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Sample records for briquetting

  1. SAWDUST BRIQUETTING PRESS MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Y.R.Falak*,; Vivek Thacker; SanketAher

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the designing, fabrication, and automation of a biomass ‘Sawdust Briquetting Machine’. Sawdust when used in form of Briquettes gives more energy, produces less ash and is easy handle and possessless harm to environment as compared to Sawdust. By keeping in mind all this aspects the machine is developed to produce Sawdust briquettes. The production cost was found to be lower due to the lower moisture content of the feed stock required for this machine is lower b...

  2. Briquetting of Macedonian lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of investigations prepared by EERC (Energy and Environmental Research Center, USA) with aim to evaluate the potential for producing fuels for home-heating, industrial heating and metallurgical application using selected Macedonian lignites. The specific goals are to: 1) prepare various grades of Macedonian lignite pellets; 2) perform limited chemical, physical and metallurgical characterisations on the pelleted fuels; 3) compare the characteristics of the prepared fuels to criteria of acceptable home-heating, industrial heating and metallurgical fuels. The EERC can facilitate all cleaning and briquetting evaluations to obtain scale up data. (Author)

  3. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  4. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Mesa P, Juan M. [BIOWARE Ltda., Caixa Postal 6086, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [EMBRAPA-Agroenergia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Filippetto, Daniele; Luengo, Carlos A.; Pippo, Walfrido Alonso [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos/Departamento de Fisica Aplicada/IFGW/UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6165, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Biomass Briquetting Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Repsa, Edgars; Kronbergs, Eriks; Kronbergs, Andris

    2015-01-01

    The main task of this investigation is evaluation of patented (LV 14604 B) biomass briquetting mechanism. Theoretical relationship between necessary drive force and resistance force during pressing in die was determined. Briquettes from grinded common reed (Phragmites Australis) or common reed-peat mixture were produced with designed experimental briquetting press. Density of common reed briquettes depending on the size of particles was stated. Density of briquettes obtained during compacting...

  6. Plant biomass briquetting : a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Tabil, L.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The technology of converting straws into briquettes for biofuel or energy applications was discussed with particular reference to the factors that affect the quality of briquette, such as the loading pressure, particle size of the chopped material, the preheating temperature, the moisture content and residence time of the die. The study results of briquetting materials such as corn stover, switch grass, alfalfa, cotton stalks and reed canary grass were also presented. The main briquetting related technologies, systems and equipment were also reviewed. The study showed that in order to produce an economically competitive feedstock, further research should be extended to other biomass materials as well as developing technologies to obtain a high quality briquette with better efficiencies from a wide range of biomass materials.

  7. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  8. A techno-economic evaluation of biomass briquetting in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A financial analysis of biomass briquetting technology in India has been undertaken. Simple cost functions for briquetting machines have been developed. Unit cost of briquette production for various types of raw materials and different capacities of briquetting units have been calculated. The role of different factors affecting the cost of production of briquettes have also been analysed. (author)

  9. Briquetting of Afsin-Elbistan lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbuz-Beker, U.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ozer, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1998-05-01

    Low-quality Afsin-Elbistan lignite was mixed with a high-quality Siberian bituminous coal and optimum briquetting conditions were investigated for blends with and without binder materials. The blends of lignite and bituminous coal were prepared to contain 30, 40 and 50% bituminous coal and briquetted under pressures of 566 MPa and 708 MPa. The blends of lignite and bituminous coal were also briquetted using sunflower shell, sawdust and molasses as additives. In these experiments, the percentage of the lignite in the blends was fixed at 50%, so that the sum of the percentages of the bituminous coal and binder additive was always 50%. In this way, the low-grade lignite and high-quality bituminous coal fines are converted into a compact and stable fuel which has a higher quality. 14 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  11. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    OpenAIRE

    J. Łabaj; M. Jodkowski; Szeja, W.; Helhmann, J.; Kozioł, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  12. Hot formed briquets as smokeless fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychly, J.; Malczyk, R.; Rzepa, S.; Sekula, M.; Zakrzewski, Z. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze (Poland))

    1992-10-01

    Analyzes the applicability of briquetted smokeless fuel in environmentally threatened regions. The subject is discussed against the background of air pollution in Zabrze (Upper Silesia, Poland). Emission of airborne pollutants was measured/estimated for Zabrze in 1990. The findings are tabulated and presented in pie diagrams. This evaluation covers both industrial and communal effects. The use of smokeless briquets as a substitute for coal combustion is suggested. Properties of briquets made in Poland are specified and combustion processes are compared for: coke, a mixture of 70% coke and 30% coal, and smokeless fuel. Emission from these fuels is also evaluated. Data refer to a 240 kW heating boiler and an 800 kW steam boiler. The tests were also carried out in household stoves and in a baking oven. The last case was studied separately and the obtained reduction in air pollution is shown in a table. All tested applications turned out to be promising. At the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, a 10 t/h pilot plant was built and the first briquets were produced. The full capacity utilization is planned for 1993; this will be supported by captive production of chars. 9 refs.

