial autocorrelation as well as spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of regional per capita GDP The dynamism of regions is investigated by exploring the spatial pattern of regional growth, compared with that before 1997, the economic growth disparities among Shanghai, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces have decreased, so have the inside regions of Zhejiang Province, while it is opposite to the inside regions of Jiangsu Province.

  7. Spatial Analysis of the National Evaluation of Scholastic Achievement (ENLACE in Schools of the Municipality of Juarez, Chihuahua

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    Luis Ernesto Cervera Gómez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was focused on analyzing the results of the first National Assessment of Academic Achievement for Scholar Centers (ENLACE; acronym in Spanish applied during the year 2006 in the Municipality of Juarez (State of Chihuahua, Mexico. In order to conduct the spatial analysis a geographical information system (GIS was used to make a georeferenced database were all variables were connected to a point representing a school. Results of the examinations expressed as deficient, elemental, good en excellent were spatially distributed over the urban area of Ciudad Juárez. Apparently there is a high spatial correlation between ENLACE’s results with the socioeconomic level of people. In this way results going from good to excellent were spatially located over the sectors more developed of the city. Poor results going from Insufficient to Elemental were spatially located at places with higher deficits of infrastructure and low socioeconomic levels.

  8. Spatial filtering based on canonical correlation analysis for classification of evoked or event-related potentials in EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spüler, Martin; Walter, Armin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Classification of evoked or event-related potentials is an important prerequisite for many types of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To increase classification accuracy, spatial filters are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the brain signals and thereby facilitate the detection and classification of evoked or event-related potentials. While canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has previously been used to construct spatial filters that increase classification accuracy for BCIs based on visual evoked potentials, we show in this paper, how CCA can also be used for spatial filtering of event-related potentials like P300. We also evaluate the use of CCA for spatial filtering on other data with evoked and event-related potentials and show that CCA performs consistently better than other standard spatial filtering methods.

  9. The relationship between governmental and industrial players in national contexts. A multi-dimensional analysis of power in the telecommunication and energy sectors in Great Britain and Germany; Das Verhaeltnis von staatlichen und marktwirtschaftlichen Akteuren im nationalen Kontext. Eine mehrdimensionale Machtanalyse der Telekommunikations- und Energiebranche in Grossbritannien und Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, Roland Gottfried

    2011-07-01

    Using the telecommunication and energy sectors in Great Britain and Germany as a case example the present study examines the power relationships between states and transnational companies. A multi-dimensional study of power relationships covering instrumental, structural and discursive dimensions was designed and carried out by empirical means. The results are discussed on the basis of theories of international relations and international political economy. This is used as a point of departure for seeking answers to frequently asked questions regarding the state's ability to act and the shift in power towards industrial players.

  10. RiskChanges Spatial Decision Support system for the analysis of changing multi-hazard risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, Cees; Zhang, Kaixi; Bakker, Wim; Andrejchenko, Vera; Berlin, Julian; Olyazadeh, Roya; Cristal, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Within the framework of the EU FP7 Marie Curie Project CHANGES and the EU FP7 Copernicus project INCREO a spatial decision support system was developed with the aim to analyse the effect of risk reduction planning alternatives on reducing the risk now and in the future, and support decision makers in selecting the best alternatives. Central to the SDSS are the stakeholders. The envisaged users of the system are organizations involved in planning of risk reduction measures, and that have staff capable of visualizing and analyzing spatial data at a municipal scale. The SDSS should be able to function in different countries with different legal frameworks and with organizations with different mandates. These could be subdivided into Civil protection organization with the mandate to design disaster response plans, Expert organizations with the mandate to design structural risk reduction measures (e.g. dams, dikes, check-dams etc), and planning organizations with the mandate to make land development plans. The SDSS can be used in different ways: analyzing the current level of risk, analyzing the best alternatives for risk reduction, the evaluation of the consequences of possible future scenarios to the risk levels, and the evaluation how different risk reduction alternatives will lead to risk reduction under different future scenarios. The SDSS is developed based on open source software and following open standards, for code as well as for data formats and service interfaces. Code development was based upon open source software as well. The architecture of the system is modular. The various parts of the system are loosely coupled, extensible, using standards for interoperability, flexible and web-based. The Spatial Decision Support System is composed of a number of integrated components. The Risk Assessment component allows to carry out spatial risk analysis, with different degrees of complexity, ranging from simple exposure (overlay of hazard and assets maps) to

