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Sample records for brisbane queensland australia

  1. Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia: Study Design and Implementation

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    Wafaa Nabil Ezz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW (to assess airway function, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation, blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels (to measure systemic inflammation. A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study.

  2. Excess deaths during the 2004 heatwave in Brisbane, Australia.

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    Tong, Shilu; Ren, Cizao; Becker, Niels

    2010-07-01

    The paper examines whether there was an excess of deaths and the relative role of temperature and ozone in a heatwave during 7-26 February 2004 in Brisbane, Australia, a subtropical city accustomed to warm weather. The data on daily counts of deaths from cardiovascular disease and non-external causes, meteorological conditions, and air pollution in Brisbane from 1 January 2001 to 31 October 2004 were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, respectively. The relationship between temperature and mortality was analysed using a Poisson time series regression model with smoothing splines to control for nonlinear effects of confounding factors. The highest temperature recorded in the 2004 heatwave was 42 degrees C compared with the highest recorded temperature of 34 degrees C during the same periods of 2001-2003. There was a significant relationship between exposure to heat and excess deaths in the 2004 heatwave [estimated increase in non-external deaths: 75 ([95% confidence interval, CI: 11-138; cardiovascular deaths: 41 (95% CI: -2 to 84)]. There was no apparent evidence of substantial short-term mortality displacement. The excess deaths were mainly attributed to temperature but exposure to ozone also contributed to these deaths.

  3. Central Places of Transit Riders: A Visual Story of Brisbane, Australia

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    Ming Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses smartcard data to quantify and visualize the most popular destinations (‘central places’ and corridors of transit riders in Brisbane, an emerging global city in Queensland, Australia. It shows that the number and distribution of central places vary significantly across different periods of the day and so are their respective scopes of influence, which are measured by a standard deviational ellipse, and the associated transit corridors, which connect visitors of central places to other locales in the city. As a whole, this study shows the potential of smartcard data in efficiently verifying and even extending existing economic geography theories, models or concepts.

  4. Evaluating integrated urban water systems alternatives for Brisbane, Australia.

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    Mitchell, G; Gray, S; Shipton, B; Woolley, R; Erbacher, J; Egerton, G; McKnoulty, J

    2003-01-01

    The Brazil Development Study investigates the feasibility of alternative approaches to providing sustainable water services to a 226 ha mixed residential and industrial greenfield development within the city of Brisbane, Australia. The alternatives include techniques such a the use of rainwater tanks, water use efficiency, a local wastewater treatment plant for recycling of reclaimed water and composting toilets amongst others. This paper evaluates a series of urban development scenarios against the objectives of the study. The insights gained into the drivers for cost and environmental impact for this particular site are discussed as well as a number of issues of concern and challenges to Council and the community.

  5. Epidemic Potential for Local Transmission of Zika Virus in 2015 and 2016 in Queensland, Australia.

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    Viennet, Elvina; Mincham, Gina; Frentiu, Francesca D; Jansen, Cassie C; Montgomery, Brian L; Harley, David; Flower, Robert L P; Williams, Craig R; Faddy, Helen M

    2016-12-13

    Zika virus could be transmitted in the state of Queensland, Australia, in parts of the state where the mosquito vectors are established. We assessed the epidemic potential of Zika in Queensland from January 2015 to August 2016, and estimate the epidemic potential from September to December 2016, by calculating the temperature-dependent relative vectorial capacity (rVc), based on empirical and estimated parameters. Through 2015, we estimated a rVc of 0.119, 0.152, 0.170, and 0.175, respectively in the major cities of Brisbane, Rockhampton, Cairns, and Townsville. From January to August 2016, the epidemic potential trend was similar to 2015, however the highest epidemic potential was in Cairns. During September to November 2016, the epidemic potential is consistently the highest in Cairns, followed by Townsville, Rockhampton and Brisbane. Then, from November to December 2016, Townsville has the highest estimated epidemic potential. We demonstrate using a vectorial capacity model that ZIKV could have been locally transmitted in Queensland, Australia during 2015 and 2016. ZIKV remains a threat to Australia for the upcoming summer, during the Brazilian Carnival season, when the abundance of vectors is relatively high. Understanding the epidemic potential of local ZIKV transmission will allow better management of threats to blood safety and assessment of public health risk.

  6. Crustal architecture across Phanerozoic Australia along the Eromanga-Brisbane Geoscience Transect: evolution and analogues

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    Finlayson, D. M.

    1993-03-01

    The crustal architecture across Phanerozoic Australia has been established from seismic data along an 1100-km-long east-west transect, the Eromanga-Brisbane Geoscience Transect. This has enabled a better understanding of deep structures and processes that have controlled the development of major sedimentary basin systems. It has shown that crustal dynamics throughout geological history have played an important role in the development of these sedimentary basins and that structures developed during the early Palaeozoic have influenced, and continue to influence, basin systems. The transect crosses three major basement provinces of the Tasman Orogenic System in eastern Australia - the Thomson, northern Lachlan, and New England Orogens. The basement geology in the transect region has, until now, been only poorly understood because it is largely obscured by the Mesozoic cover rocks of the Eromanga, Surat and Clarence-Moreton Basins. The transect interpretation has firmly identified crustal-scale ramp structures, multiple intra-crustal detachment surfaces, strike-slip fault architecture, lower-crustal magmatism/underplating, Mono remobilisation, and intra-crustal terranes in the geological reconstructions of southern Queensland. The boundaries between the orogens, the Foyleview and Burunga—Mooki Geosutures, have been identified as lithospheric-scale structures that have influenced the evolution of the Tasman Orogenic System as a whole.

  7. Radon and thoron concentrations in public workplaces in Brisbane, Australia.

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    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2015-06-01

    Radon and thoron are radioactive gases that can emanate from soil and building materials, and it can accumulate in indoor environments. The concentrations of radon and thoron in the air from various workplace categories in Brisbane, Australia were measured using an active method. The average radon and thoron concentrations for all workplace categories were 10.5 ± 11.3 and 8.2 ± 1.4 Bq m(-3), respectively. The highest radon concentration was detected in a confined area, 86.6 ± 6.0 Bq m(-3), while the maximum thoron level was found in a storage room, 78.1 ± 14.0 Bq m(-3). At each site, the concentrations of radon and thoron were measured at two heights, 5 cm and 120 cm above the floor. The effect of the measurement heights on the concentration level was significant in the case of thoron. The monitoring of radon and thoron concentrations showed a lower radon concentration during work hours than at other times of the day. This can be attributed to the ventilation systems, including the air conditioner and natural ventilation, which normally operate during work hours. The diurnal variation was less observed in the case of thoron, as the change in its concentration during and after the working hours was insignificant. The study also investigated the influence of the floor level and flooring type on indoor radon and thoron concentrations. The elevated levels of radon and thoron were largely found in basements and ground floor levels and in rooms with concrete flooring.

  8. Characterisation of the impact of open biomass burning on urban air quality in Brisbane, Australia.

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    He, Congrong; Miljevic, Branka; Crilley, Leigh R; Surawski, Nicholas C; Bartsch, Jennifer; Salimi, Farhad; Uhde, Erik; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Orasche, Jürgen; Ristovski, Zoran; Ayoko, Godwin A; Zimmermann, Ralf; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-05-01

    Open biomass burning from wildfires and the prescribed burning of forests and farmland is a frequent occurrence in South-East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. This work reports on data collected from 10 to 30 September 2011, which covers the days before (10-14 September), during (15-20 September) and after (21-30 September) a period of biomass burning in SEQ. The aim of this project was to comprehensively quantify the impact of the biomass burning on air quality in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. A multi-parameter field measurement campaign was conducted and ambient air quality data from 13 monitoring stations across SEQ were analysed. During the burning period, the average concentrations of all measured pollutants increased (from 20% to 430%) compared to the non-burning period (both before and after burning), except for total xylenes. The average concentration of O3, NO2, SO2, benzene, formaldehyde, PM10, PM2.5 and visibility-reducing particles reached their highest levels for the year, which were up to 10 times higher than annual average levels, while PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 concentrations exceeded the WHO 24-hour guidelines and O3 concentration exceeded the WHO maximum 8-hour average threshold during the burning period. Overall spatial variations showed that all measured pollutants, with the exception of O3, were closer to spatial homogeneity during the burning compared to the non-burning period. In addition to the above, elevated concentrations of three biomass burning organic tracers (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), together with the amount of non-refractory organic particles (PM1) and the average value of f60 (attributed to levoglucosan), reinforce that elevated pollutant concentration levels were due to emissions from open biomass burning events, 70% of which were prescribed burning events. This study, which is the first and most comprehensive of its kind in Australia, provides quantitative evidence of the significant impact of open biomass burning

  9. Smoking habits of pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia.

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    Counsilman, J J; Mackay, E V

    1985-11-01

    A survey of postpartum women in Brisbane revealed that many gave up smoking just before or shortly after becoming pregnant, and that many of the remainder reduced their rate of consumption. Husbands who smoked showed no comparable changes in behaviour. Thus apparently many couples were aware of the dangers to the fetus of active smoking by the woman, but not of the dangers of her passive inhalation of smoke. Other significant findings included (i) increasing rates of consumption during successive pregnancies, (ii) high degrees of conformity for most habits (e.g. use of filters), and (iii) stronger addiction and earlier starting ages among heavy smokers than light smokers.

  10. Sexual and reproductive health communication among Sudanese and Eritrean women: an exploratory study from Brisbane, Australia.

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    Rogers, Claire; Earnest, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study piloted in Brisbane, Australia, reports on findings from in-depth focus-group discussions conducted with Sudanese and Eritrean women in Brisbane. We investigated and documented their experiences and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and contraception, and explored their views on sexuality and relationships education within the family environment of minority ethnic communities in Australia. Underpinned by a qualitative psychosocial framework, the study also involved key-informant interviews with health and multicultural not-for-profit sector professionals. Through the knowledge and experiences shared by the participants, the key themes of cultural insensitivity, exclusion and poor communication within the family were highlighted by participants as determining factors in the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and good quality sex and relationships education. Participants proposed recommendations for how minority ethnic communities in Australia can more effectively support and communicate within the family environment to increase their own and their children's knowledge and understanding.

  11. Application of the survey protocol for chytridiomycosis to Queensland, Australia.

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    Skerratt, Lee F; McDonald, Keith R; Hines, Harry B; Berger, Lee; Mendez, Diana; Phillott, Andrea D; Cashins, Scott D; Murray, Kris A; Speare, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes chytridiomycosis, has resulted in the extinction of frogs, but the distribution of Bd is incompletely known. We trialled the survey protocol for Bd by attempting to systematically map its distribution in Queensland, Australia. Bd was easily detected in known infected areas, such as the Wet Tropics and South East Queensland. It was not detected in bioregions adjacent to, but inland from or to the north of, infected regions: Einasleigh Uplands and Cape York adjacent to the infected Wet Tropics; and Brigalow Belt South adjacent to the infected South East Queensland bioregion. These regions where Bd was not detected have bordered infected regions for between 15 yr (in northern Queensland) and 30 yr (in southern Queensland), and so they define the geographical limits of Bd with regard to the long-term environmental conditions in Queensland. The Gulf Plains, a bioregion distant from infected bioregions, was also negative. Bd was confined to rainforest and bordering habitats, such as wet eucalypt forests. Infections were largely confined to permanent water-associated species, consistent with this being an important cause of this group having the greatest declines. Our data supports biogeographic climatic models that show much of inland and northern Australia to be too hot and dry to support Bd. As there is limited opportunity for Bd to spread further in Queensland, the priority for management is reducing the impact of Bd in affected populations and assisting frogs to disperse into their former distributions. Given that the survey protocol has been applied successfully in Australia it may be useful for mapping the distribution of Bd in other parts of the world.

  12. The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea in Queensland, Australia, 2001 to 2013.

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    Lau, Colleen L; Skelly, Chris; Dohnt, Michael; Smythe, Lee D

    2015-06-14

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease, with increasing frequency and severity of outbreaks, changing epidemiology of populations at risk, and the emergence of new serovars. Environmental drivers of disease transmission include flooding, urbanisation, poor sanitation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, and socioeconomic factors. In Queensland, human infection with Leptosira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea was first reported in 2001. This study aims to report the emergence of serovar Arborea in Queensland from 2001 to 2013, and investigate potential risk factors for infection and drivers of emergence. Data on laboratory-confirmed cases of human leptospirosis in Queensland were obtained from the enhanced surveillance system at the WHO/FAO/OIE Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis in Brisbane, Australia. The changing epidemiology of serovar Arborea from 2001 to 2003 was described with respect to case numbers, proportion of leptospirosis cases attributed to the serovar, and geographic distribution. Differences in risk factors for the most common serovars were compared. During this period, 1289 cases of leptospirosis were reported, including 233 cases attributed to serovar Arborea. Risk factors for infection include male gender (91 % of cases), occupation, and recreational exposure. Most common occupations recorded were banana workers (28.4 %), meat workers (7.2 %), dairy farmers (5.8 %), graziers/stockmen (5.5 %), 'other agricultural/rural workers' (16.4 %), and tourists or tourism operators (4.6 %). Time trend analysis showed that while non-Arborea cases decreased over the study period, Arborea cases increased by 3.4 cases per year. The proportion of annual cases attributed to Arborea peaked at 49 % in 2011 after unprecedented flooding in Queensland. Mapping of cases by residential location showed expansion of the geographic range of serovar Arborea, concentrating mostly around Brisbane, Cairns and Innisfail. Serovars

  13. Difference in mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) and the transmission of Ross River virus between coastline and inland areas in Brisbane, Australia.

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    Hu, W; Mengersen, K; Dale, P; Tong, S

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the distribution of major mosquito species and their roles in the transmission of Ross River virus (RRV) infection for coastline and inland areas in Brisbane, Australia (27 degrees 28' S, 153 degrees 2' E). We obtained data on the monthly counts of RRV cases in Brisbane between November 1998 and December 2001 by statistical local areas from the Queensland Department of Health and the monthly mosquito abundance from the Brisbane City Council. Correlation analysis was used to assess the pairwise relationships between mosquito density and the incidence of RRV disease. This study showed that the mosquito abundance of Aedes vigilax (Skuse), Culex annulirostris (Skuse), and Aedes vittiger (Skuse) were significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRV in the coastline area, whereas Aedes vigilax, Culex annulirostris, and Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse) were significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRV in the inland area. The results of the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis show that both occurrence and incidence of RRV were influenced by interactions between species in both coastal and inland regions. We found that there was an 89% chance for an occurrence of RRV if the abundance of Ae. vigilax was between 64 and 90 in the coastline region. There was an 80% chance for an occurrence of RRV if the density of Cx. annulirostris was between 53 and 74 in the inland area. The results of this study may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control of RRV and other mosquito-borne diseases.

  14. Increased risk of emergency hospital admissions for children with renal diseases during heatwaves in Brisbane, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Wang; Adrian Barnett; Yu-Ming Guo; Wei-Wei Yu; Xiao-Ming Shen; Shi-Lu Tong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heatwaves have a significant impact on population health including both morbidity and mortality. In this study we examined the association between heatwaves and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) for renal diseases in children (aged 0-14 years) in Brisbane, Australia. Methods: Daily data on EHAs for renal diseases in children and exposure to temperature and air pollution were obtained for Brisbane city from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2005. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to compare the risks for renal diseases between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. Results: There were 1565 EHAs for renal diseases in children during the study period. Heatwaves exhibited a signifi cant impact on EHAs for renal diseases in children after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio: 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-9.5). The risk estimates differed with lags and the use of different heatwave defi nitions. Conclusions: There was a significant increase in EHAs for renal diseases in children during heatwaves in Brisbane, a subtropical city where people are well accustomed to warm weather. This finding may have significant implications for pediatric renal care, particularly in subtropical and tropical regions.

  15. Informal urban green-space: comparison of quantity and characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan.

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    Christoph D D Rupprecht

    Full Text Available Informal urban green-space (IGS such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2% and gaps (19.2% were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research.

  16. Informal urban green-space: comparison of quantity and characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan.

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    Rupprecht, Christoph D D; Byrne, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Informal urban green-space (IGS) such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS) dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2%) and gaps (19.2%) were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research.

  17. Happy New Year from Queensland, Australia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet

    2002-01-01

    I hope you enjoyed a magical celebration. I have had an exciting time here.In Australia, we celebrate New Year’s Eve with champagne and parties. At 10seconds to midnight, everyone stops to count in the new year at full volume, beforeshouting" Happy New Year", kissing the nearest person, and breaking into araucous (沙哑的) version of "Auld Lang Syne". Loud cheers resound in hotels,halls, nightclubs and backyards across the country.

  18. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

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    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of heat-related health impacts in Brisbane, Australia: comparison of different heatwave definitions.

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    Shilu Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is no global definition of a heatwave because local acclimatisation and adaptation influence the impact of extreme heat. Even at a local level there can be multiple heatwave definitions, based on varying temperature levels or time periods. We investigated the relationship between heatwaves and health outcomes using ten different heatwave definitions in Brisbane, Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used daily data on climate, air pollution, and emergency hospital admissions in Brisbane between January 1996 and December 2005; and mortality between January 1996 and November 2004. Case-crossover analyses were used to assess the relationship between each of the ten heatwave definitions and health outcomes. During heatwaves there was a statistically significant increase in emergency hospital admissions for all ten definitions, with odds ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.18. A statistically significant increase in the odds ratios of mortality was also found for eight definitions. The size of the heat-related impact varied between definitions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Even a small change in the heatwave definition had an appreciable effect on the estimated health impact. It is important to identify an appropriate definition of heatwave locally and to understand its health effects in order to develop appropriate public health intervention strategies to prevent and mitigate the impact of heatwaves.

  20. Risk factors for idiopathic dystonia in Queensland, Australia.

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    Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2014-12-01

    It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (prisk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  1. Sex partying among gay men in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane, Australia.

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    Prestage, Garrett; Down, Ian; Grulich, Andrew; Zablotska, Iryna

    2011-02-01

    Group sex is relatively common among gay men, and is a likely risk factor for infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STI). The 5,432 participants in the 2008 Gay Community Periodic Survey in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane, Australia, were asked about their participation in group sex. Nearly half (44.0%) of those who reported sex with casual male partners in the previous 6 months also reported engaging in group sex. Among other factors, using drugs odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) (OR = 1.89, CI = 1.61-2.21), being HIV-positive (OR = 1.62, CI = 1.13-2.32), and engaging in anal intercourse, both with a condom (OR = 3.03, CI = 2.46-3.73) and without a condom (OR = 5.68, CI = 4.53-7.12) were independently associated with having engaged in group sex. This study suggests that gay men who engage in group sex represent an important priority for targeted HIV and STI prevention activities and research.

  2. Long-term exposure to gaseous air pollutants and cardio-respiratory mortality in Brisbane, Australia

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    Xiao Yu Wang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association of long-term exposure to gaseous air pollution with cardio-respiratory mortality in Brisbane, Australia, in the period 1996-2004. The pollutant concentrations were estimated using geographical information system (GIS techniques at the statistical local area (SLA level. The generalized estimating equations model was used to investigate the impact of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3 and sulphur dioxide (SO2 on mortality due to cardio-respiratory disease after adjusting for a range of potential confounders. An increase of 4.7% (95% confidence interval = 0.7-8.9% in cardio-respiratory mortality for 1 part per billion (ppb increment in annual average concentration of SO2 was estimated. However, there was no significant association between long-term exposures to NO2 or O3 and death due to cardio-respiratory disease. The results indicate that the annual average concentration of SO2 is associated with cardio-respiratory mortality at the SLA level and this association appears to vary with the geographical area.

  3. Doing belonging: Meanings of home and settlement among the Karen Community in Brisbane, Australia

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    Jessica Nancy Bird

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of belonging allows diasporic people to negotiate socio-cultural terrains that go beyond singular attachments to “here” or “there”.  This paper interrogates doing belonging amongst members of the Karen refugee community from Burma settling in Brisbane, Australia.  We use data collected over twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork using the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews.  This paper presents an interpretation of challenges faced by Karen community members as they grapple with local and transnational complexities of belonging within their own community, whilst also establishing belonging to Australian social environments.  We argue that Karen participants’ lived experiences of settlement challenge bounded notions of belonging, thereby allowing us to extend dominant constructions of settlement and social inclusion and give way to a more nuanced representation of an emerging diasporic community.  We thus reposition a resettled refugee community away from disempowering and exclusionary notions that dominant constructions of belonging and inclusion tend to impose. Keywords: Karen, belonging, settlement, refugee, transnational

  4. Advice to travelers on topical insect repellent use against dengue mosquitoes in Far North Queensland, Australia.

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    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks occur annually in Far North Queensland, Australia. Advice on topical insect repellents provided by health authorities rarely addresses the wide range of formulations and active ingredients currently registered for use in Australia. Recommendations on the use of registered products require review.

  5. Alluvial terrace preservation in the Wet Tropics, northeast Queensland, Australia

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    Hughes, Kate; Croke, Jacky; Bartley, Rebecca; Thompson, Chris; Sharma, Ashneel

    2015-11-01

    Alluvial terraces provide a record of aggradation and incision and are studied to understand river response to changes in climate, tectonic activity, sea level, and factors internal to the river system. Terraces form in all climatic regions and in a range of geomorphic settings; however, relatively few studies have been undertaken in tectonically stable settings in the tropics. The preservation of alluvial terraces in a valley is driven by lateral channel adjustments, vertical incision, aggradation, and channel stability, processes that can be further understood through examining catchment force-resistance frameworks. This study maps and classifies terraces using soil type, surface elevation, sedimentology, and optically stimulated luminescence dating across five tropical catchments in northeast Queensland, Australia. This allowed for the identification of two terraces across the study catchments (T1, T2). The T1 terrace was abandoned ~ 13.9 ka with its subsequent removal occurring until ~ 7.4 ka. Abandonment of the T2 terrace occurred ~ 4.9 ka with removal occurring until ~ 1.2 ka. Differences in the spatial preservation of these terraces were described using an index of terrace preservation (TPI). Assessments of terrace remnant configuration highlighted three main types of terraces: paired, unpaired, and disconnected, indicating the importance of different processes driving preservation. Regional-scale variability in TPI was not strongly correlated with catchment-scale surrogate variables for drivers of terrace erosion and resistance. However, catchment-specific relationships between TPI and erosion-resistance variables were evident and are used here to explain the dominant processes driving preservation in these tropical settings. This study provides an important insight into terrace preservation in the tectonically stable, humid tropics and provides a framework for future research linking the timing of fluvial response to palaeoclimate change.

  6. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, S.; Tong, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. This study explored spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of locally-acquired dengue cases in Queensland State, Australia and identified target areas for effective interventions. A computerised locally-acquired dengue case dataset was collected from Queensland Health for Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Dengue hot spots were detected using SatScan method. Descriptive spatial analysis showed that a total of 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in central and northern regions of tropical Queensland. A seasonal pattern was observed with most of the cases occurring in autumn. Spatial and temporal variation of dengue cases was observed in the geographic areas affected by dengue over time. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in tropical Queensland, Australia. There is a clear evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of dengue and these clusters varied over time. These findings enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters suggesting that the use of geospatial information can assist the health authority in planning dengue control activities and it would allow for better design and implementation of dengue management programs.

  7. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P

    2001-12-01

    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided.

  8. Injuries presenting to Army physiotherapy in north Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, J; Leggat, P; Müller, R

    1999-02-01

    To analyze archival physiotherapy records at a major military base in North Queensland, Australia, to investigate the epidemiology of injuries associated with sports and training, examining for possible risk factors for military training injury. A retrospective study was undertaken during a 62-month period, from 1987 to 1992, at Lavarack Barracks, Townsville, Australia, which services a dynamic population base of some 5,000 uniformed staff. Sociodemographic basic data, as well as treatment-related data (treatment area, number and type, interval between onset and initial treatment, reported cause), were used. Admission records were recoded according to the Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (version 2.0) standard. During the 62-month period from 1987 to 1992, 4,993 personnel, 96.2% (4,803/4,993) males and 3.7% (190/4,993) females, were referred for 5,025 physiotherapy treatments. The incidence of injuries requiring physiotherapy was 80.4 new patients per 5,000 personnel per month, and the incidence rate of injury was 19.3% per year or 0.19 injuries per person per year. The mean age of patients was 25.7 +/- 6.2 (SD) years, and the median age was 24 years, with a range of 17 to 59 years. Injuries were related to military training (29.3%, 1,471/5,025), diverse causes (21.2%, 1,072/5,025), sports (13.8%, 694/5,025), insidious onset (11.8%, 589/5,025), football (11.7%, 586/5,025), manual handling (4.2%, 211/5,025), motor vehicle crashes (4.1%, 206/5,025), and surgery (3.9%, 196/5,025). The four major body areas treated by physiotherapists were the knee joint (37.0%, 1,321/3,612), lumbar spine (29.8%, 1,075/3,612), ankle (19.9%, 719/3,612), and shoulder joints (13.8%, 497/3,612), which accounted for nearly three-quarters of all admissions. Of these, most were referred without definitive diagnosis (71.1%, 2,572/3,612), with the remainder comprising joint injuries (17.5%, 634/3,612), other types of pathology such as chest infections or neurological involvement

  9. Millipedes from Australia, 11: Australiosomatini from Queensland (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the Australiosomatini reported from Queensland. Three species and a subspecies are described as new: Cladethosoma uncinatum n. sp., Heterocladosoma trabeatum n. sp., Heterocladosoma transversetaeniatum (L. Koch), ssp. perarmatum n. ssp., and Streptocladosoma solum n. sp. Redescr

  10. Freshwater planarians from artesian springs in Queensland, Australia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Grant, L.J.; Blair, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two new species of triclad flatworm are described from artesian springs in Queensland, Australia, viz. Dugesia artesiana Sluys and Grant, sp. nov. and Weissius capaciductus Sluys, gen. et sp. nov. Some historical biogeographic scenarios are discussed that may explain the occurrence of the new specie

  11. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  12. Freshwater planarians from artesian springs in Queensland, Australia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Grant, L.J.; Blair, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two new species of triclad flatworm are described from artesian springs in Queensland, Australia, viz. Dugesia artesiana Sluys and Grant, sp. nov. and Weissius capaciductus Sluys, gen. et sp. nov. Some historical biogeographic scenarios are discussed that may explain the occurrence of the new specie

  13. The Characteristics of, and Motivations for, Indigenous Student Mobility: Examples from Urban and Regional Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Fiona; Hill, Angela; Doyle, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Using the notion that research should "enlighten" policy responses, this paper considers the complex locational factors that affect and underlie patterns of Indigenous student mobility in Queensland, Australia. The paper presents data, captured through an action research project, to explore mobility "in and through" two…

  14. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  15. A survey of cervical screening among refugee and non-refugee African immigrant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaman, Judith A; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; King, Julie

    2016-10-31

    Issue addressed: To compare the level of cervical screening uptake between refugee and non-refugee African immigrant women living in Brisbane, Australia, and examine factors associated with Pap smear testing. Methods: Cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 254 women aged 21-62 years from 22 African countries (144 refugees, 110 non-refugees). Chi-square tests were used to compare the demographic and health-related characteristics between refugee and non-refugee women. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable (Pap smear testing) and the independent variables. Results: Two-thirds of women had used Pap smear services in Australia. Chi-square test analysis established that non-refugee women were significantly more likely to have used Pap smear services than refugee women (73.6% vs 61.8% respectively; P=0.047). Immigration status, however, was not a significant predictor of cervical screening uptake in the multiple regression analyses. The significant predictors for screening uptake in these analyses were work arrangement, parity, healthcare visit, knowledge about Pap smear and perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Conclusion: Most women relied on opportunistic screening after receiving invitation letters to screen or after visiting health professionals for antenatal or postnatal care. So what?: The findings suggest that organised cervical screening programs are not reaching most African immigrant women living in Brisbane. It is incumbent on the public health sector, including healthcare professionals and settlement agencies working with African communities, to develop health promotion strategies that meaningfully engage African immigrant women, including those from refugee backgrounds, to enhance their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening practices.

  16. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchithra Naish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  17. Epidemiologic Patterns of Ross River Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; Toloo, Ghasem (Sam); Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001–December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. PMID:24799374

  18. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Dengue fever and El Nino/Southern Oscillation in Queensland, Australia: a time series predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2010-05-01

    It remains unclear over whether it is possible to develop an epidemic forecasting model for transmission of dengue fever in Queensland, Australia. To examine the potential impact of El Niño/Southern Oscillation on the transmission of dengue fever in Queensland, Australia and explore the possibility of developing a forecast model of dengue fever. Data on the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), an indicator of El Niño/Southern Oscillation activity, were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Numbers of dengue fever cases notified and the numbers of postcode areas with dengue fever cases between January 1993 and December 2005 were obtained from the Queensland Health and relevant population data were obtained from the Australia Bureau of Statistics. A multivariate Seasonal Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average model was developed and validated by dividing the data file into two datasets: the data from January 1993 to December 2003 were used to construct a model and those from January 2004 to December 2005 were used to validate it. A decrease in the average SOI (ie, warmer conditions) during the preceding 3-12 months was significantly associated with an increase in the monthly numbers of postcode areas with dengue fever cases (beta=-0.038; p = 0.019). Predicted values from the Seasonal Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average model were consistent with the observed values in the validation dataset (root-mean-square percentage error: 1.93%). Climate variability is directly and/or indirectly associated with dengue transmission and the development of an SOI-based epidemic forecasting system is possible for dengue fever in Queensland, Australia.

  20. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Roy George; Allison Chell; Belinda Chen; Rebecca Undery; Humza Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rat...

  1. Dental health of aboriginal pre-school children in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K; Amaratunge, A; Bennett, R; Bronsch, D; Lai, P Y

    1996-06-01

    This investigation studied the dental health status of a group of 184 Australian Aboriginal children with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 0.8 years, who were attending pre-schools in metropolitan Brisbane, a non-fluoridated state capital city. The DDE (Developmental Defects of Enamel) Index was used to chart enamel hypoplasia and enamel opacities. WHO criteria was used to diagnose dental caries. The results showed that 98% of children had at least one tooth showing developmental enamel defects. Each child had a mean of 3.8 +/- 1.7 teeth affected by enamel hypoplasia and another 1.1 +/- 0.8 teeth affected by enamel opacity. Seventy-eight percent of the children had dental caries. The mean number of decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) per child was 3.8 +/- 3.7. The decayed component constituted 3.5 (95%) of the mean dmft, indicating a high unmet restorative need in this group. The mean dmfs (decayed, missing, filled, surfaces) was 5.9 +/- 7.3. Maxillary anterior labial decay of at least one tooth affected 43 (23%) of the children. In this sub-group, the dmft and dmfs was 9.1 +/- 2.8 and 15.4 +/- 7.7 respectively. Oral debris was found in 98% of the children. It is hypothesized that the high levels of underlying developmental enamel defects, compounded by low fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene and a diet high in refined sugars pose an important caries risk factor in this group of children.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Brisbane River Estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, S.; Connell, D. W.

    1995-05-01

    Six species of aquatic organisms from the Brisbane River estuarine system were sampled and their tissues analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These were the sea mullet, Mugil cephalus, bony bream, Nematolosa come, blue catfish, Arius graffei, mud crab, Scylla serrata, pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus, and silver gull, Larus novaehollandiae. PAHs in the muscle (fish and birds) and soft (crab) tissue samples were isolated by first hydrolysing these samples and then solvent extraction followed by column chromatography. The compounds were then identified and quantified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples contained low levels of PAHs that ranged in molecular weight from 128 (naphthalene) to 252 (benzo[k]fluoranthene). The highest total PAH level of 195 ng g -1, wet weight, was recorded in mullet samples whereas the blue catfish samples yielded the lowest level of 43 ng g -1. Relative ratios of low molecular weight (≤3-rings) compounds to those with high molecular weights (≤4-rings) suggested a petroleum related origin for the PAHs detected in the organisms. Results indicated that significant biomagnification of PAHs in the estuarine ecosystem sampled is highly unlikely. Characteristics such as the trophic level and size/age were not significant factors in determining the corresponding tissue PAH levels in the fish and crab species. Tissue lipid content, however, was found to be a primary factor in determining the PAH concentrations in fish species. PAH levels recorded in the samples are comparable to those levels reported from similarly urbanized areas in other geographical locations.

  3. Community perceptions on the significant extension of life: an exploratory study among urban adults in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mair; Bartlett, Helen P; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne D

    2009-02-01

    Some researchers in the field of ageing claim that significant extension of the human lifespan will be possible in the near future. While many of these researchers have assumed that the community will welcome this technology, there has been very little research on community attitudes to life extension. This paper presents the results of an in-depth qualitative study of community attitudes to life extension across age groups and religious boundaries. There were 57 individual interviews, and 8 focus groups (totalling 72 focus group participants) conducted with community members in Brisbane, Australia. Community attitudes to life extension were more varied and complex than have been assumed by some biogerontologists and bioethicists. While some participants would welcome the opportunity to extend their lives others would not even entertain the possibility. This paper details these differences of opinion and reveals contrasting positions that reflect individualism or social concern among community members. The findings also highlight the relationship between Christianity, in particular belief in an afterlife, and attitudes to life extension technology. Overall, the study raises questions about the relationship between interest in life extension, the medicalisation of ageing and the increasing acceptability of enhancement technologies that need to be addressed in more representative samples of the community.

  4. Breastfeeding beliefs and practices of African women living in Brisbane and Perth, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Danielle; Vicca, Natalie; Streiner, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of breastfeeding among refugee women from Liberia, Sierra Leone, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo living in two major capital cities in Australia. Participants were recruited from their relevant community associations and via a snowballing technique. Thirty-one women took part in either individual interviews or facilitated group discussions to explore their experiences of breastfeeding in their home country and in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed four main themes: cultural breastfeeding beliefs and practices; stigma and shame around breastfeeding in public; ambivalence towards breastfeeding and breastfeeding support. Women who originated from these four African countries highlighted a significant desire for breastfeeding and an understanding that it was the best method for feeding their infants. Their breastfeeding practices in Australia were a combination of practices maintained from their countries of origin and those adopted according to Australian cultural norms. They exemplified the complexity of breastfeeding behaviour and the relationship between infant feeding with economic status and the perceived social norms of the host country. The results illustrate the need for policy makers and health professionals to take into consideration the environmental, social and cultural contexts of the women who are purportedly targeted for the promotion of breastfeeding. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Risk communication discourse: A content analysis of some Australian media coverage of cyclones in Queensland, Australia in 2011

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    Ahlam Mohammad Alharbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a cross-disciplinary field, the risk communication (RC discourse is complex. Thereof, media coverage of disasters as a fundamental resource of RC should be examined to guarantee successful delivery of risk information. Thus, this study investigated the content of risk information of cyclone-related news of the Brisbane Times and The Australian newspapers. It scrutinized the different types of risk-related messages by means of a quantitative content analysis based on the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM proposed by Witte (1980. The media coverage of the 2011 Queensland cyclones was examined with respect to the main question: what type of risk information the public was provided with? It was shown that the coverage of the Brisbane Times and The Australian might be enhanced by covering main components equally, focusing more on the component of efficacy, specifically ‘the outcomes of preventive actions’.

  6. Spatial patterns and socioecological drivers of dengue fever transmission in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-02-01

    Understanding how socioecological factors affect the transmission of dengue fever (DF) may help to develop an early warning system of DF. We examined the impact of socioecological factors on the transmission of DF and assessed potential predictors of locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases of DF in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data from Queensland Health on the numbers of notified DF cases by local government area (LGA) in Queensland for the period 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2005. Data on weather and the socioeconomic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the LGA level to quantify the relationship between DF and socioecological factors. Our estimates suggest an increase in locally acquired DF of 6% [95% credible interval (CI): 2%, 11%] and 61% (95% CI: 2%, 241%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1°C increase in average monthly maximum temperature between 2002 and 2005, respectively. By contrast, overseas-acquired DF cases increased by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 3%) and by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 2%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1-unit increase in average socioeconomic index, respectively. Socioecological factors appear to influence the transmission of DF in Queensland, but the drivers of locally acquired and overseas-acquired DF may differ. DF risk is spatially clustered with different patterns for locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases.

  7. Reduced Incidence of Foot-Related Hospitalisation and Amputation amongst Persons with Diabetes in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Peter A.; O’Rourke, Sharon R.; Russell, Anthony W.; Derhy, Patrick H.; Kamp, Maarten C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in the incidence of foot-related hospitalisation and amputation amongst persons with diabetes in Queensland (Australia) between 2005 and 2010 that coincided with changes in state-wide ambulatory diabetic foot-related complication management. Methods All data from cases admitted for the principal reason of diabetes foot-related hospitalisation or amputation in Queensland from 2005–2010 were obtained from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection dataset. Incidence rates for foot-related hospitalisation (admissions, bed days used) and amputation (total, minor, major) cases amongst persons with diabetes were calculated per 1,000 person-years with diabetes (diabetes population) and per 100,000 person-years (general population). Age-sex standardised incidence and age-sex adjusted Poisson regression models were also calculated for the general population. Results There were 4,443 amputations, 24,917 hospital admissions and 260,085 bed days used for diabetes foot-related complications in Queensland. Incidence per 1,000 person-years with diabetes decreased from 2005 to 2010: 43.0% for hospital admissions (36.6 to 20.9), 40.1% bed days (391 to 234), 40.0% total amputations (6.47 to 3.88), 45.0% major amputations (2.18 to 1.20), 37.5% minor amputations (4.29 to 2.68) (p amputations (18.57 to 14.99), 26.4% major amputations (6.26 to 4.61), 15.7% minor amputations (12.32 to 10.38) (p amputations 0.962 (0.946–0.979), major amputations 0.945 (0.917–0.974), minor amputations 0.970 (0.950–0.991) (p amputation amongst persons with diabetes in the population of Queensland over a recent six-year period. PMID:26098890

  8. Spatio-temporal patterns of Barmah Forest virus disease in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchithra Naish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Barmah Forest virus (BFV disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS tools and geostatistical analysis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ(2 = 7587, df = 7327,p<0.01. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01. Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  9. Correlation or Causality between Land Cover Patterns and the Urban Heat Island Effect? Evidence from Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Deilami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified associations between the surface urban heat island (SUHI effect (i.e., SUHI, hereinafter is referred to as UHI and urban growth, particularly changes in land cover patterns. This research questions their causal links to answer a key policy question: If cities restrict urban expansion and encourage people to live within existing urban areas, will that help in controlling UHI? The question has been answered by estimating four models using data from Brisbane, Australia: Model 1—cross-sectional ordinary least square (OLS regression—to examine the association between the UHI effect and land cover patterns in 2013; Model 2—cross-sectional geographically weighted regression (GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 1 possess significant spatial variations; Model 3—longitudinal OLS—to examine whether changes in land cover patterns led to changes in UHI effects between 2004 and 2013; and Model 4—longitudinal GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 3 vary significantly over space. All estimations were controlled for potential confounding effects (e.g., population, employment and dwelling densities. Results from the cross-sectional OLS and GWR models were consistent with previous findings and showed that porosity is negatively associated with the UHI effect in 2013. In contrast, population density has a positive association. Results from the longitudinal OLS and GWR models confirm their causal linkages and showed that an increase in porosity level reduced the UHI effect, whereas an increase in population density increased the UHI effect. The findings suggest that even a containment of population growth within existing urban areas will lead to the UHI effect. However, this can be significantly minimized through proper land use planning, by creating a balance between urban and non-urban uses of existing urban areas.

  10. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin types from Queensland, Australia, 1999–2003

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    Slack Andrew T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia two acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccines have replaced the use of a whole cell vaccine. Both of the licensed acellular vaccines contain the following three components; pertussis toxoid, pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin and the 69 kDa pertactin adhesin. One vaccine also contains pertussis fimbriae 2 and 3. Various researchers have postulated that herd immunity due to high levels of pertussis vaccination might be influencing the makeup of endemic B. pertussis populations by selective pressure for strains possessing variants of these genes, in particular the pertactin gene type. Some publications have suggested that B. pertussis variants may be contributing to a reduced efficacy of the existing vaccines and a concomitant re-emergence of pertussis within vaccinated populations. This study was conducted to survey the pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 types from B. pertussis isolates in Queensland, Australia following the introduction of acellular vaccines. Methods Forty-six B. pertussis isolates recovered from Queensland patients between 1999 and 2003 were examined by both DNA sequencing and LightCycler™ real time PCR to determine their pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 genotypes. Results Pertactin typing showed that 38 isolates possessed the prn1 allele, 3 possessed the prn2 allele and 5 possessed the prn3 allele. All forty-six isolates possessed the pertussis toxin ptxS1A genotype. Amongst the circulating B. pertussis population in Queensland, 82.5% of the recovered clinical isolates therefore possessed the prn1/ptxS1A genotype. Conclusion The results of this study compared to historical research on Queensland isolates suggest that B. pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin variants are not becoming more prevalent in Queensland since the introduction of the acellular vaccines. Current prevalences of pertactin variants are significantly different to that described in a number of other countries

  11. Application of artificial neural networks to rainfall forecasting in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, John; Marohasy, Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the application of artificial intelligence to monthly and seasonal rainfall forecasting in Queensland, Australia, was assessed by inputting recognized climate indices, monthly historical rainfall data, and atmospheric temperatures into a prototype stand-alone, dynamic, recurrent, time-delay, artificial neural network. Outputs, as monthly rainfall forecasts 3 months in advance for the period 1993 to 2009, were compared with observed rainfall data using time-series plots, root mean squared error (RMSE), and Pearson correlation coefficients. A comparison of RMSE values with forecasts generated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA)-1.5 general circulation model (GCM) indicated that the prototype achieved a lower RMSE for 16 of the 17 sites compared. The application of artificial neural networks to rainfall forecasting was reviewed. The prototype design is considered preliminary, with potential for significant improvement such as inclusion of output from GCMs and experimentation with other input attributes.