  13. Characteristic parameters of the coal briquetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete knowledge about the energetic sources in our country - Republic of Macedonia, point to the fact that coals are the most attractive and highly productive, still keeping the leadership position. However, the process of lignite exploitation causes their degradation and formation of large amount of fine fractions. The industrial valorization of these fractions is the most actual problem that could be solved only through production of made-up enriched fuels of wide spectrum of application. Thus, briquetting formation, with or without use of binds, is a process of mechanical or combined modification of coal fine fractions. At the same time, this is a possible procedure of solid fuels enrichment. Lignite from the Macedonian coal deposits 'Suvodol', 'Priskupshtina' and 'Brik-Berovo' is analyzed, in order to examine the possibilities of its briquetting. The results show that the 'Suvodol' lignite satisfy the quality requirements given with the MKS B H1.031 standard as well as the 'Brik-Berovo' lignite

  14. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    OpenAIRE

    Alula Gebresas; Haftom Asmelash; Hadush Berhe; Tsegay Tesfay

    2015-01-01

    Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a p...

  15. Simulation Model of Automated Peat Briquetting Press Drive

    OpenAIRE

    A. Marozka; Y. Petrenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the developed fully functional simulation model of an automated peat briquetting press drive. The given model makes it possible to reduce financial and time costs while developing, designing and operating a double-stamp peat briquetting press drive.

  16. Simulation Model of Automated Peat Briquetting Press Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marozka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed fully functional simulation model of an automated peat briquetting press drive. The given model makes it possible to reduce financial and time costs while developing, designing and operating a double-stamp peat briquetting press drive.

  17. Briquetting of Istanbul-Kemerburgaz lignite of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beker, U.G.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-05-01

    A lignite sample from the Kemerburgaz-Istanbul area was briquetted with or without binder material. Molasses and Sirnak (Turkey) asphaltite were used as binder materials at different ratios. The effects of the moisture content of the lignite and the concentration of the binder on briquette strength were examined at two different briquetting pressures, 150 and 200 MPa. Briquetting of lignite samples without binder material gave products with low strength and low water resistance. The maximum briquette strength was achieved with a lignite moisture content of 13% and an asphaltite concentration of 12% at a briquetting pressure of 200 MPa. The strongest briquettes obtained with lignite-molasses blends were achieved with a molasses concentration of 12% and a lignite moisture content of 8% at a briquetting pressure of 200 MPa. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Coal derived-briquetted solid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite considerable progress, there are some regions in Central and Eastern Europe where residential heating is dominated by direct burning of bituminous or brown coal with all environmental consequences. In Poland, the residential heating consumes more than 25 mln tons of coal annually. It is estimated that during the heating season coal-fired individual home ovens and local heating stations in some Polish heavily populated areas contribute up to 22% in total emission of dust, 86% of SO2, and 56% of tar species. It has been proposed to replace some of the fuel, i.e. directly burnt coal by more ecological solid fuels in a form of briquettes. Considering the emissive characteristics, solid ecological fuels can be divided into two groups. The first one manufactured on the basis of high rank coals, and a cold briquetting with some additives capturing harmful combustion products. Production of these fuels is reasonably cheap and simple and the result of their use is a noticeable decrease in dust, sulfur oxides and soot emissions. The second one is ecologically clean fuel, i.e. smokeless fuel, produced on the basis of deeply degasified coals and a hot briquetting with the addition of either binder or caking coals and other compounds aimed at capturing harmful combustion products. The technology of production of the smokeless fuels is much more complicated and expensive, but as a result of their use a significant decrease in atmospheric emission is achieved. The best results are observed in decreasing the emission of tars and aromatic hydrocarbons. Technologies of production of ecological fuels are non-waste and non-emissive. The paper deals with the economical and technological side of briquetted solid fuels of both types. Emission factors of chosen components for ecological fuels with reference to primary coal are also discussed

  19. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  20. Briquetting of Konya-Ermenek lignite of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgun, H.; Kural, O.; Ekinci, E.

    1989-05-01

    As a utilization technology for fragile Turkish lignites briquetting may be considered. For this reason Konya-Ermenek lignite was subjected to cold and hot and binder- and binderless-type briquetting. The hot and cold binderless briquettes failed to meet the necessary product quality. Atactic propylene, sulphite liquor, molasses and coal tar pitch were used as binders and coal tar pitch briquettes were found to be the best quality products. The effects of moisture, briquetting pressure, heat treatment and aging were also investigated. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressing chamber improves the quality of the final briquettes. The conicalness of the pressing chamber has a significanteffect on the final briquette quality and on the construction of briquetting machines. The experimental findings presented here show the importance of this parameter in the briquetting process.

  2. Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Biath; Juraj Ondruška

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured ...

  3. 75 FR 30073 - National Briquetting Corporation, a Subsidiary of Harsco, Also Known as Performix East Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration National Briquetting Corporation, a Subsidiary of Harsco, Also Known... National Briquetting Corporation, a subsidiary of Harsco, also known as Performix East Chicago,...

  4. Possibilities for briquetting the coal fines from the lignite of the 'Brik-Berovo' mine (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results from the laboratory examinations of the coal fines from the mine 'Brik-Berovo' (Macedonia), carried out in order to evaluate the coal briquetting ability. Also, technological parameters of the briquetting process are determined. The characteristics of the obtained briquets are compared to the criteria of JUS-B.H1.031 standard. The conclusion is that coal fines briquetting will be successful if the coal granulation is -3mm

  5. Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured values are substituted into the formula for the compression ratio, and the resulting evaluations are presented in the diagram in the conclusion of this paper.