  11. Analysis theory of spatial vibration of high-speed train and slab track system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun; HE Dan; ZENG Qing-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The motor and trailer cars of a high-speed train were modeled as a multi-rigid body system with two suspensions. According to structural characteristic of a slab track, a new spatial vibration model of track segment element of the slab track was put forward. The spatial vibration equation set of the high-speed train and slab track system was then established on the basis of the principle of total potential energy with stationary value in elastic system dynarrties and the rule of "set-in-right-position" for formulating system matrices. The equation set was solved by the Wilson-0 direct integration method. The contents mentioned above constitute the analysis theory of spatial vibration of high-speed train and slab track system. The theory was then verified by the high-speed running experiment carried out on the slab track in the Qinghuangdao-Shenyang passenger transport line. The results show that the calculated results agree well with the measured results, such as the calculated lateral and vertical rail displacements are0.82 mm and 0.9 mm and the measured ones 0.75 mm and 0.93 mm, respectively; the calculated lateral and vertical wheel-rail forcesare 8.9 kN and 102.3 kN and the measured ones 8.6 kN and 80.2 kN, respectively. The interpolation method, that is, the lateral finitestrip and slab segment element, for slab deformation proposed is of simplification and applicability compared with the traditionalplate element method. All of these demonstrate the reliability of the theory proposed.

  12. Spatial analysis of fractured rock around fault zones based on photogrammetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, H.; Gessner, K.; Drews, M.; Wellmann, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    The location of hydrocarbon, geothermal or hydrothermal fluids is often bound to fault zones. The fracture systems along these faults play an important role in providing pathways to fluids in the Earth's crust. Thus an evaluation of the change in permeability due to rock deformation is of particular interest in these zones. Recent advances in digital imaging using modern techniques like photogrammetry provide new opportunities to view, analyze and present high resolution geological data in three dimensions. Our method is an extension of the one-dimensional scan-line approach to quantify discontinuities in rock outcrops. It has the advantage to take into account a larger amount of spatial data than conventional manual measurement methods. It enables to recover the entity of spatial information of a 3D fracture pattern, i.e. position, orientation, extent and frequency of fractures. We present examples of outcrop scale datasets in granitic and sedimentary rocks and analyse changes in fracture patterns across fault zones from the host rock to the damage zone. We also present a method to generate discontinuity density maps from 3D surface models generated by digital photogrammetry methods. This methodology has potential for application in rock mass characterization, structural and tectonic studies, the formation of hydrothermal mineral deposits, oil and gas migration, and hydrogeology. Our analysis methods represent important steps towards developing a toolkit to automatically detect and interpret spatial rock characteristics, by taking advantage of the large amount of data that can be collected by photogrammetric methods. This acquisition of parameters defining a 3D fracture pattern allows the creation of synthetic fracture networks following these constraints. The mathematical description of such a synethtical network can be implemented into numerical simulation tools for modeling fluid flow in fracture media. We give an outline of current and future applications of

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN ROMANIA, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN AND USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MORARU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative study of accounting methods and treatments regarding the establishment of revenues and evaluation of fixed assets and investment securities reported in four countries: Romania, France, Great Britain and USA.

  14. Britain in Europe: international and regional comparisons of fertility levels and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D

    1993-01-01

    "This chapter compares fertility patterns and trends in Britain with those in other West European countries. Britain shares many features in common with the rest of Western Europe: fertility below the replacement level, late childbearing with births over age 30 becoming more common. Britain stands out, however, by having one of the highest birth rates in Europe and is one of the few European countries not facing population decline in the medium term. Average age at first marriage and first birth are relatively young. Britain also has one of the highest proportions (30 per cent) of births outside marriage...[with] at least a quarter of all children...likely to experience a single parent home or a reconstituted family before age 16." Some data for the rest of the United Kingdom are also discussed.