  12. Continuation of the New England Orogen, Australia, beneath the Queensland Plateau and Lord Howe rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, N.; Hauff, F.; Calvert, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Greywacke, argillite, greyschist and hypabyssal igneous rocks have been obtained from an Ocean Drilling Program core on the Queensland Plateau and from xenoliths in a volcanic breccia dredged from the crest of the Lord Howe Rise. Low to intermediate detrital quartz contents, 260-240 Ma K-Ar ages, and only moderately radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions, suggest a correlation with the New England Orogen of eastern Australia, rather than with Australia's Lachlan Orogen or other adjacent geological provinces. Our results indicate that the New England Orogen terranes continue towards New Zealand at least as far as the southern Lord Howe Rise. The projected offshore boundaries of the major east Australian orogens are now known with more confidence, and do not appear to require any major cross-orogen offsets.

  13. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Linn B; Tong, Shilu; Aird, Rosemary; McRae, David

    2010-07-28

    There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15) involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems), and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental health vulnerability, including literature

  14. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McRae David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Methods Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15 involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. Results The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems, and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco

  15. Reduced Incidence of Foot-Related Hospitalisation and Amputation amongst Persons with Diabetes in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Lazzarini

    Full Text Available To determine trends in the incidence of foot-related hospitalisation and amputation amongst persons with diabetes in Queensland (Australia between 2005 and 2010 that coincided with changes in state-wide ambulatory diabetic foot-related complication management.All data from cases admitted for the principal reason of diabetes foot-related hospitalisation or amputation in Queensland from 2005-2010 were obtained from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection dataset. Incidence rates for foot-related hospitalisation (admissions, bed days used and amputation (total, minor, major cases amongst persons with diabetes were calculated per 1,000 person-years with diabetes (diabetes population and per 100,000 person-years (general population. Age-sex standardised incidence and age-sex adjusted Poisson regression models were also calculated for the general population.There were 4,443 amputations, 24,917 hospital admissions and 260,085 bed days used for diabetes foot-related complications in Queensland. Incidence per 1,000 person-years with diabetes decreased from 2005 to 2010: 43.0% for hospital admissions (36.6 to 20.9, 40.1% bed days (391 to 234, 40.0% total amputations (6.47 to 3.88, 45.0% major amputations (2.18 to 1.20, 37.5% minor amputations (4.29 to 2.68 (p < 0.01 respectively. Age-sex standardised incidence per 100,000 person-years in the general population also decreased from 2005 to 2010: 23.3% hospital admissions (105.1 to 80.6, 19.5% bed days (1,122 to 903, 19.3% total amputations (18.57 to 14.99, 26.4% major amputations (6.26 to 4.61, 15.7% minor amputations (12.32 to 10.38 (p < 0.01 respectively. The age-sex adjusted incidence rates per calendar year decreased in the general population (rate ratio (95% CI; hospital admissions 0.949 (0.942-0.956, bed days 0.964 (0.962-0.966, total amputations 0.962 (0.946-0.979, major amputations 0.945 (0.917-0.974, minor amputations 0.970 (0.950-0.991 (p < 0.05 respectively.There were significant

  16. Investigating Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of and Practices in Education for Sustainability in Queensland: A Japan-Australia Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Michiko; O'Gorman, Lyndal; Davis, Julie

    2016-01-01

    In a study undertaken in Queensland, Australia, analysis of a survey that included both qualitative and quantitative questions revealed that, like their Japanese counterparts, early childhood teachers do not have well-developed ideas and practices in education for sustainability (EfS). Instead, they mainly practise traditional nature-based…

  17. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  18. Incidence, severity and correlates of bicycling injuries in a sample of cyclists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Garrard, Jan; Sahlqvist, Shannon

    2011-11-01

    Bicycle injuries, particularly those resulting from single bicycle crashes, are underreported in both police and hospital records. Data on cyclist characteristics and crash circumstances are also often lacking. As a result, the ability to develop comprehensive injury prevention policies is hampered. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, severity, cyclist characteristics, and crash circumstances associated with cycling injuries in a sample of cyclists in Queensland, Australia. A cross-sectional study of Queensland cyclists was conducted in 2009. Respondents (n=2056) completed an online survey about their cycling experiences, including cycling injuries. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine the associations between demographic and cycling behaviour variables with experiencing cycling injuries in the past year, and, separately, with serious cycling injuries requiring a trip to a hospital. Twenty-seven percent of respondents (n=545) reported injuries, and 6% (n=114) reported serious injuries. In multivariable modelling, reporting an injury was more likely for respondents who had cycled injuries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Progamotaenia capricorniensis sp. nov. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae from Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beveridge I.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Progamotaenia capricorniensis sp. nov. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae is described from the wallabies Macropus dorsalis (Gray, 1837] and Petrogale assimilis Ramsay, 1877 from Queensland, Australia. The new species is characterised by a fimbriated velum composed of 26-32 digitiform to triangular projections on each side of the proglottis, paired uteri and 140-190 testes distributed in a single band across the medulla. Minor variation occurs in the distribution of the testes. The above characters distinguish the new species from its most closely related congeners P. lagorchestis (Lewis, 1914, P. proterogyna (Fuhrmann, 1932, P. spearei Beveridge, 1980 and P. villosa (Lewis, 1914. P. capricorniensis appears to exhibit a highly disjunct distribution within its usual host, M. dorsalis.

  20. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  1. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay.

  2. Availability of services in registered retirement villages in Queensland, Australia: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Xia, Bo; Buys, Laurie; Skitmore, Martin

    2017-07-06

    The study investigates and compares the services available in different types of registered retirement villages in Queensland (QLD). A content analysis based on official websites of 175 registered villages in QLD, Australia, is presented. This study identifies 82 services, with activity organisation, emergency response, hairdressing and transportation being most frequently available to residents. The number of services available is associated with the village size and financial type, with residents living in large private villages having access to significantly more services. The research findings reveal the state of the art of current industry practice. They provide useful implications for stakeholders. For instance, residents who prefer to get access to various services should focus more on large private villages. Developers can check their service delivery environment to confirm its balance with residents' competencies. The government can propose innovative initiatives to promote the delivery of appropriate services in villages. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  3. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of locally-acquired dengue transmission in northern Queensland, Australia, 1993-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchithra Naish

    Full Text Available Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993-2012.Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques.2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females (χ(2 = 15.17, d.f.  = 1, p<0.01. Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01. Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland.Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  6. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: t.jardine@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Halliday, Ian A. [Sustainable Fisheries Unit, Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 46, Brisbane QLD, 4001 (Australia); Howley, Christina [Howley Environmental Consulting and CYMAG Environmental, Cooktown, QLD (Australia); Sinnamon, Vivian [Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resource Management Office, Kowanyama, QLD (Australia); Bunn, Stuart E. [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet-dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. {delta}{sup 15}N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  7. Effect of broadcast baiting on abundance patterns of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and key local ant genera at long-term monitoring sites in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaught, Melinda K; Wylie, F Ross; Harris, Evan J; Alston, Clair L; Burwell, Chris J; Jennings, Craig

    2014-08-01

    In 2001, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) was identified in Brisbane, Australia. An eradication program involving broadcast bait treatment with two insect growth regulators and a metabolic inhibitor began in September of that year and is currently ongoing. To gauge the impacts of these treatments on local ant populations, we examined long-term monitoring data and quantified abundance patterns of S. invicta and common local ant genera using a linear mixed-effects model. For S. invicta, presence in pitfalls reduced over time to zero on every site. Significantly higher numbers of S. invicta workers were collected on high-density polygyne sites, which took longer to disinfest compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. For local ants, nine genus groups of the 10 most common genera analyzed either increased in abundance or showed no significant trend. Five of these genus groups were significantly less abundant at the start of monitoring on high-density polygyne sites compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. The genus Pheidole significantly reduced in abundance over time, suggesting that it was affected by treatment efforts. These results demonstrate that the treatment regime used at the time successfully removed S. invicta from these sites in Brisbane, and that most local ant genera were not seriously impacted by the treatment. These results have important implications for current and future prophylactic treatment efforts, and suggest that native ants remain in treated areas to provide some biological resistance to S. invicta.

  8. Obesity, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure amongst recently arrived Sudanese refugees in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, A M N; Bilal, P; Marks, G C

    2014-02-01

    The study assessed the prevalence of obesity and related conditions among Sudanese adult migrants living in Brisbane, Australia. Data were obtained on 314 Sudanese immigrants aged 18-70 years. Measured body mass index (BMI) and self-reported diabetes and hypertension were obtained. More than half (51%) of participants were overweight or obese, 6.4% reported having type 2 diabetes while 12.4% had hypertension. The full adjusted regression model explained 28.1% of the variance in BMI. Odds of reporting type 2 diabetes increased with age, BMI and were greater among participants rating health as poor/fair than those rating as good/very good/excellent. Odds of high blood pressure increased with age, BMI, and were higher among participants rating health as poor/fair than those as good/very good/excellent. Health promotion programs to prevent weight gain in this subpopulation will significantly reduce inequalities related to type 2 diabetes and improve cardio-vascular outcomes.

  9. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Rainfall Forecasting in Queensland, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John ABBOT; Jennifer MAROHASY

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the application of artificial intelligence to monthly and seasonal rainfall forecasting in Queensland,Australia,was assessed by inputting recognized climate indices,monthly historical rainfall data,and atmospheric temperatures into a prototype stand-alone,dynamic,recurrent,time-delay,artificial neural network.Outputs,as monthly rainfall forecasts 3 months in advance for the period 1993 to 2009,were compared with observed rainfall data using time-series plots,root mean squared error (RMSE),and Pearson correlation coefficients.A comparison of RMSE values with forecasts generated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA)-1.5 general circulation model (GCM) indicated that the prototype achieved a lower RMSE for 16 of the 17 sites compared.The application of artificial neural networks to rainfall forecasting was reviewed.The prototype design is considered preliminary,with potential for significant improvement such as inclusion of output from GCMs and experimentation with other input attributes.

  10. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-04-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk.

  11. The Probable Whole of Slope Submarine Landslides of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, T.

    2015-12-01

    A research cruise aboard the RV Southern Surveyor (SS2013-V01) conducted in January 2013 offshore east Australia collected regional bathymetric data for the seabed of the continental margin of southern Queensland for the seabed bounded by Noosa Heads in the south and Indian Head, Fraser Island in the north. This newly mapped area presents a particularly steep portion of continental slope (5o to 10 o) that presents numerous submarine landslides, including two 'whole-of-slope' features (The Wide Bay Canyon, and Inskip Slides. The slope is also dissected by three large submarine canyons offshore northern Fraser Island, Wide Bay and Noosa Heads (i.e. the Fraser Canyons, the Wide Bay Canyon and the Noosa Canyon). Dredge and core samples were collected from slide scars in the northern, central and southern areas of the bathymetric survey area. The initial examination of the area's bathymetry, the core and dredge sample sedimentology, and determination of biostratigraphic ages for these sediment samples indicates that the larger, submarine slides present in this study area have probably been shed from the slope since the late Pliocene and that canyon incision is currently active on this portion of the slope. In one case, canyon incision is partly responsible for generating slides due to undercutting and removal of the toe of the slope. Slope sediments are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic muds but the presence of massive coarse sands and graded sands in some cores above erosion surfaces that cut into slope mud units is interpreted to indicate that areas of the southern Queensland continental slope are probably subjected to abrasion by grain-flows and turbidites comprised of shelf-derived sands and upper slope sediment. The results from this voyage confirms and extends previous work on the southeastern Australian continental margin that indicates that sediment transport from the shelf to deep water on this margin is dominated by gravity mass transport and that the margin

  12. Effect of rainfall as a component of climate change on estuarine fish production in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Lee, Shing Yip; Duke, Norman C.; Warnken, Jan

    2006-09-01

    The speculation that climate change may impact on sustainable fish production suggests a need to understand how these effects influence fish catch on a broad scale. With a gross annual value of A$ 2.2 billion, the fishing industry is a significant primary industry in Australia. Many commercially important fish species use estuarine habitats such as mangroves, tidal flats and seagrass beds as nurseries or breeding grounds and have lifecycles correlated to rainfall and temperature patterns. Correlation of catches of mullet (e.g. Mugil cephalus) and barramundi ( Lates calcarifer) with rainfall suggests that fisheries may be sensitive to effects of climate change. This work reviews key commercial fish and crustacean species and their link to estuaries and climate parameters. A conceptual model demonstrates ecological and biophysical links of estuarine habitats that influences capture fisheries production. The difficulty involved in explaining the effect of climate change on fisheries arising from the lack of ecological knowledge may be overcome by relating climate parameters with long-term fish catch data. Catch per unit effort (CPUE), rainfall, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and catch time series for specific combinations of climate seasons and regions have been explored and surplus production models applied to Queensland's commercial fish catch data with the program CLIMPROD. Results indicate that up to 30% of Queensland's total fish catch and up to 80% of the barramundi catch variation for specific regions can be explained by rainfall often with a lagged response to rainfall events. Our approach allows an evaluation of the economic consequences of climate parameters on estuarine fisheries, thus highlighting the need to develop forecast models and manage estuaries for future climate change impact by adjusting the quota for climate change sensitive species. Different modelling approaches are discussed with respect to their forecast ability.

  13. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  14. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damin Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV.Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96% were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47% or bites (37%, with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%. Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications. Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92% were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1% had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat.Public health strategies should address the

  15. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

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    Roy George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs, brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant’s sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual.

  16. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  17. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

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    Brian W. Head

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban water crises and the strategic options available for addressing these crises in this case study. The problem of resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the efficacy and adaptability of the policy system. The case provides insights into the interplay between the ways in which problems are framed, the knowledge bases required for planning and decision-making, the collaborative governance processes required for managing complex and rapidly evolving issues, and the overall capacity for policy learning over time. Regional resilience was proclaimed as a policy goal by government, but the practices remained largely anchored in traditional technical frameworks. Centralized investment decisions and governance restructures provoked conflict between levels of government, undermining the capacity of stakeholders to create more consensual approaches to problem-solving and limiting the collective learning that could have emerged.

  19. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  20. A survey of tourist operator attitudes to renewable energy supply in Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, G.J.; Lockington, D.A.; Baldock, T.E. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). School of Engineering

    2007-04-15

    The results of a survey describing the attitude to renewable energy supply (RES) amongst tourism accommodation providers in Queensland, Australia, are presented. A 65% response rate was achieved. Results showed that 9.2% of respondents had some form of RES, and that the majority of operators were interested in RES but mixed in opinions as to its marketing value for their operation. Tourist operators believed their industry is resistant to RES implementation due to reservations regarding RES power supply limitations, reliability and economic viability. Possession of a RES by the respondent did not affect this attitude. Analysis of variation in response with geographical position revealed a coastal versus interior difference. Likewise, a breakdown of responses according to accommodation type indicated that accommodation size had a significant bearing on operator opinion. Higher proportions of respondents from large operations such as large hotels and self-catering accommodation returned affirmative responses regarding RES marketing capabilities and confidence in RES than the smaller operations, which included small hotels, stations and villas/cabins. (author)

  1. Outdoor workers and sun protection strategies: two case study examples in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite C; Stoneham, Melissa; Crane, Phil; Fleming, MaryLou; Janda, Monika; Tenkate, Thomas; Youl, Philippa; Kimlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk of developing skin cancer because they are exposed to high levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Outdoor Workers Sun Protection Project investigated sun protection strategies for high risk outdoor workers in rural and regional Australia. Fourteen workplaces (recruitment rate 37%) across four industries in rural and regional Queensland, Australia were recruited to the OWSPP. In 2011-2012, data were collected using pre- and post-intervention interviews and discussion groups. This article presents two workplaces as case study examples. The flat organisational structure of workplace 1 supported the implementation of the Sun Safety Action Plan (SSAP), whilst the hierarchical organisational nature of workplace 2 delayed implementation of the SSAP. Neither workplace had an existing sun protection policy but both workplaces adopted one. An effect related to the researchers' presence was seen in workplace 1 and to a lesser degree in workplace 2. Overt reciprocity was seen between management and workers in workplace 1 but this was not so evident in workplace 2. In both workplaces, the role of the workplace champion was pivotal to SSAP progression. These two case studies highlight a number of contextually bound workplace characteristics related to sun safety. These issues are (1) the structure of workplace, (2) policy, (3) an effect related to the researchers' presence, (4) the workplace champion and (5) reciprocity. There are several recommendations from this article. Workplace health promotion strategies for sun safety need to be contextualised to individual workplaces to take advantage of the strengths of the workplace and to build capacity.

  2. Impact of an invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, on a pasture community in south east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Belgeri, Amalia; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-09-30

    Parthenium weed is a highly invasive alien species in more than 40 countries around the world. Along with severe negative effects on human and animal health and crop production, it also causes harm to ecosystem functioning by reducing the native plant species biodiversity. However, its impacts on native plant species, especially in pasture communities, are less known. Given parthenium weed causes substantial losses to Australian pastures' productivity, it is crucial to estimate its impact on pasture communities. This study evaluates the impact of parthenium weed upon species diversity in a pasture community at Kilcoy, south east Queensland, Australia. Sub-sites containing three levels of parthenium weed density (i.e. high, low and zero) were chosen to quantify the above- and below-ground plant community structure. Species richness, diversity and evenness were all found to be significantly reduced as the density of parthenium weed increased; an effect was evident even when parthenium weed was present at relatively low densities (i.e. two plants m(-2)). This trend was observed in the summer season as well as in winter season when this annual weed was absent from the above-ground plant community. This demonstrates the strong impact that parthenium weed has upon the community composition and functioning throughout the year. It also shows the long-term impact of parthenium weed on the soil seed bank where it had displaced several native species. So, management options used for parthenium weed should also consider the reduction of parthenium weed seed bank along with controlling its above-ground populations.

  3. Patterns of tidal flooding within a mangrove forest: Coombabah Lake, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J. M.; Dale, P. E. R.; Dunn, R. J. K.; Broadbent, G. J.; Lemckert, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    Tidal flooding and surface drainage patterns have often been used to describe mangrove species zonation. However, in mangrove forests exhibiting little topography, ambiguous species distributions and/or few species, such approaches are ineffective. We identified four physiognomic mangrove forest types (Riverine, Fringing, Overwash and Basin) at Coombabah Lake, a tidal lake in southeast Queensland, Australia and investigated tidal flooding patterns using synoptic surveys of tidal observations at the local Standard Port combined with local water depth observation. Subsequently three sub-types of the basin forest type were identified: (1) Deep Basin Forest with mature trees, ˜50 cm standing water and ˜3 tides per year; (2) Medium Depth Basin Forest with intermediate tree development, ˜15-30 cm standing water and 20-40 tides per year; and (3) Shallow Basin Forest with relatively recent mangrove establishment, 5-15 cm standing water and ˜80 tides per year. These three basin sub-types were found to flood at different tide heights with the Shallow Basin flooding for tides above mean high water springs and the Deep Basin flooding only for tide heights approaching the highest astronomical tide. We propose that these basin types represent a succession in mangrove forest development that corresponds with increasing water depth and tree maturation over time. The succession not only represents increasing age but also change in basin substrate composition. This is manifest as increasing pneumatophore density and an increasing area of basin surface occupied by contiguous pneumatophore cover. As a result, it seems that mangrove development is able to modify tidal flooding into the basin by increasingly impeding water movement.

  4. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  5. Remote Sensing-Based Exploration of Structurally-Related Mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

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    Sandra Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a powerful tool for mineral mapping and increasingly used in poorly-accessible areas. It only requires a limited amount of validation sample points, but can fail to discriminate spectrally-similar features. In this manuscript, we show that we improve the identification of interesting targets by including geomorphological data in the spectral mapping scheme. We jointly use geomorphic and spectral features to locate gossanous ironstone ridges as an indicator for possible Pb-Zn-Ag-mineralization and provide an application around Mount Isa and George Fisher/Hilton mine, Queensland, Australia. We combine hyperspectral HyMap data using mixture tuned matched filtering with topographical indices, such as maximum curvature and the topographical position index. As it is often the case with structurally-controlled mineralization, the amount of training sites is limited, and supervised classification methods cannot be implemented. Therefore, we implement expert knowledge in a decision tree to take advantage of the relationship between mineralization, alteration and structure. Optimized rock sampling and spectral measurements provided data for validation. We are able to map sets of gossanous ridges with a minimum of validation points, not only within the Mount Isa mining area itself, but also outside the commonly-accepted host rocks. The ridges are parallel to north-south trending geomorphological features and probably associated with the Paroo fault zone. Similarities between the ridges were confirmed by field observations, spectral measurements and a qualitative rock sample analysis. We identified new mineralized ridges that we could subsequently attribute to a poorly-known and sub-economic deposit known as the Mount Novit Pb-Zn-deposit.

  6. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

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    Tett Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005. Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland.

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis misting for control of Aedes in cryptic ground containers in north Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacups, Susan P; Rapley, Luke P; Johnson, Petrina H; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A

    2013-03-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance.

  8. A comparison of injuries to moped/scooter and motorcycle riders in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Lang, Jacelle; Russell, Glen; Tetsworth, Kevin; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    The popularity of moped and motor scooter riding in Australia is increasing. However, there is a paucity of information about their safety, especially in comparison to motorcycle riding where riders require specific licensing, education and training. Given it is widely established that motorcycle riders are overrepresented in road injury statistics, consideration of moped and scooter riders as a sub-group of all motorcyclists is required for accurate understanding of injury patterns and the acute care needs of this group. A comparison of demographic, injury and acute care characteristics between seriously injured moped/scooter riders and motorcycle riders was undertaken using data from the state-wide trauma registry in Queensland, Australia, from 2006 to 2010. A total of 206 moped/scooter riders and 2667 motorcycle riders were identified. Motorcycle rider injury admissions significantly decreased over time (pinjuries (+2.3%), whereas motorcycle riders sustained a greater percentage of upper extremity (+4.0%), thoracic (+3.9%), spinal (+3.6%) and lower extremity injuries (+2.6%). There was no statistically significant difference in injury severity, length of acute hospital stay, admission to ICU or survival to discharge from acute care between injured moped/scooter riders and motorcycle riders. The results of this study suggest that riders of mopeds/scooters and motorcycles may have different injury patterns, but sustain similar overall injury severity. This analysis fills a gap in transport crash data, where there is limited information on the nature of injuries sustained. While moped-related injuries cannot be isolated in ICD-10 health coding, it is anticipated that ICD-11, due for release in 2015, may provide a moped-specific code; however, this will not address the issue of the apparent interchangeable use of the terms 'moped' and 'scooter' when reporting or documenting such injuries in health data systems including the medical record. Improved identification of

  9. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R Lesley; Gynther, Ian C; Leung, Luke K-P; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  10. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kaluza

    Full Text Available The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  11. Surveillance of hospitalizations with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza infection in Queensland, Australia

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    Frances Birrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection in Queensland, Australia between 25 May and 3 October 2009 and to examine the relationship between timing of antiviral treatment and severity of illness.Method: Using data from the Queensland Health EpiLog information system, descriptive analysis and logistic regression modelling were used to describe and model factors which influence patient outcomes (death, admission to intensive care unit and/or special care unit. Data on patients admitted to hospital in Queensland with confirmed pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were included in this analysis.Results: 1236 patients with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were admitted to hospitals in Queensland during the study period. Of the total group: 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit or special care unit; 3% died; 34% were under the age of 18 years and 8% were 65 years of age or older; and 55% had at least one underlying medical condition. Among the 842 patients for whom data were available regarding the use of antiviral drugs, antiviral treatment was initiated in 737 (87.5% patients with treatment commencing at a median of one day (range 1–33 days after onset of illness. Admission to an intensive care unit or special care unit (ICU/SCU or death was significantly associated with increased age, lack of timeliness of antiviral treatment, chronic renal disease and morbid obesity.Discussion: Early antiviral treatment was significantly associated with lower likelihood of ICU/SCU admission or death. Early antiviral treatment for influenza cases may therefore have important public health implications.

  12. What makes community engagement effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia.

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    Pamela A Kolopack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE was a key component of the ED Program's initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team's senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program's approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program's CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program's approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1 enabling conditions; 2 leadership; 3 core commitments and guiding values; and 4 formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1 building the CE team; 2 integrating CE into management practices; 3 discerning the community of stakeholders; 4 establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5 socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders' willingness to support the trials.Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the critical features of the ED Program's approach to CE. It has also

  13. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

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    Santosh Bhandari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of images at intervals and durations suitable for time series analysis of vegetation in many parts of the world. Landsat Image Time Series (LITS is defined here as a sequence of Landsat TM images with observations from every 16 days for a five-year period, commencing on July 2003, for a Eucalyptus woodland area in Queensland, Australia. Synthetic Landsat TM images were created using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM algorithm for all dates when images were either unavailable or too cloudy. This was done using cloud-free scenes and a MODIS Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR product. The ability of the LITS to measure attributes of vegetation phenology was examined by: (1 assessing the accuracy of predicted image-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC estimates using ground-measured values; and (2 comparing the LITS-generated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1 time series. The predicted image-derived FPC products (value ranges from 0 to 100% had an RMSE of 5.6. Comparison between vegetation phenology parameters estimated from LITS-generated NDVI and MODIS NDVI showed no significant difference in trend and less than 16 days (equal to the composite period of the MODIS data used difference in key seasonal parameters, including start and end of season in most of the cases. In comparison to similar published work, this paper tested the STARFM algorithm in a new (broadleaf forest environment and also

  14. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  15. Universal access to ambulance does not increase overall demand for ambulance services in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Vivienne C; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Eeles, David; Ting, Joseph Y S; Aitken, Peter J; Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2013-02-01

    To determine the impact of the introduction of universal access to ambulance services via the implementation of the Community Ambulance Cover (CAC) program in Queensland in 2003-04. The study involved a 10-year (2000-01 to 2009-10) retrospective analysis of routinely collected data reported by the Queensland Ambulance Service (QAS) and by the Council of Ambulance Authorities. The data were analysed for the impact of policy changes that resulted in universal access to ambulance services in Queensland. QAS is a statewide, publically funded ambulance service. In Queensland, ambulance utilisation rate (AUR) per 1000 persons grew by 41% over the decade or 3.9% per annum (10-year mean=149.8, 95% CI: 137.3-162.3). The AUR mean after CAC was significantly higher for urgent incidents than for non-urgent ones. However projection modelling demonstrates that URs after the introduction of CAC were significantly lower than the projected utilisation for the same period. The introduction of universal access under the Community Ambulance Cover program in Queensland has not had any significant independent long-term impact on demand overall. There has been a reduction in the long-term growth rate, which may have been contributed to by an 'appropriate use' public awareness program.

  16. Tasmanitachoides Erwin glabellus n. sp. from North Queensland, Australia, with a note on Tasmanitachoides lutus (Darlington (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehr, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Tasmanitachoides Erwin from North Queensland is described: T. glabellus n. sp. The species belongs to the T. murrumbidgensis¿group of species that is characterized by its distinctly impressed clypeus, but it is distinguished from all related species by its glabrous body surface. It is the first Tasmanitachoides from northern Australia to be found in rainforest on high mountains and has thus probably preserved the original habits of the genus that are still characteristic for those species living in southern temperate regions of Australia. Tasmanitachoides lutus (Darlington so far known from the type locality in southern New South Wales and from the holotype only, is now recorded from eastern Victoria.

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Megan; Jennison, Amy V; Ariotti, Lawrence; Hicks, Vicki; Graham, Rikki M A; Smith, Helen V

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C was first identified in 2007, although retrospective studies have since identified serotype 6C among stored isolates dating back to 1962. We investigated the incidence and genetic diversity of serotype 6C strains isolated from Queensland patients between 2001 and 2011. Isolates were identified by Quellung reaction and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. The incidence of serotype 6C among serogroup 6 Queensland invasive pneumococcal disease increased from 6.8% (2001-2004) to 39% (2005-2010) of serogroup 6 isolates (P = 0). Genetic diversity of Queensland 6C isolates was high, with molecular analysis identifying 19 sequence types by multi-locus sequence typing, and 35 types by multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

  18. CPT 2004 BRISBANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, On behalf of the National Organizing Committee I am delighted to invite you to CPT2004 which will be hosted by the Australian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists (ASCEPT) and the Division of Clinical Pharmacology of IUPHAR. The South East Asian Western Pacific regional grouping of pharmacologists will be extensively involved. Major areas to be covered in an exciting scientific program will include drug discovery and development, the latest advances in therapeutic areas, clinical toxicology, pharmacogenomics, political and social pharmacology, education, quality use of medicines, pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics. We will provide an outstanding social program and give your accompanying persons a personal welcome and sense of involvement. The 18th World Congress of the Intemational Society for Heart Research (ISHR) will be held at the same venue in Brisbane directly following CPT2004, and the programs will be coordinated to facilitate attendance at both meetings. Come to CPT2004 in Australia and enjoy our unique environment, and attractions that are as varied as skiing in August, Ulum (Ayers Rock) and the Great Barrier Reef. For any further enquiries, please contact: CPT2004 Secretariat, GPO Box 2609 Sydney NSW 2001 Australia Tel: +61-2-9241 1478 Fax: + 61-2-9521 3552 E-mail: reply@icmsaust. com. auIntemet: www. cpt @ icmsaust. com. au

  19. Trends in Marine Turtle Strandings along the East Queensland, Australia Coast, between 1996 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene Flint

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In-water monitoring of marine vertebrates is usually expensive while the use of stranding data can be used to provide a cost-effective estimation of disease and mortality. Strandings for Queensland are recorded in a web based database (StrandNet managed by the Queensland Government’s Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (EHP. Data recorded in StrandNet from the east coast of Queensland between 1996 and 2013 were investigated for patterns of stranding. Significant trends in Queensland over this time were (i an increase in the number of animals reported stranded within this study site; (ii a species (loggerhead and green marine turtles prevalence; (iii a seasonal effect on different age classes stranding with most overall strandings occurring between August and November; and (iv stranding hotspots (Moreton Bay, Hervey Bay, Rockhampton region, and Cleveland Bays persisting throughout the study timeframe. This study suggested that intervention strategies, such as rehabilitation, should be able to be focussed on periods of heightened importance and specific localities to minimize health risks and contribute to sustainable use of resources.

  20. Upper airway viruses and bacteria in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Brisbane, Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Hall, Kerry K; Sloots, Theo P; Anderson, Jennie; Chang, Anne B

    2017-04-04

    Respiratory morbidity in Australian Indigenous children is higher than their non-Indigenous counterparts, irrespective of urban or remote residence. There are limited studies addressing acute respiratory illness (ARI) in urban Indigenous children, particularly those that address the upper airway microbiome and its relationship to disease. We aimed to describe the prevalence of upper airway viruses and bacteria in symptomatic and asymptomatic urban-based Australian Indigenous children aged less than 5 years. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected at baseline in an ongoing prospective cohort study of urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children registered with a primary health care service in the northern suburbs of Brisbane, Australia. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data and bilateral anterior nasal swabs were collected on enrolment. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on nasal swabs to detect 17 respiratory viruses and 7 bacteria. The primary outcome was the prevalence of these microbes at enrolment. Logistic regression was performed to investigate differences in microbe prevalence between children with and without acute respiratory illness with cough as a symptom (ARIwC) at time of specimen collection. Between February 2013 and October 2015, 164 children were enrolled. The median age at enrolment was 18.0 months (IQR 7.2-34.3), 49.4% were boys and 56 children (34.2%) had ARIwC. Overall, 133/164 (81%) nasal swabs were positive for at least one organism; 131 (79.9%) for any bacteria, 59 (36.2%) for any virus and 57 (34.8%) for both viruses and bacteria. Co-detection of viruses and bacteria was more common in females than males (61.4% vs 38.6%, p = 0.044). No microbes, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with the presence of ARIwC. The prevalence of upper airways microbes in asymptomatic children is similar to non-Indigenous children with ARIwC from the same region. Determining the aetiology of ARIwC in this

  1. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  2. Suicides among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations in Australia: an analysis of the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Sexual orientation is seldom recorded at death in Australia, and to date there have been no studies on the relationship between those that have died by suicide and sexuality or minority gender identity in Australia. The aim of the present study is to determine whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex individuals who die by suicide constitute a unique subpopulation of those who die by suicide, when compared with non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex suicide deaths. The Queensland Suicide Register holds records of all suicides in Queensland since 1990. All cases from 2000 to 2009 (inclusive; a total of 5,966 cases) were checked for potential indicators of individuals' sexual orientation and gender identification. A total of 35 lesbian (n = 10), gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 2), and transgender (n = 1) suicide cases were identified. Three comparison cases of non-LGBT suicides for each LGBT suicide were then located, matched by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was significantly more likely that depression was mentioned in the cases of LGBT suicides than in non-LGBT cases. While 12.4% of the comparison group had been diagnosed with psychotic disorders, there were no such diagnoses among LGBT individuals. LGBT individuals experienced relationship problems more often, with relationship conflict also being more frequent than in non-LGBT cases. Despite its limitations, this study - the first of its kind in Australia - seems to indicate that LGBT people would require targeted approaches in mental and general health services. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  4. Different responses of Ross River virus to climate variability between coastline and inland cities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S; Hu, W

    2002-11-01

    To examine the potential impact of climate variability on the transmission of Ross River virus (RRv) infection, and to assess the difference in the potential predictors of RRv incidence in coastline and inland regions, Queensland, Australia. Information on the RRv cases notified between 1985 to 1996 was obtained from the Queensland Department of Health. Climate and population data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australia Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The function of cross correlations was used to compute a series of correlations between climate variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and high tide) and the monthly incidence of RRv disease over a range of time lags. Time series Poisson regression models were performed to adjust for the autocorrelations of the monthly incidences of RRv disease and the confounding effects of seasonality, the case notification time, and population sizes. The cross correlation function shows rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and relative humidity at a lag of 1-2 months and high tide in the current month were significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRv in the coastline region. Relative humidity and rainfall at a lag of two months was also significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRv in the inland region. The results of Poisson regressive models show that the incidence of RRv disease was significantly associated with rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and high tide in the coastline region, and with rainfall and relative humidity in the inland region. There was a significant interaction between climate variables and locality in RRv transmission. Climate variability may have played a significant role in the transmission of RRv. There appeared to be different responses of RRv to climate variability between coastline and inland cities in Queensland, Australia. Maximum temperature

  5. The Brisbane Media Map: Participatory Design and Authentic Learning to Link Students and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Christy; Foth, Marcus; Schroeter, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The Brisbane Media Map is both an online resource and a tertiary-level authentic learning project. The Brisbane Media Map is an online database which provides a detailed overview of about 600 media industry organizations in Brisbane, Australia. In addition to providing contact details and synopses for each organization's profile, the Brisbane…

  6. The Brisbane Media Map: Participatory Design and Authentic Learning to Link Students and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Christy; Foth, Marcus; Schroeter, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The Brisbane Media Map is both an online resource and a tertiary-level authentic learning project. The Brisbane Media Map is an online database which provides a detailed overview of about 600 media industry organizations in Brisbane, Australia. In addition to providing contact details and synopses for each organization's profile, the Brisbane…

  7. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period.

  8. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and recommendations for practice regarding dengue among the resident population of Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Gyawali

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Although many people throughout QLD have heard of dengue, about 15% appear unaware of local transmission, its symptoms and of methods to reduce risk of infection. A lack of knowledge regarding prevention of mosquito breeding is evident in South East QLD, where dengue is not currently reported. The study suggests that future dengue awareness campaigns should target communities in both endemic and potentially endemic areas throughout Queensland.

  10. New forearm elements discovered of holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis from Winton, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matt A; Cook, Alex G; Hocknull, Scott A; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2012-01-01

    New skeletal elements are reported of the holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis, from the type locality, near Winton, central western Queensland. New elements include left and right humeri, right radius, right radiale, right distal carpal 1, near complete right metacarpal I, left manual phalanx II-1, left manual phalanx II-2, near complete left manual phalanx II-3 and a left manual phalanx III-3. These new elements combined with those previously described are compared against other neovenatorids.

  11. An empirical model of water quality for use in rapid management strategy evaluation in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mare, William; Ellis, Nick; Pascual, Ricardo; Tickell, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Simulation models have been widely adopted in fisheries for management strategy evaluation (MSE). However, in catchment management of water quality, MSE is hampered by the complexity of both decision space and the hydrological process models. Empirical models based on monitoring data provide a feasible alternative to process models; they run much faster and, by conditioning on data, they can simulate realistic responses to management actions. Using 10 years of water quality indicators from Queensland, Australia, we built an empirical model suitable for rapid MSE that reproduces the water quality variables' mean and covariance structure, adjusts the expected indicators through local management effects, and propagates effects downstream by capturing inter-site regression relationships. Empirical models enable managers to search the space of possible strategies using rapid assessment. They provide not only realistic responses in water quality indicators but also variability in those indicators, allowing managers to assess strategies in an uncertain world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Two new subspecies of the leaf-tailed gecko Phyllurus ossa (Lacertilia: Carphodactylidae) from mid-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Patrick; Hoskin, Conrad J

    2013-01-01

    Following the discovery of a new population of Phyllurus ossa on Whitsunday Island in the Cumberland Island Group, eastern Queensland, we conducted both genetic and morphological analyses to assess differences between all known populations. The analyses revealed three genetically distinct, morphologically diagnosable, geographical units. The differences are such that we recognise these as subspecies: Phyllurus ossa ossa restricted to the Mt Ossa/Mt Pelion/ Mt Charlton/ St Helens Gap area; P. ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. on Mt Dryander and in the Conway Range and P. ossa tamoya subsp. nov. currently only known from Whitsunday Island. There are now 11 recognised taxa in Phyllurus. The three P. ossa subspecies are narrowly distributed and closely associated with exposed rock in low to mid-elevation vine forests. Their current distributions are shaped by past climate change that progressively contracted and fragmented the distribution of rainforests in eastern Australia. The recognition of these subspecies has land management/conservation implications.

  13. Incorporating palaeoclimate data into water security planning and decision making - a case study from southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiem, Anthony; Vance, Tessa; Tozer, Carly; Roberts, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Decision makers in the water sector need to deal with existing hydroclimatic variability and uncertainty about future changes to climate and catchment conditions. Identifying solutions for hydroclimatic risk adaptation strategies that are both optimal and robust in the presence of variability and uncertainty presents a difficult challenge. A major reason for this challenge is the fact that the instrumental record in Australia is short ( 60-130 years) and fails to encompass enough climate variability to allow the calculation of robust statistics around the baseline risk of extreme events (e.g. multi-year droughts, decadal periods with clustering of major flood events). This climate variability is documented pre-1900 in palaeoclimate records from sources such as corals, tree-rings, freshwater and marine sediments. Despite being remote from Queensland, a high resolution and highly correlated palaeoclimate record from the Law Dome ice cores in Antarctica (Vance et al. 2015) is also now available and has identified eight mega-droughts (lasting from 5-39 years) during 1000-2009 AD. Most importantly, the palaeoclimate information confirms that the post-1900 instrumental period (i.e. the period on which all water resources infrastructure, policy, operation rules and strategies is based) does not capture the full range of variability that has occurred. Other work also clearly shows that, out to 2050 at least, impacts associated with natural variability significantly exceed even the worst-case climate change scenarios (i.e. obtained from Global Climate Models run under the highest emission scenarios). This presentation will demonstrate how the Law Dome ice cores from Antarctica have been used to produce a highly accurate, 1000 year, annual and seasonal resolution, hydroclimate reconstruction (i.e. precipitation and streamflow) for the southeast Queensland region of Australia. We will then show how the palaeoclimate data has been incorporated into the South East Queensland

  14. Outbreaks of the cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), related to weather in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.; Gage, S.H.