  6. Specific energy consumption regression and process parameters optimization in wet-briquetting of rice straw at normal temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Hu; Tingzhou Lei; Shengqiang Shen,; Quanguo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In the normal-temperature (20 to 25 oC) wet briquetting of straw, the lignin becomes softened and briquetted by means of friction heat from the briquetting at some compressing force and moisture ratio. With an electronic universal testing machine and a self-developed normal- temperature wet briquetting device, tests were carried out for normal-temperature wet briquetting of rice straws with different compressing rate, material moisture, die length-diameter ratio, and die opening taper, using ...

  7. Some studies on the mixing of coal briquetting material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies carried out on mixing of coal briquetting material (coal, clay, limestone and water) are presented here. Drum mixer has been found ideal for mixing moist mixture of solids. Drum (concrete) mixer has been found to be better with respect to degree of mixing and time and hence is energy conserving. (author)

  8. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A CONICAL-SCREW BRIQUETTING MACHINE FOR THE BRIQUETTING OF CARBONIZED COTTON STALKS IN SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUSIF A. ABAKR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Briquetting of the carbonized agricultural residues represents one of the possible solutions to the local energy shortages in many developing countries. It constitutes a positive solution to the problem of increasing rates of desertification in many areas worldwide. Agricultural residues are not attractive as a household fuel source for urban areas because they are very bulky and have low energy intensity. Also, to eliminate the smoke generation when burning agricultural residues requires processing it by carbonization before being used as a house-hold indoor fuel. Previously investigated, briquetting machines lacked high productivity and were of complicated designs. The present study puts forward a machine of simple design which could be manufactured locally in Sudan and of much higher productivity. The local Sudanese briquetting experience was overviewed, studying all the alternative available options and the market potential. The study presents a detailed design study of the new briquetting machine. The prototype was made and tested in the field at Al-Gazeera area in Sudan. The investigation results show that the new machine has a production rate better than all the previous alternatives. This low pressure screw briquetting machine was found to have a production rate equivalent to about eight times better than the production rate of the best local competitor. The production cost was found to be lower due to the lower binder requirement for the new machine, which is lower by about 65%. The initial moisture content of the feed stock required for this machine is lower by about 30 % compared to the best alternative, which results in shorter drying time for the fuel briquettes produced. The quality of the produced briquettes was found to be better and of lower smoke generation when burned due to the lower binder content.

  9. Mechanical Recycling of Compounded Plastic Waste for Material Valorization by Briquetting

    OpenAIRE

    Kers, J; Krizan, P; Letko, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution the study of recycling technology for plastic wastes and material valorization by briquetting technology is described. Various type of wastes (wood, carton, paper, plastic, textile) were processed by two-shaft and single-shaft shredders to obtain the output product 1-2 millimeters, which is suitable for briquetting process. For samples manufacturing the briquetting equipment developed in Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava was used. The briquettes were pressed f...

  10. BINDER MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BRIQUETTING STEEL MILL RESIDUES; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternatives to the molasses-ordinary portland cement (OPC) binder as a binder for steel mill residues were extensively investigated. A large number of binder modifications were tested using a hand pelleting apparatus to identify effective compositions. The more effective compositions were evaluated in a series of three briquetting matrices using the Komarek press. Evaluations consisted of drop tests, compression tests of given and cured pellets, and tumble tests of cured pellets. Pyrolysis odor tests were performed to determine the effects of certain compositions on the disagreeable wet campfire odor produced during heating of the molasses-OPC briquettes. Several scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology studies were conducted to examine the nature of structures formed during pelleting or briquetting

  11. Partial briquetting vs direct addition of biomass in coking blends

    OpenAIRE

    Montiano Redondo, María de Garabandal; Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In this work partial briquetting is employed as a means of biomass densification to allow for biomass inclusion in coking coal blends. The effect of increasing the bulk density was evaluated by comparison with direct addition. Two briquettes of different composition were studied. The influence of the briquettes on the Gieseler plasticity of the coals was determined. It was found that the effect of the binder was not enough to compensate for the decrease in plasticity produced by the inert com...

  12. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jan J. Hycnar; Gabriel Borowski; Tomasz Józefiak; Agnieszka Malec

    2015-01-01

    Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as...

  13. Application of mineral binders during briquetting of zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies a possibility to use mineral binders for briqueting zircon-blaring concentrates subject to chloride treatment in shaft furnaces. The effect of chloride treatment time and carbon content in the brickets on concentrates component break-down is investigated. Efficiency of mineral binder (bentonite and sodium silicate) application is confirmed: power consumption and treatment time decrease 8-10 times, a high level of concentrate break-down is achieved

  14. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Magdziarz Aneta; Kuźnia Monika; Bembenek Michał; Gara Paweł; Hryniewicz Marek

    2015-01-01

    Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF) is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content whi...