  15. Effects of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Related Wavebands' Characteristics on Detecting Spatial Heterogeneity Using Variogram-based Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhaofei; ZHANG Ce; ZHANG Shuqing; DING Changhong; LIU Chunyue; PAN Xin; LI Huapeng; SUN Yan

    2012-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity is widely used in diverse applications,such as recognizing ecological process,guiding ecological restoration,managing land use,etc.Many researches have focused on the inherent scale multiplicity of spatial heterogeneity by using various environmental variables.How these variables affect their corresponding spatial heterogeneities,however,have received little attention.In this paper,we examined the effects of characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its related bands variable images,namely red and near infrared (NIR),on their corresponding spatial heterogeneity detection based on variogram models.In a coastal wetland region,two groups of study sites with distinct fractal vegetation cover were tested and analyzed.The results show that:1) in high fractal vegetation cover (H-FVC) area,NDVI and NIR variables display a similar ability in detecting the spatial heterogeneity caused by vegetation growing status structure; 2) in low fractal vegetation cover (L-FVC) area,the NIR and red variables outperform NDVI in the survey of soil spatial heterogeneity; and 3) generally,NIR variable is ubiquitously applicable for vegetation spatial heterogeneity investigation in different fractal vegetation covers.Moreover,as variable selection for remote sensing applications should fully take the characteristics of variables and the study object into account,the proposed variogram analysis method can make the variable selection objectively and scientifically,especially in studies related to spatial heterogeneity using remotely sensed data.

  16. Spatial stochastic simulation offers potential as a quantitative method for pest risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafoss, Trond

    2003-08-01

    Pest risk analysis represents an emerging field of risk analysis that evaluates the potential risks of the introduction and establishment of plant pests into a new geographic location and then assesses the management options to reduce those potential risks. Development of new and adapted methodology is required to answer questions concerning pest risk analysis of exotic plant pests. This research describes a new method for predicting the potential establishment and spread of a plant pest into new areas using a case study, Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial disease of potato. This method combines current quantitative methodologies, stochastic simulation, and geographic information systems with knowledge of pest biology and environmental data to derive new information about pest establishment potential in a geographical region where a pest had not been introduced. This proposed method extends an existing methodology for matching pest characteristics with environmental conditions by modeling and simulating dissemination behavior of a pest organism. Issues related to integrating spatial variables into risk analysis models are further discussed in this article.

  17. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) for the analysis and detection of packaged pharmaceuticals and concealed drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, William J; Jaatinen, Esa; Fredericks, Peter; Cletus, Biju; Panayiotou, Helen; Izake, Emad L

    2011-10-10

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) is a powerful new technique for the non-invasive detection and identification of concealed substances and drugs. Here, we demonstrate the SORS technique in several scenarios that are relevant to customs screening, postal screening, drug detection and forensics applications. The examples include analysis of a multi-layered postal package to identify a concealed substance; identification of an antibiotic capsule inside its plastic blister pack; analysis of an envelope containing a powder; and identification of a drug dissolved in a clear solvent, contained in a non-transparent plastic bottle. As well as providing practical examples of SORS, the results highlight several considerations regarding the use of SORS in the field, including the advantages of different analysis geometries and the ability to tailor instrument parameters and optics to suit different types of packages and samples. We also discuss the features and benefits of SORS in relation to existing Raman techniques, including confocal microscopy, wide area illumination and the conventional backscattered Raman spectroscopy. The results will contribute to the recognition of SORS as a promising method for the rapid, chemically specific analysis and detection of drugs and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Regional frequency analysis to asses wind resource spatial and temporal variations in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuza, M.; Demissie, D.

    2013-12-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy's annual wind technologies market report, the wind power capacity in the country grew from 2.5 gigawatts in early 2000 to 60 gigawatts in 2012, making it one of the largest new sources of electric capacity additions in the U.S. in recent years. With over 2.8 gigawatts of current capacity (eighth largest in the nation), Washington State plays a significant role in this rapidly increasing energy resource. To further expand and/or optimize these capacities, assessment of wind resource and its spatial and temporal variations are important. However, since at-site frequency analysis using meteorological data is not adequate for extending wind frequency to locations with no data, longer return period, and heterogeneous topography and surface, a regional frequency analysis based on L-moment method is adopted in this study to estimate regional wind speed patterns and return periods in Washington State using hourly mean wind speed data from 1979 - 2010. The analysis applies the k-means, hierarchical and self-organizing map clustering techniques to explore potential clusters or regions; statistical tests are then applied to identify homogeneous regions and appropriate probability distribution models. The result from the analysis is expected to provide essential knowledge about the areas with potential capacity of constructing wind power plants, which can also be readily extended to assist decisions on their daily operations.