    1986-10-01

    The cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Zeller), has periodically caused serious damage to seedling cotton in Southeast Queensland. An analysis of data over 11 years revealed that outbreaks of this pest are weather related. A heat/precipitation ratio (weather index) was calculated and compared with population levels of the tipworm. Outbreaks were strongly correlated to cool and wet weather during March--November, the principal growth period of the weed host Malva parviflora (L.). Infestations were minor when conditions were dry. A prediction based on this index is compared with field infestation levels in 1984. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Community Acquisition of Gentamicin-Sensitive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmo, Graeme R.; Schooneveldt, Jacqueline; O'Kane, Gabrielle; McCall, Brad; Vickery, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) susceptible to gentamicin has been reported in a number of countries in the 1990s. To study the acquisition of gentamicin-sensitive MRSA (GS-MRSA) in southeast Queensland and the relatedness of GS-MRSA to other strains of MRSA, 35 cases of infection due to GS-MRSA from October 1997 through September 1998 were examined retrospectively to determine the mode of acquisition and risk factors for MRSA acquisition. Thirty-one isol...

  16. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  17. Cleanskin Structure, Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia: Evidence for an Impact Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, P. W.; Sweet, I. P.; Mitchell, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Cleanskin structure, Australia, is a 15 km diameter circular feature with central uplift. Evidence for impact-produced shock includes shatter cones, planar fractures with feather features and possible planar deformation features in quartz.

  18. Knowledge,attitude and recommendations for practice regarding dengue among the resident population of Queensland,Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayan Gyawali; Richard Stewart Bradbury; Andrew William Taylor-Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate levels of awareness of dengue among the inhabitants of Queensland(QLD),a dengue-prevalent state in the north east of Australia.Methods:A computer-assisted telephone interviewing survey was conducted in mid2014.A total of 1 223 randomly selected respondents( 18 years) across QLD completed a structured questionnaire covering all aspects of dengue.Results:97.55% had heard of dengue and participated further.Among them,54.70% had travelled overseas(48.11% to dengue-risk countries) in the last five years.A total of94.47% said transmission is by mosquito bite.In addition,84.83% knew of current transmission of dengue in QLD,while 80.97% knew the focus is Far North and North QLD.Furthermore,2.35% and 8.97% had experienced an infection in their life or that of their immediate family/partner,respectively.85.03% identified correctly at least one means of prevention.A total of 69.72% advised to use insect repellent,wear covered clothing and avoid visiting mosquito-prone areas while 20.93% advised fumigation and clearing water containers around residences.There was a significant difference(P 0.05).Conclusions:Although many people throughout QLD have heard of dengue,about 15%appear unaware of local transmission,its symptoms and of methods to reduce risk of infection.A lack of knowledge regarding prevention of mosquito breeding is evident in South East QLD,where dengue is not currently reported.The study suggests that future dengue awareness campaigns should target communities in both endemic and potentially endemic areas throughout Queensland.

  19. New Mid-Cretaceous (latest Albian dinosaurs fromWinton, Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hocknull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus.

  20. New Mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) Dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocknull, Scott A.; White, Matt A.; Tischler, Travis R.; Cook, Alex G.; Calleja, Naomi D.; Sloan, Trish; Elliott, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian) Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. Conclusion/Significance The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator) and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus). PMID:19584929

  1. Mental Disorders and Communication of Intent to Die in Indigenous Suicide Cases, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Sveticic, Jerneja

    2012-01-01

    In comparing Indigenous to non-Indigenous suicide in Australia, this study focussed on the frequency of the association between some psychiatric conditions, such as depression and alcohol abuse, and some aspect of suicidality, in particular communication of suicide intent. Logistic regression was implemented to analyze cases of Indigenous (n =…

  2. Conspectus of Myristica (Myristicaceae) in Australia, with the description of a new species from Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1991-01-01

    In Australia three species of Myristica are recognized: M. muelleri Warb., M. insipida R. Br. and one species, M. ampliata de Wilde, newly described here; the specimen Lucas (& Wilson) 10, possibly representing a fourth taxon, of unknown status, is discussed under M. insipida. Presented are a key to

  3. Climate change impacts on the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2012-12-01

    SummaryHow the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland could change in response to climate change was examined using physically based models of interception and transpiration along with long term weather records. Future rainfall and temperature changes were based on the most recent climate modelling for the region and were assumed to fall within the range ±20% for rainfall with a temperature increase of 1-3 K. Climate change will affect the water balance of Australian rainforests primarily via rainfall changes rather than temperature. Any given change in rainfall produces a greater change in downstream runoff, the amplification ranging from 1.1 to 1.5 in the wet season to a factor of 12 in the dry season. Changes in wet season rainfall (80% of the annual total) dominate the total annual amount of water released for downstream flow, but dry season rainfall (20% of the annual total) changes are also very important as they affect onset and the duration of the period when there is no runoff. This period is currently ˜110 days and this would change by ±30 days under the above climate scenarios. There are also potential in situ impacts of climate change that affect how long the rainforest canopy is wet, which may have important implications for the epiphytes and mosses that depend on these wet canopy conditions. Similarly there may be significant impacts on downstream freshwater species whose life cycles are adapted to the current dry season flow regime.

  4. Dwarfism and feeding behaviours in Oligo–Miocene crocodiles from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Instances of dwarfism in the fossil record are of interest to palaeontologists because they often provide insight into aspects of palaeoecology. Fossil species of Australian-Pacific mekosuchine genus Mekosuchus have been described as dwarf, primarily terrestrial crocodiles, in contrast with the nearly ubiquitous semi-aquatic habitus of extant crocodilians (Willis 1997. This hypothesis has been difficult to test because of limited knowledge of the cranial and postcranial skeleton of extinct taxa and the continuous nature of crocodilian growth. New crocodilian vertebral material from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, tentatively referred to Mekosuchus whitehunterensis Willis, 1997, displays morphological maturity indicative of adult snout-vent length little over a half-meter, proportionally smaller than extant dwarf taxa. Further, this material displays morphology that indicates a relatively large epaxial neck musculature for its body-size. These attributes suggest this dwarf mekosuchine employed unusual feeding behaviours. The ability to perform normal death-roll, de-fleshing behaviours would be limited in a mekosuchine of such small size. Given the powerful neck muscles and other anatomical features, it is more likely that this mekosuchine killed and/or dismembered its prey using a relatively forceful lifting and shaking of the head.

  5. Identification of area-level influences on regions of high cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia: a classification tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies for cancer reduction and management are targeted at both individual and area levels. Area-level strategies require careful understanding of geographic differences in cancer incidence, in particular the association with factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity and accessibility. This study aimed to identify the complex interplay of area-level factors associated with high area-specific incidence of Australian priority cancers using a classification and regression tree (CART approach. Methods Area-specific smoothed standardised incidence ratios were estimated for priority-area cancers across 478 statistical local areas in Queensland, Australia (1998-2007, n = 186,075. For those cancers with significant spatial variation, CART models were used to identify whether area-level accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity were associated with high area-specific incidence. Results The accessibility of a person's residence had the most consistent association with the risk of cancer diagnosis across the specific cancers. Many cancers were likely to have high incidence in more urban areas, although male lung cancer and cervical cancer tended to have high incidence in more remote areas. The impact of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on these associations differed by type of cancer. Conclusions These results highlight the complex interactions between accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity in determining cancer incidence risk.

  6. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  7. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation techniques in an alluvial aquifer system with an intermittent/ephemeral stream (Queensland, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam C.; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E.; Cendón, Dioni I.

    2017-09-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the estimation of groundwater recharge rates in an alluvial system interconnected with an ephemeral or intermittent stream in south-east Queensland, Australia. The losing/gaining condition of these streams is typically subject to temporal and spatial variability, and knowledge of these hydrological processes is critical for the interpretation of recharge estimates. Recharge rate estimates of 76-182 mm/year were determined using the water budget method. The water budget method provides useful broad approximations of recharge and discharge fluxes. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method and the tritium method were used on 17 and 13 sites respectively, yielding recharge rates of 1-43 mm/year (CMB) and 4-553 mm/year (tritium method). However, the conceptual hydrogeological model confirms that the results from the CMB method at some sites are not applicable in this setting because of overland flow and channel leakage. The tritium method was appropriate here and could be applied to other alluvial systems, provided that channel leakage and diffuse infiltration of rainfall can be accurately estimated. The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method was also applied to data from 16 bores; recharge estimates ranged from 0 to 721 mm/year. The WTF method was not suitable where bank storage processes occurred.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis in pigs and their in-contact humans in Southeast Queensland, Australia, and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Owen, Helen; Traub, Rebecca J; Cuttell, Leigh; Inpankaew, Tawin; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2014-07-14

    Blastocystis, an intestinal protist commonly found in humans and animals worldwide, has been implicated by some as a causative agent in irritable bowel syndrome in humans. In pigs, infection with Blastocystis is commonly reported, with most pigs shown to harbour subtypes (ST) 1 or 5, suggesting that these animals are potentially natural hosts for Blastocystis. Although ST5 is considered rare in humans, it has been reported to be a potential zoonosis from pigs in rural China. To test these hypotheses, we conducted molecular analysis of faecal samples from pigs and in-contact humans from commercial intensive piggeries in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia, and a village in rural Cambodia. The prevalence of Blastocystis in SEQ and Cambodian pigs was 76.7% and 45.2%, respectively, with all positive pigs harbouring ST5. It appears likely that pigs are natural hosts of Blastocystis with a high prevalence of ST5 that is presumably the pig-adapted ST in these regions. Amongst the SEQ piggery staff, 83.3% were Blastocystis carriers in contrast to only 55.2% of Cambodian villagers. The predominant STs found in humans were STs 1, 2 (Cambodia only) and 3. Interestingly, ST5 which is usually rare in humans was present in the SEQ piggery staff but not in the Cambodian villagers. We conclude that in intensive piggeries, close contact between pigs and their handlers may increase the risks of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  10. Genotypic and phenotypic identification of Aeromonas species and CphA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Holly A; Heney, Claire; Sidjabat, Hanna E; George, Narelle M; Bergh, Haakon; Anuj, Snehal N; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2016-05-01

    Infection caused by Aeromonas spp. ranges from superficial wound infection to life-threatening septicemia. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-beta-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, is a significant problem. This study defines Aeromonas spp. causing clinical disease in Queensland, Australia. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase detection were assessed. One hundred Aeromonas isolates from blood (22), wound (46), sterile sites (11), stool (18), eye (2), and sputum (1) were characterized by rpoB and gyrB sequencing. Meropenem susceptibility by VITEK2, disk diffusion, and E-test MIC were determined. Carbapenemase production was assessed by Carba NP test and cphA by PCR. Gene sequencing identified isolates as Aeromonas dhakensis (39), Aeromonas veronii (21), Aeromonas hydrophila (20), Aeromonas caviae (14), Aeromonas jandaei (4), Aeromonas bestiarum (1), and Aeromonas sanarellii (1). Disk diffusion and E-test failed to detect resistance in isolates with presence of cphA. Carba NP was performed with 97.4% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity. Carbapenem resistance gene cphA was detected in A. veronii (21; 100%), A. hydrophila (18; 90%), A. dhakensis (34; 87.2%), A. jandaei (3; 75%), and A. bestiarum (1; 100%) but not A. caviae. We found that A. dhakensis was the predominant species, a previously unrecognized pathogen in this region.

  11. Optimizing ovitrap use for Aedes aegypti in Cairns, Queensland, Australia: effects of some abiotic factors on field efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig R; Long, Sharron A; Russell, Richard C; Ritchie, Scott A

    2006-12-01

    Insecticide-treated lethal ovitraps are used for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland, Australia. In an effort to optimize their use, the influence of deployment height, premise shading, and protection from wind on trap efficacy was assessed in field experiments. Sticky ovitraps were used as a proxy for lethal ovitraps because they provide a direct measure of adult visitation rates. Sticky ovitraps deployed at ground level for 1 wk captured significantly more female Ae. aegypti (mean +/- SE, 1.7 +/- 0.4) than those set at 1.75-m elevation (1.0 +/- 0.3). Setting traps on the leeward side of houses significantly improved collections during a dry season experiment but not in the wet season. Traps set at lightly or heavily shaded premises performed equally well. To determine the optimum number of ovitraps to set per premise, five treatments making up different numbers of traps (1, 2, 4, 6, or 8) were trialled in a Latin square experimental design. Female Ae. aegypti collections increased as more traps were deployed, although mean collections by using 4 (2.6 +/- 0.6), 6 (2.4 +/- 0.5), or 8 traps (4.8 +/- 1.3) could not be separated statistically, suggesting that 4 traps was the optimum number for routine deployment.

  12. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe A Chapman

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  14. Management of the slowly emerging zoonosis, Hendra virus, by private veterinarians in Queensland, Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana H; Kelly, Jenny; Buttner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine; Speare, Rick

    2014-09-17

    Veterinary infection control for the management of Hendra virus (HeV), an emerging zoonosis in Australia, remained suboptimal until 2010 despite 71.4% (5/7) of humans infected with HeV being veterinary personnel or assisting a veterinarian, three of whom died before 2009. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived barriers to veterinary infection control and HeV management in private veterinary practice in Queensland, where the majority of HeV outbreaks have occurred in Australia. Most participants agreed that a number of key factors had contributed to the slow uptake of adequate infection control measures for the management of HeV amongst private veterinarians: a work culture characterised by suboptimal infection control standards and misconceptions about zoonotic risks; a lack of leadership and support from government authorities; the difficulties of managing biosecurity and public health issues from a private workforce perspective; and the slow pattern of emergence of HeV. By 2010, some infection control and HeV management changes had been implemented. Participants interviewed agreed that further improvements remained necessary; but also cautioned that this was a complex process which would require time. Private veterinarians and government authorities prior to 2009 were unprepared to handle new slowly emerging zoonoses, which may explain their mismanagement of HeV. Slowly emerging zoonoses may be of low public health significance but of high significance for specialised groups such as veterinarians. Private veterinarians, who are expected to fulfil an active biosecurity and public health role in the frontline management of such emerging zoonoses, need government agencies to better recognise their contribution, to consult with the veterinary profession when devising guidelines for the management of zoonoses and to provide them with greater leadership and support. We propose that specific infection control guidelines for the management of slowly emerging

  15. Whither justice? An analysis of local climate change responses from South East Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Diana MacCallum; Jason Byrne; Wendy Steele

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a highly contested policy issue in Australia, generating fierce debate at every level of governance. In this paper we explore a crucial tension in both the policy and the public debate: a seeming lack of attention to social inclusion and broader equity implications. We pay special attention to the municipal scale, where concerns about social difference and democratic participation are often foregrounded in political discourse, using South East Queensland—a recognised climate...

  16. Removal of micropollutants through a biological wastewater treatment plant in a subtropical climate, Queensland-Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Miguel Antonio Reyes; Ali, Imtiaj; Lai, Foon Yin; Dawes, Les; Thier, Ricarda; Rajapakse, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic compounds derived from domestic and industrial sources including active components of pharmaceutical and personal care products and compounds used in agriculture, such as pesticides, or food processing such as artificial sweeteners often referred to as micropollutants. Some of these compounds or their degradation products may have detrimental effects on the environment, wildlife and humans. Acesuflame is one of the most popular artificial sweeteners to date used in foodstuffs. The main objectives of this descriptive study were to evaluate the presence of micropollutants in both the influent and effluent of a large-scale conventional biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in South-East Queensland receiving wastewater from households, hospitals and various industries. Based on USEPA Method 1694: Filtered samples were spiked with mass-labelled chemical standards and then analysed for the micropollutants using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The presence of thirty-eight compounds were detected in the wastewater influent to the treatment plant while nine of the compounds in the categories of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, alkaloid and lipid/cholesterol lowering drugs were undetectable (100 % removed) in the effluent. They were: Analgesic: Paracetamol, Salicylic acid, Oxycodone; Anti-inflammatory: Naproxen + ve, Atorvastatin, Indomethacin, Naproxen; Alkaloid: Caffeine; Lipid/cholesterol lowering: Gemfibrozol. The study results revealed that the micropollutants removal through this biological treatment process was similar to previous research reported from other countries including Europe the Americas and Asia, except for acesulfame, a highly persistent artificial sweetener. Surprisingly, acesulfame was diminished to a much greater extent (>90 %) than previously reported research for this type of WWTPs (45-65 %) that only include physical removal of objects and solids and a

  17. Modelling interception in coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2008-01-01

    SummaryThis paper reports a comparison of measured and modelled interception for three different forest types at six rainforest locations in northern Queensland. The Gash interception model was able to reproduce cumulative interception at the sites accurately, provided an appropriate value of canopy storage capacity ( S) was used, 2.0-3.6 mm. These values are significantly higher than S values generally reported in other rainforest studies (˜1 mm) and the reason may be that Australian rainforests contain many epiphytes and mosses, which can trap significant quantities of water within the canopy. There is also some evidence of a seasonal variation in S and wet canopy evaporation rate ( E), both being lower in the dry season than the wet season. However, although the rainfall rate ( R), S and E all affect the seasonal value of interception, the changes in these three parameters tend to compensate and so the biggest factor affecting seasonal variations in interception is the number of small storms. The consequence of this is that it is still possible to get good estimates of seasonal and annual interception using R, S and E values that are fixed for the entire year. Values of E fell in the range 0.35-0.81 mm h -1, which are 1.4-9 times the concurrent rates estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. This implies that either our rainforests received very large amounts of advected energy during rain storms, or the Penman-Monteith E values are too low. Some advection of energy to our sites is quite feasible given their proximity to the ocean and generally well exposed locations. However, most of the above discrepancy is probably due to underestimation of the Penman-Monteith values of E, because of errors in the estimation of the above canopy relative humidity, due to the use of weather data adjacent to rather than above the forests and inherent difficulties of measuring the very high humidity's that occur during rainfall.

  18. Impact of a bifenthrin-treated lethal ovitrap on Aedes aegypti oviposition and mortality in north Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig R; Ritchie, Scott A; Long, Sharron A; Dennison, Nigel; Russell, Richard C

    2007-03-01

    Lethal ovitraps (LOs) containing an insecticide-treated ovistrip are used as a lure-and-kill device for the container-breeding dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.). We aimed to affirm that the pyrethroid bifenthrin could be used effectively in LOs against Ae. aegypti in north Queensland, Australia, by quantifying oviposition in and mortality caused by LOs. Small cage experiments in which individual gravid Ae. aegypti were given a choice of LOs and untreated ovitraps revealed that although LOs were less acceptable for oviposition, they provided an average 64.6% adjusted mortality. Although 92% of mosquitoes ovipositing in LOs died, 61.8% of mosquitoes that visited but did not oviposit in an LO also died, demonstrating that lethal contact occurred without egg laying. The bifenthrin content of strips (approximately 0.1 mg/cm2; 7 mg/strip) did not decrease significantly after 4 wk of field exposure nor did the toxic effect of the LOs. Large cage trials with groups of 10 Ae. aegypti confirmed that bifenthrin-treated LOs provided consistent control (average adjusted mortality 79.7%). Four-week field trials in north Queensland showed that although LOs were acceptable to ovipositing Ae. aegypti (mean time to first egg 10.9 d; mean eggs 47.3), insecticide-free ovitraps were oviposited in more readily (6.8 d, 199 eggs). The number of eggs laid per mosquito in laboratory LOs allowed calculation of the number of Ae. aegypti killed in field-deployed LOs; rapid estimates can be made by simply dividing the number of eggs on the strip by 2.84. Overall, the studies demonstrated that bifenthrin-treated LOs have potential for use as a lure-and-kill device against Ae. aegypti and that they should be effective in the field for at least 4 wk. Given that untreated ovitraps were more acceptable for Ae. aegypti oviposition, the removal of alternative oviposition sites before deployment of LOs in the field should maximize their effectiveness.

  19. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent

  20. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  1. Holocene and modern sediment storage in the subtropical macrotidal Fitzroy River estuary, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Helen C.; Brooke, Brendan P.; Ryan, David A.; Hancock, Gary; Pietsch, Tim; Packett, Robert; Harle, Kate

    2007-10-01

    The Fitzroy River estuary is a macrotidal, tide-dominated estuary located in the dry tropics of central Queensland, and represents the major source of terrestrial sediment to the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon. The estuary currently receives most of its sediment during large episodic floods that are typically associated with cyclones. Mean annual sediment budgets for such systems are difficult to estimate due to the sporadic nature of flood discharge events, which are highly seasonal and vary greatly in magnitude between years. We have estimated the quantity and long-term rate of accumulation of catchment-derived sediment in the estuarine floodplain using the Holocene stratigraphic sequence determined from a series of sediment cores, dated with radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. Approximately 13,760 million tonnes (Mt) of fluvial sediment has accumulated in the Fitzroy estuary during the past 8000 years, which equates to an average of 1720 kt yr - 1 . Over the past 100 years, sediment accumulation has been focused around mangrove and tidal creek environments, which cover an area of 130 km 2. Cores from the tidal creeks, dated using 137Cs, 210Pb, and OSL, provide sedimentation rates of approximately 15 mm yr - 1 for the past 45-120 years, or sediment mass accumulation of 1700 kt yr - 1 , which includes a component that is reworked into the estuary by tidal currents. Combined with the small amount of sediment that accumulates on the floodplain during floods (˜ 1 mm yr - 1 , 640 kt yr - 1 ), we estimate that approximately 2350 kt yr - 1 of sediment is trapped in the modern lower floodplain and estuary. This estimate of sediment storage suggests that greater than 50% of the modern mean annual sediment discharge of the Fitzroy River, 4162 kt yr - 1 , may be retained in the lower floodplain and estuary. These results provide useful insights into the spatial pattern of sedimentation, long-term rates of accumulation and estimates of

  2. Occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Masters, N; Sidhu, J P S; Katouli, M; Toze, S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates from 22 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia, were tested for the presence of 20 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes. In addition, E. coli isolates were also classified into phylogenetic groups based on the detection of the chuA, yjaA, and TSPE4.C2 genes. Of the 22 rainwater tanks, 8 (36%) and 5 (23%) were positive for the eaeA (belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC] and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]) and ST1 (belonging to enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]) genes, respectively. VGs (cdtB, cvaC, ibeA, kpsMT allele III, PAI, papAH, and traT) belonging to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 15 (68%) of the 22 rainwater tanks. Of the 22 samples, 17 (77%) and 11 (50%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1, respectively. Similarly, 10 (45%) and 16 (72%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Of the 96 of the 200 strains from 22 tanks that were VG positive, 40 (42%) were carrying a single VG, 36 (37.5%) were carrying two VGs, 17 (18%) were carrying three VGs, and 3 (3%) had four or more VGs. This study reports the presence of multiple VGs in E. coli strains belonging to the STEC, EPEC, ETEC, and ExPEC pathotypes in rainwater tanks. The public health risks associated with potentially clinically significant E. coli in rainwater tanks should be assessed, as the water is used for drinking and other, nonpotable purposes. It is recommended that rainwater be disinfected using effective treatment procedures such as filtration, UV disinfection, or simply boiling prior to drinking.

  3. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks.

  4. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D

    2014-02-05

    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers.

  5. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures.

  6. The Brisbane Dental Hospital Building: "The Palace" An Era Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Harry F; Foley, Michael A; Brown, John P

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional, educational, humanitarian and political considerations underpinned the design and construction of the Brisbane Dental Hospital Building, often colloquially referred to as "The Palace." The Queensland Heritage Council's listing of the Brisbane Dental Hospital Building on The Queensland Heritage Register in 1999 confirms the cultural significance of Nowland's architectural signature, the historical importance of the Wickham Park precinct and prior students' connection with the building. Influences on decisions determining the location, grand design and timing of construction of the Brisbane Dental Hospital Building emanated from a far bigger and largely unrecorded political picture. The authors argue that the political context in two tiers of government, the timing and nature of the proposal, town planning issues, the exigencies of the caries epidemic and Forgan Smith's post-Depression economic reconstruction across Queensland underpinned the project. Hanlon's personal attributes and disdain for the autonomy of the dental profession, together with his desire to reform dental education and to establish statewide government-administred dental clinics, were also relevant. Accordingly, the BDHD portrayed aspiration, purpose, symbolism, and vision. This paper, essentially an integration of dental and mainstream history, assembles and analyzes hitherto scattered and unpublished evidence to fill a gap in the current literature.

  7. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (conditions and, with FPC removed in order to record the presence of biocrusts. For each micro-transect, soil samples were taken at 0-1 cm and 1-5 cm depths for isotopic C and N, C:N ratio, and plant-available N analysis. The results were adapted at a landscape scale to represent

  8. Fish Distribution in Far Western Queensland, Australia: The Importance of Habitat, Connectivity and Natural Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kerezsy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The endorheic Lake Eyre Basin drains 1.2 million square kilometres of arid central Australia, yet provides habitat for only 30 species of freshwater fish due to the scarcity of water and extreme climate. The majority are hardy riverine species that are adapted to the unpredictable flow regimes, and capable of massive population booms following heavy rainfall and the restoration of connectivity between isolated waterholes. The remainder are endemic specialists from isolated springs with very restricted ranges, and many are listed under relevant state and national endangered species legislation and also by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. For these spring communities, which are sustained by water from the Great Artesian Basin, survival is contingent on suitable habitat persisting alongside extractive mining, agriculture and the imposition of alien species. For the riverine species, which frequently undertake long migrations into ephemeral systems, preservation of the natural flow regime is paramount, as this reinstates riverine connectivity. In this study, fish were sampled from the Bulloo River in the east to the Mulligan River in the west, along a temporal timeframe and using a standard set of sampling gears. Fish presence was influenced by factors such as natural catchment divides, sampling time, ephemerality and the occurrence of connection flows and flooding. Despite the comparatively low diversity of species, the aquatic systems of this isolated region remain in good ecological condition, and as such they offer excellent opportunities to investigate the ecology of arid water systems. However, the presence of both endangered species (in the springs and invasive and translocated species more widely indicates that active protection and management of this unique area is essential to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

  9. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  10. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia: validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoliths are micrometric particles of amorphous silica that form inside or between the cells of higher plant tissues throughout the life of a plant. With plant decay, phytoliths are either incorporated into soils or exported to sediments via regional watersheds. Phytolith morphological assemblages are increasingly used as proxy of grassland diversity and tree cover density in inter-tropical areas. Here, we investigate whether, along altitudinal gradients in northeast Queensland (Australia, changes in the δ18O signature of soil top phytolith assemblages reflect changes in mean annual temperature (MAT and in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation, as predicted by equilibrium temperature coefficients previously published for silica. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 16 phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and MAT values at the sampled sites were calculated by the ANUCLIM software. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were calculated using the Bowen and Wilkinson (2002 model, slightly modified. An empirical temperature-dependant relationship was obtained: δ18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.05; n = 12. Despite the various unknowns introduced when estimating δ18Oprecipitation values and the large uncertainties on δ18Owood phytolith values, the temperature coefficient (−0.4 ± 0.2‰ °C−1 is in the range of values previously obtained for natural quartz, fresh and sedimentary diatoms and harvested grass phytoliths (from −0.2 to −0.5‰ °C−1. The consistency supports the reliability of δ18Owood phytolith signatures for recording

  11. Telling the story of childhood cancer: an evaluation of the Discovery Interview methodology conducted within the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater PJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelope J Slater,1 Shoni P Philpot2 1Queensland Children's Cancer Centre, Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Children's Health Queensland, 2Queensland Cancer Control Analysis Team, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: This paper evaluates the process and impact of the Discovery Interview methodology developed in the National Health Service and applied in the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre. It shows how this methodology supports the family-centered care philosophy of the organization and gives staff insight into the experience of the families they care for. In total, 17 Discovery Interviews recorded during 2012–2014 were transcribed, deidentified, condensed, and read back to 222 staff in 20 different meetings. Families and staff involved in the process provided positive feedback. Over 53% of staff found these sessions extremely valuable, and 46% rated them as valuable. Discovery Interviews were shown to be a powerful tool to engage with families and staff to improve the experience of families in the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre. The sessions where Discovery Interviews were read to clinical teams raised their awareness of the perspectives of families and impacted on the way they delivered care and interacted with families. Staff described the stories as insightful and valued hearing them and discussing ways to improve service, including individual clinical practice, service processes, and family supports. Keywords: family experience, family-centered care, consumer engagement, service improvement, narratives

  12. Tick paralysis in spectacled flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus in North Queensland, Australia: impact of a ground-dwelling ectoparasite finding an arboreal host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G Buettner

    Full Text Available When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flying-foxes (SFF (Pteropus conspicillatus, a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus, resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypothesised that an introduced plant, wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum, had facilitated this new host-tick interaction. This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate. Retrospective analysis was carried out on records from the Tolga Bat Hospital for 1998-2010. Juvenile mortality rates were correlated to climate data using vector auto-regression. Mortality rates due to tick paralysis ranged between 11.6 per 10,000 bats in 2003 and 102.5 in 2009; more female than male adult bats were affected. Juvenile mortality rates were negatively correlated with the total rainfall in January to March and July to September of the same year while a positive correlation of these quarterly total rainfalls existed with the total population. All tick affected camps of SFF were located in the 80% core range of S. mauritianum. This initial analysis justifies further exploration of how an exotic plant might alter the relationship between a formerly ground-dwelling parasite and an arboreal host.

  13. Queensland coal inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-01

    Australia's black coal resources rank in the top five globally, around 50% of which are located in the sedimentary basins of Queensland. The Bowen Basin is the most prolific coal repository, hosting over 60% of the currently established resource inventory. Large volumes of thermal coal are present in the Surat and Galilee basins as well as small extensional and pull apart basins such as Blair Athol and Tarong. The article examines Queensland's coal industry from a government perspective. It first discusses the current coal market, then introduces the concept of inventory coal and explains the Australia Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) code - a resource evaluation system. The stratigraphy of each of Queensland's coal basins is then discussed in sections headed Permian coals, Triassic coals, Jurassic and Cretaceous coals, and Tertiary coals. 3 figs.

  14. A pilot investigation into associations between indoor airborne fungal and non-biological particle concentrations in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Megan; Parappukkaran, Sandhya; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; He, Congrong; Gilbert, Dale

    2003-08-01

    Indoor air contains a complex mixture of bioaerosols such as fungi, bacteria and allergens, as well as non-biological particles including products from various combustion processes. To date little work has been done to investigate the interactions and associations between particles of biological and non-biological origin, however, any occurring interactions could affect pollutant behaviour in the air and ultimately the effect they have on health. The aim of this work was to examine associations between the concentration levels of airborne particles and fungi measured in 14 residential suburban houses in Brisbane. The most frequently isolated fungal genus was Cladosporium, Curvularia, Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium. The average outdoor and indoor (living room) concentrations of fungal colony forming units were 1133+/-759 and 810+/-389, respectively. Average outdoor and indoor (normal ventilation) concentrations of submicrometre and supermicrometre particles were 23.8 x 10(3) and 21.7 x 10(3) (particles/cm(3)), 1.78 and 1.74 (particles/cm(3)), respectively. The study showed that no statistically significant associations between the fungal spore and submicrometre particle concentrations or PM(2.5) were present, while a weak but statistically significant relationship was found between fungal and supermicrometre particle concentrations (for the outdoors R(2)=0.4, P=0.03 and for a living room R(2)=0.3, P=0.04). A similarity in behaviour between the submicrometre particle and fungal spore concentrations was that the fungal spore concentrations were related directly to the distance from the source (a nearby park), in a very similar way in which the submicrometre particles originating from vehicle emissions from a road, were dependent on the distance to the road. In the immediate proximity to the park, fungal concentrations rose up to approximately 3100 CFU/m(3), whereas for houses more than 150 m away from the park the concentrations of fungi were below 1000 CFU/m(3

  15. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytoliths from tropical rainforest soils (Queensland, Australia: application of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation in inter-tropical areas mainly record variations in water sources, amounts of precipitation, and atmospheric temperature and provide information regarding local climate and regional atmospheric circulation changes. On continents, fossil biogenic minerals and speleothems formed in isotopic equilibrium with water can produce continuous δ18O records and are becoming increasingly valuable for reconstructing past climate changes. Here, we explore the efficiency and limitations of using the oxygen isotopic composition of wood phytoliths (δ18Owood phytolith from tropical rainforest soils as a suitable proxy for atmospheric temperature and δ18Oprecipitation values, under conditions that are assumed to be non-evaporative. Soil phytolith assemblages, that should contain 100s of years of phytolith production, were collected along four altitude, temperature, and precipitation gradients in the Queensland rainforests (Australia. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 1.6 mg phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and mean annual temperature (MAT values at the sampled sites were obtained using a regional GIS database. The δ18Oprecipitation values were estimated. The δ18Owood phytolith values from the leeward slopes were scattered but recorded the modern combination of weighted mean annual δ18Oprecipitation values and MAT. The empirical relationship was &Delta18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p<0.05; n=12. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were close to estimates for δ18

  16. Quantifying the erosion processes and land-uses which dominate fine sediment supply to Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbrink, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the contributions from the three major erosion sources in the catchments of Moreton Bay are quantified, specifically for the erosion sources are classified as (i) sheet erosion from cultivated land, (ii) sheet erosion from uncultivated land, and (iii) subsoil erosion from gullies and channels. The catchments were the Brisbane and Logan rivers as well as the coastal catchments. A GIS based analysis of erosion risk was used to define areas of high erosion potential in each of the erosion source types. Radionuclide concentrations of 137Cs and 226Ra were measured on the soils from these areas and then compared to concentrations on the same size fraction on deposited sediments within the rivers. A mixing model was then used to calculate the contributions from the different sources to the sediments. The contributions in the Brisbane and Logan catchments were found to be subsoil erosion (approximately 66 +/- 10%); sheet erosion from cultivated lands 33 +/- 10% and sheet erosion of uncultivated land 1 +/- 10%. Surface and subsoil erosion contributions from the coastal catchments were found to be variable.

  17. Monocotyledon fruits and seeds, and an associated palynoflora from Eocene-Oligocene sediments of coastal central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann; Clifford

    2000-07-01

    Fruits of Restionaceae and seeds of Typhaceae are described from a latest Eocene-Oligocene mudstone underlying oil shales in a subsurface sequence near Rockhampton, coastal central Queensland. The Restionaceae fruits are unilocular and encase a single pendulous orthotropous seed with a structured micropylar cap, which may be tannin filled. These are allocated to Restiocarpum gen. nov., which has as its type Restiocarpum latericum sp. nov., and four other taxa described herein; Restiocarpum tesselatum sp. nov., Restiocarpum verrucatum sp. nov., Restiocarpum laeve sp. nov., and Restiocarpum fusiforme sp. nov. Typhaspermum cooksoniae gen. et sp. nov., which accommodates asymmetric claviform seeds, is interpreted as a member of the Typhaceae based on the presence of a lid-like operculum, bitegmic wall, and chalazal cavity.Reconstruction of the source plant community emphasizes similarities to restiad swamps of present day Wallum (swamp heathland) vegetation which is extensively developed along the Queensland coast. Biogeographic implications for the Restionaceae and Typhaceae are discussed.

  18. The cumulative impacts of repeated heavy rainfall, flooding and altered water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, I R; Sommer, B; Zann, M; Zhao, J-X; Pandolfi, J M

    2015-07-15

    Terrestrial runoff and flooding have resulted in major impacts on coral communities worldwide, but we lack detailed understanding of flood plume conditions and their ecological effects. Over the course of repeated flooding between 2010 and 2013, we measured coral cover and water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. In 2013, salinity, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were altered for up to six months post-flooding. Submarine groundwater caused hypo-saline conditions for a further four months. Despite the greater magnitude of flooding in 2013, declines in coral abundance (∼28%) from these floods were lower than the 2011 flood (∼40%), which occurred immediately after a decade of severe drought. There was an overall cumulative decrease of coral by ∼56% from 2010 to 2013. Our study highlights the need for local scale monitoring and research to facilitate informed management and conservation of catchments and marine environments.

  19. An Important Forum for the Future of the World's Rivers: The 8th International Riversymposium in Brisbane%未来世界河流的重要讨论会--第8届国际河流研讨会在布里斯班召开

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鲁烽

    2005-01-01

    @@ The 8th International Riversymposium was held in Brisbane, Australia on 6-9 September 2005. The International Riversymposium is an integral part of Brisbane's annual broadbased cultural event.The Queensland Government is a foundation partner of the International River Foundation, formed to secure the future of the International and National Thiess Riverprize. The theme of symposium in this year is "Water and Food Security- Rivers in a Global Context" ( www.riversymposium.com ).The Riversymposium provides a global forum which aims to make a difference to the declining state of rivers and waterways globally. Its strength lies in the breadth of its challenging program content of important keynote presentations and case studies of rivers in crisis, attracting a diverse range of national and international delegates. Some 450 scientists from 38 countries attended this conference, and about 100 papers were presented on the symposium in 2005.

  20. Comparing Pediatric Rotations at Two University of Queensland Clinical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie; Kantrow, Charles M.; Coulthard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The University of Queensland (UQ), Ochsner Clinical School (OCS) is a partnership between Ochsner Health System in New Orleans, LA, and UQ in Brisbane, Australia. OCS medical students are trained on both continents, receiving their didactic education in Australia and their clinical education in the United States. Methods: We review the OCS experience and compare the pediatric rotations at OCS and UQ. Results: Students in the pediatric rotations in Australia and in the United States receive their clinical instruction in the real-world learning environment of hospitals and clinics. In addition, lectures, online learning modules, case-based tutorials, and rigorous assessment at the end of the rotation help prepare medical students for future contact with pediatric patients. Sixty-nine third-year OCS students and 499 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation in 2014. In 2015, 105 third-year OCS students and approximately 400 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation. Conclusion: In a unique educational collaboration, OCS has used e-learning and face-to-face tutorials to produce a well-rounded curriculum that assimilates global healthcare and international medicine. This article demonstrates the feasibility of delivering a standardized curriculum across two continents using modern e-learning tools. PMID:27046407

  1. Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

    2013-08-01

    A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma

  2. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered.

  3. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  4. Evaluating sewage-associated JCV and BKV polyomaviruses for sourcing human fecal pollution in a coastal river in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Wan, C; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the host-sensitivity and host-specificity of JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) polyomaviruses were evaluated by testing wastewater and fecal samples from nine host groups in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The JCV and BKV polyomaviruses were detected in 63 human wastewater samples collected from primary and secondary effluent, suggesting high sensitivity of these viruses in human wastewater. In the 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples tested, 80 were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for the JCV and BKV markers. Only one sample (out of 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples) from pig wastewater was positive. Nonetheless, the overall host-specificity of these viruses to differentiate between human and animal wastewater and fecal samples was 0.99. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Australia that reports on the high specificity of JCV and BKV polyomaviruses. To evaluate the field application of these viral markers for detecting human fecal pollution, 20 environmental samples were collected from a coastal river. In the 20 samples tested, 15% (3/20) and 70% (14/20) samples exceeded the regulatory guidelines for Escherichia coli and enterococci levels for marine waters. In all, five (25%) samples were PCR positive for JCV and BKV, indicating the presence of human fecal pollution in the coastal river investigated. The results suggest that JCV and BKV detection using PCR could be a useful tool for identifying human-sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters.

  5. Screening of oomycete fungi for their potential role in reducing the biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) larval populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D Ipek

    2011-05-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  6. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ipek Kurtböke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  7. Investigating the stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments for a suite of newly discovered mid-Cretaceous vertebrate fossil-localities in the Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ryan T.; Roberts, Eric M.; Darlington, Vikie; Salisbury, Steven W.

    2017-08-01

    The Winton Formation of central Queensland is recognized as a quintessential source of mid-Cretaceous terrestrial faunas and floras in Australia. However, sedimentological investigations linking fossil assemblages and palaeoenvironments across this unit remain limited. The intent of this study was to interpret depositional environments and improve stratigraphic correlations between multiple fossil localities within the preserved Winton Formation in the Eromanga Basin, including Isisford, Lark Quarry, and Bladensburg National Park. Twenty-three facies and six repeated facies associations were documented, indicating a mosaic of marginal marine to inland alluvial depositional environments. These developed synchronously with the final regression of the Eromanga Seaway from central Australia during the late Albian-early Turonian. Investigations of regional- and local-scale structural features and outcrop, core and well analysis were combined with detrital zircon provenance signatures to help correlate stratigraphy and vertebrate faunas across the basin. Significant palaeoenvironmental differences exist between the lower and upper portions of the preserved Winton Formation, warranting informal subdivisions; a lower tidally influenced fluvial-deltaic member and an upper inland alluvial member. This work further demonstrates that the Isisford fauna is part of the lower member of the preserved Winton Formation; whereas, fossil localities around Winton, including Lark Quarry and Bladensburg National Park, are part of the upper member of the Winton Formation. These results permit a more meaningful framework for both regional and global comparisons of the Winton flora and fauna.