  15. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A CONICAL-SCREW BRIQUETTING MACHINE FOR THE BRIQUETTING OF CARBONIZED COTTON STALKS IN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Yousif A. Abakr; AHMED E. ABASAEED

    2006-01-01

    Briquetting of the carbonized agricultural residues represents one of the possible solutions to the local energy shortages in many developing countries. It constitutes a positive solution to the problem of increasing rates of desertification in many areas worldwide. Agricultural residues are not attractive as a household fuel source for urban areas because they are very bulky and have low energy intensity. Also, to eliminate the smoke generation when burning agricultural residues requires pro...

  17. Investigation and coal fines briquetting technologies elaboration for the 'Brik-Berovo' lignite (Coal mine in Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological possibilities for the coal fines briquetting from the mine 'Brik-Berovo' (Macedonia) were Investigated. The paper presents the results from the laboratory and industrial examinations in order to evaluate the optimal briquetting conditions, as well as the basic quality indicators of the obtained briquets

  18. [A new briquetting method for biomass coal and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K; Ma, Y; Chang, X; Hao, J

    2001-07-01

    Regarding to the limitation and low economical efficiency of conventional biomass coal briquetter determined by its briquetting method, a new briquetting mechanism using the linkage function of biomass fiber was established. The effect of different coal, briquetting pressure, biomass shape and content, water content on new brequtting mechanism was studied preliminarily. The results showed that the new mechanism was suitable for varied kinds coal and biomass. The briquette mechanical performance was improved as biomass content increased with a reasonable low limitation of about 15%. Pure biomass also could be briquetted. The briquetting pressure which could consolidate the linkage of biomass fiber was no more than 120 MPa. There would be a negative effect at too high pressure. Increasing biomass content and decreasing pressure at certain degree could offset the negative effect of water content significantly, with a permissive limitation over 10% for Datong coal. PMID:11569121

  19. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  20. Briquetting of titanium shavings with using of short electrical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed and tested a new technology of briquetting of metallic shavings. The technology includes pressing of shavings with comparatively low pressure and processing it by means of short pulse of high density electrical current. Strength of the briquette arrears as a result of the sport electric welding of the contacts between the shaving particles. The technology permits: to produce firm briquettes from the shavings or other scrap of any metal or alloy, for example from titanium; to produce briquettes practically of any porosity; to decrease the compression and abandon heating almost for high-strength alloy in comparison with existing methods

  1. Briquetting of Afsin-Elbistan lignite of Turkey using different waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beker, U.G. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1997-03-01

    Lignite samples from the Afsin-Elbistan area were briquetted with and without binder materials. The effects of moisture content of lignite samples on the briquette strength were examined without binder materials at four different briquetting pressures of 400, 550, 700 and 800 MPa. Briquetting of lignite samples without binder material gave products with low water resistance. The optimum moisture content and briquetting pressure were found to be 15% and 550 MPa, respectively. At these optimum conditions, paper mill waste, sunflower shell, sawdust and brewery waste were then used as binder materials at different ratios. Among these sawdust and paper mill waste were found to give the best quality briquettes with high calorific value and high strength. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coal briquetting at the presence of humates as the binding substance

    OpenAIRE

    Zh. Arziev; Zh. Kairbekov; V. Yemelyanova; E. Shakiyev; Zh. Myltykbaeva; T. Shakiyeva

    2013-01-01

    The results of coal briquetting at the presence of humates derived from coal at the stage of its chemical preparation by the extraction method are resulted in the paper. The conditions of briquetting and strength characteristics of the received briquettes are optimized. It is demonstrated that briquettes with the durability reaching 3 MPa can be derived from a coal fines using sodium, ammonium and silicate humates as binding substance. Water solutions of ammonium, sodium and silicate humates ...

  3. Metalizing reduction and magnetic separation of vanadium titano-magnetite based on hot briquetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-yin; Chu, Man-sheng

    2014-03-01

    To achieve high efficiency utilization of Panzhihua vanadium titano-magnetite, a new process of metalizing reduction and magnetic separation based on hot briquetting is proposed, and factors that affect the cold strength of the hot-briquetting products and the efficiency of reduction and magnetic separation are successively investigated through laboratory experiments. The relevant mechanisms are elucidated on the basis of microstructural observations. Experimental results show that the optimal process parameters for hot briquetting include a hot briquetting temperature of 475°C, a carbon ratio of 1.2, ore and coal particle sizes of less than 74 μm. Additionally, with respect to metalizing reduction and magnetic separation, the rational parameters include a magnetic field intensity of 50 mT, a reduction temperature of 1350°C, a reduction time of 60 min, and a carbon ratio of 1.2. Under these above conditions, the crushing strength of the hot-briquetting agglomerates is 1480 N, and the recovery ratios of iron, vanadium, and titanium are as high as 91.19%, 61.82%, and 85.31%, respectively. The new process of metalizing reduction and magnetic separation based on hot briquetting demonstrates the evident technological advantages of high efficiency separation of iron from other valuable elements in the vanadium titano-magnetite.