  19. DUALISM OF GEOSTRATEGIC PROSPECTS OF GREAT BRITAIN IN THE MODERN SYSTEM OF GLOBAL UNCERTAINTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Yeletsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of a modern position of Great Britain in the global economy are analysed. Its role as one of the local centres of influence in the European Union is emphasized. «Special relationship» between England and the United States in the context of formation of a new «Anglo-Saxon empire» is examined. Particular attention is paid to the key role of Great Britain in the alliance of English-speaking powers.

  20. Employers, the government, and industrial fatigue in Britain, 1890-1918.

    OpenAIRE

    McIvor, A J

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of the concept of industrial fatigue and the responses of employers and the government in Britain to research initiatives in this field of industrial medicine up to the end of the first world war is explored. The discussion dovetails in with the broader debate about the characteristics and dissemination of scientific labour management in Britain. The first section focuses on attitudes towards human energy expenditure and overwork in the nineteenth century. Following this is a di...

  1. 空间数据Kriging预测的小波分析方法%Wavelets Analysis on Kriging Spatial Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈励; 马煜

    2001-01-01

    This paper draws into wavelets analysis to consider spatial model, using biorthogonal sequence to decompose spatial model. We get the Kriging prediction through soft-shreshold estimate. It is practical. We also get a excellent decomposition of spatial model for the further research.%用小波方法处理在空间上相关的数据模型。通过小波压缩估计,利用双正交小波作最佳线性空间预测Kriging估计,获得了Kriging估计的非线性小波预测。

  2. Using the SAL technique for spatial verification of cloud processes: A sensitivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The feature based spatial verification method SAL is applied to cloud data, i.e. two-dimensional spatial fields of total cloud cover and spectral radiance. Model output is obtained from the COSMO-DE forward operator SynSat and compared to SEVIRI satellite data. The aim of this study is twofold. First, to assess the applicability of SAL to this kind of data, and second, to analyze the role of external object identification algorithms (OIA) and the effects of observational uncertainties on the resulting scores. As a feature based method, SAL requires external OIA. A comparison of three different algorithms shows that the threshold level, which is a fundamental part of all studied algorithms, induces high sensitivity and unstable behavior of object dependent SAL scores (i.e. even very small changes in parameter values can lead to large changes in the resulting scores). An in-depth statistical analysis reveals significant effects on distributional quantities commonly used in the interpretation of SAL, e.g. median...

  3. Detection of particle flow patterns in tumor by directional spatial frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stewart; Camara, Hawa; Shi, Lingyan; Hoopes, P. Jack; Kaufman, Peter; Pogue, Brian; Alfano, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is well known to be chaotic and limited, partly from dysfunctional vasculature, but also because of microscopic regional variations in composition. Modeling the of transport of nanoparticle therapeutics, therefore must include not only a description of vascular permeability, but also of the movement of the drug as suspended in tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) once it leaves the blood vessel. Understanding of this area is limited because we currently lack the tools and analytical methods to characterize it. We have previously shown that directional anisotropy of drug delivery can be detected using Directional Fourier Spatial Frequency (DFSF) Analysis. Here we extend this approach to generate flow line maps of nanoparticle transport in TIF relative to tumor ultrastructure, and show that features of tumor spatial heterogeneity can be identified that are directly related to local flow isometries. The identification of these regions of limited flow may be used as a metric for determining response to therapy, or for the optimization of adjuvant therapies such as radiation pre-treatment, or enzymatic degradation.