  8. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graves, Jennifer A M; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north-south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. 10Be constrains the sediment sources and sediment yields to the Great Barrier Reef from the tropical Barron River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Rood, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of long-term, background sediment generation rates place current and future sediment fluxes to the Great Barrier Reef in context. Without reliable estimates of sediment generation rates and without identification of the sources of sediment delivered to the reef prior to European settlement (c. 1850), determining the necessity and effectiveness of contemporary landscape management efforts is difficult. Using the ~2100-km2 Barron River catchment in Queensland, Australia, as a test case, we use in situ-produced 10Be to derive sediment generation rate estimates and use in situ and meteoric 10Be to identify the source of that sediment, which enters the Coral Sea near Cairns. Previous model-based calculations suggested that background sediment yields were up to an order of magnitude lower than contemporary sediment yields. In contrast, in situ 10Be data indicate that background (43 t km-2 y-1) and contemporary sediment yields (~45 t km-2 y-1) for the Barron River are similar. These data suggest that the reef became established in a sediment flux similar to what it receives today. Since western agricultural practices increased erosion rates, large amounts of sediment mobilized from hillslopes during the last century are probably stored in Queensland catchments and will eventually be transported to the coast, most likely in flows triggered by rare but powerful tropical cyclones that were more common before European settlement and may increase in strength as climate change warms the south Pacific Ocean. In situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations of Coral Sea beach sand near Cairns are similar to those in rivers on the Atherton Tablelands, suggesting that most sediment is derived from the extensive, low-gradient uplands rather than the steep, more rapidly eroding but beach proximal escarpment.

  10. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  11. Adoption of Online Purchasing Methods in Communities and its Socio-Economic Implications in Regional Central Queensland, Australia

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    W. J. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the general trends of online purchasing in Central Queensland (CQ communities during 1999-2002 and identifies the socio-economic factors affecting online purchasing activities. The Online Purchasing Indicator, defined as a combination of percentages of online purchasers and of regular purchasers (>one item/month within a group, is applied to compare these activities between these two groups. The study identifies that four factors, namely ‘personal attributes’, ‘knowledge’, ‘trust’ and ‘need’ may play important roles in online purchasing decisions. The research found that regional economic bleeding associated with low local adoption failing to provide justification for local business to adopt electronic purchasing support has not yet reached significant levels.

  12. Contrasting recovery of shallow and deep water seagrass communities following climate associated losses in tropical north Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Michael A; McKenna, Skye A; Carter, Alexandra B; Coles, Robert G

    2014-06-30

    Tropical seagrass decline and recovery from severe storm impacts was assessed via quarterly measurements of seagrass biomass, species composition and experimental investigations of recovery in north Queensland. Shallow and deep seagrass meadows suffered major declines. Significant recovery in the two years following loss only occurred at deeper sites. Halophila spp. in deep water areas had a high capacity for recovery through the availability of seed banks. In contrast, the shallow species did not recover quickly from experimental disturbance, had poor seed reserves and relied on asexual propagation. The potential for shallow species to recover rapidly from widespread losses was limited as seed banks were limited or non-existent. Understanding inter- and intra-specific differences in seagrass recovery and how this interacts with location is critical to predict the consequences of climate events to tropical seagrasses. This is especially important as more frequent severe storms are predicted as a consequence of climate change.

  13. Identification of Radar Facies and Linked Process-Based Palaeo-environmental Interpretations, Cooloola Sand Mass, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontz, A. M.; McCallum, A. B.; Moss, P. T.; Shulmeister, J.

    2015-12-01

    During 2015 and 2014, nearly 60 km of high-resolution ground penetrating radar data were acquired on the Cooloola Sand Mass (CSM) in southeastern coastal Queensland. The CSM is part of the world's largest downdrift sand system. It contains three of the world's largest sand islands, several National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and covers 500 km of the eastern Australian coastline in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. The large (>200 m) composite dunes of the CSM exhibit multiple activation phases, coastally eroding bluffs and dune development is not obvious from surficial exposures. This provides an ideal environment for ground penetrating radar. The dune sequences have been provisionally dated to the mid Quaternary through present and represent the potential for a large palaeo-environmental proxy dataset. GPR imagery was collected using a MALA GeoSciences Ground Explorer (GX) system with 160 and 450 MHz antennae from the numerous physiographic and ecological provinces as well as mapped surficial soil units at the CSM. These data were used to determine the subsurface architecture, identify radar facies and develop environmental interpretations. In the clean, aeolian quartz-rich sands, radar wave penetration exceeded 30 m (radar velocity = 0.07 m/ns) with the 160 MHz antenna. From the interpreted environmental units including palaeosol, dune slip face, dune stoss face, sand blow, beach, estuarine and fluvial, we are developing maps to relate the units and focus a detailed sampling regime that includes OSL, sediment geochemistry and sedimentology, The interpreted units, stratigraphic correlation and spatial distribution of the facies is the first step in a broader project to unravel the Quaternary environmental and climate records that are archived within the sediments of the CSM.

  14. MINErosion 3: A user friendly hillslope model for predicting erosion from steep post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hwat-Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf; Carroll, Chris; Yu, Bofu

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is around 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a reliable and accurate method is required to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. A user friendly hillslope computer package MINErosion 3, was developed to predict potential erosion to select suitable combinations of landscape design parameters (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover

  15. Relationships between dental personnel and non-dental primary health care providers in rural and remote Queensland, Australia: dental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jackie; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Len; Barnett, Tony

    2017-06-19

    Collaboration between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers has the potential to improve oral health care for people in rural and remote communities, where access to oral health services is limited. However, there is limited research on collaboration between these professional disciplines. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationships between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers from rural and remote areas of Queensland and to identify strategies that could improve collaboration between these disciplines from the perspective of dental participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between 2013 and 2015 with visiting, local and regional dental practitioners (n = 12) who had provided dental services to patients from eight rural and remote Queensland communities that did not have a resident dentist. Participants were purposely recruited through a snow ball sampling technique. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis with the assistance of QSR Nvivo v.10. Four major themes emerged from the data: (1) Communication between dental practitioners and rural primary care providers; (2) Relationships between dental and primary care providers; (3) Maintenance of professional dualism; (4) Strategies to improve interprofessional relationships (with subthemes: face to face meetings; utilisation of technology; oral health training for primary care providers; and having a community based oral health contact person). Participants observed that there was a lack of communication between the dental providers who saw patients from these rural communities and the primary care providers who worked in each community. This was attributed to poor communication, the high turnover of staff and the siloed behaviours of some practitioners. Visiting dental practitioners were likely to have stronger professional relationships with hospital nursing, administrative and allied health care staff who were often long term

  16. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997–2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  17. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  18. New evidence of the reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. II: pollen-bearing organ Ediea gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2014-03-01

    Ediea homevalensis H. Nishida, Kudo, Pigg & Rigby gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for permineralized pollen-bearing structures from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. The taxon represents unisexual fertile shoots bearing helically arranged leaves on a central axis. The more apical leaves are fertile microsporophylls bearing a pair of multi-branched stalks on their adaxial surfaces that each supports a cluster of terminally borne pollen sacs. Proximal to the fertile leaves there are several rows of sterile scale-like leaves. The pollen sacs (microsporangia) have thickened and dark, striate walls that are typical of the Arberiella type found in most pollen organs presumed to be of glossopterid affinity. An examination of pollen organs at several developmental stages, including those containing in situ pollen of the Protohaploxypinus type, provides the basis for a detailed analysis of these types of structures, which bear similarities to both compression/impression Eretmonia-type glossopterid microsporangiate organs and permineralized Eretmonia macloughlinii from Antarctica. These fossils demonstrate that at least some Late Permian pollen organs were simple microsporophyll-bearing shoot systems and not borne directly on Glossopteris leaves.

  19. The Role Innovative Housing Models Play in the Struggle against Social Exclusion in Cities: The Brisbane Common Ground Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Perolini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of housing in Australia is a textbook example of socio-spatial exclusion as described, defined and analysed by commentators from Mumford to Lefebvre. It has been exacerbated by a culture of home ownership that has led to an affordability crisis. An examination of the history reveals that the problems are structural and must be approached not as a practical solution to the public provision of housing, but as a reshaping of lives, a reconnection to community, and as an ethical and equitable “right to the city”. This “Right to the City” has underpinned the Common Ground approach, emerging in a range of cities and adopted in South Brisbane, Queensland Australia. This paper examines the Common Ground approach and the impacts on its residents and in the community with a view to exploring further developments in this direction. A clear understanding of these lessons underpins, and should inform, a new approach to reconnecting the displaced and to developing solutions that not only enhance their lives but also the community at large.

  20. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia

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    Lucy G. Leahey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world’s most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull.

  1. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Lucy G; Molnar, Ralph E; Carpenter, Kenneth; Witmer, Lawrence M; Salisbury, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world's most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain) endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull.

  2. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Niel L

    2015-01-01

    The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  3. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niel L. Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  4. Development of a catchment/landscape erosion prediction model (MINErosion 4) for post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf; Yu, Bofu; Ghadiri, Hossain; Carroll, Chris; So, Hwat-Bing

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is approximately 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a hillslope erosion model MINErosion 3 (this conference) was developed to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. This model was useful to determine the design parameters for the construction of a suitable post-mining landscape that meets the required erosion criteria. However, the mining

  5. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  6. An Approach to Mapping Forest Growth Stages in Queensland, Australia through Integration of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carreiras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst extensive clearance of forests in the eastern Australian Brigalow Belt Bioregion (BBB has occurred since European settlement, appropriate management of those that are regenerating can facilitate restoration of biomass (carbon and biodiversity to levels typical of relatively undisturbed or remnant formations. However, maps of forests are different stages of regeneration are needed to facilitate restoration planning, including prevention of further re-clearing. Focusing on the Tara Downs subregion of the BBB and on forests with brigalow (Acacia harpophylla as a component, this research establishes a method for differentiating and mapping early, intermediate and remnant growth stages from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased-Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD L-band HH- and HV-polarisation backscatter and Landsat-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC. Using inventory data collected from 74 plots, located in the Tara Downs subregion, forests were assigned to one of three regrowth stages based on their height and cover relative to that of undisturbed stands. The image data were then segmented into objects with each assigned to a growth stage by comparing the distributions of L-band HV and HH polarisation backscatter and FPC to that of reference distributions using a z-test. Comparison with independent assessments of growth stage, based on time-series analysis of aerial photography and SPOT images, established an overall accuracy of > 70%, with this increasing to 90% when intermediate regrowth was excluded and only early-stage regrowth and remnant classes were considered. The proposed method can be adapted to respond to amendments to user-definitions of growth stage and, as regional mosaics of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat FPC are available for Queensland, has application across the state.

  7. Biosecurity and the management of emergency animal disease among commercial beef producers in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Higgins, V; Bryant, M; Rast, L; McShane, C

    2016-11-01

    Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project involving an analysis of literature and current policies, qualitative semi-structured interviews with government and industry stakeholders and a cross-sectional study among beef producers. The cross-sectional study used a postal survey (n=182) and face-to-face interviews (n=34) to gather data on beef producers' knowledge and practices on biosecurity and EADs and their communication networks. Findings indicate that producers are uncertain about the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders involved in biosecurity and EAD management. This uncertainty may create confusion about EAD management and impact upon producers' willingness to report animal disease, with over 20% reporting the last veterinary contact more than five years ago and an additional 8.5% who had never contacted a veterinarian. Producers had a generally high awareness of the key sources of animal disease risk and they prioritise herd health planning as part of their everyday practices. Over 40% of producers had limited knowledge of the meaning of EAD; and EAD and biosecurity planning was given a low priority, primarily due to the perceived limited likelihood of an EAD event in Australia and the belief that EAD prevention is primarily the role of government. Only a moderate implementation of biosecurity practices, such as isolating incoming animals, having a single property entry point

  8. Seasonal Fluxes and Cycling of Trace Metals in Semi-Arid Fluvial Systems: Leichhardt River, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, A. K.; Taylor, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the storage and transfer of trace metal contaminants in water and sediment within the upper Leichhardt River Catchment (1,113 km2), Mount Isa, north-west Queensland. The Leichhardt River runs adjacent to Mount Isa City and the Cu and Pb-Zn-Ag Mount Isa Mine and smelter (MIM) and feeds Lake Moondarra, Mount Isa's potable water supply. The river flows only during the monsoonal wet season (December- March) and for the remainder of the year is characterised by a series of disconnected temporary and permanent pools ranging in length from 10 m to 1 km. These pools are significant because they act as storage zones for water-soluble and sediment-associated metals and serve as refugia for native and domestic fauna during protracted intervals between wet season flows. To recognise seasonal fluxes and cycling patterns of trace metal contaminants in the Leichhardt River system this study investigates the physico-chemical water quality of the wet season flows and the subsequent seasonal variations in the dry season pool water. In January 2007 two floods were studied using sixteen rising stage water quality samplers along the Leichhardt River. The samplers were placed above and below MIM, and within selected tributaries draining MIM to ascertain the specific impacts from mining activities on water quality. Grab samples were also collected during the floods and on the falling stages of flow within the river system. Following this, dry season water quality sampling commenced on eleven remnant pools over a period of 8 months. Overall 60 wet season and 34 dry season water samples were collected and analysed for physico-chemical (pH, EC, DO, TDS, SS) variables in the field and total and water soluble cations, trace elements of concern (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and anions via ICP-MS and ion chromatography, respectively. In addition, mineralogical and geochemical analysis was undertaken on 34 bottom sediment samples collected from the pools. Analysis of the temporal metal

  9. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  10. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola; De Silva Weliange, Shreenika; Manu-Sione, Inez; Schubert, Lisa

    2017-01-13

    Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. The intervention was delivered to children aged 6-19 years (N = 375) in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P activity recommendations (P activity for preventing heart disease (P junk food may be beneficial. The study has shown that the Good Start Program was effective in engaging children from Maori and Pacific Island backgrounds and in improving knowledge, and some attitudes and practices, related to healthy eating and physical activity. The evaluation contributes valuable information about components and impacts of this type of intervention, and considerations relevant to this population in order to successfully change behaviours and reduce the burden of chronic disease.

  11. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Skye McKenna; Jessie Jarvis; Tonia Sankey; Carissa Reason; Robert Coles; Michael Rasheed

    2015-06-01

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone ‘complete and catastrophic loss’ as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic event and that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour were lost. Recent survey data and trend analysis from an on-ground monitoring program show that seagrasses in Cairns Harbour do remain, albeit at low levels, and the decline in seagrasses occurred over several years with cyclone Yasi having little additional impact. We have conducted annual on-ground surveys of seagrass distribution and the above-ground meadow biomass in Cairns Harbour and Trinity Inlet since 2001. This has shown a declining trend in biomass since a peak in 2004 and in area since it peaked in 2007. In 2012, seagrass area and above-ground biomass were significantly below the long-term (12 year) average but seagrass was still present. Declines were associated with regional impacts on coastal seagrasses from multiple years of above-average rainfall and severe storm and cyclone activity, similar to other nearby seagrass areas, and not as a result of a single event.

  12. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKENNA, Skye; Jarvis, Jessie; Sankey, Tonia; Reason, Carissa; Coles, Robert; Rasheed, Michael

    2015-06-01

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic event and that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour were lost. Recent survey data and trend analysis from an on-ground monitoring program show that seagrasses in Cairns Harbour do remain, albeit at low levels, and the decline in seagrasses occurred over several years with cyclone Yasi having little additional impact. We have conducted annual on-ground surveys of seagrass distribution and the above-ground meadow biomass in Cairns Harbour and Trinity Inlet since 2001. This has shown a declining trend in biomass since a peak in 2004 and in area since it peaked in 2007. In 2012, seagrass area and above-ground biomass were significantly below the long-term (12 year) average but seagrass was still present. Declines were associated with regional impacts on coastal seagrasses from multiple years of above-average rainfall and severe storm and cyclone activity, similar to other nearby seagrass areas, and not as a result of a single event.

  13. Patterns of tree dieback in Queensland, Australia: the importance of drought stress and the role of resistance to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin J; Matzner, Steven L; Byer, William; Brown, Joel R

    2004-04-01

    During the extreme 1992-1997 El Niño drought event, widespread stem mortality, or tree "dieback", of both mature and juvenile eucalypts occurred within the tropical savannas of northeast Australia. Most of the dieback occurred in individuals of the ironbark species complex ( Eucalyptus crebra- E. xanthoclada) while individuals of the bloodwood species Corymbia erythrophloia, exhibited significantly less stem mortality. Indicative of greater water stress, predawn and midday xylem water potentials of ironbark adults and saplings were significantly more negative than predawn values of bloodwoods. The very negative xylem water potentials in ironbarks suggest that stem mortality in both adult and juvenile ironbarks results from drought-induced embolism and that ironbarks perhaps have a shallower and less extensive root system than bloodwoods. Although predawn and midday water potentials for ironbark adults and saplings were similar, a census of mature and juvenile ironbark trees indicated that mortality was higher in adult trees. Cavitation vulnerability curves indicated that ironbark saplings may be better buffered against cavitation than adult trees. If they possess smaller root systems, saplings are more likely than adults to experience low xylem water potentials, even in non-drought years. Xylem conduits produced in adult trees during periods of normal rainfall, although perhaps more efficient in water conduction, may be more vulnerable to cavitation during infrequent severe droughts.

  14. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. It can affect both carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil–atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O. To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014 on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013 and after (August 2014 and November 2014 the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined at 4 replicate sites which were burned during the combustion and another 4 adjacent unburned sites located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m−2 day−1. The burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates at the burned sites measured in August 2014. While within the next 3 months the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to pre-burning levels. Mean CO2 emission from forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m−2 day−1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned sites in both August and November 2014. The temporal dynamics of the CO2 emission presented more seasonal variations, rather than burning effects. The N2O emission at the studied sites was quite low, and no significant impact of burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial activities

  15. Importance of native language in a population-based health survey among ethnic Chinese in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam Cheong; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2008-08-01

    To assess the impacts of survey languages on participation and representativeness of the study subjects in a health survey in a Chinese community in Australia. A random sample of 500 ethnic Chinese in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia was surveyed during November 2005 to February 2006 by using a bilingual survey questionnaire in their preferred languages, i.e. English or Chinese. 210 questionnaires were returned. Two-thirds of the participants chose to answer the questionnaires in Chinese. Besides being older with relatively lower income, they were more likely to be married, have a Chinese family doctor, and visit a Chinese medicine practitioner. Fewer of them have visited the Diabetes Australia website or read any educational information materials about diabetes. The multilingual approach is crucial to improving participation and representativeness of samples from ethnic populations.

  16. Intercomparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Instruments for Assessing Forested Ecosystems: A Brisbane Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Danson, M.; Gaulton, R.; Zhang, Z.; Disney, M.; Sparrow, B.; Phinn, S. R.; Schaefer, M.; Burt, A.; Counter, S.; Erb, A.; Goodwin, N.; Hancock, S.; Howe, G.; Johansen, K.; Li, Z.; Lollback, G.; Martel, J.; Muir, J.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Scarth, P.; Tindall, D.; Walker, L.; Witte, C.; Woodgate, W.; Wu, S.

    2013-12-01

    During 28th July - 3rd August, 2013, an international group of researchers brought five terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) to long-term monitoring plots in three eucalyptus-dominated woodland sites near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, to acquire scans at common locations for calibration and intercomparison.They included: DWEL - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (Boston U., U. Massachusetts Lowell, U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) SALCA - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (U. Salford, UK) CBL - a canopy biomass lidar, a small ultraportable low-cost multiple discrete return scanner (U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) Riegl VZ400 - a survey-grade commercial waveform scanner (Queensland Government and TERN, U. Queensland, Australia) FARO Focus 3D - a lightweight commercial phase-shift ranging laser scanner (U. Southern Queensland) Two plots were scanned at Karawatha Forest Park, a Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) Supersite, and one plot at D'Aguilar National Park. At each 50 x 100 m plot, a center scan point was surrounded by four scan points located 25 m away in a cross pattern allowing for 3-D reconstructions of scan sites in the form of point clouds. At several center points, multiple instrument configurations (i.e. different beam divergence, angular resolution, pulse rate) were acquired to test the impact of instrument specifications on separation of woody and non-woody materials and estimation of vegetation structure parameters. Three-dimensional Photopoint photographic panoramas were also acquired, providing reconstructions of stems in the form of point clouds using photogrammetric correlation methods. Calibrated reflectance targets were also scanned to compare instrument geometric and radiometric performance. Ancillary data included hemispherical photos, TRAC LAI/clumping measurements, spectra of leaves, bark, litter, and other target components. Wet and dry leaf weights determined water content. Planned intercomparison topics and

  17. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.

  18. 55,000 yrs of Environmental Change in the Southern Hemisphere: Peat Stratigraphy and Inorganic Geochemistry of Lynch's Crater, NE Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J.; Kylander, M. E.; Wust, R. A.; Weiss, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    This study presents one of the first applications of geochemical proxies to define changes in vegetation, hydrology and atmospheric dust recorded in a peat deposit in the Southern Hemisphere. The Lynch's Crater archive has captured local, regional and global environmental changes and reveals dynamic ecosystem changes as a result of climate shifts over the past 55,000 yrs BP. The 13 m peat record consists of 1.5 m of ombrotrophic peat underlain by a minerotrophic peat. The ombrotrophic section consists of low inorganic content ("ash") and low pH, as expected in of an ombrotrophic environment. The minerotrophic section contains several layers, up to a few cm thick, where abundant sponge spicules, diatom fragments and detrital quartz are indicative of high algal and protista productivity. These layers are characterised by high (up to 50%) ash, indicating persistent flooding of the peat deposits of Lynch's Crater and signalling periods of change in precipitation in North Queensland, Australia. Geochemical data are used to differentiate between climatic episodes associated with flooding events and internal and external atmospheric dust fluxes. Lead isotopes with lithogenic and chalcophile elements tell us that two distinctive sources are prevalent in the Lynch's Crater record. Most of the inorganic fractions of the deposits have the same geochemical signatures as the rocks and sediments of the crater wall, with low As concentrations, high Al, Ti and Sc concentrations and a more radiogenic Pb isotope signature. Influence from long-range dust is distinguished in the lower sections of the core (~35,000-55,000 cal yrs BP) where increases in As concentrations and less radiogenic Pb isotopes are found. Leading up to the Holocene (~35,000-10,000) the influence of increased dust influx becomes more significant (increasing lithogenics, chalcophiles and ash content) and where possible long-range sources are still active, but diluted by a prevailing dominance of the local sources

  19. Assessment of groundwater–surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jorge L., E-mail: jlmarti@ig.com.br [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Raiber, Matthias [CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Brisbane (Australia); Cox, Malcolm E. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, {sup 222}Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by {sup 222}Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20–70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8–50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  20. SNP diversity of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in a South East Queensland waterway, Australia, and associated antibiotic resistance gene profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huygens Flavia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are associated with faecal pollution of water, linked to swimmer-associated gastroenteritis and demonstrate a wide range of antibiotic resistance. The Coomera River is a main water source for the Pimpama-Coomera watershed and is located in South East Queensland, Australia, which is used intensively for agriculture and recreational purposes. This study investigated the diversity of E. faecalis and E. faecium using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and associated antibiotic resistance profiles. Results Total enterococcal counts (cfu/ml for three/six sampling sites were above the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA recommended level during rainfall periods and fall into categories B and C of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines (with a 1-10% gastrointestinal illness risk. E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were grouped into 29 and 23 SNP profiles (validated by MLST analysis respectively. This study showed the high diversity of E. faecalis and E. faecium over a period of two years and both human-related and human-specific SNP profiles were identified. 81.8% of E. faecalis and 70.21% of E. faecium SNP profiles were associated with genotypic and phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Gentamicin resistance was higher in E. faecalis (47% resistant and harboured the aac(6'-aph(2' gene. Ciprofloxacin resistance was more common in E. faecium (12.7% resistant and gyrA gene mutations were detected in these isolates. Tetracycline resistance was less common in both species while tet(L and tet(M genes were more prevalent. Ampicillin resistance was only found in E. faecium isolates with mutations in the pbp5 gene. Vancomycin resistance was not detected in any of the isolates. We found that antibiotic resistance profiles further sub-divided the SNP profiles of both E. faecalis and E. faecium. Conclusions The distribution of E. faecalis and

  1. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  2. Ultrawide-field fundus photography of the first reported case of gyrate atrophy from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloney TP

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Moloney,1 Stephen O’Hagan,1 Lawrence Lee2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, QLD, Australia; 2City Eye Centre, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a rare chorioretinal dystrophy inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We describe the first documented case of gyrate atrophy from Australia in a 56-year-old woman with a history of previous diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa and worsening night vision in her right eye over several years. She was myopic and bilaterally pseudophakic, and fundus examination revealed pale optic discs and extensive peripheral chorioretinal atrophy exposing bare sclera bilaterally with only small islands of normal-appearing retina at each posterior pole. Visual field testing showed grossly constricted fields, blood testing showed hyperornithinemia, and further questioning revealed consanguinity between the patient’s parents. We then used the patient’s typical retinal findings of gyrate atrophy to demonstrate the potential use of ultrawide-field fundus photography and angiography in diagnosis and monitoring response in future treatment. Keywords: gyrate atrophy, ultrawide-field retinal photography, angiography, retinal photography, hyperornithinemia

  3. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Melville

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora, which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1 revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  4. Dual 10Be isotope systems constrain the source of sediment and rate of erosion for the tropical Barron River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Reusser, L. J.; Portenga, E.; Matmon, A.; Rood, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand source of sediment and rate of erosion for Barron River catchment, which heads on the Atherton Tablelands of northeast Australia, crosses the northern Queensland escarpment and drains into the Coral Sea, we collected fluvial sediment and measured both in situ and meteoric 10Be contents on the medium sand fraction. We collected fourteen samples from rivers and streams including large regional drainages and small tributaries. The upland basins are characterized by lower relief and less precipitation than the steeper and wetter escarpment basins. One sample is quartz sand from the Coral Sea beach at Yorkey's Knob, below the escarpment. Sand from the Barron River upstream of the escarpment integrates the upland basins and has an in situ 10Be concentration of 2.31±0.84 x105atoms/g and an erosion rate of 17.2 m/My (calculated using the CRONOS on-line calculator). This is similar to a major upland tributary (2.51±0.40 x105 atoms/g; 15.2 m/My) and two smaller upstream tributaries (20.5 m/My and 21.4 m/My). Escarpment streams have less in situ 10Be in their sediment (mean = 1.64±0.55 x 105 atoms/g, n=8) and higher basin area-weighted erosion rates (37.2 m/My). Based on the in situ measurements, the uplands are eroding at approximately half the rate of the escarpment basins. The beach sand has an in situ 10Be concentration (2.75±0.19 x 105 atoms/g) similar to the upland sediment suggesting that the source of beach sand is the larger but more slowly eroding Tablelands. In contrast, the meteoric 10Be concentrations of Barron River sand-sized sediment collected above the escarpment is ~4 fold lower (2.55x107 atoms/g) than the average meteoric 10Be concentration of the 8 escarpment samples (9.94±4.49 x107 atoms/g). This discrepancy cannot be explained by differences in annual average precipitation which ranges only from 1.9 to 2.3 m/yr but likely results from the deep mobility of meteoric 10Be in oxic Tableland soils. Considering meteoric 10Be as a

  5. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  6. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of

  7. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in

  8. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  9. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  10. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-03-17

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given.

  11. Cervical cancer in women under 25 years of age in Queensland, Australia: To what extent is the diagnosis made by screening cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Edwina L; Sanday, Karen; Budd, Alison; Hammond, Ian G; Nicklin, James

    2017-08-01

    The current Australian National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP) involves biennial, cytology-based screening of women from the age of 18 years. From December, 2017 this will change to a five-yearly human papilloma virus-based screening commencing at age 25. There is some concern that the new program may delay the opportunistic detection of cervical cancers in women under 25 years. (1) To review all cases of invasive cervical cancer in Queensland women under the age of 25 over the last 28 years. (2) To determine symptoms and screening history prior to diagnosis. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken at the Queensland Centre for Gynaecological Cancer (QCGC) and the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR) of all women aged between 13 and 25 years diagnosed with cervical cancer in Queensland between 1984 and 2012. Demographic data and symptoms prior to diagnosis were extracted from the QCGC and QCR databases. A total of 56 women aged 13-25, were diagnosed with cervical cancer and treated at the QCGC between 1984 and 2012. The commonest reason for the diagnosis of cancer was investigation of abnormal symptoms (n = 22, 39%) rather than routine Pap smear abnormalities (n = 15, 26%). Consistent with the world literature, there is a very low incidence of cervical cancer in women under 25 years of age, irrespective of the age of commencement of screening, or the screening interval. Our study lends some support to the proposed commencement age of 25 years in the new NCSP. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. A review of the currently recognised zoogonid cercariae, including the identification and emergence ecology of Cercaria capricornia XI (Digenea: Zoogonidae) from Nassarius olivaceus (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Leonie J; Miller, Terrence L; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we review the known zoogonid cercariae, summarise their life-cycles and first intermediate host distributions, and present a new cercaria, Cercaria capricornia XI (Digenea: Zoogonidae), which was found in one of three nassariid gastropods, Nassarius olivaceus (Bruguière), surveyed in the intertidal zone in the Capricornia region of Central Queensland, Australia. Morphological data and molecular analysis of the ITS2 rDNA region support placement of this cercaria in the family Zoogonidae but do not allow any further resolution of its identity. There are now fifteen cercariae described as belonging to the Zoogonidae; thirteen of these, including the present species, infect neogastropods as first intermediate hosts and two use vetigastropods. This study reinforces the pattern that the Nassariidae is by far the most commonly reported family for the Zoogonidae. Given its richness we predict that the Nassariidae will prove to harbour many more zoogonid species.

  14. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  15. Sustainable urban development in Brisbane City--the Holy Grail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K; Weber, T

    2003-01-01

    Impacts from urban stormwater runoff on receiving environments have been well documented, particularly through specific regional scientific studies. Using various local government planning and management elements, urban developments in Brisbane City are now able to address stormwater management in an increasingly holistic context. One key initiative includes facilitating Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) components within an Integrated Water Management Strategy that looks at policy formation, planning strategies, design option, community marketing and acceptance, maintenance programs and finally evaluation of various WSUD approaches. These can include the use of Natural Channel Designs, grassed swales, bio-filtration systems, porous pavements and roofwater tanks in several economic combinations. By linking with the Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Brisbane City Council has influenced the design of WSUD planning tools and benefited the city with academic inputs into extensive evaluation programs. As well, it has also contributed to the Cooperative Research Centre's research outcomes. These evaluation programs are increasingly providing better understanding of various stormwater quality best management practices throughout Australia. As part of the overall implementation process, active involvement by a range of stakeholders has been crucial. These stakeholders have included internal planning, development assessment and design staff, external consultants, developers, and other local and state government agencies. The latter two groups are assisting in the important task of "regionalisation" of Brisbane City Council's policies and guidelines. Implementation of WSUD initiatives and stormwater re-use strategies under Council's new "Integrated Water Management" agenda are showing some excellent results, suggesting that sustainable urban development is no longer like the search for the Holy Grail.

  16. Revision of the genus Metallesthes Kraatz and description of Metallesthes anneliesae, a new species of Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeseneder, Christian H; Hutchinson, Paul M; Lambkin, Christine L

    2014-11-06

    The endemic Australian flower chafer genus Metallesthes Kraatz, 1880 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) is revised. Metallesthes anneliesae Moeseneder & Hutchinson new species is described from southern Queensland and New South Wales. Metallesthes unicolor (Macleay, 1863) revised status is raised from synonymy with Metallesthes metallescens (White, 1859). Metallesthes metallescens and Metallesthes unicolor are redescribed and their holotypes are figured. A specimen bearing a Nonfried type label is designated as the lectotype of Metallesthes subpilosa Nonfried, 1891. Metallesthes subpilosa new synonymy is synonymised with Pseudoclithria ruficornis (Westwood, 1874). A key to the species of the genus is provided. Distribution maps are shown and known host plants are listed.

  17. CLIL in Queensland: The Evolution of "Immersion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Queensland second language immersion programs have been in existence for three decades, and are part of a growing number of additive bilingual education programs in Australia. Most prominently, many new Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs have been established particularly in Victoria over the past few years. This focus on…

  18. CLIL in Queensland: The Evolution of "Immersion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Queensland second language immersion programs have been in existence for three decades, and are part of a growing number of additive bilingual education programs in Australia. Most prominently, many new Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs have been established particularly in Victoria over the past few years. This focus on…

  19. Fiscal 1999 international engineer exchange project (Coal mining technology field). Overseas workshop (Australia); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Goshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the technology exchange with Australian coal mining engineers, the technical levels and needs on coal production, safety and environment in Australia, and the FS result on transfer of Japanese technologies, engineer exchange and joint research in a coal mining technology field. The overseas workshop (Australia) was held on Nov. 9, 1999 (Tues.) in Brisbane, Queensland. The Australia-Japan Technology Exchange Workshop on coal resources and coal mining technology includes 5 sessions (keynote address, trends and issues of coal resource development, coal resources and production technology, coal resources and safety technology, coal resources and environmental problems), and the open forum discussion on innovative technologies for coal mining. 6 Japanese specialists and 11 Australian specialists read papers. After the workshop, the participants visited Liddell Mine in New South Wales to master natural conditions, and production and safety technology levels of Australian coal mines, and to exchange various information with Australian coal mining engineers. (NEDO)

  20. Diagnostic and treatment pathways for men with prostate cancer in Queensland: investigating spatial and demographic inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baade Peter D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of diagnosis and management for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland, Australia, have not yet been systematically documented and so assumptions of equity are untested. This longitudinal study investigates the association between prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment outcomes and key area-level characteristics and individual-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods/Design A total of 1064 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between February 2005 and July 2007 were recruited through hospital-based urology outpatient clinics and private practices in the centres of Brisbane, Townsville and Mackay (82% of those referred. Additional clinical and diagnostic information for all 6609 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland during the study period was obtained via the population-based Queensland Cancer Registry. Respondent data are collected using telephone and self-administered questionnaires at pre-treatment and at 2 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months and 60 months post-treatment. Assessments include demographics, medical history, patterns of care, disease and treatment characteristics together with outcomes associated with prostate cancer, as well as information about quality of life and psychological adjustment. Complementary detailed treatment information is abstracted from participants' medical records held in hospitals and private treatment facilities and collated with health service utilisation data obtained from Medicare Australia. Information about the characteristics of geographical areas is being obtained from data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residences to treatment centres. Analyses will be conducted using standard statistical methods along with multilevel regression models including individual and area-level components

  1. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K.; Cameron, Cate M.; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Australia’s coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995–2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of “low”, “medium”, “high”, and “intense” activity compared to a period of “very low” activity, adjusting for covariates. “All-cause” hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for “Blood/immune” conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for “Circulatory” conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows. PMID:28524113

  2. The Reconstruction Potential of a 350 year-long, Mid-Elevation Proxy for PDSI in a Tree-Ring Record from Tropical North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, N. B.; Duffy, R.; Balanzategui, D.; Baker, P. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    In far northern Queensland (FNQ) there are only sporadic coral and speleothem precipitation proxy records, and only one annually resolved, terrestrial record of rainfall that predates 1850 CE. Black kauri pine, Agathis atropurpurea, is a large conifer present in isolated stands near 1000 masl in the wet tropical dividing range of FNQ. Little is known about its phenology or responses to climate, although its presence near the elevational limit of the dividing range may hinder its ability to respond to increased temperature or decreased precipitation through elevational migration. We hypothesize that in this energy-limited forest, increased (decreased) solar radiation leads to increased (decreased) ring widths, and higher (lower) evapotranspiration rates produce increases (decreases) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the a-cellulose component of wood. To test this hypothesis, we collected over 60 cores from 21 large (dbh = 56 to 186 cm) A. atropurpurea trees from Spurgeon Peak National Park. The resulting tree-ring chronology extends from 2013 to 1438 CE and shows high average mean sensitivity (0.642) although expressed population signal drops off at 1650 CE as sample depth decreases. Comparison of the most recent 100 years of ring widths and direct climate observations show a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.4, p < 0.01) to PDSI in December through March, coinciding with the austral rainy season associated with onset of the northern Australian Monsoon. Annualized δ18Oxygen (a-cellulose) maxima for 1983-2013 show strong and significant spatial positive relationships to Tmax and Pacific seasurface temperatures. Work to refine the interpretation of the data is onoing, but the resulting dataset may enable extension of the terrestrial climate record of north Queensland two centuries beyond current tree-ring proxies and historical observations.

  3. Drowning mortality and morbidity rates in children and adolescents 0-19 yrs: a population-based study in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda A Wallis

    Full Text Available To redress the lack of Queensland population incidence mortality and morbidity data associated with drowning in those aged 0-19 yrs, and to understand survival and patient care.Retrospective population-based study used data linkage to capture both fatal and non-fatal drowning cases (N = 1299 among children aged 0-19 years in Queensland, from 2002-2008 inclusive. Patient data were accessed from pre-hospital, emergency department, hospital admission and death data, and linked manually to collate data across the continuum of care.Incidence rates were calculated separately by age group and gender for events resulting in death, hospital admission, and non-admission. Trends over time were analysed.Drowning death to survival ratio was 1:10, and two out of three of those who survived were admitted to hospital. Incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning increased over time, primarily due to an increase in non-fatal drowning. There were non-significant reductions in fatal and admission rates. Rates for non-fatal drowning that did not result in hospitalisation more than doubled over the seven years. Children aged 5-9 yrs and 10-14 yrs incurred the lowest incidence rates 6.38 and 4.62 (expressed as per 100,000, and the highest rates were among children aged 0-4 yrs (all drowning events 43.90; fatal 4.04; non-fatal 39.85-comprising admission 26.69 and non-admission 13.16. Males were over-represented in all age groups except 10-14 yrs. Total male drowning events increased 44% over the seven years (P<0.001.This state-wide data collection has revealed previously unknown incidence and survival ratios. Increased trends in drowning survival rates may be viewed as both positive and challenging for drowning prevention and the health system. Males are over-represented, and although infants and toddlers did not have increased fatality rates, they had the greatest drowning burden demonstrating the need for continued drowning prevention efforts.

  4. Assessment of Geogenic Contaminants in Water Co-Produced with Coal Seam Gas Extraction in Queensland, Australia: Implications for Human Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stearman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds in Australian coal seam gas produced water (CSG water are poorly understood despite their environmental contamination potential. In this study, the presence of some organic substances is identified from government-held CSG water-quality data from the Bowen and Surat Basins, Queensland. These records revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 27% of samples of CSG water from the Walloon Coal Measures at concentrations <1 µg/L, and it is likely these compounds leached from in situ coals. PAHs identified from wells include naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. In addition, the likelihood of coal-derived organic compounds leaching to groundwater is assessed by undertaking toxicity leaching experiments using coal rank and water chemistry as variables. These tests suggest higher molecular weight PAHs (including benzo[a]pyrene leach from higher rank coals, whereas lower molecular weight PAHs leach at greater concentrations from lower rank coal. Some of the identified organic compounds have carcinogenic or health risk potential, but they are unlikely to be acutely toxic at the observed concentrations which are almost negligible (largely due to the hydrophobicity of such compounds. Hence, this study will be useful to practitioners assessing CSG water related environmental and health risk.

  5. Expanded partnerships between medical faculty and medical students: Developing a Global Health curriculum as an example of 'student-led learning' at the University of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merridew, Nancy; Wilkinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting trends in medical education from didactic teaching to student-centred learning, the novel approach of student-led learning was applied at the University of Queensland (UQ) School of Medicine. This article examines the benefits, risks and limitations of curriculum development led by students. The Project aimed to trial student-led development of a Global Health curriculum module for the UQ medical programme, as part of an international collaboration with related Health Sciences activities of Universitas 21 (U21). The Head (Dean) of the UQ School of Medicine instigated the Project. A student Convenor was appointed to lead it and, in conjunction with faculty, to design curriculum Learning Objectives and supporting resources. The initial vision of the Project was greatly expanded, from an optional elective to a compulsory curriculum module with inbuilt prospective outcome measures. The module was established in less than 12 months and is now being delivered throughout the 4-year medical programme. A process for ongoing student leadership of the Project was established. Student-led learning can be effective if given adequate support by faculty. The UQ School of Medicine's new curriculum module and collaboration with U21 promote the teaching of Global Health.