  4. Metalizing reduction and magnetic separation of vanadium titano-magnetite based on hot briquetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-yin Chen; Man-sheng Chu

    2014-01-01

    To achieve high efficiency utilization of Panzhihua vanadium titano-magnetite, a new process of metalizing reduction and mag-netic separation based on hot briquetting is proposed, and factors that affect the cold strength of the hot-briquetting products and the effi-ciency of reduction and magnetic separation are successively investigated through laboratory experiments. The relevant mechanisms are elu-cidated on the basis of microstructural observations. Experimental results show that the optimal process parameters for hot briquetting in-clude a hot briquetting temperature of 475°C, a carbon ratio of 1.2, ore and coal particle sizes of less than 74 µm. Additionally, with respect to metalizing reduction and magnetic separation, the rational parameters include a magnetic field intensity of 50 mT, a reduction temperature of 1350°C, a reduction time of 60 min, and a carbon ratio of 1.2. Under these above conditions, the crushing strength of the hot-briquetting agglomerates is 1480 N, and the recovery ratios of iron, vanadium, and titanium are as high as 91.19%, 61.82%, and 85.31%, respectively. The new process of metalizing reduction and magnetic separation based on hot briquetting demonstrates the evident technological advan-tages of high efficiency separation of iron from other valuable elements in the vanadium titano-magnetite.

  5. Correlation between the coal quality from 'Suvodol' and briquetting processes for coals, peat and other combustible materials (coal deposit in Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the regression equations for the characteristics of Suvodol coal and the technological parameters of obtained briquets are given. It is shown that correlations between the coal characteristics are linear, while correlations between briquetting parameters are nonlinear

  6. Possibilities of Pelletizing and Briquetting of Dusts from Castings Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust can be divided into three groups: metallic dust with Fe content over 70%, mixed dust with Fe or SiO2 content between 10 –70% and sand wastes with minimum content of SiO2 about 70%. Dust from castings grinding with high Fe content (87.9% is still landfillin Slovakia. The aim of experiments with dust from grinding has been to find the cheapest way of dust agglomeration with minimumamount of binder because of melting in the electric induction furnace. The dust was pelletized and briquetted and as binders bentonite, water glass and cement were used. Briquettes made from dust from grinding with addition of water glass got compression strength after three months on the air about 82 kPa. Briquettes with addition of water glass were melted together with cast iron in electric induction furnace. Yield of metal from briquettes was around 80% and slag quantity around 4% (without briquettes the slag quantity was 1.4%.

  7. Response of cold briquetted iron (CBI to high temperatures treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibitoye S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to assess the behaviours of Cold Briquetted Iron (CBI when exposed to increasing temperature changes up to its complete melting. High-temperature behaviours and melting characteristics of CBI were studied. Ground as-received CBI briquette and those heated to temperatures ranging from 500°C to 1000°C were sieved to maximum of 30 microns diameter size and their room-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD measured. CBI was found to contain among others, α-iron, cementite and silica phases. Cementite was found to commence decomposition at 500°C - 600°C and completed by 700°C with conspicuous increase in the concentration of α-iron phase. Only α-iron and silica phases were sustained in CBI at temperatures above 700°C. In an inert atmosphere, it was discovered that CBI melted over a temperature range of 1527.3°C to 1536.96°C accompanied by an irrecoverable weight loss of 9.6 wt.% of the starting material. It was concluded that melting CBI would require charging along it appropriate fluxes to take care of the unreduced iron oxide and incorporation into facility for melting CBI an effective deslagging mechanism to remove unavoidable possible voluminous slag that would be formed.

  8. Coal briquetting at the presence of humates as the binding substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Arziev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of coal briquetting at the presence of humates derived from coal at the stage of its chemical preparation by the extraction method are resulted in the paper. The conditions of briquetting and strength characteristics of the received briquettes are optimized. It is demonstrated that briquettes with the durability reaching 3 MPa can be derived from a coal fines using sodium, ammonium and silicate humates as binding substance. Water solutions of ammonium, sodium and silicate humates with concentration from 0,1-2% can be recommended for practical purposes. It is recommended to expose coal briquettes on a basis of ammonium humate to the thermal treatment at temperature 200°C as necessary of long storage (more than a year. The technological scheme of briquetting and the working project of creation of briquette factory with productivity of 40 000 tons of coal per year are developed.

  9. Research of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal on hot briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczyk, R.; Rychly, J.; Sekula, M.; Zakrzewski, Z. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze (Poland))

    1992-04-01

    Reviews research work carried out for the past 40 years by the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal in Zabrze, Poland in the field of coal briquetting. The first task faced by the Institute in the mid 1950s was briquetting of semicoke. General briquetting parameters for semicoke are discussed. The history and achievements of the Institute's research and development from the early 60s up to today is outlined. In addition to economic aspects, environmental problems became more and more the focus of study. Production of smokeless fuel is the subject of recent studies. Future activities to be performed in this field and perspectives for their implementation in industry are pointed out. 26 refs.

  10. Specific energy consumption regression and process parameters optimization in wet-briquetting of rice straw at normal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the normal-temperature (20 to 25 oC wet briquetting of straw, the lignin becomes softened and briquetted by means of friction heat from the briquetting at some compressing force and moisture ratio. With an electronic universal testing machine and a self-developed normal- temperature wet briquetting device, tests were carried out for normal-temperature wet briquetting of rice straws with different compressing rate, material moisture, die length-diameter ratio, and die opening taper, using a quadratic regression-orthogonal design. Based on the characteristic curves of normal-temperature wet briquetting, the specific energy consumption was calculated by stepped regression and then integration for summation. Thereby, a specific energy consumption model was established. Next, an interactive analysis was made between single-factor and two-factor designs. Optimal combination of factors, i.e. 17.3% moisture, 44.5 mm/min compressing rate, 45o die opening taper, and 5.3 die length-diameter ratio, were obtained while the specific energy consumption was minimized. Further, the work provided references for process parameters design of the normal-temperature wet briquetting device for straw.