  4. Environmental and Risk Factors of Leptospirosis: A Spatial Analysis in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Fajriyah, Silviana; Udiyono, Ari; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2017-02-01

    Leptospirosis is zoonotic potentially epidemic with clinical manifestations from mild to severe and can cause death. The incidence of leptospirosis in Indonesia tends to increase by the year. The case fatality rate in Semarang was greater than the national’s (9.38%). The purpose of this study was to describe the environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in Semarang spatially. The study design was descriptive observational with cross sectional approach. The population and samples in this study were confirmed leptospirosis in Semarang from January 2014 until May 2015, 88 respondents in 61 villages of 15 sub-districts in Semarang. The variables were environmental conditions, the presence of rats, wastewater disposal, waste disposal facilities, the presence of pets, the presence of rivers, flood’s profile, tidal inundation profile, vegetation, contact with rats, and Protected Personal Equipment/PPE utilization. Based on the spatial analysis, variables that found in the big half area of Semarang are environmental conditions, the presence of rats, wastewater disposal, waste disposal facilities, contact with rats, and PPE utilization. The presence of pets at risk, the presence of rivers, flood’s profile, inundation profile, and vegetation were found only in small half of Semarang area. People are expected to maintain their personal and environmental hygiene to prevent the transmission.

  5. Spatial hazard analysis and prediction on rainfall-induced landslide using GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of landslide hazard model cou-pled with GIS provides an effective means to spatial hazardanalysis and prediction on rainfall-induced landslides. Amodified SINMAP model is established based upon the sys-tematic investigation on previous GIS-based landslide analy-sis models. By integrating the landslide deterministic modelwith the hydrological distribution model based on DEM, thismodel deeply studied the effect of underground water dis-tribution due to rainfall on the slope stability and landslideoccurrence, including the effect of dynamic water pressureresulting from the down slope seepage process as well as thatof static water pressure. Its applicability has been testified onthe Xiaojiang watershed, the rainfall-induced landslideswidespread area in Southeast China. Detailed discussion wascarried out on the spatial distribution characteristics oflandslide hazard and its extending trend, as well as thequantitative relationship between landslide hazard with pre-cipitation, slope angle and specific catchment area in theXiaojiang watershed. And the precipitation threshold forlandslide occurrence was estimated. These analytical resultsare proved useful for geohazard control and engineeringdecision-making in the Xiaojiang watershed.

  6. Intensity-Duration-Frequency and spatial analysis of droughts using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohseni Saravi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation deficit and its daily, seasonal and annual oscillations are inherent characteristics of Iran's climate. Droughts are generally characterized by a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. In drought studies it is important to characterize the start and end of a drought as well as its intensity, duration, frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study was to analyze drought characteristics and to develop drought maps in the Karoon river basin, Iran. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI was used in drought analysis based on the data for meteorological stations located inside or adjacent to the study area and three time scales including the 3-, 6- and 12-month SPI were evaluated. After determining the dry and wet periods, historical characteristics of droughts were identified and spatial distribution maps of droughts were plotted using GIS. Based on frequency distributions, drought durations and magnitudes were computed corresponding to 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100-year return periods. The Time scale-Duration-Frequency (TDF and Time scale-Magnitude-Frequency (TMF relationships were also developed, which constitute an essential tool for water resource design purposes. Drought spatial distribution maps show that extreme conditions dominate the southeastern regions of the basin. The efficiency of the SPI is determined by monitoring the drought of 1999.

  7. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  8. Test analysis of detection of damage to a complicated spatial model structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-He Xu; Zhong-Xian Li; Jia-Ru Qian

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage damage detection approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a complicated spatial model structure with a limited number of measurements. In the experiment, five known damage patterns, including 3 brace damage cases and 2 joint damage cases, were simulated by removing braces and weakening beam-column connections in the structure. The limited acceleration response data generated by hammer impact were used for system identification, and modal parameters were extracted by using the eigensystem realization algorithm. In the first stage, the possible damaged locations are determined by using the damage index and the characteristics of the analytical model itself, and the extent of damage for those substructures identified at stage I is estimated in the second stage by using a second-order eigen-sensitivity approximation method. The main contribution of this paper is to test the two-stage method by using the real dynamic data of a complicated spatial model structure with limited sensors. The analysis results indicate that the two-stage approach is able to detect the location of both damage cases, only the severity of brace damage cases can be assessed, and the reasonable analytical model is critical for successful damage detection.