  6. Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  7. Exploring Aerosol Effects on Rainfall for Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hewson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of studies assessing aerosol effects on rainfall use coarse spatial scale (1° latitude/longitude or more and multi-seasonal or decadal data sets. Here, we present results from a spatial correlation of aerosol size distribution and rain rate for selected stratiform and cumuliform precipitation events. The chemistry transport version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to estimate aerosol parameters during rain events Aerosol maps were then compared with observations of rainfall using geostatistics for the first time. The cross-variogram analysis showed that anthropogenic aerosol was associated with areas of less intense rain within the stratiform system studied. For cumuliform systems, cross-variogram analysis found that anthropogenic emissions may be associated with enhanced rain downwind of aerosol emissions. We conclude that geostatistics provides a promising new technique to investigate relationships between aerosols and rainfall at spatial scales of 1 km which complements more commonly used methods to study aerosol effects on rainfall.

  8. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  9. Effect of nitrification inhibitors (DMPP and 3MP+TZ) on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a sub-tropical vegetable production system in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Deuter, Peter; Firrell, Mary; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrification inhibitors, in combination with ammonium based fertilisers, has been promoted recently as an effective method to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilised agricultural fields, whilst increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Vegetable cropping systems are often characterised by high inputs of nitrogen fertiliser and consequently elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) can be expected. However, to date only limited data is available on the use of nitrification inhibitors in sub-tropical vegetable systems. A field experiment investigated the effect of the nitrification inhibitors (DMPP & 3MP+TZ) on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable production system in sub-tropical Australia. Soil N2O fluxes were monitored continuously over an entire year with a fully automated system. Measurements were taken from three subplots for each treatment within a randomized complete blocks design. There was a significant inhibition effect of DMPP and 3MP+TZ on N2O emissions and soil mineral N content directly following the application of the fertiliser over the vegetable cropping phase. However this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the inhibitor treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Cumulative annual N2O emissions amounted to 1.22 kg-N/ha, 1.16 kg-N/ha, 1.50 kg-N/ha and 0.86 kg-N/ha in the conventional fertiliser (CONV), the DMPP treatment, the 3MP+TZ treatment and the zero fertiliser (0N) respectively. Corresponding fertiliser induced emission factors (EFs) were low with only 0.09 - 0.20% of the total applied fertiliser lost as N2O. There was no significant effect of the nitrification inhibitors on yield compared to the CONV treatment for the three vegetable crops (green beans, broccoli, lettuce) grown over the experimental period. This study highlights that N2O emissions from such vegetable cropping system are primarily controlled by post-harvest emissions following the incorporation of vegetable crop

  10. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens

  11. Flood Risk in Australia: Whose Responsibility Is It, Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van den Honert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research into four key stakeholders in flood risk management in Australia: local councils, the insurance industry, the State Emergency Service (SES, and local residents; examining the perception of their own roles and responsibilities, and those of the other stakeholders. Key informant interviews were conducted in four locations—Brisbane and Emerald, in Queensland, Dora Creek, in New South Wales, and Benalla, in Victoria. We find that understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder varied considerably between research participants. Insurance representatives felt their concerns about increasing flood risk costs were unheeded until the 2010–2011 floods made them the “canary in the coal mine”. Councils felt they had limited options for reducing flood risk. SES representatives felt they were too relied upon for event response, with requests for assistance outstripping their capacity to assist, and many residents were uncertain how to prepare for flood, relying on emergency agencies and the local council to protect them. Key lessons for flood risk management in Australia are (a an urgent need for all stakeholders to better understand each others’ roles and responsibilities; and (b residents must take greater responsibility for their own personal protection. Only then can the vision of shared responsibility presented by the 2009 National Strategy for Disaster Resilience be achieved.

  12. The New Sexuality Education Curriculum for Queensland Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    A departmental review of education curricula in Queensland, Australia has found that minimal or no learning about sexuality education takes place. Its public schools and teachers are able to avoid or not fulfil their obligations regarding the teaching of sexuality education and reproductive health to children and young people. This lacuna in…

  13. Doctor-patient communication issues for international medical graduates: research findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, P; Henderson, D; Tamargo, J; Holewa, H A

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the impact of culture on medical communication is particularly important for international medical graduates (IMGs) who enter health systems from different cultures of origin. This article presents data on IMGs' perception of the impact of cultural factors on IMG doctor-patient communication during their integration into the Australian health system. The methodology used was a descriptive qualitative methodology, using iterative, open-ended, in-depth interviews with a sample of 30 IMGs employed at a hospital in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. According to subjects' comments, understanding patient-centered communication is a major challenge faced by IMGs during integration in the Australian health system. They perceive that this difficulty is associated with the major shift from the culture of their country of origin (described as paternalistic doctor-dominated communication system; standard practice to talk to the family and not the patient) to the very different health care culture of Australia (perceived to be more educated and informed consumers that demand high levels of information and discussion). The findings detail IMGs' experience with learning about patient-centered communication at the point of arrival, during integration and practice. Subjects' perceived the need to provide education on patient-centered communication for IMGs integrating into the Australian health system. There is a significant need for IMGs to be educated in cultural issues including doctor-patient communication practices in Australia.

  14. Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; McMahon, Jamie L.; Harrower, Bruce J; Constantino, Tanya R; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. Methods: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples. Conventional cell culture techniques and suckling mice were employed in an attempt to isolate ZIKV from serum and urine. Results: A ZIKV isolate (TS17-2016) was recovered from the serum sample after one passage in suckling mouse brains and harvested 11 days post inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis of complete envelope (E) gene sequences demonstrated TS17-2016 shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with other contemporary sequences from Tonga 2016, Brazil 2015 and French Polynesia 2013 within the Asian lineage. Discussion: This is the first known report of successful isolation of ZIKV from a human clinical sample in Australia and the first from a traveler from Tonga. This study highlights the potential difficulties in isolating ZIKV from acute clinical samples using conventional cell culture techniques, particularly in non-endemic countries like Australia where access to samples of sufficient viral load is limited. The successful isolation of TS17-2016 will be essential for continued investigations of ZIKV transmission and pathogenicity and will enable the advancement of new preventative control measures extremely relevant to the Australian and Pacific region. PMID:27679739

  15. Micorbial Colonization of Materials at Innisfail, Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    on the material or when sporing structures were observed on colonies derived * 4 from mycelium on the material . After about 6 months exposure, the...AD-AOB4 229 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) F/S /3 MICORBIAL COLONIZATION OF MATERIALS AT INNISFAIL, QUEENSLANDO.(U) AUG 79 F J UPSIER... MATERIALS LI B AT IlIiSFAIL, QUEENSLAND I F. John Upsher ApprvedforPublic Release DTIC ~, C ~MAY 19 198 ©COMMONWEALTH OF AUSIHALIA 1979 AUGUST, 1979 - ~ ~ O

  16. Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-09-16

    Cercariae and metacercariae of three species of the Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 were found in snails and crustaceans from tributaries of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948, which have previously been reported in Queensland, were found as cercariae in the tateid gastropod Posticobia brazieri (Smith) and as metacercariae of M. brevisacciferum in the atyid shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman and of M. minutus in the parastacid crayfish Cherax dispar Reik. Combined analysis of morphological and molecular data, based on newly generated ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data, linked cercariae and metacercariae for both species. This is the first report of the first intermediate hosts of M. brevisacciferum and M. minutus. Infections of another unidentified microphallid metacercariae, Microphallidae gen. sp., were found in P. brazieri and C. indistincta. The sequences of metacercarial isolates from both hosts were identical. The data on the Microphallidae from Australia and species that develop in freshwater invertebrates were examined in detail.

  17. Assessment of the health impacts of the 2011 summer floods in Brisbane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2013-08-01

    To assess the effects of the 2011 floods in Brisbane, Australia, on residents' physical and mental health. Residents who had been affected by the floods completed a community-based survey that examined the direct impact of flooding on households and their perceived physical and mental health. Outcome variables included overall and respiratory health and mental health outcomes related to psychological distress, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between flooding and perceived health outcome variables, adjusted for current health status and sociodemographic factors. Residents whose households were directly affected by flooding were more likely to report poor overall (Odds Ratio [OR] 5.3; 95% CI, 2.8-10.1) and respiratory (OR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6) health, psychological distress (OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5), poor sleep quality (OR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.4), and probable PTSD (OR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5). The 2011 Brisbane floods had significant impact on the physical and psychosocial health of residents. Improved support strategies may need to be integrated into existing disaster management programs to reduce flood-related health impacts, particularly those related to mental health.

  18. Vincristine sulfate liposomal injection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Soosay Raj TA; Smith AM; Moore AS

    2013-01-01

    Trisha A Soosay Raj,1 Amanda M Smith,2 Andrew S Moore,1,21Royal Children's Hospital, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: Vincristine (VCR) is one of the most extensively used cytotoxic compounds in hemato-oncology. VCR is particularly important for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a...

  19. The costs and potential savings of a novel telepaediatric service in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuffham Paul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few cost-minimisation studies in telemedicine. We have compared the actual costs of providing a telepaediatric service to the potential costs if patients had travelled to see the specialist in person. Methods In November 2000, we established a novel telepaediatric service for selected regional hospitals in Queensland. Instead of transferring patients to Brisbane, the majority of referrals to specialists in Brisbane were dealt with via videoconference. Since the service began, 1499 consultations have been conducted for a broad range of paediatric sub-specialities including burns, cardiology, child development, dermatology, diabetes, endocrinology, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurology, oncology, orthopaedics, paediatric surgery and psychiatry. Results During a five year period, the total cost of providing 1499 consultations through the telepaediatric service was A$955,996. The estimated potential cost of providing an outpatient service to the same number of patients at the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane was A$1,553,264; thus, telepaediatric services resulted in a net saving of approximately A$600,000 to the health service provider. Conclusion Telepaediatrics was a cheaper method for the delivery of outpatient services when the workload exceeded 774 consultations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the threshold point was most sensitive to changes related to patient travel costs, coordinator salaries and videoconference equipment costs. The study showed substantial savings for the health department, mainly due to reduced costs associated with patient travel.

  20. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Only photographic prints and negative films of day-visible, day-IR and night-IR imagery were received. For northwest Queensland, only five day-visible and day-IR frames of acceptable quality were received. A master-grid was established over these frames within which selected grid sections are being enlarged photographically for the identification of stream courses and geological features permitting an interpretation of the imagery relative to ground truth information. The imagery is also being scanned and digitized using a Joyce-Loebl microdensitometer for classification purposes. For areas for which good quality HCMM imagery is available, valuable information is obtained on ephemeral and seasonal drainage systems. The day-IR cover is particularly helpful.

  1. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  2. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  3. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets.

  4. The structure of umkomasiacean fructifications from the Triassic of Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant fossil genera Umkomasia Thomas 1933 and Pteruchus Thomas 1933 emend. Townrow 1962 are known chiefly from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The structure of these fructifications has been conjectural, some being identified as pinnate, others as helically arranged. Specimens from the Ladinian-lower Norian of Queensland (northeastern Australia show that the female and male fructifications - U. geminata (Shirley 1898 Rigby in Playford et al. 1982 emend. nov. and P. dubius Thomas 1933 emend. Townrow 1962, respectively - have a bipinnate structure. Those fructifications and the bipinnate leaf, Dicroidium feistmantelii (Johnston 1894 Gothan 1912, probably all belonged to the same parent plant. It was first suggested by John Townrow in 1962 that the sporangial heads of P. dubius have a pinnate structure; this character is confirmed herein. Pteruchus is recorded for the first time from the Carnian Tarong Basin, Queensland.

  5. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  6. Patterns of Computer Usage among Medical Practitioners in Rural and Remote Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Col; Sheedy, Vicki; Lawrence, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    As part of a study examining continuing medical education, computer usage was investigated among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). Surveys of 131 rural doctors showed that they used computers more than their urban counterparts and more than previously estimated. A majority of respondents considered Internet delivery…

  7. Effective Implementation of Online Learning: A Case Study of the Queensland Mining Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Diane; Hase, Stewart; Ellis, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with key stakeholders in the mining industry in Queensland, Australia, identified six factors that are important in the effective implementation of online learning: external influences, organizational culture, organizational structures, training environment, learners' needs, and the learning environment. (Contains 54 references.) (JOW)

  8. Hospital design Innovation on show at Queensland facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kieren; Reading, Megan

    2015-08-01

    In a follow-up to an article on the hospital that first appeared in the autumn 2010 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, and was then republished with the help of the magazine. The Institute of Hospital Engineering Australia, and the IFHE in the November 2011 edition of HEJ, principals at architectural firm, Hassell, Kieren Morgan and Megan Reading, explain how the new Gold Coast University Hospital (GCUH) in Southport, Queensland, 'demonstrates how good design can improve delivery of care, as well as staff retention and attraction'.

  9. The Mosque and Social Networks: The Case of Muslim Youth in Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameera Karimshah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing public discourse surrounding Muslim youth in Western societies is framed through a simplistic and static understanding of the role of the Mosque in their everyday life. Mosques are often seen as places for the development of Muslim conservatism where membership is gender and ethno-specific and activities are socially restrictive (Spalek & Imtoual, 2007, p. 195; Spalek & Lambert, 2008; Poynting & Mason, 2008, p. 237. This contributes to an ongoing public preoccupation with the idea that it is necessary to integrate Muslim youth into “mainstream society” as a counter measure to anti-social behaviour and attributed outcomes (i.e. terrorism. This paper, building on the work of Dialmy (2007, p. 70 and Jamal (2005, p. 523, offers an account of how young Muslims network and socialise around the Mosque in Brisbane, Australia. We show that contrary to popular public conception, the role of the Mosque in the lives of Muslim youth is multifaceted and serves as the centrepiece from which the majority of socialisation, across variety formal and informal networks, occurs. This paper also explores the reasons underpinning Muslim youth’s social participation, emphasizing the socio-cultural factors (both within and beyond the place of worship that facilitate and hinder participation across a range of social settings. We argue that discussions on Muslim youth and social engagement must be positioned within an informed understanding of the nuanced role of the Mosque in the generation of social networks within Western contexts.

  10. The resilience of neighborhood social processes: A case study of the 2011 Brisbane flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickes, Rebecca; Britt, Chester; Broidy, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Social disorganization theories position neighborhood social capital and collective efficacy as key social processes that should facilitate community resilience in the aftermath of disaster. Yet limited evidence demonstrates that these social processes are themselves resilient with some studies showing that disaster can fracture even once cohesive neighborhoods. In this paper we assess the stability of neighborhood level collective efficacy and social capital before and after a disaster. We use multilevel structural equation modeling and draw on census and longitudinal survey data collected from over 4000 residents living in 148 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Australia before and after a significant flood event. We examine what happens to social capital and collective efficacy in flooded and non-flooded neighborhoods and assess whether demographic shifts are associated with change and/or stability in these processes. We find strong evidence that these processes operate similarly across flooded and not flooded communities. Our findings also reveal significant stability for our measures of social capital across time, while collective efficacy increases post flood across all neighborhoods, but more so in flooded neighborhoods. Neighborhood demographics have limited effect on patterns of stability or change in these social processes. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for our understanding of neighborhood resilience in the wake of disaster.

  11. Comparison of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal in Brisbane River sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-12-01

    Estuarine environment is complex and receives different contaminants from numerous sources that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. The distribution, source, contamination and ecological risk status of heavy metals in sediment of Brisbane River, Australia were investigated. Sediment samples were analysed for major and minor elements using LA-ICP-MS. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis identified three main sources of metals in the samples: marine sand intrusion, mixed lithogenic and sand intrusion as well as transport related. To overcome inherent deficiencies in using a single index, a range of sediment quality indices, including contamination factor, enrichment factor, index of geo-accumulation, modified degree of contamination, pollution index and modified pollution index were utilised to ascertain the sediment quality. Generally, the sediment is deemed to be "slightly" to "heavily" polluted. A further comparison with the Australian Sediment Quality Guidelines indicated that Ag, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn had the potential to rarely cause biological effects while Hg could frequently cause biological effects. Application of potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that the sediment poses moderate to considerable ecological risk. However, RI could not account for the complex sediment behaviour because it uses a simple contamination factor. Consequently, a modified ecological risk index (MRI) employing enrichment factor is proposed. This provides a more reliable understanding of whole sediment behaviour and classified the ecological risk of the sediment as moderate to very high. The results demonstrate the need for further investigation into heavy metal speciation and bioavailability in the sediment to ascertain the degree of toxicity.

  12. Residents’ Experiences of Privacy and Comfort in Multi-Storey Apartment Dwellings in Subtropical Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kennedy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents’ experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round “outdoor living”. Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.

  13. Can remote infrared cameras be used to differentiate small, sympatric mammal species? A case study of the black-tailed dusky antechinus, Antechinus arktos and co-occurring small mammals in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Emma L; Dennis, Todd E; Baker, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    The black-tailed dusky antechinus (Antechinus arktos) is an endangered, small carnivorous marsupial endemic to Australia, which occurs at low population density along with abundant sympatric populations of other small mammals: Antechinus stuartii, Rattus fuscipes and Melomys cervinipes. Using A. arktos as a model species, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of infrared digital camera traps for detecting and differentiating small mammals and to comment on the broad applicability of this methodology. We also sought to understand how the detection probabilities of our target species varied over time and characterize their activity patterns. We installed 11 infrared cameras at one of only three known sites where A. arktos occurs for five consecutive deployments. Cameras were fixed to wooden stakes and oriented vertically, 35 cm above ground, directly facing bait containers. Using this method, we successfully recorded and identified individuals from all four species of small mammal known previously in the area from live trapping, including A. arktos. This validates the effectiveness of the infrared camera type and orientation for small mammal studies. Periods of activity for all species were highly coincident, showing a strong peak in activity during the same two-hour period immediately following sunset. A. arktos, A. stuartii and M. cervinipes also displayed a strong negative linear relationship between detection probability and days since deployment. This is an important finding for camera trapping generally, indicating that routine camera deployment lengths (of one-to-two weeks) between baiting events may be too long when targeting some small mammals.

  14. Health beliefs, perceived self-efficacy, and breast self-examination among Thai migrants in Brisbane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirojwong, Sansnee; MacLennan, Robert

    2003-02-01

    Women in Thailand have a relatively low risk of developing breast cancer; however, death rates from breast cancer are increasing. Rates in many migrant groups are also known to be on the increase. Little is known about breast cancer screening, particularly breast self-examination (BSE), among Thai migrant women in other countries. In Australia, non-English-speaking-background migrants are known to be low users of preventive health services. To investigate, using the health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy as a theoretical framework, the use of BSE in a recent migrant group, Thai women in Australia, and to identify sociodemographic variables that influence the women's regular use of BSE. In 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 Thai women in Brisbane recruited through a snowball-sampling method, which used personal contacts and key persons within the Thai community. The study was approved by the University Human Ethics Review Committee. Data were collected through designed closed-ended questions. Only 25% of the women performed BSE regularly. HBM indices were strongly associated with BSE. Beliefs in high personal susceptibility to breast cancer strongly increased the likelihood of BSE. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, cues or triggers to undertake BSE and self-efficacy, or the ability to do BSE were found to be important determinants of regular BSE. Study limitations, including data collection methods, are discussed. A low percentage of women practised BSE regularly. The HBM is a useful framework for identifying factors influencing the use of BSE. Strategies that increase the confidence of women to undertake preventive health behaviour or increase self-efficacy are likely to increase their regular screening for breast cancer.

  15. Rainfall declines over Queensland from 1951-2007 and links to the Subtropical Ridge and the SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, D A [Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins St, Docklands, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ribbe, J, E-mail: a.cottrill@bom.gov.a [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Much of southern and eastern Australia including Queensland have experienced rainfall declines over recent decades affecting agricultural production and accelerating water infrastructure development. Rainfall declines from southern Australia have now been directly related to changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the subtropical ridge. In southern and coastal Queensland, the rainfall declines have occurred mostly in the austral summer and autumn. Observations from this region reveal the rainfall decline is correlated to an increase in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) at many stations. The largest increases in MSLP are over southeast Queensland and coastal regions, where some of the largest rainfall declines occur. This study indicates the subtropical ridge as one of the main factors in the rainfall decline over this region. SAM is also likely to be important, although its seasonal influence, apart from winter, is harder to determine.

  16. The Study of Community Planning in Queensland, Australia:System, Content and Preparation Process%澳大利亚昆士兰州社区规划:体系、内容及修编机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彦吕; 陈可石

    2016-01-01

    The standard of social progress is extending beyond GDP to more inclusive, holistic and multi-domain frameworks. Under such background, the practice of community planning in Queensland, Australia is produced and being improved over these years. This article mainly takes Brisbane as an example. Based on the analysis of the relationships between community planning and statutory planning system, the objects, the contents, the related planning and the preparation process are discussed. It is proposed that the connection of community planning with the planning systems, the Integration with urban design and the improvement of public engagement deserve learning from, while limitations and applicability of Queensland’s practice has been considered too.%澳大利亚昆士兰州的社区规划是在城市发展从以经济增长为单一目标转向更具包容性、整体性的社会改良目标的背景下兴起和完善的规划模式。本文主要以该州首府布里斯班为例,从法定规划编制体系入题,分析并总结了社区规划与规划体系的关系,以及它的对象、内容和修编机制。认为昆士兰州的社区规划在体系的衔接、城市设计内容的整合、公众参与程度的深化方面具有借鉴之处,同时也指出参考其模式时的局限和适用性。

  17. Did Brisbane Grow Smartly? Drivers of City Growth 1991-2001 and Lessons for Current Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Mostafiz Shatu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are growing unsustainably around the world; however, the growth patterns and their associated drivers vary between contexts. As a result, research has highlighted the need to adopt case study based approaches to stimulate the development of new theoretic understandings. Using land-cover data sets derived from Landsat images (30 m × 30 m, this research identifies both patterns and drivers of urban growth in a period (1991-2001 when a number of policy acts were enacted aimed at fostering smart growth in Brisbane, Australia. A linear multiple regression model was estimated using the proportion of lands that were converted from non-built-up (1991 to built-up usage (2001 within a suburb as a dependent variable to identify significant drivers of land-cover changes. In addition, the hot spot analysis was conducted to identify spatial biases of land-cover changes, if any. Results show that the built-up areas increased by 1.34% every year. About 19.56% of the non-built-up lands in 1991 were converted into built-up lands in 2001. This conversion pattern was significantly biased in the northernmost and southernmost suburbs in the city. This is due to the fact that, as evident from the regression analysis, these suburbs experienced a higher rate of population growth, and had the availability of habitable green field sites in relatively flat lands. The above findings suggest that the policy interventions undertaken between the periods were not as effective in promoting sustainable changes in the environment as they were aimed for.

  18. Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lafayette, Indiana, and colleagues in the School of Psychology at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. " ... between NICHD and the WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, a division of Mars Inc., to establish a ...

  19. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pachana, Nancy A; Rana M Woodward; Gerard JA Byrne

    2007-01-01

    Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults a...

  20. Assumptions and advice: mothers and Queensland well-baby clinics. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    In 20th century Australia, free well-baby clinics were run by maternal and child health nurses, although the funding and organisational structure varied from state to state. It was assumed that women who attended followed the advice assiduously; yet attendance did not necessarily equate to practice. In Queensland, the state government's free Maternal and Child Welfare Service (MCW) advised mothers on infant feeding and care through well-baby clinics throughout the state, a correspondence section for mothers in remote areas and a railcar clinic to some western towns, under the state government's policy of covering every mother and baby in Queensland. Women in Queensland, as in other states, were exposed to other influences on how to feed babies and often exercised agency in making their own decisions according to their circumstances and their own judgment. This review will place research from Queensland on women's reasons for attending the clinics and adherence to the advice provided, during the period 1920-1965, within a wider context. This includes research on barriers to following advice, counselling versus imparting information and the mother's self-efficacy. The message for today is that adherence to advice still cannot be assumed and mothers' own circumstances need to be factored in.

  1. Young People and the Environment in Australia: Beliefs, Knowledge, Commitment and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sharon; Fien, John; Sykes, Helen; Yencken, David

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in Australia on the nature of young people's attitudes, knowledge and actions. This paper reports on the findings from one such study of Australian high school students. The research was based on a survey of 5,688 students form Melbourne and Brisbane. These young people identified protection of the environment as the…

  2. Coal exploration and resource management in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.J.; Balfe, P.E.

    1982-12-01

    In Queensland, measured and indicated reserves are estimated at 14.2 billion tonnes of coking coal and 14.8 billion tonnes of non-coking coal, of which 15% and 35%, respectively, are considered accessible by open-cut working. Production in 1981 totalled 34.7 million tonnes. The individual deposits are briefly described and the history of their exploration and development is charted. Legislation regulating prospecting and mining is outlined. The role of the Geological Survey of Queensland in the exploration and assessment of reserves is explained.

  3. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  4. Angry young architects: Counterculture and the critique of modernism in Brisbane, 1967-72

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, J.

    2014-01-01

    By 1967, Brisbane architecture students had had enough. Disenchantment with their “out-dated” architectural education and the rigidity of the Australian architectural establishment opened out onto the wider context of the Moratorium opposing the Vietnam War, and the peculiarly conservative and react

  5. Angry young architects: Counterculture and the critique of modernism in Brisbane, 1967-72

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, J.

    2014-01-01

    By 1967, Brisbane architecture students had had enough. Disenchantment with their “out-dated” architectural education and the rigidity of the Australian architectural establishment opened out onto the wider context of the Moratorium opposing the Vietnam War, and the peculiarly conservative and react

  6. The Career Development of Rural Queensland Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Rixon, Kylie

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the occupational aspirations and career development influences of children attending Years 6 and 7 at a sample of rural and remote primary schools in the central western region of Queensland. Data was collected by means of the "Revised Career Awareness Survey" (McMahon & Patton, 2001). Australian and New…

  7. Library Research Support in Queensland: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanna; Nolan-Brown, Therese; Loria, Pat; Bradbury, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    University libraries worldwide are reconceptualising the ways in which they support the research agenda in their respective institutions. This paper is based on a survey completed by member libraries of the Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation (QULOC), the findings of which may be informative for other university libraries. After…

  8. ISO land administration domain model and LandXML, in the development of digital survey plan lodgement for 3D cadastre in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karki, S.; Thompson, R.J.; McDougall, K.; Cumerford, N.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the implementation issues of 3D Cadastre in Queensland, Australia, which is presently moving towards a full digital lodgement of surveying information, with a focus on validation rules. In Queensland the Electronic Access for Registry Lodgement (EARL) project has

  9. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  10. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1975-01-01

    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  11. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1975-01-01

    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  12. Colletotrichum species associated with chili anthracnose in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Silva, D. D.; Ades, P. K.; Crous, P. W.; Taylor, P. W J

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were determined for 45 Colletotrichum isolates causing anthracnose disease of chili in Queensland, Australia. Initial screening based on morphology, ITS and TUB2 genes resulted in a subset of 21 isolates being chosen for further taxonomic study. Isolates in the C. acutatum

  13. The effects of climate variables on the outbreak of dengue in Queensland 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tasnim; Bambrick, Hilary

    2013-07-04

    Outbreaks of dengue occur in Queensland, Australia nearly every summer. In 2008-2009, there was an unusually large, protracted outbreak of dengue, comprised of 1,200 cases. We investigated the weather variables and their contribution to the 2008-2009 dengue outbreak in Queensland. Case data were obtained from the Communicable Disease Branch of Queensland Health for 2000-2010 for the towns of Cairns and Townsville. Monthly weather data (rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) was obtained from the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). We used a negative binomial model to test associations between these variables and dengue. Lagged models were also created for one, two and three months. Our models suggest all weather variables but not the SOI were associated with dengue in both Cairns and Townsville, without a lag (pRainfall and temperature preceding the 2008-2009 outbreak were also not significantly different (p<0.01) from other years. Short-term (non-lagged) weather variables were associated with the number of dengue cases in Cairns and Townsville. No lag was seen and no association was seen between the SOI and the number of dengue cases, which suggests there may be limited potential to predict large dengue outbreaks using climate variability. The large outbreak in 2008-2009 may have been driven by other, non-weather factors in addition to the immediate weather effect.

  14. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus in Southeast Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Burton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH, Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA, and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis; (b case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c the majority (66.5% of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  15. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  16. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes.

  17. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae.

  18. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications.

  19. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house.Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.  

  20. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house. Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.

  1. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  2. Prevalence of koala retrovirus in geographically diverse populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, G S; Young, P R; Hanger, J J; Jones, K; Clarke, D; McKee, J J; Meers, J

    2012-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of koala retrovirus (KoRV) in selected koala populations and to estimate proviral copy number in a subset of koalas. Blood or tissue samples from 708 koalas in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia were tested for KoRV pol provirus gene using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR). Prevalence of KoRV provirus-positive koalas was 100% in four regions of Queensland and New South Wales, 72.2% in mainland Victoria, 26.6% on four Victorian islands and 14.8% on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Estimated proviral copy number per cell in four groups of koalas from Queensland and Victoria showed marked variation, ranging from a mean of 165 copies per cell in the Queensland group to 1.29 × 10(-4) copies per cell in one group of Victorian koalas. The higher prevalence of KoRV-positive koalas in the north of Australia and high proviral loads in Queensland koalas may indicate KoRV entered and became endogenous in the north and is spreading southwards. It is also possible there are genetic differences between koalas in northern and southern Australia that affect susceptibility to KoRV infection or endogenisation, or that environmental factors affecting transmission in northern states are absent or uncommon in southern regions. Although further studies are required, the finding of proviral copy numbers orders of magnitude lower than what would be expected for the presence of a single copy in every cell for many Victorian animals suggests that KoRV is not endogenous in these animals and likely reflects ongoing exogenous infection. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Perceived Safety, Quality and Cultural Competency of Maternity Care for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Sarah; Miller, Yvette D

    2016-03-01

    Various policies, plans and initiatives have been implemented to provide safe, quality and culturally competent care to patients within Queensland's health care system. A series of models of maternity care are available in Queensland that range from standard public care to private midwifery care. The current study aimed to determine whether identifying as culturally or linguistically diverse (CALD) was associated with the perceived safety, quality and cultural competency of maternity care from a consumer perspective, and to identify specific needs and preferences of CALD maternity care consumers. Secondary analysis of data collected in the Having a Baby in Queensland Survey 2012 was used to compare the experiences of 655 CALD women to those of 4049 non-CALD women in Queensland, Australia, across three stages of maternity care: pregnancy, labour and birth, and after birth. After adjustment for model of maternity care received and socio-demographic characteristics, CALD women were significantly more likely than non-CALD women to experience suboptimal staff technical competence in pregnancy, overall perceived safety in pregnancy and labour/birth, and interpersonal sensitivity in pregnancy and labour/birth. Approximately 50 % of CALD women did not have the choice to use a translator or interpreter, or the gender of their care provider, during labour and birth. Thirteen themes of preferences and needs of CALD maternity care consumers based on ethnicity, cultural beliefs, or traditions were identified; however, these were rarely met. Findings imply that CALD women in Queensland experience disadvantageous maternity care with regards to perceived staff technical competence, safety, and interpersonal sensitivity, and receive care that lacks cultural competence. Improved access to support persons, continuity and choice of carer, and staff availability and training is recommended.

  4. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray

    2007-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  5. Corneal fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, M; Limpus, C J; Patterson-Kane, J C; Murray, P J; Mills, P C

    2010-05-01

    Chelonid corneal fibropapillomatosis has not previously been recorded in Australian waters. During 2008, 724 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were examined in Queensland, Australia at two sites, Moreton Bay (n=155) and Shoalwater Bay (n=569), during annual monitoring. In the same calendar year, 63 turtles were submitted from various sites in southern Queensland for post-mortem examination at the University of Queensland. Four of the 787 animals (0.5%) were found to have corneal fibropapillomas of varying size, with similar gross and microscopical features to those reported in other parts of the world. Two animals with corneal fibropapillomas also had cutaneous fibropapillomas. Clinical assessment indicated that these lesions had detrimental effects on the vision of the turtles and therefore their potential ability to source food, avoid predators and interact with conspecifics. Importantly, these findings represent an emergence of this manifestation of fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtle populations in the southern Pacific Ocean.

  6. Safety perceptions and behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chataway, Elijah Steven; Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2014-01-01

    -based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities. Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analyzed...... with structural equation models. Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists...

  7. 2010-2011 Queensland floods: using Haddon's Matrix to define and categorise public safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yu-Li; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    The 2010-2011 Queensland floods resulted in the most deaths from a single flood event in Australia since 1916. This article analyses the information on these deaths for comparison with those from previous floods in modern Australia in an attempt to identify factors that have contributed to those deaths. Haddon's Matrix, originally designed for prevention of road trauma, offers a framework for understanding the interplay between contributing factors and helps facilitate a clearer understanding of the varied strategies required to ensure people's safety for particular flood types. Public reports and flood relevant literature were searched using key words 'flood', 'fatality', 'mortality', 'death', 'injury' and 'victim' through Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Data relating to reported deaths during the 2010-2011 Queensland floods, and relevant data of previous Australian flood fatality (1997-2009) were collected from these available sources. These sources were also used to identify contributing factors. There were 33 deaths directly attributed to the event, of which 54.5% were swept away in a flash flood on 10 January 2011. A further 15.1% of fatalities were caused by inappropriate behaviours. This is different to floods in modern Australia where over 90% of deaths are related to the choices made by individuals. There is no single reason why people drown in floods, but rather a complex interplay of factors. The present study and its integration of research findings and conceptual frameworks might assist governments and communities to develop policies and strategies to prevent flood injury and fatalities. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Estimating the risk of a scuba diving fatality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; Stevenson, Christopher; McD Taylor, David; Williams, Jo

    2016-12-01

    There are few data available on which to estimate the risk of death for Australian divers. This report estimates the risk of a scuba diving fatality for Australian residents, international tourists diving in Queensland, and clients of a large Victorian dive operator. Numerators for the estimates were obtained from the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific dive fatality database. Denominators were derived from three sources: Participation in Exercise, Recreation and Sport Surveys, 2001-2010 (Australian resident diving activity data); Tourism Research Australia surveys of international visitors to Queensland 2006-2014 and a dive operator in Victoria 2007-2014. Annual fatality rates (AFR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using an exact binomial test. Estimated AFRs were: 0.48 (0.37-0.59) deaths per 100,000 dives, or 8.73 (6.85-10.96) deaths per 100,000 divers for Australian residents; 0.12 (0.05-0.25) deaths per 100,000 dives, or 0.46 (0.20-0.91) deaths per 100,000 divers for international visitors to Queensland; and 1.64 (0.20-5.93) deaths per 100,000 dives for the dive operator in Victoria. On a per diver basis, Australian residents are estimated to be almost twenty times more likely to die whilst scuba diving than are international visitors to Queensland, or to lower than fourfold on a per dive basis. On a per dive basis, divers in Victoria are fourteen times more likely to die than are Queensland international tourists. Although some of the estimates are based on potentially unreliable denominator data extrapolated from surveys, the diving fatality rates in Australia appear to vary by State, being considerably lower in Queensland than in Victoria. These estimates are similar to or lower than comparable overseas estimates, although reliability of all such measurements varies with study size and accuracy of the data available.

  9. Work and personal well-being of nurses in Queensland: Does rurality make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Eley, Robert; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Francis, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to ascertain if differences exist in the perception of the professional practice environment and personal well-being of nurses across different geographical areas in Queensland. This paper was performed on a prospective, self-report cross-sectional on-line survey. The study was conducted among the nurses employed in public and private health care settings: acute hospitals, community health and aged care in Queensland, Australia. Participants of this study were 1608 registered and enrolled nurses and assistants in nursing, current members of the Queensland Nurses Union in 2013 and who provided a workplace postcode. One thousand eight of these participants worked in major cities, while 382 in rural locations and 238 in remote areas. None. Scores of well-being as determined by the following scales: the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and of the Professional Practice Environment using the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index Revised. Nurses employed in major cities perceived 'nursing foundations for quality care' more favourably than those from other settings. Remote area nurses had lower levels of secondary traumatic stress than nurses in major cities and rural areas. There was no difference between nurses across their geographical locations for stress, anxiety, depression, compassion satisfaction, burnout, resilience and the four other measures of the Practice Environment Scale. The study findings provide new data suggesting that, with the exception of secondary traumatic stress, the personal well-being of nurses does not differ across geographical settings. Similarly, with the exception of the subscale of 'nursing foundations for quality care' there was no difference in perceptions of the professional practice environment. As secondary traumatic stress is associated with burnout, this finding needs to be investigated further. © 2015 National Rural

  10. Paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Jeremy; Wallis, Peter; Maloney, Samuel; Norton, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Bacteraemias in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of local epidemiology and trends is important to inform practitioners of likely pathogens in the sick child. This study aimed to determine trends over time in pathogenic organisms causing paediatric bacteraemia in North Queensland and to audit a hospital's blood culture results with respect to contamination rate. This was a retrospective review of 8385 blood cultures collected from children attending a tertiary centre in North Queensland over a 10-year period (2001-2010). There were 696 positive blood cultures (8.3%) with 70 different bacterial species detected. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 48.6% and 51.4% of isolates, respectively. Overall, bacteraemia accounted for 4.7 per 1000 admissions. The rate of contamination was 60.6% among positive blood cultures and 5.0% for all blood cultures sampled. These results were compared with previous published reports. Notable differences were seen in the frequencies of Salmonella and group A Streptococcus bacteraemias in North Queensland when compared with other reports. There was also a decline in vaccine-preventable infections such as S. pneumoniae and an increasing trend of community-acquired MRSA bacteraemia. This study has demonstrated the unique profile of causative pathogens of paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia. In light of the increasing prevalence of MRSA, empiric treatment for sepsis for children in this region needs to be reconsidered. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  12. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene Flint

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59% of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39% turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental

  13. Counting (green) jobs in Queensland's waste and recycling sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Georgina

    2013-09-01

    The waste and recycling sector has been identified as a green industry and, as such, jobs within this sector may be classed as 'green jobs'. Many governments have seen green jobs as a way of increasing employment, particularly during the global financial crisis. However, the methods used to define and quantify green jobs directly affect the quantification of these green jobs. In December 2010, Queensland introduced a waste strategy that stated intent to increase green jobs within the waste sector. This article discusses the milieu and existing issues associated with quantifying green jobs within Queensland's waste and recycling sector, and provides a review of the survey that has sought to quantify the true size of the Queensland industry sector. This research has identified nearly 5500 jobs in Queensland's private waste management and recycling sector, which indicates that official data do not accurately reflect the true size of the sector.

  14. Australasian Conference on Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, 7th, Brisbane, Australia, August 18-22, 1980, Preprints of Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of research and developments in hydraulics in Australasia during the past decade, and aspects of prospecting for wind energy are explored. Power generation from the East Australian current by use of arrays of submerged Darrieus vertical axis turbines is considered along with normal stress measurements for viscoelastic liquids using real time holographic interferometry of the Weissenberg effect, admissibility requirements and the least squares finite element solution for potential flow, two-dimensional solid blockage in a slotted wall wind tunnel, and the dynamic behavior of propeller anemometers. Attention is given to the potential flow signature of a turbulent spot, topographic forcing in nonlinear and linear barotropic models, flow control by secondary injection, friction factors of aqueous electrolyte solutions in pipe flow, the vortex shedding process behind a circular cylinder, and the use of the method of lines for choking flow in a nozzle.

  15. Literacy for Living Conference Papers. Australian Council for Adult Literacy National Conference (12th, Brisbane, Australia, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Marian, Ed.

    This document contains 43 papers on many aspects of adult literacy: "Literacy, Human Rights and Equality of Opportunity" (Einfeld); "Overcoming Illiteracy" (Marquet); "The Literacy Issue" (Crocker); "Literacy and Civil Liberties" (O'Gorman); "Designing a Tutor Training Program for Tutors of ESL"…

  16. CTAC-89 - International Conference on Computational Techniques and Applications, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, July 10-12, 1989, Selected Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, W. L.

    Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include CFD methods for petroleum-reservoir simulation, a three-dimensional Euler code for calculating flowfields in centrifugal compressor diffusers, a parabolic multigrid method for incompressible viscous flows using a group-explicit relaxation scheme, sequential solutions for the reduced/complete Navier-Stokes equations with multigrid acceleration, and an approximate-factorization explicit method for CFD. Also examined are wave-propagation analysis for finite-difference solutions of the three-dimensional tidal equations, calculations of inviscid steady/unsteady flows, three-level finite-difference methods for simulating advection in flows, and sharp monotonic resolution of dicontinuities without clipping of narrow extrema.