  11. Variables of briquetting process and quality of forestry biomass briquettes Variáveis do processo de briquetagem e qualidade de briquetes de biomassa florestal

    OpenAIRE

    Thielly Schmidt Furtado; Marina Valin; Martha Andreia Brand; Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2010-01-01

    In the quest for recovery of waste generated from forest production to the process of industrial transformation of the biomass it was developed the process of briquetting. The cluster of wood particles facilitates the operations of handling of combustible material in addition to concentrating the available energy in terms of volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the raw material affects the quality of the briquette and verify the effect of pressure applied during ...

  12. Increase in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions due to briquetting: A challenge to the coal briquetting policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both China and UNEP recommend replacing raw coal chunks with coal briquettes in household sector as clean coal technology (CCT), which has been confirmed by the decreased emissions of particulate matter and black carbon. However, the clean effect has never been systematically checked by other pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, 5 coals with different geological maturities were processed as both chunks and briquettes and burned in 3 typical coal stoves for the measurement of emission factors (EFs) of particle-bound PAHs. It was found that the EFs of 16 parent PAHs, 26 nitrated PAHs, 6 oxygenated PAHs, and 8 alkylated PAHs for coal briquettes were 6.90 ± 7.89, 0.04 ± 0.03, 0.65 ± 0.40, and 72.78 ± 18.23 mg/kg, respectively, which were approximately 3.1, 3.7, 1.9, and 171 times those for coal chunks, respectively. Such significant increases in PAH emissions increased human health risk and challenged the policy of CCT. - Highlights: • PAH emissions from raw coal and coal briquettes are measured for comparison. • Burning briquette releases more toxic PAHs than burning raw coal. • The mechanism for PAH formation seems very different from BC. • Replacing raw coal with briquette recommended by China and the UNEP needs rethinking. - The recommendation for replacing raw coal chunks with coal briquettes by UNEP and China was challenged due to significant increase of PAH emissions after briquetting

  13. Variables of briquetting process and quality of forestry biomass briquettes Variáveis do processo de briquetagem e qualidade de briquetes de biomassa florestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thielly Schmidt Furtado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In the quest for recovery of waste generated from forest production to the process of industrial transformation of the biomass it was developed the process of briquetting. The cluster of wood particles facilitates the operations of handling of combustible material in addition to concentrating the available energy in terms of volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the raw material affects the quality of the briquette and verify the effect of pressure applied during the mechanical and energy  characteristics of the final product, and to evaluate the behavior of the material mix (MIX compared to pure materials. The briquettes were produced in a pilot  briquetter, hydraulic piston, 120 °C with a constant pressure of 50 bar for eight minutes and 65, 95 or
    130 bar for two minutes. Six briquettes were used for each treatment. The characteristics evaluated were calorific value (GCV, bulk density and compressive strength. The raw material has a greater influence on the quality of briquettes than the compaction pressure. The low pressure is the most suitable for Pinus sp forest biomass briquettes. In this, MIX submitted satisfactory quality of briquettes with PCS 4,773 kcal kg-1, density 1220 kg m-³ and compressive strength of 167 kgf cm-2.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.101

    Na busca pelo aproveitamento dos resíduos gerados desde a produção florestal até os processos de transformação industrial da biomassa, desenvolveu-se o processo de briquetagem. A aglomeração de partículas de madeira facilita as operações de  manuseio do material combustível, além de concentrar a energia disponível em termos de volume. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar se a matéria-prima tem influência na qualidade do briquete e verificar o efeito da pressão aplicada durante o processo nas  características energéticas e mecânicas do produto final, além de avaliar o comportamento da  mistura de materiais

  14. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT. PART 3. EXPERIMENTS ON BRIQUETTING OF DUST OFARC STEEL FURNACES

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Rozhkov; E. V. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the global experience of recycling dust by briquetting. The advantages and disadvantages of recycling dust with its preliminary briquetting are described. Information about experiments on briquetting of dust generated in different organizations of the Belarusian metallurgy plant with various binders is given. Economic calculations were performed on the basis of technical data obtained during the manufacture of prototypes of briquettes. The results of the calcu...

  15. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT. PART 3. EXPERIMENTS ON BRIQUETTING OF DUST OFARC STEEL FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rozhkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the global experience of recycling dust by briquetting. The advantages and disadvantages of recycling dust with its preliminary briquetting are described. Information about experiments on briquetting of dust generated in different organizations of the Belarusian metallurgy plant with various binders is given. Economic calculations were performed on the basis of technical data obtained during the manufacture of prototypes of briquettes. The results of the calculations showedinexpediency of recycling dust briquetting method because of the low iron content in the dust, high cost of binder and a relatively small rate of ecological tax.