  9. Uses of virtual reality for diagnosis, rehabilitation and study of unilateral spatial neglect: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Dupierrix, Eve; Chokron, Sylvie; Coquillart, Sabine; Ohlmann, Theophile

    2009-04-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling condition frequently occurring after stroke. People with neglect suffer from various spatial deficits in several modalities, which in many cases impair everyday functioning. A successful treatment is yet to be found. Several techniques have been proposed in the last decades, but only a few showed long-lasting effects and none could completely rehabilitate the condition. Diagnostic methods of neglect could be improved as well. The disorder is normally diagnosed with pen-and-paper methods, which generally do not assess patients in everyday tasks and do not address some forms of the disorder. Recently, promising new methods based on virtual reality have emerged. Virtual reality technologies hold great opportunities for the development of effective assessment and treatment techniques for neglect because they provide rich, multimodal, and highly controllable environments. In order to stimulate advancements in this domain, we present a review and an analysis of the current work. We describe past and ongoing research of virtual reality applications for unilateral neglect and discuss the existing problems and new directions for development.

  10. Spatial-temporal-covariance-based modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Curtis R; Tyler, Glenn A; Wittich, Donald J

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a framework for modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations that is based on spatial-temporal covariance matrices extracted from wavefront sensor measurements. Within this framework, we present a quasi-homogeneous structure function to analyze nonhomogeneous, mildly anisotropic spatial random processes, and we use this structure function to show that phase aberrations arising in aero-optics are, for an important range of operating parameters, locally Kolmogorov. This strongly suggests that the d5/3 power law for adaptive optics (AO) deformable mirror fitting error, where d denotes actuator separation, holds for certain important aero-optics scenarios. This framework also allows us to compute bounds on AO servo lag error and predictive control error. In addition, it provides us with the means to accurately simulate AO systems for the mitigation of aero-effects, and it may provide insight into underlying physical processes associated with turbulent flow. The techniques introduced here are demonstrated using data obtained from the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory.

  11. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  12. Analysis on the Changing Spatial Patterns of China's Migration in 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Q.; Bian, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the data of China's fourth, fifth and sixth population census, taking the seven geographical zone as research units, the Changing Spatial Patterns of China's Migration in 1985-2010 is studied by the means of spatial analysis and mathematical statistics. The empirical results show that: (1) The migration population in China was increasing a lot in 1985-2010, and the main part of it is Provincial migration. (2) The total number of migration, immigration and emigration, the relative proportion of inter provincial and provincial migration have been positively correlated to the regional economic development level. (3) The emigrations from Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and overseas mainly moved to East and North China. (4) Central and west of China are the main area where people outflowed from, and most migration population moved to south-eastern coastal areas. The migration in Northeast and northwest of China is still relatively small. The main direction of population migration and flowing is from west to east and from north to south.

  13. Key Spatial Relations-based Focused Crawling (KSRs-FC) for Borderlands Situation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D. Y.; Wu, H.; Chen, J.; Li, R.

    2013-11-01

    Place names play an important role in Borderlands Situation topics, while current focused crawling methods treat them in the same way as other common keywords, which may lead to the omission of many useful web pages. In the paper, place names in web pages and their spatial relations were firstly discussed. Then, a focused crawling method named KSRs-FC was proposed to deal with the collection of situation information about borderlands. In this method, place names and common keywords were represented separately, and some of the spatial relations related to web pages crawling were used in the relevance calculation between the given topic and web pages. Furthermore, an information collection system for borderlands situation analysis was developed based on KSRs-FC. Finally, F-Score method was adopted to quantitatively evaluate this method by comparing with traditional method. Experimental results showed that the F-Score value of the proposed method increased by 11% compared to traditional method with the same sample data. Obviously, KSRs-FC method can effectively reduce the misjudgement of relevant webpages.