  17. Towards Distributed Citizen Participation: Lessons from WikiLeaks and the Queensland Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bruns

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the rapid and ad hoc development and interactions of participative citizen communities during acute events, using the examples of the 2011 floods in Queensland, Australia, and the global controversy surrounding Wikileaks and its spokesman, Julian Assange. The self-organising community responses to such events which can be observed in these cases bypass or leapfrog, at least temporarily, most organisational or administrative hurdles which may otherwise frustrate the establishment of online communities; they fast-track the processes of community development and structuration. By understanding them as a form of rapid prototyping, e-democracy initiatives can draw important lessons from observing the community activities around such acute events.

  18. Heterotrophic euglenids from marine sediments of cape tribulation, tropical australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je Lee, Won

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents new data on free-living heterotrophic euglenids (Euglenozoa, Protista) that occurred in the marine sediments at Cape Tribulation, Queensland, Australia. Twenty-nine species from 9 genera are described with uninterpreted records based on light microscopy, including one new taxon: Notosolenus capetribulationi n. sp. There was little evidence for endemism because the majority of heterotrophic euglenid species encountered here have been reported or were found from other habitats.

  19. Evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay for field identification of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to improve surveillance capacity for the exotic red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) was recently evaluated by Biosecurity Queensland staff in Australia. The purpose of the research was to assess the ability of the fire ant LFA to discriminate S. i...

  20. Case Report: Endemic Amebiasis in Australia: Implications for Residents, Travelers, and Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simon; Phillips, Gael E; McBride, William J H; Hanson, Josh

    2017-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is considered endemic in Australia; however, cases are rare, occurring almost exclusively in high-risk individuals. We describe a series of locally acquired, complicated cases in low-risk individuals from Far North Queensland in whom the diagnosis was delayed. Amebiasis may pose a greater local threat than is currently recognized.

  1. Interspecific pine hybrids II. genotype by environment interactions across Australia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. S. Dungey; M. J. Dieters; D. P. Gwaze; P. G. Toon; D. G. Nikles

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative research trials of Queensland-bred pine hybrids have been established in many sites outside Australia. These trials enable the estimation of genotype x environment effects, which are important in determining the level of regionalisation needed in any breeding program. Correlations across sites testing hybrids between Pinus caribaea var...

  2. Evaluation in Distance Teaching. Proceedings of a Workshop (Townsville, Australia, May 11-14, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, John D., Ed.; Store, Ron E., Ed.

    Proceedings of a 1980 workshop in Queensland, Australia, on evaluation in distance teaching are presented. Two focal areas were the assessment of students and evaluation of programs and courses. In addition to keynote and workshop papers, a variety of evaluation forms are presented. Among the papers and authors are: "The Setting of Tertiary…

  3. Veterinary parasitology teaching in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I; Sangster, N C; Coleman, G

    2002-10-02

    There are tendencies in universities globally to change undergraduate teaching in veterinary parasitology. To be able to give considered advice to universities, faculties, governmental bodies and professional societies about a discipline and to establish how particular changes may impact on the quality of a course, is the requirement to record and review its current status. The present paper contributes toward this objective by providing a "snap-shot" of the veterinary parasitology courses at the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland in eastern Australia. It includes a description of the veterinary science curriculum in each institution, and provides an outline of its veterinary parasitology course, including objectives, topics covered, course delivery, student examination procedures and course evaluation. Student contact time in veterinary parasitology during the curriculum is currently higher in Melbourne (183 h) compared with Sydney and Queensland (106-110 h). In the teaching of parasitology, Melbourne adopts a taxonomic approach (in the pre-clinical period) followed by a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach in the clinical semesters, whereas both Sydney and Queensland focus more on presenting parasites on a host species-basis followed by a problem-based approach.

  4. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  5. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human...... cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein...... gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  6. LCA of the Queensland electricity grid (Year Ending 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Brown; Matthew Searles; Aaron Cottrell; Peter Scaife [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    This report gives the results of a life cycle analysis (LCA) for the supply of 1 MWh of electricity to the Queensland grid for YEJ 2004, with a generation capacity of about 10,650MW. This report is part of a series of LCA studies of the Australian State grids, which are undertaken for comparison with the benchmark data sets generated for the same systems in 2001. The analysis takes into account all power supplied from power stations on the Queensland interconnected grid, but excludes interstate transfers. The analysis includes systems associated with power generation, transmission and distribution. 25 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  8. Comparison of a Commonwealth-initiated regional radiation oncology facility in Toowoomba with a Queensland Health facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, M; Middleton, M; McQuitty, S; Ramsay, J; Gogna, K; Martin, J; Khoo, E; Wong, W; Fairweather, R; Walpole, E

    2010-08-01

    The aim was to compare a private Commonwealth-initiated regional radiation oncology facility in Toowoomba with a Queensland Health facility (QHF) in Brisbane. The comparison concentrated on staffing, case mix and operational budgets, but was not able to look at changes in access to services. Data were collected from the two facilities from January 2008 to June 2008 inclusive. A number of factors were compared, including case mix, staffing levels, delay times for treatment, research, training and treatment costs. The case mix between the two areas was similar with curative treatments making up just over half the work load in both centres and two-thirds the work being made up of cancers of breast and prostate. Staffing levels were leaner in Toowoomba, especially in the areas of nursing, administration and trial coordinators. Research activity was slightly higher in Toowoomba. The average medicare cost per treatment course was similar in both centres ($5000 per course). Total costs of an average treatment including patient, State and Commonwealth costs, showed a 30% difference in costing favouring Toowoomba. This regional radiation oncology centre has provided state-of-the-art cancer care that is close to home for patients living in the Darling Downs region. Both public and private patients have been treated with modest costs to the patient and significant savings to QH. The case mix is similar to the QHF, and there has been significant activity in clinical research. A paperless working environment is one factor that has allowed staffing levels to be reduced. Ongoing support from Governments are required if private facilities are to participate in important ongoing staff training.

  9. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  10. Alcohol-related emergency department injury presentations in Queensland adolescents and young adults over a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Leanne; Limbong, Jesani; Vallmuur, Kirsten; Barker, Ruth; Daglish, Mark; Young, Ross McD

    2015-03-01

    The rate of alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations in young people has increased dramatically in recent decades. Injuries are the most common type of youth alcohol-related ED presentation, yet little is known about these injuries in young people. This paper describes the characteristics of alcohol-related ED injury presentations in young people over a 13-year period and determines if they differ by gender and/or age group (adolescents: 12-17 years; young adults: 18-24 years). The Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) database collects injury surveillance data at triage in participating EDs throughout Queensland, Australia. A total of 4667 cases of alcohol-related injuries in young people (aged 12-24 years) were identified in the QISU database between January 1999 and December 2011, using an injury surveillance code and nursing triage text-based search strategy. Overall, young people accounted for 38% of all QISU alcohol-related ED injury presentations in patients aged 12 years or over. The majority of young adults presented with injuries due to violence and falls, whereas adolescents presented due to self-harm or intoxication without other injury. Males presented with injuries due to violence, whereas females presented with alcohol-related self-harm and intoxication. There is a need for more effective ways of identifying the degree of alcohol involvement in injuries among young people presenting to EDs. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. The role of epigenetic mechanisms and processes in autoimmune disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Greer JM; McCombe PA

    2012-01-01

    Judith M Greer, Pamela A McCombeThe University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: The lack of complete concordance of autoimmune disease in identical twins suggests that nongenetic factors play a major role in determining disease susceptibility. In this review, we consider how epigenetic mechanisms could affect the immune system and effector mechanisms in autoimmunity and/or the target organ of autoimmunity and thus affect the development ...

  12. Advocating Science for All: An Interview with Peter J. Fensham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Liberato

    2013-01-01

    After providing some glimpses of his private life, Peter Fensham, a leading figure of the prestigious Faculty of Education, Monash University (and now emeritus professor at Queensland University, Brisbane, Australia), gives some suggestions about the conditions that help students to learn meaningfully. He began his career in the field of physical…

  13. Australian Teachers' Views of Their Effectiveness in Behaviour Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    Teachers (N=125) in Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) completing the Teacher Manageability Scale rated themselves as more effective in behavior management than 182 Ohio teachers. Behaviors difficult to manage included lack of communication, task dependency, negative aggressiveness, cognitive confusion, and inattention. Personal efficacy was the…

  14. "Key to Freshwater Algae": A Web-Based Tool to Enhance Understanding of Microscopic Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayler, Hannah A.; Siver, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    The Freshwater Ecology Laboratory at Connecticut College has developed an interactive, Web-based identification key to freshwater algal genera using the Lucid Professional and Lucid 3 software developed by the Centre for Biological Information Technology at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. The "Key to Freshwater Algae"…

  15. Evaluation of Methods for Control of Ammonia Volatilization from Surface—Applied Nitrogen Fertilizers to Sugarcane Trash in North Queensland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONGWEI-PING; A.W.WOOD; 等

    1993-01-01

    Micrometeorological and microplot experiments were conducted in the field of freshly harvested green cane in Queensland,Australia.Results showed that high ammonia loss of fertilizer N could occur under relatively dry conditions when urea or commercial product of mixture of urea and muriate of potash were applied to the surface of sugarcane trash.The moisture content in the trash and the pH of fertilizer were two important factors controlling the processes of urea hydrolysis and ammonia volatilization.Most of the N in the soil was transformed to the nitratel-nitrite from after 70 days of fertilizer application.No significant leaching was found.Urea-free N fertilizers had higher N recoveries compared to urea-containing fertilizers.

  16. Imported zika virus infection from the cook islands into australia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Daly, Michelle T; Cameron, Jane N; Moore, Peter R; Taylor, Carmel T; Hewitson, Glen R; Humphreys, Jan L; Gair, Richard

    2014-06-02

    A female resident of Townsville, Queensland, Australia has been diagnosed with Zika virus infection following a recent trip to the Cook Islands. An initial serum sample collected in March, 2014 was positive by two separate Zika virus TaqMan real-time RT-PCRs and a pan-Flavivirus RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete Cook Islands Zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous Cambodia 2010 sequence within the Asian lineage. In addition, IgG and IgM antibody seroconversions were detected between paired acute and convalescent phase sera using recombinant Zika virus serology assays. This is the first known imported case of Zika virus infection into northern Queensland where the potential mosquito vector Aedes aegypti is present and only the second such reported case diagnosed within Australia.

  17. Mineralogy, paragenesis and genesis of the braunite deposits of the Mary Valley Manganese Belt, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, J.

    1992-09-01

    The Mary Valley manganese deposits exhibit mineralogy and textures characteristic of at least four parageneses. The deposits consist mainly of isolated occurrences of braunite, together with a number of lower and higher valency manganese oxides, and manganese silicates, in bedded radiolarian cherts and jaspers of Permian age. The parageneses are: (a) Braunite — quartz (primary), (b) Braunite — hausmannite — spessartine — tephroite — quartz (metamorphic). (c) Hydrated manganese silicates — barite — braunite — hausmannite (hydrothermal veins), (d) Tetravalent manganese oxides (pyrolusite, cryptomelane, manjiroite, nsutite) (supergene). The primary mineralisation is interpreted as the result of the geochemical separation of Mn from Fe in a submarine exhalative system, and the precipitation of Mn as oxide within bedded radiolarian oozes and submarine lavas. During diagenesis this hydrothermal manganese oxide reacted with silica to produce primary braunite. The later geological of evolution of this volcanogenicsedimentary deposit involved metamorphism, hydrothermal veining by remobilised manganese, and supergene enrichment.

  18. Multi-resolution time series imagery for forest disturbance and regrowth monitoring in Queensland, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.; Lucas, R.; Bunting, P.; Verbesselt, J.; Armston, J.

    2015-01-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provide unprecedented opportunities to monitor and detect forest disturbance and loss. To demonstrate this potential, a 12-year time series (2000 to 2011) with an 8-day interval of a 30 m spatial resolution data was generated by the use of

  19. Late-onset Neonatal Sepsis-A 10-year Review From North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Harsha; Norton, Robert; White, Andrew; Kandasamy, Yogavijayan

    2017-09-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) in neonates contributes significantly to both morbidity and mortality. To determine the incidence of LOS, risk factors for disease and the impact on subsequent hospital course, we evaluated a cohort of 6340 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and of neonates (3-28 days) admitted from the community between January 2005 and January 2016. This was a retrospective case review of all neonates admitted with suspected LOS who had positive blood culture and/or cerebrospinal fluid cultures, for an organism determined to be a pathogen. Of 6340 neonates who survived beyond 3 days, 2271 (35.8%) had 1 or more blood cultures collected for suspected LOS. Of these, 146 (6.4%) positive blood cultures were thought to represent true bacteremia. The vast majority of infections (73%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms, with coagulase-negative staphylococci accounting for 39.8% of infections. Late-onset neonatal sepsis occurred predominantly in the 24-28-week age group (75.9%) and in neonates who weighed less than 1000 g (73.6%). The incubation time for positive blood cultures for Gram-negative sepsis was less (13 hours) when compared with Gram-positive sepsis (20 hours). Thrombocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein and chorioamnionitis were consistently associated with late-onset Gram-negative sepsis (P < 0.05). Eight neonates (6%) died secondary to LOS. LOS contributes significantly to mortality and morbidity in neonates and remains a challenge to clinicians. Necessary steps to reduce late-onset neonatal sepsis should be undertaken.

  20. Incubation temperature, morphology and performance in loggerhead (Caretta caretta turtle hatchlings from Mon Repos, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Sim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles are vulnerable to climate change because their life history and reproduction are tied to environmental temperatures. The egg incubation stage is arguably the most vulnerable stage, because marine turtle eggs require a narrow range of temperatures for successful incubation. Additionally, incubation temperature affects sex, emergence success, morphology and locomotor performance of hatchlings. Hatchlings often experience high rates of predation in the first few hours of their life, and increased size or locomotor ability may improve their chances of survival. Between 2010 and 2013 we monitored the temperature of loggerhead (Caretta caretta; Linnaeus 1758 turtle nests at Mon Repos Rookery, and used these data to calculate a mean three day maximum temperature (T3dm for each nest. We calculated the hatching and emergence success for each nest, then measured the mass, size and locomotor performance of hatchlings that emerged from those nests. Nests with a T3dm greater than 34°C experienced a lower emergence success and produced smaller hatchlings than nests with a T3dm lower than 34°C. Hatchlings from nests with a T3dm below 34°C performed better in crawling and swimming trials than hatchlings from nests with a T3dm above 34°C. Thus even non-lethal increases in global temperatures have the potential to detrimentally affect fitness and survival of marine turtle hatchlings.

  1. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS) for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Bhandari; Tony Gill; Stuart Phinn

    2012-01-01

    Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of image...

  2. Removal of micropollutants through a biological wastewater treatment plant in a subtropical climate, Queensland-Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas, Miguel Antonio Reyes; Ali, Imtiaj; Lai, Foon Yin; Dawes, Les; Thier, Ricarda; Rajapakse, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic compounds derived from domestic and industrial sources including active components of pharmaceutical and personal care products and compounds used in agriculture, such as pesticides, or food processing such as artificial sweeteners often referred to as micropollutants. Some of these compounds or their degradation products may have detrimental effects on the environment, wildlife and humans. Acesuflame is one of the most popular a...

  3. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1997-07-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-03-24

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  5. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Home Internet Usage Patterns in Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal J. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Governments and other policy makers are concerned with the gap in home Internet usage between people from metropolitan and rural areas. A survey conducted in Central Queensland, Australia examined differences in home Internet usage patterns between young and old, male and female, people in urban and rural areas, married and unmarried, well-educated and less educated, rich and poor, and employed and unemployed and found significant differences. These results highlight areas for further research and provide a basis for government agencies and industries to consider these associations in future policy formulation for regional development using ICT. The research suggested that further research should be conducted to monitor consuming behaviors of the youngest age group in Internet use for entertainment and information search in order to detect possible Internet overuse or addiction. In addition, further research should be conducted to find out what people search for on the Internet, and if for employment opportunities, financial incentives are suggested for the unemployed people.

  6. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  7. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Communication of suicide intent by schizophrenic subjects: data from the Queensland Suicide Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leo Diego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.

  9. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  10. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  11. Climate variation and incidence of Ross river virus in Cairns, Australia: a time-series analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, S; Hu, W.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of climate variability on the Ross River virus (RRv) transmission and validated an epidemic-forecasting model in Cairns, Australia. Data on the RRv cases recorded between 1985 and 1996 were obtained from the Queensland Department of Health. Climate and population data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The cross-correlation function (CCF) showed that maximum temperature in the curren...

  12. Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvestad, Tom; Budaeva, Nataliya

    2015-09-18

    Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae, is described from the intertidal zone off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. The new species is referred to the genus Neosabellides based on the shape of the prostomium, three pairs of branchiae, 14 thoracic segments with notopodia, 12 thoracic uncinigerous segments, and the first two pairs of abdominal uncinigers of thoracic type. The new species differs from all known species of Neosabellides in having 14 abdominal uncinigerous segments.

  13. Glyceriformia Fauchald, 1977 (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böggemann, Markus

    2015-09-18

    Eight species of Glyceridae (Glycera brevicirris, Glycera cf. lapidum, Glycera onomichiensis, Glycera sagittariae, Glycera tesselata, Glycera tridactyla, Glycerella magellanica, Hemipodia cf. simplex) and six species of Goniadidae (Goniada antipoda, Goniada cf. brunnea, Goniada echinulata, Goniada emerita, Goniada grahami, Goniada paucidens) have been collected during several expeditions to the vicinity of Lizard Island (Australia, Queensland). An identification key to the Glyceriformia that inhabit the region is presented. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions are given for all investigated species.

  14. 'We Are Not Here to Claim Better Services than Any Other': Social Exclusion among Men from Refugee Backgrounds in Urban and Regional Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Correa-Velez; R. Spaaij; S. Upham

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-methods study of social exclusion experiences among 233 resettled refugees living in urban and regional Queensland, Australia. The findings reported here are drawn from the SettleMEN project, a longitudinal investigation of health and settlement experiences among rece

  15. A Comparative Analysis between the Assessment Criteria Used to Assess Graduating Teachers at Rustaq College (Oman) and Griffith University (Australia) during the Teaching Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Moza Abdullah; Weir, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a study that compares the assessment criteria used to measure pre-service teachers' professional competencies at Rustaq College of Applied Sciences in Oman, and at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia. The study adopts a discourse analytic approach to deconstruct and critically compare the…

  16. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  17. Fifteen years of child drowning--a 1967-1981 analysis of all fatal cases from the Brisbane Drowning Study and an 11 year study of consecutive near-drowning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J; Pearn, J; Wilkey, I; Corcoran, A

    1986-06-01

    A total population study of childhood fresh water drowning accidents (fatalities) for the 15 year period, 1967-1981, is reported. These data are from the ongoing Brisbane Drowning Study which has now also analysed 255 fresh water child immersions (both fatalities and near-fatalities) over the eleven year period, 1978-1981, and as such forms a consecutive unselected series for over one decade. The annual fatality (drowning) rate is 3.53 per 100,000. Details of immersion accidents by site, sex and by outcome (survivors versus fatalities) are presented. An analysis of secular trends revealed that one epidemic peak of child drownings in swimming pools and domestic baths (noted in the mid 1970s in Australia and other countries) is now passed. Evidence is presented to suggest that a vigorous education, and public awareness campaign can reduce the incidence of serious child immersion accidents by one-third. Such a campaign may have influence on all types of childhood household drownings (pools, baths, garden ponds), irrespective of site. Survival rates for unsupervised children who lose consciousness in fresh water are site-dependent, only 21% of such potential victims surviving after losing consciousness in rivers and creeks, compared with the survival rate of 65% for those in potential drowning incidents in their own backyard. Violent death continues to account for more than half of all deaths in childhood up to the age of 14 years [Gratz, 1979; Mayer, Walker and Johnson et al., 1981].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. en Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El argumento de que los mercados financieros globales imponen una “camisa de fuerza dorada” consistente en políticas macroeconómicas restrictivas es probada con relación a la política monetaria australiana. En contraste con los argumentos comunes de los teóricos de la globalización y las restricciones de política se argumenta que las autoridades monetarias en Australia han sido capaces de forjar un enfoque de política relativamente distintivo que ha empujado al crecimiento. Se argumenta así, por lo menos en este caso, que los argumentos restrictivos de la política neoliberal no deberían retraer innovaciones en la elección de política interna.

  19. First report of microcystin-producing Fischerella sp. (Stigonematales, Cyanobacteria) in tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirés, Samuel; Alvarez-Roa, Carlos; Wood, Susanna A; Puddick, Jonathan; Loza, Virginia; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    A polyphasic study of four Stigonematales cyanobacteria from tropical Australia (Queensland) revealed production of the hepatotoxins microcystins (MC-LR, MC-LA, MC-LF, MC-FR and demethyl-MC-LR) by Fischerella sp. NQAIF311 isolated from a seasonal creek. Total microcystin content reached 43 μg g(-1) dry weight. Phylogeny demonstrated high sequence similarities for 16S rRNA (99%), mcyE (97%) and mcyD (95%) genes with microcystin-producing Fischerella sp. CENA161 from Brazil. This is the first report of a cyanotoxin-producing Stigonematal in Australia.

  20. The Preparatory Year in a Queensland Non-Government School: Exploring Parents' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Lyndal

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project investigating parents' conceptions of an early childhood program in Queensland. During 2007, early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Queensland underwent significant reform associated with the introduction of a full-time Preparatory Year program in all schools throughout the state. The…

  1. The Use of Mathematical Investigations in a Queensland Primary School and Implications for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Margaret; Clark, Darren; Carey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of Ways of Working in 2008, Queensland teachers received professional development on using investigations to teach mathematics. This case study explores the extent to which teachers in one Queensland Primary School use this pedagogy. To determine teachers' beliefs and teaching approaches, a five point Likert scale…

  2. Dua sakit (double sick): trauma and the settlement experiences of West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    2009-08-01

    There is mounting evidence of systematic abuses, including torture, rape and extrajudicial killings directed against independence activists as well as the civilian population in Indonesian occupied West Papua. Refugees from West Papua have sought safety in neighbouring Australia, experiencing hazardous journeys during their flight. We report early observations from a mental health study among West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland, Australia. The project includes qualitative methods aimed at gathering histories of trauma and human rights violations as well as standard mental health assessments and indices of acculturation and resettlement stresses. We consider the emerging data from the vantage point of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma model that identifies five psychosocial domains that require repair following exposure to gross human rights violations and refugee trauma. The model emphasizes the inter-relatedness of key challenges, the compounding of adversity, and the bivalent effects of complex experiences, with both positive and negative elements shaping the adaptive trajectory of displaced persons. Refugee groups have their own approaches to conceptualizing the complexity of their problems, with the term dua sakit representing the expression used by West Papuans to identify the multiple challenges they face. The study highlights the importance of assessing each refugee group within its unique social and cultural context, taking into account such diverse factors as geographical location, employment, and ongoing conflict in the homeland in designing appropriate interventions.

  3. Do structured arrangements for multidisciplinary peer group supervision make a difference for allied health professional outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pim Kuipers,1,2 Susan Pager,1 Karen Bell,3 Fiona Hall,4 Melissa Kendall2,5,6 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Community Science, School of Human Services, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 3Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Queensland, Australia; 4Allied Health Professions Office of Queensland, Health Service and Innovation Division, Queensland, Australia; 5Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6Transitional Rehabilitation Programme, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Peer group supervision, particularly in multidisciplinary formats, presents a potential means of providing professional support, and specifically clinical supervision, for allied health professionals. Debate exists regarding the extent to which the activities of these groups should be formalized. Results drawn from an evaluation of a large-scale peer group supervision initiative are described. Analysis of 192 responses from professionals involved in peer groups indicates that participants in groups that used formal documentation – which adopted the tools provided in training, and particularly those that used formal evaluation of their groups – rated their groups as having better processes and greater impact. Interestingly, multidisciplinary peer groups were rated as having similar impacts, processes, and purposes as the more homogenous single-discipline groups. It is concluded that the implementation of formal arrangements enhances the processes and outcomes of peer groups implemented for professional support and clinical supervision. Multidisciplinary membership of such groups is perceived as equally beneficial as single-discipline groups. Keywords: allied health, professional supervision, clinical supervision, professional support, multidisciplinary

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  5. Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edoardo Bertone; Rodney A. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household) urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand ...

  6. Habitat Characteristics and Eggshell Distribution of the Salt Marsh Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in Marshes in Subtropical Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Pat E. R.; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H.; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A.; Brown, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as...

  7. Mosquito-borne heartworm Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chloe; Koh, Wei Ling; Casteriano, Andrea; Beijerink, Niek; Godfrey, Christopher; Brown, Graeme; Emery, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-10-07

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs is considered endemic in Australia, but the clinical heartworm disease caused by the heartworm is rare and prevalence is low. The mainstream prevention of the heartworm is based on macrocyclic lactone (ML) administration. The aim of this study was to confirm endemism of the heartworm under current Australian conditions using a cohort of recent microfilaria-positive dogs which were on variable heartworm prevention. A hotspot of canine heartworm antigen-positive and microfilaria-positive dogs has been detected recently in Queensland, Australia. Blood samples from 39 dogs from Queensland and two dogs from New South Wales were investigated for canine filarioids. Rapid antigen diagnostic tests capable of detection of D. immitis and real-time PCR for quantification and differentiation between D. immitis from Acanthocheilonema reconditum with quantification of microfilariae in canine blood samples, together with D. immitis specific real-time PCR assay, were applied to microfilaria-positive dogs. The P-glycoprotein genotype was determined to test whether Australian-sourced heartworm shared the same genetic markers as those suspected of ML-resistance in North America. Only D. immitis was detected in the samples from Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Using high resolution melt real-time PCR and D. immitis specific real-time PCR, the calculated microfilaria concentration ranged from 1 to 44,957 microfilariae/ml and from 7 to 60,526 microfilariae/ml, respectively. DNA sequencing of the PCR products confirmed D. immitis. Fifteen of the examined dogs were on putative, rigorous ML prevention. For the remaining dogs, compliance with heartworm prevention was unknown or reported as inconsistent. Wild-type genotype AA-GG of the P-glycoprotein locus of D. immitis sequence has been obtained for three blood samples. Due to the incomplete history, any suggestion of a loss of efficacy of MLs must be treated as 'remotely possible'. In the

  8. Women's access to abortion after 20 weeks' gestation for fetal chromosomal abnormalities: Views and experiences of doctors in New South Wales and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kirsten I; Douglas, Heather; de Costa, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Induced abortions after 20 weeks' gestation comprise around one per cent of all terminations in Australia and mostly occur following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. However, these abortions are overly represented in legal cases against doctors and challenging to organise in those states where abortion remains in the criminal code and health department directives impose regulations. This study explores barriers to abortion access after 20 weeks' gestation in the states of Queensland and New South Wales. We approached and sought consent from 22 doctors involved in abortion provision (15 in Queensland and seven in NSW), who responded in depth to a set of clinical scenarios. This study presents participants' responses to three clinical scenarios of women presenting with a fetal chromosomal abnormality after 20 weeks' gestation. Of the 22 medical practitioners in this study, 18 reported that access to late-term abortion in their state was restricted. The two key factors perceived to affect the decision to terminate a pregnancy in this context were the legal status of abortion and Department of Health policies mandating that applications for abortion be presented to clinical ethics committees. Practitioners reported that committees were slow to convene and inconsistent in their decisions. Ethics committee involvement for late-term abortions is required by state health policy in NSW and Queensland, where abortion is still a criminal offence. This process is seen by abortion providers to hinder timely access to services and excludes women from the decision-making process. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Educators on the Edge: Big Ideas for Change and Innovation. Australian College of Educators (ACE) National Conference Proceedings (Brisbane, Australia, September 24-25, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Glenn, Ed.; Ghirelli, Paola S., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Australian College of Educators (ACE) National Conference theme is "Educators on the Edge: Big Ideas for Change and Innovation." ACE presented an opportunity for all education professionals to gather, discuss, and share cutting-edge, creative and innovative practices, nationally and globally at the conference held on September…

  10. Statistical inference is overemphasized in cluster investigations: the case of the cluster of breast cancers at the Australian Broadcasting Corporation studios in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coory, M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of statistical analyses in cluster investigations is to estimate the probability that the aggregation of cases could be due to chance. As a result of several statistical problems - including the post-hoc nature of the analysis and the subjective nature of implied multiple comparisons - this cannot be carried out with any certainty. In cluster investigations, expert opinion should carry much more weight than P-values, which are exceedingly difficult to interpret.

  11. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  12. Controlling firearms use in Australia: has the 1996 gun law reform produced the decrease in rates of suicide with this method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, Helen; Barnes, Michael; De Leo, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Observed reductions in firearm suicides in Australia have been linked to the 1997 national firearms agreement (NFA) introduced following the 1996 Port Arthur massacre. The NFA placed strong access restrictions on firearms. To assess the impact of legislative restrictions on the incidence of firearm suicide in Queensland and explore alternative or contributory factors behind observed declines. The Queensland suicide register (QSR) provided detailed information on all male suicides in Queensland (1990-2004), with additional data for Australia (1968-2004) accessed from other official sources. Trends in suicide rates pre/post NFA, and in method selection, were assessed using negative binomial regressions. Changing method selection patterns were examined using a cohort analysis of 5 years of age classes for Australian males. The observed reduction in firearms suicides was initiated prior to the 1997 introduction of the NFA in Queensland and Australia, with a clear decline observed in Australian figures from 1988. No significant difference was found in the rate pre/post the introduction of the NFA in Queensland; however, a significant difference was found for Australian data, the quality of which is noticeably less satisfactory. A marked age-difference in method choice was observed through a cohort analysis demonstrating both time and age influences. Within sequential birth cohorts, rates of firearms suicides decreased in younger males but increased in hanging suicides; this trend was far less marked in older males. The implemented restrictions may not be responsible for the observed reductions in firearms suicide. Data suggest that a change in social and cultural attitudes could have contributed to the shift in method preference.

  13. Prevention and management of chronic disease in Aboriginal and Islander Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland: a quality improvement study assessing change in selected clinical performance indicators over time in a cohort of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretto, K S; Gardner, K L; Button, S; Carson, A; Schibasaki, R; Wason, G; Baker, D; Mein, J; Dellit, A; Lewis, D; Wenitong, M; Ring, I

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate clinical healthcare performance in Aboriginal Medical Services in Queensland and to consider future directions in supporting improvement through measurement, target setting and standards development. Longitudinal study assessing baseline performance and improvements in service delivery, clinical care and selected outcomes against key performance indicators 2009-2010. 27 Aboriginal and Islander Community Controlled Health Services (AICCHSs) in Queensland, who are members of the Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC). 22 AICCHS with medical clinics. Implementation and use of an electronic clinical information system that integrates with electronic health records supported by the QAIHC quality improvement programme-the Close the Gap Collaborative. Proportion of patients with current recording of key healthcare activities and the prevalence of risk factors and chronic disease. Aggregated performance was high on a number of key risk factors and healthcare activities including assessment of tobacco use and management of hypertension but low for others. Performance between services showed greatest variation for care planning and health check activity. Data collected by the QAIHC health information system highlight the risk factor workload facing the AICCHS in Queensland, demonstrating the need for ongoing support and workforce planning. Development of targets and weighting models is necessary to enable robust between-service comparisons of performance, which has implications for health reform initiatives in Australia. The limited information available suggests that although performance on key activities in the AICCHS sector has potential for improvement in some areas, it is nonetheless at a higher level than for mainstream providers. The work demonstrates the role that the Community Controlled sector can play in closing the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health outcomes by leading the use of clinical data to record and assess

  14. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  15. Who Leaves Suicide Notes? An Exploration of Victim Characteristics and Suicide Method of Completed Suicides in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Belinda; Bond, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Wilson, Moira; White, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the question: are those who leave suicide notes representative of the larger population of those who commit suicide? The method involves an analysis of a full population of suicides by residents of Queensland, Australia for the full year of 2004, with the information drawn from Coronial files. Our overall results suggest that, and in support of previous research, the population who leaves suicide notes are remarkably similar to those who do not. Differences are identified in four areas: first, and in contrast to prior research, females are less likely to leave a suicide note; second, and in support of previous research, Aboriginal Australians are less likely to leave suicide notes; third, and in support of some previous research, those who use gas as a method of suicide are more likely to leave notes, while those who use a vehicle or a train are less likely to leave notes; finally, our findings lend support to research which finds that those with a diagnosed mental illness are less likely to leave notes. The discussion addresses some of the reasons these disparities may have occurred, and continues the debate over the degree to which suicide notes give insight into the larger suicide population.

  16. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo J Park

    Full Text Available The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Q-fly, is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT and mass trapping (MT are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  17. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  18. Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producing ribotype UK 244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charlotte A; Hall, Lisa; Foster, Nikki F; Gray, Mareeka; Allen, Michelle; Richardson, Leisha J; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Schlebusch, Sanmarie; George, Narelle; Nimmo, Graeme R; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L

    2014-12-31

    In North America and Europe, the binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile strains of the ribotypes 027 and 078 have been associated with death, toxic megacolon and other adverse outcomes. Following an increase in C. difficile infections (CDIs) in Queensland, a prevalence study involving 175 hospitals was undertaken in early 2012, identifying 168 cases of CDI over a 2 month period. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded, and C. difficile isolates were ribotyped and tested for the presence of binary toxin genes. Most patients (106/168, 63.1%) were aged over 60 years. Overall, 98 (58.3%) developed symptoms after hospitalisation; 89 cases (53.0%) developed symptoms more than 48 hours after admission. Furthermore, 27 of the 62 (67.7%) patients who developed symptoms in the community ad been hospitalised within the last 3 months. Thirteen of the 168 (7.7%) cases identified had severe disease, resulting in admission to the Intensive Care Unit or death within 30 days of the onset of symptoms. The 3 most common ribotypes isolated were UK 002 (22.9%), UK 014 (13.3%) and the binary toxin-positive ribotype UK 244 (8.4%). The only other binary toxin positive ribotype isolated was UK 078 (n = 1). Of concern was the detection of the binary toxin positive ribotype UK 244, which has recently been described in other parts of Australia and New Zealand. No isolates were of the international epidemic clone of ribotype UK 027, although ribotype UK 244 is genetically related to this clone. Further studies are required to track the epidemiology of ribotype UK 244 in Australia and New Zealand.

  19. Permo-Carboniferous gold epoch of northeast Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, C. [Australian National university, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Geology and Research School of Earth Sciences; Kennedy, A.K. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Department of Applied Physics

    1998-04-01

    The {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and U-Pb methods of isotopic dating have been used to determine the age of alteration minerals and host rocks from a number of Permo-Carboniferous Au deposits in the Tasman Fold Belt system of northeast Queensland. There was a continuum in porphyry-style Au mineralisation from ca 330 to 290 Ma, which post-dates epithermal Au in the Eastern Basin sequence of the Drummond Basin. Porphyry-style Au at Kidston. and the Buck Reef. Ravenswood, formed at ca 330 Ma. The Red Dome and Mungana skarns were deposited at ca 320-310 Ma and ca 310 Ma. respectively The Au mineralisation at Mt Wright. and in the quartz-sulfide veins. Ravenswood. was emplaced at ca 310-305 Ma. The youngest porphyry-style Au deposit is Mt Leyshon, which probably formed at ca 290 Ma Where high-level intrusions are associated with Au, magmatism and mineralisation are. in general. essentially coeval. The age of the host rocks to the Permo-Carboniferous Au deposits is variable, and may be more than 150 million years older than the mineralisation. The plutonic-style Au deposit at Charters Towers is significantly older than the porphyry systems, and formed at ca 414 Ma. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia 64 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  20. Client Perspectives on Desirable Attributes and Skills of Veterinary Technologists in Australia: Considerations for Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patricia M; Al-Alawneh, John; Pitt, Rachael E; Schull, Daniel N; Coleman, Glen T

    2015-01-01

    Client or service user perspectives are important when designing curricula for professional programs. In the case of veterinary technology, an emerging profession in the veterinary field in Australasia, client views on desirable graduate attributes, skills, and knowledge have not yet been explored. This study reports on a survey of 441 veterinary clients (with 104 responses) from four veterinary practices in Brisbane, Queensland, conducted between October 2008 and February 2009. The included veterinary practices provided clinical placements for veterinary technology undergraduates and employment for veterinary technology graduates (2003-2007). Client socio-demographic data along with ratings of the importance of a range of technical (veterinary nursing) skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes for veterinary technology graduates were collected and analyzed. Overall, the majority of clients viewed technical skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes as important in the clinical practice of veterinary technology graduates with whom they interacted in the veterinary practice. Client interviews (n=3) contextualized the survey data and also showed that clients attached importance to graduates demonstrating professional competence. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four distinct groupings of clients within the data based on their differing perceptions. Using a multivariable proportional-odds regression model, it was also found that some client differences were influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, and number of visits annually. For example, the odds of female clients valuing emotionality and sociability were greater than males. These findings provide useful data for the design of a professionalizing and market-driven veterinary technology curriculum.

  1. Financing of terrorism : risks for Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SMITH, Russell G; McCusker, Rob; Walters, Julie

    2010-01-01

    ... activities - financing of terrorism within Australia - regulatory framework in Australia - evidence of financing of terrorism in Australia - conclusion that Australia is at some risk of terrorist...

  2. Australia's dengue risk driven by human adaptation to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reduced rainfall in southeast Australia has placed this region's urban and rural communities on escalating water restrictions, with anthropogenic climate change forecasts suggesting that this drying trend will continue. To mitigate the stress this may place on domestic water supply, governments have encouraged the installation of large domestic water tanks in towns and cities throughout this region. These prospective stable mosquito larval sites create the possibility of the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti from Queensland, where it remains endemic, back into New South Wales and other populated centres in Australia, along with the associated emerging and re-emerging dengue risk if the virus was to be introduced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Having collated the known distribution of Ae. aegypti in Australia, we built distributional models using a genetic algorithm to project Ae. aegypti's distribution under today's climate and under climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2050 and compared the outputs to published theoretical temperature limits. Incongruence identified between the models and theoretical temperature limits highlighted the difficulty of using point occurrence data to study a species whose distribution is mediated more by human activity than by climate. Synthesis of this data with dengue transmission climate limits in Australia derived from historical dengue epidemics suggested that a proliferation of domestic water storage tanks in Australia could result in another range expansion of Ae. aegypti which would present a risk of dengue transmission in most major cities during their warm summer months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the debate of the role climate change will play in the future range of dengue in Australia, we conclude that the increased risk of an Ae. aegypti range expansion in Australia would be due not directly to climate change but rather to human adaptation to the current and forecasted regional drying

  3. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  4. Toxinology in Australia's colonial era: a chronology and perspective of human envenomation in 19th century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2006-12-01

    The medical management of those envenomed by snakes, spiders and poisonous fish in Australia featured extensively in the writings 19th century doctors, expeditioners and anthropologists. Against the background of this introduced medical doctrine there already existed an extensive tradition of Aboriginal medical lore; techniques of heat treatment, suction, incision and the application of plant-derived pharmacological substances featured extensively in the management of envenomed victims. The application of a hair-string or grass-string ligature, suctioning of the bite-site and incision were practised in a variety of combinations. Such evolved independently of and pre-dated such practices, which were promoted extensively by immigrant European doctors in the late 19th century. Pacific scientific toxinology began in the 17th century with Don Diego de Prado y Tovar's 1606 account of ciguatera. By the end of the 19th century more than 30 papers and books had defined the natural history of Australian elapid poisoning. The medical management of snakebite in Australia was the focus of great controversy from 1860 to 1900. Dogmatic claims of the supposed antidote efficacy of intravenous ammonia by Professor G.B. Halford, and that of strychnine by Dr. Augustus Mueller, claimed mainstream medical attention. This era of potential iatrogenic disaster and dogma was brought to a conclusion by the objective experiments of Joseph Lauterer and Thomas Lane Bancroft in 1890 in Brisbane; and by those of C.J. Martin (from 1893) and Frank Tidswell (from 1898), both of Sydney. The modern era of Australian toxinology developed as a direct consequence of Calmette's discovery, in Paris in 1894, of immune serum, which was protective against snakebite. We review the key contributors and discoveries of toxinology in colonial Australia.

  5. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  6. Collaboration: the Key to Establishing Community Networks in Regional Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Taylor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promise of community involvement, cohesion and empowerment offered by local community networks (CN using Internet Technologies, few communities in regional Australia have been able to demonstrate sustainable and vibrant CN which demonstrate increased social, cultural or self-reliance capital. The Faculty of Informatics and Communication at Central Queensland University (CQU and a local council have established a formal alliance to establish the COIN (Community Informatics projects to research issues around this topic. This paper presents the initial findings from this work and draws conclusions for possible comparison with other international experience. The research focuses attention on community understanding and cohesion, local government priorities in a community with relatively low diffusion of the Internet and the competing demands in a regional university between traditional service provision in an increasingly competitive market and the needs of establishing outreach research for altruistic, industry establishment and commercial rationale.