  16. Briquetting of wastes from coffee plants conducted in zero harvest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the present work was to verify the viability of briquette production using the biomass waste obtained by zero harvest system. The treatments were composed of briquetting process: 1 coffee rind; 2 mixture of branches and leaves; 3 25% of coffee rind + 75% of branches and leaves; 4 75% of coffee rind + 25% of branches and leaves; 5 50% of coffee rind + 50% of branches and leaves; 6 40% of coffee rind + 60% of branches and leaves. The mixtures were realized in v/v base, milled to produce 5-10 mm particles and were briqueted with 12% of humidity. The C-teor of briquettes produced ranged from 41.85 to 43. 84% and sulphur teor was below 0.1%. The calorific value of briquettes produced ranged from 3,359 to 4, 028 Kcal/ kg and the ashes were below 6%. The isolated use of coffee rind or branches and leaves, as well the mixtures of coffee rind with 50% or more of branches and leaves allow the production of briquettes with calorific value around 4,000 Kcal/ kg which is within the quality parameters. The briquetting of coffee crop wastes is viable and sustainable energetically.

  17. Briquetting of wastes from coffee plants conducted in zero harvest system

    OpenAIRE

    Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti; Adriano Bortolotti Silva; Ademir José Pereira; José Messias Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the pre...

  18. Improvement of melting technology for vanadium-containing steel by using briquets of direct reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of ladle alloying with vanadium is developed for commercial production of high-quality steel. Briquets of vanadium containing converter slag and low cost silicon-vanadium alloying additive 0.5 kg in mass are introduced into a ladle at steel temperature of 1620-1650 deg C in the amount of 2.7-17.0 kg per ton. This method allows vanadium assimilation up to 0.15 %. 5 refs

  19. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fadzli Hamid; M. Yusof Idroas; M. Zulfikar Ishak; Z. Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin; M. Azman Miskam; M. Khalil Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of bi...

  20. Model of converter dusts and iron-bearing slurries management in briquetting

    OpenAIRE

    Gara, P.; Zwolińska, B.

    2016-01-01

    An important problem in metallurgy of iron and steel is management of hydrated, fine-grained, iron-bearing waste which can be formed as a result of gas scrubbing. The article presents a model of application of converter slurry in a closed-circuit flow system. The correct preparation of slag, namely briquetting with defined additives, allows for application of such slag in the steel-making process as the substitute for scrap metal.

  1. Model of converter dusts and iron-bearing slurries management in briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in metallurgy of iron and steel is management of hydrated, fine-grained, iron-bearing waste which can be formed as a result of gas scrubbing. The article presents a model of application of converter slurry in a closed-circuit flow system. The correct preparation of slag, namely briquetting with defined additives, allows for application of such slag in the steel-making process as the substitute for scrap metal.

  2. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadzli Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of biomass material used for torrefaction and briquetting, densification temperature, and composition of binder for torrefied biomass are studied and characterized. Starch is used as a binder in the study. The results showed that the briquette of torrefied rubber seed kernel (RSK is better than torrefied palm oil shell (POS in both calorific value and compressive strength. The best quality of briquettes is yielded from torrefied RSK at the ambient temperature of briquetting process with the composition of 60% water and 5% binder. The maximum compressive load for the briquettes of torrefied RSK is 141 N and the calorific value is 16 MJ/kg. Based on the economic evaluation analysis, the return of investment (ROI for the mass production of both RSK and POS briquettes is estimated in 2-year period and the annual profit after payback was approximately 107,428.6 USD.

  3. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Fadzli; Idroas, M. Yusof; Ishak, M. Zulfikar; Zainal Alauddin, Z. Alimuddin; Miskam, M. Azman; Abdullah, M. Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of biomass material used for torrefaction and briquetting, densification temperature, and composition of binder for torrefied biomass are studied and characterized. Starch is used as a binder in the study. The results showed that the briquette of torrefied rubber seed kernel (RSK) is better than torrefied palm oil shell (POS) in both calorific value and compressive strength. The best quality of briquettes is yielded from torrefied RSK at the ambient temperature of briquetting process with the composition of 60% water and 5% binder. The maximum compressive load for the briquettes of torrefied RSK is 141 N and the calorific value is 16 MJ/kg. Based on the economic evaluation analysis, the return of investment (ROI) for the mass production of both RSK and POS briquettes is estimated in 2-year period and the annual profit after payback was approximately 107,428.6 USD. PMID:27419127

  4. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia [Center for Biomass Resource Utilization, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University (East Campus), 17 Qing-Hua-Dong-Lu, Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xing, Li [Service Center for Trading Technology Service, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-12-15

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  5. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  6. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M Fadzli; Idroas, M Yusof; Ishak, M Zulfikar; Zainal Alauddin, Z Alimuddin; Miskam, M Azman; Abdullah, M Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of biomass material used for torrefaction and briquetting, densification temperature, and composition of binder for torrefied biomass are studied and characterized. Starch is used as a binder in the study. The results showed that the briquette of torrefied rubber seed kernel (RSK) is better than torrefied palm oil shell (POS) in both calorific value and compressive strength. The best quality of briquettes is yielded from torrefied RSK at the ambient temperature of briquetting process with the composition of 60% water and 5% binder. The maximum compressive load for the briquettes of torrefied RSK is 141 N and the calorific value is 16 MJ/kg. Based on the economic evaluation analysis, the return of investment (ROI) for the mass production of both RSK and POS briquettes is estimated in 2-year period and the annual profit after payback was approximately 107,428.6 USD. PMID:27419127