  14. Spatial analysis on impacts of mining activities leading to flood disaster in the Erai watershed, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katpatal, Y.B.; Patil, S.A. [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-05-15

    Decisions related to mine management, especially pertaining to dumped material, might lead to several environmental hazards including flood risks in mining areas. Excavation and mine dumps are dominant factors of land use/land cover change in the Erai River watershed of Chandrapur district in Maharashtra, India. Identification and quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this change in land use/land cover affects ecosystem components such as aesthetics, biodiversity and mitigation of floods in the Erai watershed. The present study utilizes satellite data of Landsat TM (1989), IRS LISS-3 (1999, 2007) and CARTOSAT (2007) to study the extent of surface mines and management of mine overburden (OB) dumps of Hindustan Lalpeth coal mines, Chandrapur, India. Image processing techniques in conjunction with GIS have been used to visualize the flood scenario, the reasons for floods and area under impact. The study indicates that the development of the mine OB dump within the river channel on both the sides has been responsible for the 2006 flood within the region. Further increase in OB dump heights may result in the risk of floods of greater potential during heavy rainfall in the future. The study presents a spatial analysis to assess the impacts of OB dumps in the recent flood in the area. The study also spatially represents the area under impact leading to a disastrous situation due to floods. The study also suggests the probable measures that must be adopted to avoid such situations in future in the mining areas.

  15. Spatial analysis on impacts of mining activities leading to flood disaster in the Erai watershed, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.B. Katpatal; S.A. Patil [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India). Civil Engineering Department

    2010-03-15

    Decisions related to mine management, especially pertaining to dumped material, might lead to several environmental hazards including flood risks in mining areas. Excavation and mine dumps are dominant factors of land use/land cover change in the Erai River watershed of Chandrapur district in Maharashtra, India. Identification and quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this change in land use/land cover affects ecosystem components such as aesthetics, biodiversity and mitigation of floods in the Erai watershed. The present study utilizes satellite data of Landsat TM (1989), IRS LISS-3 (1999, 2007) and CARTOSAT (2007) to study the extent of surface mines and management of mine over burden (OB) dumps of Hindustan Lalpeth coal mines, Chandrapur, India. Image processing techniques in conjunction with GIS have been used to visualize the flood scenario, the reasons for floods and area under impact. The study indicates that the development of the mine OB dump within the river channel on both the sides has been responsible for the 2006 flood within the region. Further increase in OB dump heights may result in the risk of floods of greater potential during heavy rainfall in the future. The study presents a spatial analysis to assess the impacts of OB dumps in the recent flood in the area. The study also spatially represents the area under impact leading to a disastrous situation due to floods. The study also suggests the probable measures that must be adopted to avoid such situations in future in the mining areas.

  16. Spatial analysis of precipitation time series over the Upper Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Yasir; Yaoming, Ma; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    The upper Indus basin (UIB) holds one of the most substantial river systems in the world, contributing roughly half of the available surface water in Pakistan. This water provides necessary support for agriculture, domestic consumption, and hydropower generation; all critical for a stable economy in Pakistan. This study has identified trends, analyzed variability, and assessed changes in both annual and seasonal precipitation during four time series, identified herein as: (first) 1961-2013, (second) 1971-2013, (third) 1981-2013, and (fourth) 1991-2013, over the UIB. This study investigated spatial characteristics of the precipitation time series over 15 weather stations and provides strong evidence of annual precipitation by determining significant trends at 6 stations (Astore, Chilas, Dir, Drosh, Gupis, and Kakul) out of the 15 studied stations, revealing a significant negative trend during the fourth time series. Our study also showed significantly increased precipitation at Bunji, Chitral, and Skardu, whereas such trends at the rest of the stations appear insignificant. Moreover, our study found that seasonal precipitation decreased at some locations (at a high level of significance), as well as periods of scarce precipitation during all four seasons. The observed decreases in precipitation appear stronger and more significant in autumn; having 10 stations exhibiting decreasing precipitation during the fourth time series, with respect to time and space. Furthermore, the observed decreases in precipitation appear robust and more significant for regions at high elevation (>1300 m). This analysis concludes that decreasing precipitation dominated the UIB, both temporally and spatially including in the higher areas.