  7. Proventricular dilatation disease: an emerging exotic disease of parrots in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, R J T; Miller, R I; Fanning, T E

    2007-03-01

    Proventricular dilatation disease is a viral disease seen as a segmental neuropathy in parrots. It has always been believed to be a disease exotic to Australia, with the only reported case being a legally imported Green Wing Macaw (Ara chloroptera) in 1993. This paper reports a cluster of cases seen in south-east Queensland in 2005 to 2006. Clinical signs, autopsy findings and histopathological findings are described. No pattern or common source for these cases could be identified. The implications for Australian aviculture and avifauna are discussed.

  8. Assessing the threat of chikungunya virus emergence in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Knope, Katrina; Faddy, Helen M; Williams, Craig R; Harley, David

    2013-06-30

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major threat to Australia given the distribution of competent vectors, and the large number of travellers returning from endemic regions. We describe current knowledge of CHIKV importations into Australia, and quantify reported viraemic cases, with the aim of facilitating the formulation of public health policy and ensuring maintenance of blood safety. Cases reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2002 to 2012 were analysed by place, month of acquisition, and place of residence. Rates of chikungunya importation were estimated based on reported cases and on the numbers of short-term movements. Between 2002 and 2012, there were 168 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) imported into Australia. Victoria and New South Wales had the largest number of notifications. The main sources were Indonesia, India and Malaysia. The number of cases increased from 2008 to reach a peak in 2010 (n=64; 40%). Although Indonesia accounted for the majority of CHIKV notifications in Australia, travel from India had the highest CHIKV importation rate (number of imported cases per 100,000 travellers). The Australian population is increasingly at risk from CHIKV. Arrivals from endemic countries have increased concurrently with vector incursions via imported goods, as well as via local movement from the Torres Strait to North Queensland ports. An outbreak of CHIKV could have a significant impact on health, the safety of the blood supply and on tourism. Case and vector surveillance as well as population health responses are crucial for minimising any potential impact of CHIKV establishment in Australia. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General

  9. Some thermoluminescence ages in Queensland: a problem resolved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    In a previous paper (Tejan-Kella et al Aust J. Soil Res. 28, 465, 1990), thermoluminescence (TL) dates were presented for a soil horizon at five sites in a chronosequence of freely-drained podzols at Cooloola and North Stradbroke Island, Queensland. The TL ages followed the expected order based on geomorphological evidence; and the TL age of 120 {+-}11 ka for the Amity dune on North Stradbroke Island agreed with uranium series dates for underlying coral recovered during sand mining. Nevertheless, several features of the TL results gave rise to some concern and were noted in the above mentioned paper. Specifically, the apparent TL age of 11 {+-} 2 ka for the Kings Bore site was widely at variance with the inferred age of about 0.5 ka based on geomorphological and soil profile evidence. Further, an apparent TL age of about 8 ka was found for samples from the Carlo sand blow. The Carlo samples were taken at mean depths of 1.0 m and 1.5 m from within the advancing toe of the dune, which is obviously mobile since it is encroaching on living vegetation. The time since last exposure to sunlight could scarcely exceed a decade. New measurements are reported, designed to resolve the former discrepancies. All sites have been re-dated, together with a new one, CA5S/1 (Chalambar) and a reduced value have been obtained. The fact that the TL age is somehow smaller than the U-series age may reflect the expectation that the summit of the dune be younger than the base. Paper no. 14; 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. Completion of the large-capacity SVC system for Ross substation in Australia; Australia Ross hendensho muke daiyoryo SVC system no kansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Toshiba delivered the static var compensator (SVC) of 230MVA in rated capacity to Ross substation connected with 275kV system of Powerlink electric power co. in Queensland, Australia for retaining and stabilizing power system voltage, and stabilizing fluctuation of power systems in power system troubles, and started its service operation in Nov. 1998. The SVC is composed of a thyristor control reactor (TCR) and filter, and the largest class facility in the world as TCR. The SVC is also supported by the latest technologies such as photo-direct ignition thyristor valve and 32 bit-computer control. This is Toshiba`s 6th power SVC delivered to Australia. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾真

    2015-01-01

    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  12. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment.

  13. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes.

  14. Of what value is the soil seed bank for minesite rehabilitation in Queensland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellairs, S.M. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Agriculture and Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1997-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of research carried out on soil seed banks in relation to minesite rehabilitation in Queensland. Quantitative studies of the soil bank have been carried out at several sites including: prior to mineral sand mining on North Stradbroke Island, the Blair Athol, Curragh and Newlands open-cut coal mines in central Queensland, and the Tarong Coal mine in southeast Queensland. The size of the germinable seed bank in the surface few centimetres of topsoil ranged considerably, from less than 20 to greater than 2,000 seeds per square metre. There was as much variation between different vegetation types at the same minesite as between sites. Where the seed bank was large, it tended to consist of grasses or other monocotyledons, and fewer seeds were present in communities with more substantial tree and shrub strata. The contribution of the soil seed bank relative to the broadcast seed mix is also discussed. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. The establishment of the Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia in Queensland (1996–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction For chiropractors and osteopaths after graduation, the learning process continues by way of experience and continuing education (CE. The provision of CE and other vocational services in Queensland between 1996 and 2002 is the subject of this paper. Methods The Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia (COCA implemented a plan, which involved continuing education, with speakers from a broad variety of health provider areas; and the introduction of the concepts of evidence-based practice. The plan also involved building membership. Results Membership of COCA in Queensland grew from 3 in June 1996 to 167 in 2002. There were a total of 25 COCA symposia in the same period. Evidence-based health care was introduced and attendees were generally satisfied with the conferences. Discussion The development of a vocational body (COCA for chiropractors and osteopaths in Queensland was achieved. Registrants in the field have supported an organisation that concentrates on the vocational aspects of their practice.

  16. A comparison of severely injured trauma patients admitted to level 1 trauma centres in Queensland and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; Wullschleger, Martin E.; Nielsen, Susan E.; McNamee, Anitia M.; Lefering, Rolf; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Schuetz, Michael A.

    Background: The allocation of a trauma network in Queensland is still in the developmental phase. In a search for indicators to improve trauma care both locally as state-wide, a study was carried out comparing trauma patients in Queensland to trauma patients in Germany, a country with 82.4 million

  17. A comparison of severely injured trauma patients admitted to level 1 trauma centres in Queensland and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; Wullschleger, Martin E.; Nielsen, Susan E.; McNamee, Anitia M.; Lefering, Rolf; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Schuetz, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The allocation of a trauma network in Queensland is still in the developmental phase. In a search for indicators to improve trauma care both locally as state-wide, a study was carried out comparing trauma patients in Queensland to trauma patients in Germany, a country with 82.4 million i

  18. A comparison of severely injured trauma patients admitted to level 1 trauma centres in Queensland and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; Wullschleger, Martin E.; Nielsen, Susan E.; McNamee, Anitia M.; Lefering, Rolf; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Schuetz, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The allocation of a trauma network in Queensland is still in the developmental phase. In a search for indicators to improve trauma care both locally as state-wide, a study was carried out comparing trauma patients in Queensland to trauma patients in Germany, a country with 82.4 million i

  19. Isolated teeth of Anhangueria  (Pterosauria: Pterodactyloidea) from the Lower Cretaceous of Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth T.; Bell, Phil R.

    2017-01-01

    The fossil record of Australian pterosaurs is sparse, consisting of only a small number of isolated and fragmentary remains from the Cretaceous of Queensland, Western Australia and Victoria. Here, we describe two isolated pterosaur teeth from the Lower Cretaceous (middle Albian) Griman Creek Formation at Lightning Ridge (New South Wales) and identify them as indeterminate members of the pterodactyloid clade Anhangueria. This represents the first formal description of pterosaur material from New South Wales. The presence of one or more anhanguerian pterosaurs at Lightning Ridge correlates with the presence of ‘ornithocheirid’ and Anhanguera-like pterosaurs from the contemporaneous Toolebuc Formation of central Queensland and the global distribution attained by ornithocheiroids during the Early Cretaceous. The morphology of the teeth and their presence in the estuarine- and lacustrine-influenced Griman Creek Formation is likely indicative of similar life habits of the tooth bearer to other members of Anhangueria. PMID:28480142

  20. Implementing evidence-based continuous quality improvement strategies in an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in South East Queensland: a best practice implementation pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Sandra; Roe, Yvette; Mills, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Institute for Urban Indigenous Health believes that continuous quality improvement (CQI) contributes to the delivery of high-quality care, thereby improving health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The opening of a new health service in 2015 provided an opportunity to implement best practice CQI strategies and apply them to a regional influenza vaccination campaign. The aim of this project was to implement an evidence-based CQI process within one Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in South East Queensland and use staff engagement as a measure of success. A CQI tool was selected from the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (PACES) to be implemented in the study site. The study site was a newly established Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Service located in the northern suburbs of Brisbane. This project used the evidence-based information collected in PACES to develop a set of questions related to known variables resulting in proven CQI uptake. A pre implementation clinical audit, education and self-directed learning, using the Plan Do Study Act framework, included a total of seven staff and was conducted in April 2015. A post implementation audit was conducted in July 2015. There were a total of 11 pre- and post-survey respondents which included representation from most of the clinical team and medical administration. The results of the pre implementation audit identified a number of possible areas to improve engagement with the CQI process including staff training and support, understanding CQI and its impacts on individual work areas, understanding clinical data extraction, clinical indicator benchmarking, strong internal leadership and having an external data extractor. There were improvements to all audit criteria in the post-survey, for example, knowledge regarding the importance of CQI activity, attendance at education and training sessions on CQI

  1. Frequency of pancreatic amyloid deposition in cats from south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T A; Ainscow, J; Rand, J S

    1994-08-01

    Stereological procedures were used to estimate the amount of amyloid deposition in the pancreatic islets of 83 cats from random sources in south-eastern Queensland. Most had only minor deposits of less than 20% of islet volume (median 9%), but deposits equal to more than 50% of the islet volume were found in 10% of the cats. Amyloid deposition in pancreatic islets was correlated with the age of the cat. Although similar observations have been made previously in cats from the USA, the frequency of amyloid deposition was higher in this population of cats from south-eastern Queensland.

  2. Drop Tower Facility at Queensland University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility is a {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}2.1 second, 21.3 m fall, dual capsule drop tower system. The dual capsule comprises of an uncoupled exterior hollow drag shield that experiences drag by the ambient atmosphere with the experimental capsule falling within the drag shield. The dual capsule system is lifted to the top of the drop tower via a mechanical crane and the dropping process is initiated by the cutting of a wire coupling the experimental package and suspending the drag shield. The internal experimental capsule reaches the bottom of the drag shield floor just prior to the deceleration stage at the air bag and during this time experience gravity levels of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{-6} g. The deceleration system utilizes an inflatable airbag where experimental packages can be designed to experience a maximum deceleration of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{18} g for {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.1 seconds. The drag shield can house experimental packages with a maximum diameter of 0.8 m and height of 0.9 m. The drag shield can also be used in foam mode, where the walls are lined with foam and small experiments can be dropped completely untethered. This mode is generally used for the study of microsatellite manipulation. Payloads can be powered by on-board power systems with power delivered to the experiment until free fall occurs. Experimental data that can be collected includes but is not limited to video, temperature, pressure, voltage/current from the power supply, and triggering mechanisms outputs which are simultaneously collected via data logging systems and high speed video recording systems. Academic and commercial projects are currently under investigation at the QUT Drop Tower Facility and collaboration is openly welcome at this facility. Current research includes the study of heterogeneously burning metals in oxygen which is aimed at fire safety applications and

  3. Realization of Shor's algorithm on an optical quantum computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research team led by Prof. PAN Jianwei with the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), CAS has been successful in performing Shor's algorithm, a quantum algorithm for factorization, in an optical quantum computer. The feat is also independently made by another team led by Andrew White from the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. Both results were published in the 19 December, 2007 issue of Physics Review Newsletters.

  4. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Ball L; Crowley J; Laur C; Rajput-Ray M; Gillam S; Ray S

    2014-01-01

    Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary C...

  5. Immune Analysis of Brisbane and California H1N1 in Human Sera and the MIMIC System, and Correlating a H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Clinical Trial with a Clinical Trial in a Test Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Cal. Brisbane Wisc . Brisbane Wisc adult 0.86 0.87 0.98 0.98 0.94 0.57 0.99 0.69 elderly 0.94 0.96 0.83 0.84 0.63 0.92 1.00 0.97 24 MIMIC® samples...culture (Figure 29). This result Tr yp an b lu e n eg at iv e ce lls ( % r ec o ve re d ) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 3ng 500ng 166ng

  6. The Queensland experience of participation in a national drug use evaluation project, Community-acquired pneumonia – towards improving outcomes nationally (CAPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tett Susan E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Methods Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing. A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention. At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Results Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor, recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at

  7. Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Mirtschin, Peter; Pearn, John

    2006-12-01

    It was not until the last decade of the 19th century that an experimental approach (led by Bancroft in Queensland and Martin in Sydney and Melbourne) brought a higher plane of scientific objectivity to usher in the modern era of Australian toxinology. This Australia era, 1895-1905, coincided with and in some respects was the result of the new knowledge emerging from Europe and the Americas of the therapeutic effects of antitoxins. The subsequent systematic study of Australian venoms and toxins through to the 1930s and beyond, by Tidswell, Fairley, Ross, Kellaway and Cleland, set the foundation for Australia's leading reputation in venom research. As elsewhere, this development was to revolutionise the medical management of those victims who in the past had died in Australia from our venomous and toxic fauna. Morgan, Graydon, Weiner, Lane and Baxter at the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories emphasised the importance of cooperation between those expert at catching and milking the venomous creatures and those developing the antivenoms. Commercial antivenom manufacture began in Australia in 1930 with the tiger snake antivenom. This was followed by other antivenoms for the other important species (1955: taipan; 1956: brown snake; 1958: death adder; 1959: Papuan black snake; 1961: sea snake; 1962: polyvalent) including the first marine antivenoms in the world (1956: stonefish antivenom; 1970: box jellyfish) culminating, in 1980, with the release of the funnel web spider antivenom. More recent activity has focused on veterinary antivenoms and production of new generation human antivenoms for export (CroFab and ViperaTAB). This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century.

  8. Public health response to a measles outbreak in a large correctional facility, Queensland, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Madhumati; Baldwin, Anne M; Prakash, Rajendra; Vlack, Susan A; Lambert, Stephen B

    2014-12-31

    This report documents the prompt, co-ordinated and effective public health response to a measles outbreak in Queensland in 2013. There were 17 cases in a large, high-security, regional correctional facility, a setting with unique challenges. Recommendations are provided to reduce the likelihood and magnitude of measles outbreaks in correctional facilities.

  9. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  10. The Health Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (QLD) and Queensland's health assets privatisation dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    'New legislation in Queensland has provided a "pathway" for the privatisation of health assets and services in Queensland, which effectively realigns the health care system to the financial market. This column explores how this legislation contained the antecedents of the Queensland doctors' dispute when doctors roundly rejected new employment contracts in February 2014. It also argues that such legislation and its attendant backlash provides a valuable case study in view of the federal government's 2014 budget offer to the States of extra funding if they sell their health assets to fund new infrastructure. The move to privatise health in Queensland has also resulted in a government assault on the ethical credibility of the opposing medical profession and changes to the health complaints system with the introduction of a Health Ombudsman under ministerial control. The column examines these changes in light of R (Heather) v Leonard Cheshire Foundation [2001] EWHC Admin 429, a case concerning the obligations of a private entity towards publically funded clients in the United Kingdom. In discussing concerns about the impact of privatisation on the medical profession, the column points to a stark conflict between the duty to operate hospitals as a business rather than as a duty to patients.

  11. Journey to the centre of the earth: coal seam gas in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dighton, P.

    1998-12-31

    Coal Seam Gas (CSG) is potentially an important energy source of the future. In addition to being a valuable energy source, the utilisation of CSG will also decrease significantly the adverse greenhouse effects of venting CSG to the atmosphere. Although CSG is presently being recovered and utilised in both Queensland and New South Wales, its economic viability at the moment is marginal. However technological advances or fiscal incentives could see this change rapidly. At present most of the Queensland coal fields have overlapping petroleum tenures. While this has not presented significant conflicts to date, holders of Authorities To Prospect are automatically entitled to production leases from discovery of petroleum, including coal seam gas, deposits. The Queensland government has addressed this potential conflict by producing a `final position` paper. One of the main proposals is to protect the coal mining industry by the declaration of CSG areas and strata titling of the relevant interests. The legislation, presently being drafted for submission to the new Queensland Parliament, is outlined.

  12. Queensland Year 2 Diagnostic Net and Teachers' Explanations of Literacy Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robyn W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined ways early childhood teachers in three Australian schools rationalized children's literacy failure on Queensland's Year 2 Diagnostic Net. Found that teachers' narratives clustered into three groups: blaming families, blaming children, and moving beyond blame to focus on teaching; all teachers based pedagogical intervention decisions on a…

  13. Exploring Information Experience Using Social Media during the 2011 Queensland Floods: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Sharon; Partridge, Helen; Davis, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Social media networks have emerged as a powerful tool in allowing collaboration and sharing of information during times of crisis (Axel Bruns, The Centre for Creative Industries Blog, comment posted January 19, 2011). The 2011 Queensland floods provided a unique opportunity to explore social media use during an emergency. This paper presents the…

  14. Eight new species of Macvicaria Gibson and Bray, 1982 (Digenea: Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Aken’Ova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine morphologically distinct species of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 were recovered from six families, ten genera and twelve species of marine fishes in the waters off the coast of Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia: M. shotteri n. sp. in Apogon fasciatus (type-host, Sillaginodes punctatus and Sillago bassensis from Moreton Bay (type-locality, off southern Western Australia and off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. mekistomorphe n. sp. in Sillago maculata from Moreton Bay; M. mutovitellina n. sp. in Dactylophora nigricans from off southern Western Australia; M. flexuomeatus n. sp. in Goniistius gibbosus (type-host and Cheilodactylus rubrolabiatus from southern Western Australia; M. vitellocopiosa n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus from off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. dextrocaula n. sp. in Notolabrus parilus (type-host and N. fucicola (Richardson (Labridae from off southern Western Australia (type-locality and Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. heronensis Bray & Cribb, 1989 in Trachinotus coppingeri off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; M. adomeae n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. kingscotensis n. sp. in Neoodax balteatus (type-host and Haletta semifasciata off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. We have used the following characters to distinguish between the species of Macvicaria: general body form; length/width ratio; size of cirrussac; length of forebody; post-testicular extent of caeca; egg size; and the position of the genital pore. Most of the species of Macvicaria showed interspecific differences in all of the characters enumerated, the most dramatic being in the position of the genital pore in one species. All 11 specimens recovered from 2 species of Notolabrus were found to have a dextral genital pore. This is the second report of amphitypy in the Opecoelidae. All of the host species, apart from Apogon fasciatus, are endemic to Australian or Australian and New Zealand

  15. Curriculum and Assessment for the Knowledge Society: Interrogating Experiences in the Republic of Ireland and Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Anne; Klenowski, Val

    2008-01-01

    The "knowledge society" has become a central discourse within educational reform. This article posits that the impact of the knowledge society discourse on curriculum and assessment has led to the emergence of what the authors term a new-form/re-form curriculum, and it asks whether what is transacting in contemporary movements in…

  16. Use of pooled samples to assess human exposure to parabens, benzophenone-3 and triclosan in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, A L; Baduel, C; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, benzophenone-3 and triclosan are common ingredients used as preservatives, ultraviolet radiation filters and antimicrobial agents, respectively. Human exposure occurs through consumption of processed food and use of cosmetics and consumer products. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of exposure to selected personal care product chemicals in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total (sum of free plus conjugated) species of methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben, benzophenone-3 and triclosan were quantified using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry; with geometric means 232, 33.5, 60.6, 4.32, 61.5 and 87.7ng/mL, respectively. Age was inversely associated with paraben concentration, and females had concentrations approximately two times higher than males. Total paraben and benzophenone-3 concentrations are significantly higher than reported worldwide, and the average triclosan concentration was more than one order of magnitude higher than in many other populations. This study provides the first data on exposure of the general Australian population to a range of common personal care product chemical ingredients, which appears to be prevalent and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to learn with farmers : a case study of an adult learning extension project conducted in Queensland, Australia 1990 - 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the relationship between the use of participatory processes in the development and use of information and knowledge and their impact on change is described and explored. This research utilises a major extension project carried out with respect to fallow management in

  18. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (expansive flat surface generally referred to as the floodplain. Variously described as benches, bank attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  19. Learning to learn with farmers : a case study of an adult learning extension project conducted in Queensland, Australia 1990 - 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the relationship between the use of participatory processes in the development and use of information and knowledge and their impact on change is described and explored. This research utilises a major extension project carried out with respect to fallow management in souther

  20. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; King, Mark; Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  1. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  2. Improving education and supervision of Queensland X-ray Operators through video conference technology: A teleradiography pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, Marnie; Oliver, Tanya; Pighills, Alison; Lindsay, Daniel

    2017-04-13

    X-ray Operator (XO) supervision in Queensland is performed by radiographers in a site removed from the XO site. This has historically been performed by telephone when the XO requires immediate help, as well as post-examination through radiographer review and the provision of written feedback on images produced. This project aimed to improve image quality through the provision of real-time support of XOs by the introduction of video conference (VC) supervision. A 6-month pilot project compared image quality with and without VC supervision. VC equipment was installed in the X-ray room at two rural sites, as well as at the radiographer site, to enable visual and oral supervision. The VC unit enabled visualisation of the X-ray examination technique as it was being undertaken, as well as the images produced prior to transmission to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Statistically significant improvement in image quality criteria measures were seen for patient positioning (P = 0.008), image quality (P radiographer for assistance, although, assistance was actually provided in 88.3% of examinations. This project has demonstrated that significant improvement in image quality is achievable with VC supervision. A larger study with a control arm that did not receive direct supervision should be used to validate the findings of this study. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  3. Multibeam collection for KM0702: Multibeam data collected aboard Kilo Moana from 2007-02-13 to 2007-03-10, departing from Brisbane, Australia and returning to Townsville, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. A revision of the Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) species complex (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae) with five new species from eastern and northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Lindsay W

    2017-05-10

    The identity of Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) is re-examined and this species is redescribed. Five new species belonging to the genus Ewartia Moulds are described. Ewartia oldfieldi s. str. occurs in association with wattles (Acacia spp.; Mimosaceae) with large or fleshy phyllodes growing in soils derived from sandstone and coarse-grained metasediments throughout the south-eastern third of Queensland. Ewartia roberti n. sp. is associated with wattles that possess narrow or delicate phyllodes, growing in loam soils in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. Ewartia lapidosa n. sp. occurs in dryer inland and semi-arid areas between Croydon in northern Queensland and the Capertee Valley in central New South Wales where it occurs on various wattles growing in hard, rocky soils, including those derived from laterite and sandstone. Ewartia etesia n. sp. occurs principally on wattles growing along drainage lines in the Top End of the Northern Territory and the eastern edge of the Kimberley in Western Australia. Ewartia thamna n. sp. occurs in low, shrubby vegetation (presumably on wattles) in gravelly soils on low rises and along floodplains at the southern edge of the Top End in the Northern Territory. Ewartia carina n. sp. occurs in transitional habitats with tropical rainforest elements on the eastern edge of Cape York Peninsula in north Queensland. The distinctive, sometimes variable and typically complex calling songs specific to each of the species are illustrated and documented as part of these descriptions and comparisons.

  5. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Cornish, Lisa Michelle; Fearnley, Emily; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001–2012) and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations. PMID:26393508

  6. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012 and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  7. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  8. Peracreadium akenovae sp. nov. (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) parasitising the highfin moray eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) from Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C

    2013-09-01

    A new opecoelid trematode, Peracreadium akenovae sp. nov., is described from the highfin moray eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) (Anguilliformes; Muraenidae), collected from Moreton Bay off southeast Queensland, Australia. The new species is distinctive in its body shape, transversely elongate irregular testes, vitelline follicles interrupted at the level of the ventral sucker, and diverticulate excretory vesicle. The Muraenidae is a new host family for Peracreadium Nicoll, 1909. Peracreadium is the seventh opecoelid genus reported from temperate eastern Australian marine fishes and this is its first report from Australian waters.

  9. Seven species of Pseudopecoeloides Yamaguti, 1940 (Digenea, Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia, including five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Aken’Ova

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Pseudopecoeloides including five new are described from marine fishes in the waters off the coasts of Queensland, and West and South Australia. The new species are Pseudopecoeloides hickmani n. sp. from Pseudocaranx wrighti (Carangidae, P. lesteri n. sp. from Pseudocaranx dentex and Pseudocaranx wrighti, P. arripi n. sp. from Arripis georgianus (Arripidae, P. atherinomori n. sp. from Atherinonmorus ogilbyi (Atherinidae, P, hafeezullahi n. sp. from Trachurus novaezealandiae (Carangidae. Pseudopecoeloides scomberi Hafeezullah, 1971, which was transferred to Opecoeloides (Odhner, 1928 by Madhavi (1975 is reported from Scomberoides lysan (Carangidae and returned to Pseudopecoeloides. Pseudopecoeloides tenuis Yamaguti, 1940 is reported from a new host species, Priacanthus macracanthus (Priacanthidae.

  10. Australia's polio risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2014-06-30

    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.

  11. Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Rokeya; Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2017-01-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired) were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0%) were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%). Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2%) during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%), households having rainwater tanks (33.9%), Indigenous population (27.2%), separate houses (26.5%), terrace house types (26.9%) and economically advantage people (42.8%) were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture). Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different ports should

  12. Healthcare in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014.

  13. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  14. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M; Bostrom, Thor E; Bekessy, Lambert K; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant.

  16. Australia in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  17. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  18. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia – to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australia’s contemporary immigration experience.

  19. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  20. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    articles. 45. Volume 10 No. 2 July 2004 - SAJP. Robert M Kaplan, MB ChB, FRANZCP, MA. The Liaison ... World War II, psychoanalysis was brought to Australia by ... (PBS) in which prescribed drugs are subsidised to keep them to the cost of a ...

  1. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  2. Designing Suites of Incentives to Encourage Sustainable Land Management in Rural Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Robinson; Jared Dent; Rob Fearon

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural practices including “grazing and overgrazing in general, agricultural production, water use practices, extensive vegetation clearing, wetland drainage on coastal plains, and development on acid sulphate soils†have been identified in the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan (Australian Government and Queensland Government 2009) as contributing towards nutrient, sediment and toxicant loads entering waterways. The management of the discharge of diffuse or non-point sources of disc...

  3. Music and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair BR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Balakrishnan R Nair,1 William Browne,2 John Marley,3 Christian Heim41University of Newcastle and the Centre for Medical Education, HNE Health, Newcastle, NSW, 2Geriatric Medicine, Eastern Health, Melbourne, VIC, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, 4Toowong Private Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: As the population ages, the prevalence of dementia is increasing. Distressing behavioral problems are often part of the illness. This review considers the available evidence for cognitive effects related to music, evidence for the efficacy of music in the management of behavioral problems in dementia, and evidence about the effects of different types of music, their mode of delivery, and any adverse effects. Live music may be more beneficial than recorded. The effect of music may not be lasting, but there is evidence of benefit in studies, which to date are mostly not of high quality.Keywords: music, dementia, benefit

  4. Aboriginal ‘resistance war’ tactics – ‘The Black War’ of southern Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Constant Kerkhove

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Frontier violence is now an accepted chapter of Australian history.  Indigenous resistance is central to this story, yet little examined as a military phenomenon (Connor 2004.  Indigenous military tactics and objectives are more often assumed than analysed. Building on Laurie’s and Cilento’s contentions (1959 that an alliance of Aboriginal groups staged a ‘Black War’ across southern Queensland between the 1840s and 1860s, the author seeks evidence for a historically definable conflict during this period, complete with a declaration, coordination, leadership, planning and a broader objective: usurping the pastoral industry.   As the Australian situation continues to present elements which have proved difficult to reconcile with existing paradigms for military history, this study applies definitions from guerilla and terrorist conflict (e.g. Eckley 2001, Kilcullen 2009 to explain key features of the southern Queensland “Black War.” The author concludes that Indigenous resistance, to judge from southern Queensland, followed its own distinctive pattern.  It achieved coordinated response through inter-tribal gatherings and sophisticated signaling.  It relied on economic sabotage, targeted payback killings and harassment.  It was guided by reticent “loner-leaders.” Contrary to the claims of military historians such as Dennis (1995, the author finds evidence for tactical innovation.  He notes a move away from pitched battles to ambush affrays; the development of full-time ‘guerilla bands’; and use of new materials.

  5. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IX. Fergusobia rosettae n. sp. on Melaleuca quinquenervia and F. tolgaensis n. sp. on Syzygium luehmannii, from Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Taylor, Gary S; Purcell, Matthew; Thomas, Kelley

    2014-12-01

    Two new species of Fergusobia, collected from 'rosette' shoot bud galls on Melaleuca quinquenervia, and from leaf, stem, leaf and flower bud galls on Syzygium luehmannii, both from the Cairns region of Queensland, Australia, are described. Fergusobia rosettae Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a small, arcuate parthenogenetic female having a short conoid tail with a bluntly rounded tip, an arcuate, relatively slender, infective female with an almost hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate males with arcuate to angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicules and leptoderan bursa arising at 40-50% of body length from tail tip. Fergusobia tolgaensis Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a small open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and arcuate males with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicules and short to mid-length leptoderan bursa. These two species of nematodes are associated with fly larvae that have dorsal shields comprising bars of raised cuticular ridges and spicules, similar to that of fly larvae from the M. leucadendra species group. The shield morphologies of these fly larvae and their possible genetic relationships are discussed. Possible evolutionary relationships of the Fergusobia nematodes from these galls are discussed, considering their morphology, DNA sequences, and the relationships of the associated Fergusonina flies and host plants.

  6. They [do more than] Interrupt Us from Sadness: Exploring the impact of participatory music making on social determinants of health and wellbeing for refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sunderland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the outcomes of an exploratory narrative study on the impact of participatory music making on social determinants of health (SDOH and wellbeing for refugees in Brisbane, Australia. A key component of this exploratory research was to map health and wellbeing outcomes of music participation using an existing SDOH framework developed by researchers in the field of health promotion (Schulz & Northridge, 2004. This paper maps reported health and wellbeing outcomes for five refugee and asylum seeker members of a participatory Brisbane-based music initiative, the Scattered People, along an SDOH continuum ranging from individual level through to macro level fundamental determinants of health.While most themes emerging from this study corresponded to distinct categories in the Schulz and Northridge SDOH framework, three key aspects, which were critical to the achievement of wellbeing for participants, did not fit any of the pre-defined categories. These were: cultural expression, music making, and consolidation of personal and social identity. The importance of those themes to participants suggests that music and wellbeing studies involving culturally diverse groups and from a SDOH perspective may need to consider broader, more relevant concepts. The paper provides recommendations for future interdisciplinary research in this field. 

  7. Changes in water storage in Australia as resolved using GRACE gravity field solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin; Awange, Joseph; Anjasmara, Ira; Kuhn, Michael; Featherstone, Will; Sarukkalige, Priyantha

    2010-05-01

    The GRACE gravity field solutions have been used in several studies to provide some constraint on how terrestrial water storage in Australia is changing, especially given the recent drought that has afflicted much of the country for most of the past decade. In this study we look at four regions of Australia, and compare/contrast how GRACE describes the behaviour of the terrestrial water storage. These areas are the Murray-Darling River Basin (MDRB) in the southeast corner of Australia, one of the primary agricultural regions that have been seriously afflicted by the drought, monsoonal Northern Australia, which has seen an increase in terrestrial water storage, the southwest corner of Western Australia (SWWA), another area of regional agricultural importance and the Lake Eyre district, an area that is usually extremely dry, but experiences occasional flooding. We make use of the mascon solutions from the Goddard Space Science Laboratory, and apply principle component analysis to identify the most important spatial and temporal trend variability in the GRACE solutions. These are in turn compared to other datasets, namely ground truth data such as groundwater levels and river gauges from various government agencies (e.g. the Western Australian Department of Water), as well as precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. Loss of mass, interpreted as a decrease in stored terrestrial water, is identified from the GRACE time series for the MRDB and SWWA, while an increase is seen in the monsoonal north, with significant mass fluctuations noted around Lake Eyre which are correlated with flooding events in other parts of Australia, e.g. Queensland.

  8. Population options for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, P

    1999-01-01

    In an address to the Australian Population Association Biennial Conference during October 1998, the Immigration and Multicultural Affairs Minister Philip Ruddock argued that neither the zero net overseas migration policy nor the massive boost in immigration are in the national interest of Australia. Environmental groups generally view that Australia should adopt a policy of zero net overseas migration. On the other hand, business and industry bodies consider that a substantial increase in the migration intake is needed in order to increase economic growth and to reduce the impact of an aging population. Moreover, some are concerned about population targets reaching up to 50 million in 50 years time. Thus, management of immigration policy is a difficult balancing act between competing objectives. The Minister concluded that their immigration program must operate on a totally global and nondiscriminatory basis regarding matters such as race, religion, color, and ethnic origin.

  9. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  10. Year book Australia 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castles, I. (comp.)

    1986-01-01

    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all asepcts of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence, international relations, culture and environment. The first Official Year Book was published early in 1908. This is the seventieth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1984 to 1985. More detailed, and in most cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications.

  11. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  12. American Outlaws in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  13. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  14. The regolith in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, C. D.

    1988-12-01

    Australian regolith materials are described, many of which are complex. Much Australian regolith dates back to the Tertiary, Mesozoic or earlier. There is a progressive change in the nature of alluvium through the Tertiary. Aridity, revealed through sand dunes and evaporites, is confined to the Quaternary. Ferricretes and silcretes are formed on lower slopes, often followed by inversion of relief. Tectonic isolation of Australia as well as climatic change is responsible for the change in the nature of terrestrial sediments since the Cretaceous.

  15. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere.

  16. Weather variability, tides, and Barmah Forest virus disease in the Gladstone region, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S; McMichael, Anthony J; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-05-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (b=0.15, p-value<0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (b=-1.03, p-value=0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention.

  17. Regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall across Australia - implications for intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships are commonly required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently, IFD information is based on the "stationary climate assumption" that weather at any point in time will vary randomly and that the underlying climate statistics (including both averages and extremes) will remain constant irrespective of the period of record. However, the validity of this assumption has been questioned over the last 15 years, particularly in Australia, following an improved understanding of the significant impact of climate variability and change occurring on interannual to multidecadal timescales. This paper provides evidence of regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall time series (between 1913-2010) using 96 daily rainfall stations and 66 sub-daily rainfall stations across Australia. Furthermore, the effect of these regime shifts on the resulting IFD estimates are explored for three long-term (1913-2010) sub-daily rainfall records (Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne) utilizing insights into multidecadal climate variability. It is demonstrated that IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall depending on the length and time period spanned by the rainfall data used to develop the IFD information. It is recommended that regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall be explicitly considered and appropriately treated in the ongoing revisions of the Engineers Australia guide to estimating and utilizing IFD information, Australian Rainfall and Runoff (ARR), and that clear guidance needs to be provided on how to deal with the issue of regime shifts in extreme events (irrespective of whether this is due to natural or anthropogenic climate change). The findings of our study also have important implications for other regions of the world that exhibit considerable hydroclimatic variability and where IFD information is based on relatively short data sets.

  18. Vincristine sulfate liposomal injection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosay Raj TA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Trisha A Soosay Raj,1 Amanda M Smith,2 Andrew S Moore,1,21Royal Children's Hospital, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: Vincristine (VCR is one of the most extensively used cytotoxic compounds in hemato-oncology. VCR is particularly important for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, a disease that accounts for approximately one-third of all childhood cancer diagnoses. VCR's full therapeutic potential has been limited by dose-limiting neurotoxicity, classically resulting in autonomic and peripheral sensory–motor neuropathy. In the last decade, however, the discovery that liposomal encapsulation of chemotherapeutics can modulate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a compound has stimulated much interest in liposomal VCR (vincristine sulfate liposomal injection [VSLI] formulations for the treatment of ALL and other hematological malignancies. Promising data from recent clinical trials investigating VSLI in adults with ALL resulted in US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (t[9;22]/BCR–ABL1 (Ph-negative (Ph- disease. Additional clinical trials of VSLI in adults and children with both Ph-positive (Ph+ and Ph- ALL are ongoing. Here we review the preclinical and clinical experience to date with VSLI for ALL.Keywords: vincristine sulfate liposomal injection, liposomes, sphingosomal vincristine, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chemotherapy

  19. Is Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  20. Patterns of care for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: Queensland's experience over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Samantha; Moore, Julie; Dunn, Nathan; Effeney, Rachel; Harden, Hazel; McCarthy, Alexandra; Walpole, Euan; Lehman, Margot

    2017-10-01

    To review management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast in Queensland, with reference to breast conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). In addition, we examined the incidence of invasive breast cancer recurrence and factors predictive of invasive recurrence. A retrospective review of the Queensland Oncology Repository identified women with resected DCIS (TisN0) ± adjuvant RT between 2003 and 2012. Time to invasive breast cancer recurrence was analysed using the Kaplan Meier method. Median follow-up was 4.9 years. 3038 women had surgery. 940 (31%) had mastectomy and 2098 (69%) underwent BCS. Of 2098 women having BCS, 1100 (52%) received BCS alone and 998(48%) received adjuvant RT. The use of RT significantly increased over the decade from 25% to 62% (p=<0.001). Clinicopathological factors associated with RT use on multivariate analysis included age ≤70, higher socioeconomic status, larger tumour size, higher nuclear grade and surgical margins ≤5 mm. Invasive breast cancer recurrence at 5 years was 1.7% [95% CI 1.0-3.0] in RT group versus 2.8% [95% CI 2.1-3.8] in BCS alone group. Factors associated with increased risk of invasive recurrence on multivariate analysis were age <40 and surgical margins ≤2 mm. The use of adjuvant RT in Queensland significantly increased between 2003 and 2012. Selection of patients for RT was based on clinicopathological factors associated with higher recurrence risk. Although longer follow-up is required, the selective use of radiation therapy after BCS is associated with a low rate of invasive breast cancer recurrence at 5 years. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New perspectives on targeted therapy in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coward JIG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jermaine IG Coward,1–3 Kathryn Middleton,1 Felicity Murphy1 1Mater Health Services, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Inflammtion and Cancer Therapeutics Group, Mater Research, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. During the last 15 years, there has been only marginal improvement in 5 year overall survival. These daunting statistics are compounded by the fact that despite all subtypes exhibiting striking heterogeneity, their systemic management remains identical. Although changes to the scheduling and administration of chemotherapy have improved outcomes to a degree, a therapeutic ceiling is being reached with this approach, resulting in a number of trials investigating the efficacy of targeted therapies alongside standard treatment algorithms. Furthermore, there is an urge to develop subtype-specific studies in an attempt to improve outcomes, which currently remain poor. This review summarizes the key studies with antiangiogenic agents, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor family targeting, in addition to folate receptor antagonists and insulin growth factor receptor inhibitors. The efficacy of treatment paradigms used in non-ovarian malignancies for type I tumors is also highlighted, in addition to recent advances in appropriate patient stratification for targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer. Keywords: antiangiogenic therapy, high-grade serous, low grade ovarian cancer, PARP inhibition, cancer-related inflammation

  2. Fresh Ideas for Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With Kevin Rudd at the helm,Australia seems poised to embrace major changesAustralia’s prime minister-elect Kevin Rudd has caught the atten- tion of the Chinese with his modest appearance,fluent Mandarin and personal bonds with China. Rudd,50,graduated from the Australian National University in Canberra, where he majored in Chinese language and history.He is the first Mandarin-speaking leader from an English-speaking country and is known in China by the elegant name Lu Kewen.As a diplomat,he worked in the Australian Embassy in Beijing in the 1980s.

  3. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  4. Generalised pollination systems for three invasive milkweeds in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Johnson, S D

    2013-05-01

    Because most plants require pollinator visits for seed production, the ability of an introduced plant species to establish pollinator relationships in a new ecosystem may have a central role in determining its success or failure as an invader. We investigated the pollination ecology of three milkweed species - Asclepias curassavica, Gomphocarpus fruticosus and G. physocarpus - in their invaded range in southeast Queensland, Australia. The complex floral morphology of milkweeds has often been interpreted as a general trend towards specialised pollination requirements. Based on this interpretation, invasion by milkweeds contradicts the expectation than plant species with specialised pollination systems are less likely to become invasive that those with more generalised pollination requirements. However, observations of flower visitors in natural populations of the three study species revealed that their pollination systems are essentially specialised at the taxonomic level of the order, but generalised at the species level. Specifically, pollinators of the two Gomphocarpus species included various species of Hymenoptera (particularly vespid wasps), while pollinators of A. curassavica were primarily Lepidoptera (particularly nymphalid butterflies). Pollinators of all three species are rewarded with copious amounts of highly concentrated nectar. It is likely that successful invasion by these three milkweed species is attributable, at least in part, to their generalised pollinator requirements. The results of this study are discussed in terms of how data from the native range may be useful in predicting pollination success of species in a new environment.