  17. Surface roughness measurement using spatial-average analysis of objective speckle pattern in specular direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezeng; Gao, Zhao

    2009-11-01

    The speckle contrast method (SCM) and the light scattering method (LSM) are two of the most promising optical techniques for on-line surface roughness measurement of slightly-rough surface. However, due to the lack of capability in eliminating the influence from the diffuse component of scattered light, SCM and LSM are both sensitive to the variations of surface correlation length. Additionally, for LSM, the presence of speckle noise leads to fluctuations in the measuring results. To solve these problems, an approach based on the spatial-average analysis of the objective speckle pattern in the specular direction, simply called spatial-average method (SAM), is proposed. The SAM establishes the quantitative relationship between a new characteristic parameter extracted from the recorded speckle image and the rms surface roughness, eliminates to a large extent the influence of diffuse light component on the measuring results, and immunizes itself from the speckle noise. The theoretical foundation of SAM is given in details. A computer simulation is then performed to make comparisons among these three methods. Finally an experiment is presented.

  18. A TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BASIN CITY UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city’s UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls “sinking heat island”. From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  19. Analysis of spatial and temporal rainfall trends in Sicily during the 1921-2012 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Bono, Enrico; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Freni, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation patterns worldwide are changing under the effects of global warming. The impacts of these changes could dramatically affect the hydrological cycle and, consequently, the availability of water resources. In order to improve the quality and reliability of forecasting models, it is important to analyse historical precipitation data to account for possible future changes. For these reasons, a large number of studies have recently been carried out with the aim of investigating the existence of statistically significant trends in precipitation at different spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, the existence of statistically significant trends in rainfall from observational datasets, which were measured by 245 rain gauges over Sicily (Italy) during the 1921-2012 period, was investigated. Annual, seasonal and monthly time series were examined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric statistical test to detect statistically significant trends at local and regional scales, and their significance levels were assessed. Prior to the application of the Mann-Kendall test, the historical dataset was completed using a geostatistical spatial interpolation technique, the residual ordinary kriging, and then processed to remove the influence of serial correlation on the test results, applying the procedure of trend-free pre-whitening. Once the trends at each site were identified, the spatial patterns of the detected trends were examined using spatial interpolation techniques. Furthermore, focusing on the 30 years from 1981 to 2012, the trend analysis was repeated with the aim of detecting short-term trends or possible changes in the direction of the trends. Finally, the effect of climate change on the seasonal distribution of rainfall during the year was investigated by analysing the trend in the precipitation concentration index. The application of the Mann-Kendall test to the rainfall data provided evidence of a general decrease in precipitation in Sicily during the

  20. A sensitivity analysis using different spatial resolution terrain models and flood inundation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, George; Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros

    2014-05-01

    The impact of terrain spatial resolution and accuracy on the hydraulic flood modeling can pervade the water depth and the flood extent accuracy. Another significant factor that can affect the hydraulic flood modeling outputs is the selection of the hydrodynamic models (1D,2D,1D/2D). Human mortality, ravaged infrastructures and other damages can be derived by extreme flash flood events that can be prevailed in lowlands at suburban and urban areas. These incidents make the necessity of a detailed description of the terrain and the use of advanced hydraulic models essential for the accurate spatial distribution of the flooded areas. In this study, a sensitivity analysis undertaken using different spatial resolution of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and several hydraulic modeling approaches (1D, 2D, 1D/2D) including their effect on the results of river flow modeling and mapping of floodplain. Three digital terrain models (DTMs) were generated from the different elevation variation sources: Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point cloud data, classic land surveying and digitization of elevation contours from 1:5000 scale topographic maps. HEC-RAS and MIKE 11 are the 1-dimensional hydraulic models that are used. MLFP-2D (Aronica et al., 1998) and MIKE 21 are the 2-dimensional hydraulic models. The last case consist of the integration of MIKE 11/MIKE 21 where 1D-MIKE 11 and 2D-MIKE 21 hydraulic models are coupled through the MIKE FLOOD platform. The validation process of water depths and flood extent is achieved through historical flood records. Observed flood inundation areas in terms of simulated maximum water depth and flood extent were used for the validity of each application result. The methodology has been applied in the suburban section of Xerias river at Volos-Greece. Each dataset has been used to create a flood inundation map for different cross-section configurations using different hydraulic models. The comparison of resulting flood inundation maps indicates