  5. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  6. The role of fruit bats in the transmission of pathogenic leptospires in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Cobbold, R N; Graham, G C

    2011-01-01

    Although antileptospiral antibodies and leptospiral DNA have been detected in Australian fruit bats, the role of such bats as infectious hosts for the leptospires found in rodents and humans remains unconfirmed. A cohort-design, replicated survey was recently conducted in Far North Queensland......, Australia, to determine if the abundance and leptospiral status of rodents were affected by association with colonies of fruit bats (Pteropus conspicillatus spp.) via rodent contact with potentially infectious fruit-bat urine. In each of four study areas, a 'colony site' that included a fruit-bat colony...... and the land within 1500 m of the colony was compared with a 'control site' that held no fruit-bat colonies and was >2000 m from the nearest edge of the colony site. Rodents were surveyed, for a total of 2400 trap-nights, over six sampling sessions between September 2007 and September 2008. A low abundance...

  7. Continuing professional development in nursing in Australia: current awareness, practice and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, Mary; McAllister, Margaret; Sharman, Rachael; Raith, Lisa; Faithfull-Byrne, Annette; Priaulx, Rae

    2013-08-01

    Australian nurses and midwives are expected to compile a professional development portfolio during their annual registration process. This study aimed to ascertain the current understanding, practice and future continuing professional development (CPD) needs of nurses and midwives employed in a regional area of Queensland, Australia. Perceived barriers and incentives for CPD were also measured. 289 public and private hospital nurses and midwives responded to the survey. Results showed that participants understood the new requirements, valued ongoing learning, preferred education to occur within work hours, and considered their workplaces as accepting of change. Approximately two-thirds of participants believed CPD should be shared between them and their employers. Barriers to undertaking CPD included understaffing, and the concern that CPD would interfere with time outside work. Organisational support positively influenced attitudes to CPD. This study highlights the importance of supportive management in encouraging their workforce to embrace ongoing learning and change.

  8. Six genetically distinct clades of Palola (Eunicidae, Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Anja

    2015-09-18

    A total of 36 lots of Palola spp. (Eunicidae, Annelida) were collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Of these, 21 specimens were sequenced for a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. These sequences were analysed in conjunction with existing sequences of Palola spp. from other geographic regions. The samples from Lizard Island form six distinct clades, although none of them can clearly be assigned to any of the nominal species. Four of the six Lizard Island clades fall into species group A and the remaining two into species group B (which also includes the type species, Palola viridis). All sequenced specimens were characterized morphologically as far as possible and a dichotomous key was assembled. Based on this key, the remaining samples were identified as belonging to one of the clades.

  9. The strange case of Laetesia raveni n. sp., a green linyphiid spider from Eastern Australia with a preference for thorny plants (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...... muelleri Wendland (Arecaceae) and Solanum inaequilaterum Domin, (Solanaceae), both of them densely covered with thorns. The epigynal morphology of Laetesia raveni n. sp. varies intraspecifically. Live individuals and several of their dome-shaped sheet webs are illustrated....

  10. Staff Burnout--a Comparative Study of Metropolitan and Rural Mental Health Nurses within Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charanjit; Cross, Wendy; Jackson, Debra

    2015-07-01

    This article will present the findings of a research study that investigated the extent to which mental health nurses employed within rural and metropolitan areas of Australia are affected by burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and a demographic questionnaire. The study also examined whether the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was a valid measure of mental health burnout within the Australian context and culture or alternatively, in what ways it needed to be refined? A cross-sectional study of mental health nurses (n  =  319) from the states of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia was undertaken. The 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout and a demographic questionnaire utilising a cluster sampling, cross-sectional design survey method, was used to gather the data. The study found that gender and level of qualification were the two major factors that showed any significance, where males experienced a higher level of depersonalisation on the frequency and intensity sub-scale scores of the MBI and that the more qualified a nurse, the greater the level of depersonalisation they experienced. These results were true for participants in both rural and metropolitan settings within Australia. Age was the third most influencing factor in terms of emotional exhaustion, where younger participants (under 30) reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion. Younger male mental health nurses experienced higher levels of depersonalisation.

  11. Human rights trauma and the mental health of West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick M; Tay, Kuowei; Kareth, Moses

    2013-08-19

    To document the extent and nature of human rights violations and other traumatic events reported by West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia and to assess trauma-related psychological disorders, distress and disability. Australian-based sample, mixed-methods design with 44 participants, conducted in Australia between October 2007 and November 2010 in communities in North Queensland and Melbourne. West Papuan refugees aged 18 years and over (88% response rate). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) and premigration potentially traumatic events (PTEs), psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K10]), post-migration living difficulties, days out of role. Of the 44 West Papuan refugees, 40 reported one or more PTE, including inability to access medical care for family (40), lack of food and water (39) and lack of access to medical treatment (38). The most frequent postmigration stressors were separation from and worries about family members remaining in West Papua (43) and being unable to return home in an emergency because of ongoing conflict (41). Twenty-six participants reached a lower threshold for PTSD symptoms of 2.0, and 13 reached the clinical threshold of 2.5. Fourteen reported severe psychological distress. West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia report a wide range of premigration PTEs including human rights violations, as well as symptoms of PTSD and distress. The data add to concerns about the state of human rights and mental health among West Papuans.

  12. The paleoclimate context and future trajectory of extreme summer hydroclimate in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Cook, Edward R.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Allen, Kathryn; Fenwick, Pavla; O'Donnell, Alison; Lough, Janice M.; Grierson, Pauline F.; Ho, Michelle; Baker, Patrick J.

    2016-11-01

    Eastern Australia recently experienced an intense drought (Millennium Drought, 2003-2009) and record-breaking rainfall and flooding (austral summer 2010-2011). There is some limited evidence for a climate change contribution to these events, but such analyses are hampered by the paucity of information on long-term natural variability. Analyzing a new reconstruction of summer (December-January-February) Palmer Drought Severity Index (the Australia-New Zealand Drought Atlas; ANZDA, 1500-2012 Common Era), we find moisture deficits during the Millennium Drought fall within the range of the last 500 years of natural hydroclimate variability. This variability includes periods of multidecadal drought in the 1500s more persistent than any event in the historical record. However, the severity of the Millennium Drought, which was caused by autumn (March-April-May) precipitation declines, may be underestimated in the ANZDA because the reconstruction is biased toward summer and antecedent spring (September-October-November) precipitation. The pluvial in 2011, however, which was characterized by extreme summer rainfall faithfully captured by the ANZDA, is likely the wettest year in the reconstruction for Coastal Queensland. Climate projections (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 scenario) suggest that eastern Australia will experience long-term drying during the 21st century. While the contribution of anthropogenic forcing to recent extremes remains an open question, these projections indicate an amplified risk of multiyear drought anomalies matching or exceeding the intensity of the Millennium Drought.

  13. Predictors of suicides occurring within suicide clusters in Australia, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Cheung, Yee Tak; Spittal, Matthew J; Williamson, Michelle Kate; Tung, Sui Jay; Pirkis, Jane

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated the presence of suicide clusters, but few have sought to identify risk and protective factors of a suicide occurring within a cluster. We aimed to identify socio-demographic and contextual characteristics of suicide clusters from national and regional analyses of suicide clusters. We searched the National Coroners Information System for all suicides in Australia from 2004 to 2008. Scan statistics were initially used to identify those deaths occurring within a spatial-temporal suicide cluster during the period. We then used logistic regression and generalized estimation equations to estimate the odds of each suicide occurring within a cluster differed by sex, age, marital status, employment status, Indigenous status, method of suicide and location. We identified 258 suicides out of 10,176 suicides during the period that we classified as being within a suicide cluster. When the deceased was Indigenous, living outside a capital city, or living in the northern part of Australia (in particular, Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia) then there was an increased likelihood of their death occurring within a suicide cluster. These findings suggest that suicide clustering might be linked with geographical and Indigenous factors, which supported sociological explanations of suicide clustering. This finding is significant for justifying resource allocation for tackling suicide clustering in particular areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying phytogeographical regions of Australia using geospatial turnover in species composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E González-Orozco

    Full Text Available The largest digitized dataset of land plant distributions in Australia assembled to date (750,741 georeferenced herbarium records; 6,043 species was used to partition the Australian continent into phytogeographical regions. We used a set of six widely distributed vascular plant groups and three non-vascular plant groups which together occur in a variety of landscapes/habitats across Australia. Phytogeographical regions were identified using quantitative analyses of species turnover, the rate of change in species composition between sites, calculated as Simpson's beta. We propose six major phytogeographical regions for Australia: Northern, Northern Desert, Eremaean, Eastern Queensland, Euronotian and South-Western. Our new phytogeographical regions show a spatial agreement of 65% with respect to previously defined phytogeographical regions of Australia. We also confirm that these new regions are in general agreement with the biomes of Australia and other contemporary biogeographical classifications. To assess the meaningfulness of the proposed phytogeographical regions, we evaluated how they relate to broad scale environmental gradients. Physiographic factors such as geology do not have a strong correspondence with our proposed regions. Instead, we identified climate as the main environmental driver. The use of an unprecedentedly large dataset of multiple plant groups, coupled with an explicit quantitative analysis, makes this study novel and allows an improved historical bioregionalization scheme for Australian plants. Our analyses show that: (1 there is considerable overlap between our results and older biogeographic classifications; (2 phytogeographical regions based on species turnover can be a powerful tool to further partition the landscape into meaningful units; (3 further studies using phylogenetic turnover metrics are needed to test the taxonomic areas.

  15. Quantifying phytogeographical regions of Australia using geospatial turnover in species composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Orozco, Carlos E; Ebach, Malte C; Laffan, Shawn; Thornhill, Andrew H; Knerr, Nunzio J; Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; Cargill, Christine C; Clements, Mark; Nagalingum, Nathalie S; Mishler, Brent D; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    The largest digitized dataset of land plant distributions in Australia assembled to date (750,741 georeferenced herbarium records; 6,043 species) was used to partition the Australian continent into phytogeographical regions. We used a set of six widely distributed vascular plant groups and three non-vascular plant groups which together occur in a variety of landscapes/habitats across Australia. Phytogeographical regions were identified using quantitative analyses of species turnover, the rate of change in species composition between sites, calculated as Simpson's beta. We propose six major phytogeographical regions for Australia: Northern, Northern Desert, Eremaean, Eastern Queensland, Euronotian and South-Western. Our new phytogeographical regions show a spatial agreement of 65% with respect to previously defined phytogeographical regions of Australia. We also confirm that these new regions are in general agreement with the biomes of Australia and other contemporary biogeographical classifications. To assess the meaningfulness of the proposed phytogeographical regions, we evaluated how they relate to broad scale environmental gradients. Physiographic factors such as geology do not have a strong correspondence with our proposed regions. Instead, we identified climate as the main environmental driver. The use of an unprecedentedly large dataset of multiple plant groups, coupled with an explicit quantitative analysis, makes this study novel and allows an improved historical bioregionalization scheme for Australian plants. Our analyses show that: (1) there is considerable overlap between our results and older biogeographic classifications; (2) phytogeographical regions based on species turnover can be a powerful tool to further partition the landscape into meaningful units; (3) further studies using phylogenetic turnover metrics are needed to test the taxonomic areas.

  16. Seasonal reproduction in wild and captive male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in south-east Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Camryn D; de Villiers, Deidré L; Manning, Brett D; Dique, David S; Burridge, Michelle; Chafer, Mandy L; Nicolson, Vere N; Jago, Sophia C; McKinnon, Allan J; Booth, Rosemary J; McKee, Jeff J; Pyne, Michael J; Zee, Yeng Peng; Lundie-Jenkins, Geoff; Theilemann, Peter; Wilson, Richard J; Carrick, Frank N; Johnston, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    The effects of breeding season (late spring to early autumn) on south-east Queensland male koala fertility were examined to improve the efficacy of the AI procedure and to determine the practicality of using free-range animals as semen donors for a genome resource bank. Seasonal changes in male koala reproductive function were assessed in a wild free-range population (n = 14; obtained every 6 weeks from January to November 2005), a necropsied healthy wild population (n = 84; obtained monthly from September 2004 to August 2005) and a captive population (n = 7; obtained monthly from October 2005 to October 2006). Reproductive parameters investigated included bodyweight, coat score, sternal gland area and activity, testosterone secretion, reproductive anatomy volume and semen quality (before and after cryopreservation). Collectively, these findings show that reproduction in male koalas from south-east Queensland changes seasonally and that winter appears to be the optimal season in which to collect semen samples by electroejaculation. While it was possible to repeatedly collect semen from free-range koalas for future genetic management via potential storage in a genome resource bank, the survival of these spermatozoa after cryopreservation was poor and will require further improvement.

  17. Work engagement in cancer workers in Queensland: the flip side of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael G; Poulsen, Anne A; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Poulsen, Emma E; Khan, Shanchita R

    2011-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate factors associated with work engagement and burnout in cancer workers in Queensland. A cross-sectional survey of 579 cancer workers in Queensland was undertaken. Burnout was measured using the Oldenberg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and work engagement was measured using the Utrecht Work and Well-being Survey. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify explanatory variables that were independently associated with burnout and work engagement. The survey response rate was 57%. Total levels of burnout and work engagement in the sample were 31.1% and 34.5%, respectively. Multiple regression analyses showed that shift work, 6-9 years experience, working >20 hours/week, administrative professional stream and being single were associated with higher levels of burnout. There was a positive association between work engagement and nonshift workers, 45 years of age. In this study, gender, income, hours of direct patient care, location of the centre in regional centres or within the private setting did not have an independent effect on the levels of burnout or work engagement. There was a negative association between burnout and work engagement (P engaged in their work. Further research is required to study the effectiveness of interventions to improve personal resources and prevent burnout. Understanding the factors associated with work engagement is equally important in designing organisational programs to enhance employee engagement. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  19. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  20. Australia: historical earthquake studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McCue

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of earthquakes in Australia using information dating back to 1788 have been comprehensive, if not exhaustive. Newspapers have been the main source of historical earthquake studies. A brief review is given here with an introduction to the pre-European aboriginal dreamtime information. Some of the anecdotal information of the last two centuries has been compiled as isoseismal maps. Relationships between isoseismal radii and magnitude have been established using post-instrumental data allowing magnitudes to be assigned to the pre-instrumental data, which can then be incorporated into the national earthquake database. The studies have contributed to hazard analyses for the building codes and stimulated research into microzonation and paleo-seismology.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  2. How streamflow has changed across Australia since the 1950s: evidence from the network of hydrologic reference stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong Sophie; Amirthanathan, Gnanathikkam E.; Bari, Mohammed A.; Laugesen, Richard M.; Shin, Daehyok; Kent, David M.; MacDonald, Andrew M.; Turner, Margot E.; Tuteja, Narendra K.

    2016-09-01

    Streamflow variability and trends in Australia were investigated for 222 high-quality stream gauging stations having 30 years or more continuous unregulated streamflow records. Trend analysis identified seasonal, inter-annual and decadal variability, long-term monotonic trends and step changes in streamflow. Trends were determined for annual total flow, baseflow, seasonal flows, daily maximum flow and three quantiles of daily flow. A distinct pattern of spatial and temporal variation in streamflow was evident across different hydroclimatic regions in Australia. Most of the stations in southeastern Australia spread across New South Wales and Victoria showed a significant decreasing trend in annual streamflow, while increasing trends were retained within the northern part of the continent. No strong evidence of significant trend was observed for stations in the central region of Australia and northern Queensland. The findings from step change analysis demonstrated evidence of changes in hydrologic responses consistent with observed changes in climate over the past decades. For example, in the Murray-Darling Basin, 51 out of 75 stations were identified with step changes of significant reduction in annual streamflow during the middle to late 1990s, when relatively dry years were recorded across the area. Overall, the hydrologic reference stations (HRSs) serve as critically important gauges for streamflow monitoring and changes in long-term water availability inferred from observed datasets. A wealth of freely downloadable hydrologic data is provided at the HRS web portal including annual, seasonal, monthly and daily streamflow data, as well as trend analysis products and relevant site information.

  3. Catchment clearing accelerates the infilling of a shallow subtropical bay in east coast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates-Marnane, Jack; Olley, Jon; Burton, Joanne; Sharma, Ashneel

    2016-06-01

    Understanding processes that govern the transport and distribution of terrestrial sediments to and within bays is critical for interpreting the drivers of long-term changes in these ecosystems. On the east coast of Australia increased soil erosion and sediment delivery following extensive land clearing in the contributing catchments, associated with European settlement, is highlighted as a key driver of the decline of numerous nearshore habitats including seagrass meadows and in-shore coral reefs. Here we use optical, radiocarbon and radionuclide dating to estimate mass accumulation rates and type of terrestrial sedimentation in central Moreton Bay during the Holocene. We compare the long-term rates of infilling within the central basin with the recent past and show a 3-9 fold increase in sediment accretion over the last 100 years compared to the long term (last ∼ 1500 to 3000 yrs) average. Infilling during the Holocene is not spatially uniform, with preferential deposition occurring within the now submerged palaeochannels of the Brisbane and Pine rivers. We suggest that modern turbidity regimes in Moreton Bay are the result of the compounded effect of both a historical increase in fine sediment supply and a rapid decline in the effective storage capacity of the basin.

  4. Eight novel Bipolaris species identified from John L. Alcorn’s collections at the Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium (BRIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Yu Pei; Crous, Pedro W.; Shivas, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    Several unidentified specimens of Bipolaris deposited in the Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium (BRIP) that were previously recognised by Dr. John L. Alcorn as taxonomically interesting were re-examined. The morphology of conidia and conidiophores, as well as phylogenetic inference from the

  5. Who Pays for Standardised Testing? A Cost-Benefit Study of Mandated Testing in Three Queensland Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Merilyn Gladys; Klenowski, Valentina; Chalmers, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian study that explored the costs and benefits of the National Assessment Programme, Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing, both tangible and intangible, of Year 9 students in three Queensland schools. The study commenced with a review of pertinent studies and other related material about standardised testing in…

  6. Life in the "Real World": A Profile of Queensland University of Technology Library and Information Science Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tracey; Partridge, Helen

    2010-01-01

    A graduate destination survey can provide a snap shot in time of a graduate's career progression and outcome. This paper will present the results of a Queensland University of Technology study exploring the employment outcomes of students who had completed a library and information science course from the Faculty of Information Technology between…

  7. Do Rural and Regional Students in Queensland Experience an ICT "Turn-Off" in the Early High School Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Lyn; Anderson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Students learning in regional, rural and remote locations in Queensland are currently experiencing a "turn-off" in relation to school-based ICT in the first three years of high school. At the same time, students are experiencing increasing levels of interest and motivation from their use of ICT at home. Given the importance of ICT as an…

  8. How much does it cost to expand a protected area system? Some critical determining factors and ranges of costs for Queensland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Adams

    Full Text Available Many governments have recently gone on record promising large-scale expansions of protected areas to meet global commitments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity. As systems of protected areas are expanded to be more comprehensive, they are more likely to be implemented if planners have realistic budget estimates so that appropriate funding can be requested. Estimating financial budgets a priori must acknowledge the inherent uncertainties and assumptions associated with key parameters, so planners should recognize these uncertainties by estimating ranges of potential costs. We explore the challenge of budgeting a priori for protected area expansion in the face of uncertainty, specifically considering the future expansion of protected areas in Queensland, Australia. The government has committed to adding ∼12 million ha to the reserve system, bringing the total area protected to 20 million ha by 2020. We used Marxan to estimate the costs of potential reserve designs with data on actual land value, market value, transaction costs, and land tenure. With scenarios, we explored three sources of budget variability: size of biodiversity objectives; subdivision of properties; and legal acquisition routes varying with tenure. Depending on the assumptions made, our budget estimates ranged from $214 million to $2.9 billion. Estimates were most sensitive to assumptions made about legal acquisition routes for leasehold land. Unexpected costs (costs encountered by planners when real-world costs deviate from assumed costs responded non-linearly to inability to subdivide and percentage purchase of private land. A financially conservative approach--one that safeguards against large cost increases while allowing for potential financial windfalls--would involve less optimistic assumptions about acquisition and subdivision to allow Marxan to avoid expensive properties where possible while meeting conservation objectives. We demonstrate how a rigorous

  9. Age constraints on deformation of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland: new perspectives on the evolution of the northern Tasman Orogenic Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetto, R.G.; Henderson, R.A.; Davis, B.K. [James Cook University, Townsville, QLD (Australia). Department of Earth Sciences; Wysoczanski, R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    1999-02-01

    Granitic plutons of the Wangetti and Mt Formartine Supersuites intrude the Hodgkinson Formation of the Macalister Range district of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. Field and microstructural analyses of country-rock fabrics and those of the granites show four deformational events (D{sub 1}-D{sub 4}) for the district, in common with other sectors of the Hodgkinson Province. Structural relationships show that plutons of the two supersuites were emplaced at different times. The Wangetti Granite lacks fabric development, but the deflection of country-rock cleavage trends around it and the microscale crenulation of S{sub 2} on the rims of D{sub 4} porphyroblasts within its aureole indicate syn-D{sub 4} emplacement, consistent with the Early Permian crystallisation age attributed to this pluton from isotopic evidence. Plutons of the Mt Formartine Supersuite show the effects of multiple (D{sub 2}-D{sub 4}) deformation. An emplacement age of 357 {+-} 6 Ma (latest Devonian) was obtained for this granite by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon. This identifies an early episode of plutonism for the Hodgkinson Province, most granites from which are of Permian age. The new date constrains the age of D{sub 2} for the Macalister Range district and the age of the protolith of the Hodgkinson Formation as pre-Carboniferous. It matches the age previously determined for one of several small, related granitic stocks in the southeastern Camel Creek Subprovince of the Broken River Province. Structural relationships for granites of this age suggest that their emplacement was broadly associated with the first episode of regional-scale orogenesis and the development of penetrative fabrics in the Hodgkinson - Broken River Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 31 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Migration from India to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  11. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  12. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  13. On some Aphyllophorales from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jülich, W.

    1978-01-01

    A collection of Aphyllophorales from Australia and Tasmania has been studied. Fifteen species have been identified and the following new taxa are described: Amaurohydnum flavidum gen. et spec. nov., Amauromyces pallidus gen. et spec. nov., Hyphoderma cinnamomeum, Lindtneria pellicularis, Resinicium

  14. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  15. The ecology of and fishery for Coryphaena spp. in the waters around Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Kingsford

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, are found in Australian waters and off the north-eastern coast of New Zealand. Both species (also called Mahi-mahi, or dorado are generally found in tropical waters, but only C. hippurus is captured in southern waters (to 34°S. Dolphinfish are caught by recreational and commercial fishers, using either trolled or baited lines. Most catch records do not allow the identification of fish to the species level. Dolphinfish are also an incidental catch of foreign and domestic pelagic fisheries (e.g. long-lining for tunas and billfishes and 10-70 tonnes are taken per year in the Australia-New Zealand region. Although Coryphaena are known to associate with objects (e.g. traps for carangids and navigation buoys and are a focus for recreational fishers, Fish Attraction Devices (FADs are not used by commercial fishers off the coast of Australia and New Zealand. FADs are, however, used by fishers in the Pacific Islands. Recreational catches of Coryphaena may exceed the commercial catch in some areas. Good data for New South Wales, Australia, gave estimates of 11.7 and 12.7 tonnes of Coryphaena caught in 1994 and 1995 respectively, which represented 1.1-1.8x the recorded commercial catch. Approximately ~12,600 fish have been tagged since 1973 around Australia and data on returns are only available for 108 fish (0.86% recovery. Tagged Coryphaena were found to move distances of up to 440 kilometres and at estimated speeds of up to 20 kilometres per day. The time between tag and recapture varied from 0-360 days and fish moved 0-440 kilometres. The majority of fish were caught around the same drifting object near where they were tagged. The collection of Coryphaena larvae in Queensland and New South Wales, along the east coast of Australia, indicates spawning in these waters. Most larvae have been collected in the austral summer and autumn and typically in surface waters well offshore

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of § 319.56-5 for pest freedom: Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the Queensland fruit... fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the Queensland fruit fly (Dacus tryoni), Bactrocera jarvisi, and B...

  17. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  18. Monitoring gully change: A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning using a case study from Aratula, Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas R.; Armston, John D.; Muir, Jasmine; Stiller, Issac

    2017-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technologies capture spatially detailed estimates of surface topography and when collected multi-temporally can be used to assess geomorphic change. The sensitivity and repeatability of ALS measurements to characterise geomorphic change in topographically complex environments such as gullies; however, remains an area lacking quantitative research. In this study, we captured coincident ALS and TLS datasets to assess their ability and synergies to detect geomorphic change for a gully located in Aratula, southeast Queensland, Australia. We initially used the higher spatial density and ranging accuracy of TLS to provide an assessment of the Digital Elevation Models (DEM) derived from ALS within a gully environment. Results indicated mean residual errors of 0.13 and 0.09 m along with standard deviation (SD) of residual errors of 0.20 and 0.16 m using pixel sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 m, respectively. The positive mean residual errors confirm that TLS data consistently detected deeper sections of the gully than ALS. We also compared the repeatability of ALS and TLS for characterising gully morphology. This indicated that the sensitivity to detect change using ALS is substantially lower than TLS, as expected, and that the ALS survey characteristics influence the ability to detect change. Notably, we found that using one ALS transect (mean density of 5 points / m2) as opposed to three transects increased the SD of residual error by approximately 30%. The supplied classification of ALS ground points was also demonstrated to misclassify gully features as non-ground, with minimum elevation filtering found to provide a more accurate DEM of the gully. The number and placement of terrestrial laser scans were also found to influence the derived DEMs. Furthermore, we applied change detection using two ALS data captures over a four year period and four TLS field surveys over an eight month period. This demonstrated that

  19. Mining and urban impacts on semi-arid freshwater aquatic systems: the example of Mount Isa, Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark P; Mackay, Alana; Kuypers, Tabitha; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the environmental risk and impact of trace metals affecting river water and sediment in and around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia. Bacterial indicator densities are also analysed throughout the catchment to assess the impacts and the potential hazards arising from agricultural activities, sewage treatment plant releases and urban runoff. The area is drained by the ephemeral Leichhardt River, which bisects Mount Isa City and the major Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag Mount Isa Mine. Runoff is captured downstream in Lake Moondarra, with the water being used following natural filtration via a lagoon-reed bed system for potable purposes by the residents of Mount Isa City. During the dry season, the channel is characterised by numerous pools that act as storage zones for sediment and water-soluble metals as well as urban and agriculturally derived nutrients and pathogens. Our results show that sediment and water quality within the Leichhardt River adjacent to and downstream of the mine frequently exceed Australian government sediment guidelines with average values of Cu, Pb and Zn found adjacent to the footprint of the mine being 1550, 510 and 470 mg kg(-1), respectively. Dry season analysis of water-soluble Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations within pools showed that Australian government low trigger guidelines are exceeded in 100, 46 and 100% cases, respectively. The densities of bacterial indicators in remnant pools throughout the Leichhardt River also exceeded acceptable guidelines. Maximum dry season faecal coliform densities of 2000 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and Enterococcus counts of 900 organisms per 100 mL were recorded in dry season remnant pools compared to wet season maximum faecal coliform and Enterococcus densities of 119 000 CFU per 100 mL and 95 000 organisms per 100 mL, respectively. The impacts on biota were also examined by assessing the metal content of the tissue of seven fish from Lake Moondarra for their Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn

  20. Currently Situation, Some Cases and Implications of the Legislation on Access and Benefit-sharing to Biologi cal Genetic Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yi-ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.

  1. What differentiates homeless persons who died by suicide from other suicides in Australia? A comparative analysis using a unique mortality register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovska, U; Sveticic, J; De Leo, D

    2014-04-01

    To study the incidence of suicide by homeless persons over a 20-year period, and identify demographic and clinical characteristics that distinguish these cases from those in non-homeless persons. A comparative analysis of homeless and non-homeless persons who died by suicide between 1990 and 2009 in Queensland, Australia. Ninety-two persons (82 males and 10 females) were identified from the Queensland Suicide Register as being homeless at the time of death. Suicide rates were calculated for the second decade only due to the lack of population numbers of homeless persons in the first decade. Homeless persons had almost twice higher suicide rate than non-homeless counterparts. They were more often male, of young age, single/never married, non-Indigenous, unemployed, had at least one physical illness or other stressful life event prior to death, had drug and alcohol abuse problems, and also were more likely to have evidence for an untreated mental illness. Regression analysis showed that being unemployed, having a history of legal problems and not being diagnosed with mental illness were strongly associated with suicide among homeless persons. This study is the first in Australia, and the second study internationally, to examine the characteristics of homeless people who died by suicide. Although based on a relatively small sample, the present work nonetheless carries practical implications for the development of targeted suicide prevention strategies in this peculiar population of individuals.

  2. Multibeam collection for MGLN11MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2006-11-15 to 2006-12-17, departing from Honolulu, HI and returning to Brisbane, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for MGLN12MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2007-02-03 to 2007-02-08, departing from Brisbane, Australia and returning to Wellington, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for MV0911: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2009-11-21 to 2010-01-02, departing from Brisbane, Australia and returning to Papeete, French Polynesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for WEST05MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1994-05-20 to 1994-06-23, departing from Papeete, French Polynesia and returning to Brisbane, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for KM0505: Multibeam data collected aboard Kilo Moana from 2005-03-24 to 2005-04-01, departing from Brisbane, Australia and returning to Pago Pago, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for MV0910: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2009-10-29 to 2009-11-12, departing from Chi-Lung, Taiwan and returning to Brisbane, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Multibeam collection for KM0504: Multibeam data collected aboard Kilo Moana from 2005-02-17 to 2005-03-23, departing from Wellington, New Zealand and returning to Brisbane, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for KM0701: Multibeam data collected aboard Kilo Moana from 2007-01-03 to 2007-02-12, departing from Honolulu, HI and returning to Brisbane, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Non–stationarity in annual maxima rainfall across Australia – implications for Intensity–Frequency–Duration (IFD relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Verdon-Kidd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall Intensity–Frequency–Duration (IFD relationships are commonly required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently IFD information is based on the "stationary climate assumption" – that weather at any point in time will vary randomly and that the underlying climate statistics (including both averages and extremes will remain constant irrespective of the period of record. However, the validity of this assumption has been questioned over the last 15 years, particularly in Australia, following an improved understanding of the significant impact of climate variability and change occurring on interannual to multidecadal timescales. This paper provides evidence of non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall timeseries using 96 daily rainfall stations and 66 sub-daily rainfall stations across Australia. Further, the effect of non-stationarity on the resulting IFD estimates are explored for three long-term sub-daily rainfall records (Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne utilising insights into multidecadal climate variability. It is demonstrated that IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall depending on the length and time period spanned by the rainfall data used to develop the IFD information. It is recommended that non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall be explicitly considered and appropriately treated in the ongoing revisions of Engineers Australia's guide to estimating and utilising IFD information, "Australian Rainfall and Runoff", and that clear guidance needs to be provided on how to deal with the issue of non-stationarity of extreme events (irrespective of whether that non-stationarity is due to natural or anthropogenic climate change. The findings of our study also have important implications for other regions of the world that exhibit considerable hydroclimatic variability and where IFD information is based on relatively short data sets.

  11. Conceptual frameworks, geomorphic interpretation and storytelling: Tales from Lockyer Creek , Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Jacky; Phillips, Jonathan; Van Dyke, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Earth science knowledge and insight begins with case studies, and theories should be derived from and ultimately evaluated against empirical, case study evidence. However, isolated case studies not linked conceptually to other locations or embedded within a broader framework are often of limited use beyond the study site. Geomorphic evidence and phenomena may be interpreted using a variety of conceptual frameworks (theories, models, laws, methodologies, etc.). The evidence may be, or at least appear to be, consistent with multiple frameworks, even when those constructs are derived from entirely different assumptions or frames of reference. Thus different interpretations and stories can be derived from the same evidence. Our purpose here is to illustrate this phenomenon via a case study from Lockyer Creek, southeast Queensland, Australia. Lockyer Creek is fast becoming one of Australia's most studied catchments with a wealth of data emerging following two extreme flood events in 2011 and 2013. Whilst the initial objective of the Big Flood project was to provide information on the frequency and magnitude of these extreme events, in essence the project revealed a rich 'story' of river evolution and adjustment which at first glance did not appear to 'fit' many established conceptual frameworks and theories. This presentation tells the tale of Lockyer Creek as it relates to selected key conceptual frameworks and importantly how this information can then be used for more effective catchment and flood management.

  12. New species of Mycosphaerella from Myrtaceae in plantations and native forests in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Angus J; Burgess, Treena I; Beilharz, Vyrna; Wingfield, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The majority of Mycosphaerella species from eucalypts (Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora) in Australia have been recorded only from trees growing in plantations. This illustrates a bias in research in the past two decades toward commercial enterprise, and it emphasises a lack of understanding of the occurrence of these important fungi under natural conditions. Surveys of foliar fungi in native forests in eastern Australia, as well as adjacent plantations, thus have been initiated in recent years. In this study we describe four new species of Mycosphaerella from Eucalyptus spp. as well as other Myrtaceae. Mycosphaerella tumulosa sp. nov. (anamorph: Pseudocercospora sp.) was found on more than seven species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia in native forests and plantations in northeastern New South Wales and southeastern Queensland and appears to be relatively common, although not damaging to these trees. Mycosphaerella multiseptata sp. nov. was recorded from several locations on species of Angophora in native forests and amenity plantings. Mycosphaerella pseudovespa sp. nov. was found in one location in native forest on E. biturbinata. The first species of Mycosphaerella to be described from Syncarpia, M. syncarpiae sp. nov., was found in native forests in numerous locations from Sydney through to northeastern New South Wales and appears to be relatively common.

  13. Herds Overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum (Diprotodontidae), Heavyweight Marsupial Herbivores in the Miocene Forests of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Karen H.; Camens, Aaron B.; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J.

    2012-01-01

    The marsupial family Diprotodontidae (Diprotodontia, Vombatiformes) is a group of extinct large-bodied (60–2500 kg) wombat-like herbivores that were common and geographically widespread in Cenozoic fossil deposits of Australia and New Guinea. Typically they are regarded to be gregarious, terrestrial quadrupeds and have been likened in body form among placental groups to sheep, rhinoceros and hippopotami. Arguably, one of the best represented species is the zygomaturine diprotodontid Nimbadon lavarackorum which is known from exceptionally well-preserved cranial and postcranial material from the middle Miocene cave deposit AL90, in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here we describe and functionally analyse the appendicular skeleton of Nimbadon lavarackorum and reveal a far more unique lifestyle for this plesiomorphic and smallest of diprotodontids. Striking similarities are evident between the skeleton of Nimbadon and that of the extant arboreal koala Phascolarctos cinereus, including the powerfully built forelimbs, highly mobile shoulder and elbow joints, proportionately large manus and pes (both with a semi-opposable digit I) and exceedingly large, recurved and laterally compressed claws. Combined with the unique (among australidelphians) proportionately shortened hindlimbs of Nimbadon, these features suggest adept climbing ability, probable suspensory behaviour, and an arboreal lifestyle. At approximately 70 kg, Nimbadon is the largest herbivorous mammal to have occupied the forest canopies of Australia - an ecological niche that is no longer occupied in any Australian ecosystem and one that further expands the already significant niche diversity displayed by marsupials during the Cenozoic. PMID:23185250

  14. Building co-management as a process: problem solving through partnerships in Aboriginal country, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurba, Melanie; Ross, Helen; Izurieta, Arturo; Rist, Philip; Bock, Ellie; Berkes, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    Collaborative problem solving has increasingly become important in the face of the complexities in the management of resources, including protected areas. The strategy undertaken by Girringun Aboriginal Corporation in north tropical Queensland, Australia, for developing co-management demonstrates the potential for a problem solving approach involving sequential initiatives, as an alternative to the more familiar negotiated agreements for co-management. Our longitudinal case study focuses on the development of indigenous ranger units as a strategic mechanism for the involvement of traditional owners in managing their country in collaboration with government and other interested parties. This was followed by Australia's first traditional use of marine resources agreement, and development of a multi-jurisdictional, land to sea, indigenous protected area. In using a relationship building approach to develop regional scale co-management, Girringun has been strengthening its capabilities as collaborator and regional service provider, thus, bringing customary decision-making structures into play to 'care for country'. From this evolving process we have identified the key components of a relationship building strategy, 'the pillars of co-management'. This approach includes learning-by-doing, the building of respect and rapport, sorting out responsibilities, practical engagement, and capacity-building.

  15. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  16. Subjective Wellbeing, Objective Wellbeing and Inequality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Mark; Tomaszewski, Wojtek

    2016-01-01

    In recent years policy makers and social scientists have devoted considerable attention to wellbeing, a concept that refers to people's capacity to live healthy, creative and fulfilling lives. Two conceptual approaches dominate wellbeing research. The objective approach examines the objective components of a good life. The subjective approach examines people's subjective evaluations of their lives. In the objective approach how subjective wellbeing relates to objective wellbeing is not a relevant research question. The subjective approach does investigate how objective wellbeing relates to subjective wellbeing, but has focused primarily on one objective wellbeing indicator, income, rather than the comprehensive indicator set implied by the objective approach. This paper attempts to contribute by examining relationships between a comprehensive set of objective wellbeing measures and subjective wellbeing, and by linking wellbeing research to inequality research by also investigating how subjective and objective wellbeing relate to class, gender, age and ethnicity. We use three waves of a representative state-level household panel study from Queensland, Australia, undertaken from 2008 to 2010, to investigate how objective measures of wellbeing are socially distributed by gender, class, age, and ethnicity. We also examine relationships between objective wellbeing and overall life satisfaction, providing one of the first longitudinal analyses linking objective wellbeing with subjective evaluations. Objective aspects of wellbeing are unequally distributed by gender, age, class and ethnicity and are strongly associated with life satisfaction. Moreover, associations between gender, ethnicity, class and life satisfaction persist after controlling for objective wellbeing, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to objective wellbeing link structural dimensions of inequality to life satisfaction.

  17. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Tree-Based Models for Multi-Variate Flood Damage Assessment in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Hasanzadeh Nafari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. In Australia, physical losses caused by floods are commonly estimated by stage-damage functions. These methods usually consider only the depth of the water and the type of buildings at risk. However, flood damage is a complicated process, and it is dependent on a variety of factors which are rarely taken into account. This study explores the interaction, importance, and influence of water depth, flow velocity, water contamination, precautionary measures, emergency measures, flood experience, floor area, building value, building quality, and socioeconomic status. The study uses tree-based models (regression trees and bagging decision trees and a dataset collected from 2012 to 2013 flood events in Queensland, which includes information on structural damages, impact parameters, and resistance variables. The tree-based approaches show water depth, floor area, precautionary measures, building value, and building quality to be important damage-influencing parameters. Furthermore, the performance of the tree-based models is validated and contrasted with the outcomes of a multi-parameter loss function (FLFArs from Australia. The tree-based models are shown to be more accurate than the stage-damage function. Consequently, considering more parameters and taking advantage of tree-based models is recommended. The outcome is important for improving established Australian flood loss models and assisting decision-makers and insurance companies dealing with flood risk assessment.

  18. Operation Unified Response: A Case Study of the Military’s Role in Foreign Disaster Relief Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    disaster issue see Stuart Mathison, Microfinance and Disaster Management, (Brisbane,.Australia: The Foundation for Development Cooperation, 2003...Mathison, Stuart. Microfinance and Disaster Management. Brisbane, Australia: The Foundation for Developf!len~ Cooperation, 2003. Miles, Donna

  19. Current challenges and future directions for naturopathic medicine in Australia: a qualitative examination of perceptions and experiences from grassroots practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Naturopaths are an increasingly significant part of the healthcare sector in Australia, yet despite their significant role there has been little research on this practitioner group. Currently the naturopathic profession in Australia is undergoing a period of rapid professional growth and change. However, to date most research exploring the perceptions of naturopaths has been descriptive in nature and has focused on those in leadership positions rather than grassroots practitioners. This article explores the perceptions and experiences of practising naturopaths on the challenges and future directions of their profession. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 naturopaths practising in the Darling Downs region of South-east Queensland,