  7. Briquetting soda weed (Salsola tragus) to be used as a rural fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumak, Hasan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey); Ucar, Tamer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bozok University, 66200 Yozgat (Turkey); Seyidbekiroglu, Nesim [Agricultural Machinery Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Amount of traditional fuel sources in the world has been decreasing and there is a definite need to produce and utilize alternative fuels such as biomass materials. In this study, briquetting conditions of Russian tumbleweed, Salsola tragus, (commonly named soda weed in Turkey) which grows in salty soils were investigated. Soda weeds were first chopped coarsely in a local tresher, then chopped finely in a hammer mill. Weed materials at three moisture levels (7%, 10%, and 13%) were prepared in the lab. Chopped weed materials were filled in cylindrical and square dies and compressed using a hydraulic press at three pressure levels of 15.7, 19.6 and 31.4 MPa. Optimum temperature, moisture rate, and pressure values were determined to produce stable briquettes. Further experiments were conducted to produce briquettes using sawdust and walnut shells as additives in conical dies of two different sizes. Results of a statistical analysis of parameters to produce briquettes in different dies indicated that moisture rates of 7-10%, pressure of 31.4 MPa, and temperatures of 85-105 C were suitable for briquetting soda weed. Furthermore, sawdust and walnut shells additives increased briquette density without any negative effects on production process and product stability. (author)

  8. Responses of biomass briquetting and pelleting to water-involved pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Xiaotong; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Lin, Lili; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively regarded as the most important resource for bioethanol, the wide application was seriously restricted by the high transportation cost of biomass. Currently, biomass densification is regarded as an acceptable solution to this issue. Herein, briquettes, pellets and their corresponding undensified biomass were pretreated by diluted-NaOH and hydrothermal method to investigate the responses of biomass densification to these typical water-involved pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The densified biomass auto-swelling was initially investigated before pretreatment. Results indicated pellets could be totally auto-swollen in an hour, while it took about 24 h for briquettes. When diluted-NaOH pretreatment was performed, biomass briquetting and pelleting improved sugar conversion rate by 20.1% and 5.5% comparing with their corresponding undensified biomass. Pelleting improved sugar conversion rate by 7.0% after hydrothermal pretreatment comparing with the undensified biomass. However, briquetting disturbed hydrothermal pretreatment resulting in the decrease of sugar conversion rate by 15.0%. PMID:24189385

  9. Coal characteristics from 'Priskupshtina' deposit and technological parameters for briquetting (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of small class coal as well as the lack of formed fuel needed for the industry and for the consumer goods has been a long lasting problem, and a challenge for the researchers of the Republic of Macedonia. For that purpose, all-inclusive analysis of the quality of the coals in Macedonia, their reserves and technical characteristics, as well as analysis of the petrographic structure were made. Classification of the deposits and the research for the possibility of making briquettes was done, too. Laboratory investigations in the coal deposit 'Priskupshtina' were carried out. The analysis of the coal briquetting show that the expected results in coordination with the required standards were not obtained. Spatially the results from the coal calorific value, its hardness and atmospheric resistance. Standard methods were used for the researches without connective means and the achieved results were mutually correlated. Technical-economic verification is necessary in the further process. (Author)

  10. Effectiveness of briquetting bio mass materials with different ratios in 10 kW down draft gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sivakumar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about the effectiveness of using Briquetting of rural bio mass material in Down draft gasifier for easy operation and power generation, during winter and rainy season. Sawdust a milling residue is available in huge quantity. Apart from the problems of transportation, storage, and handling, the direct burning of loosesaw dust biomass in conventional grates is associated with very low thermal efficiency and widespread air pollution. The conversion efficiency is as low as 40% with particulate emissions in the flue gases in excess of 3000 mg/ Nm. In addition, a large percentage of unburnt carbonaceous ash has to be disposed off. Briquetting ofthe sawdust with cow dung could mitigate these pollution problems while at the same time making use of the important domestic energy resources. The easily available rural bio mass material saw dust and rurally available binder material cum bio mass cow dung is used for briquetting. This experiment was carried out with briquetting of saw dust and binder cow dung at different ratio. It is experimentally investigated at 8000C using gasification technique in a downdraft gasifier. The air flow rate and pressure drop across the gasifier has been measured. The percentage of combustible gases like H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and N2 formed during gasification are found. The calorific value of the producer gas for different ratio of briquetting biomass material has been found out. Experimental results indicate that briquetting at 75:25 ratio of sawdust and cow dung is the best suitable biomass Briquette for gasifier compared to the other two ratios considered. The result shows that the gas composition of methane is comparably high in this ratio (i.e. 75:25 than other two ratios i.e.(50:50 and (25:75. The results also show that pressure drop across the gasifier and producer gas composition increases withincrease in air flow rate. Also found that, thermal efficiency is comparatively high at 75:25 ratio briquettes

  11. Partial briquetting of coal charges as a means of utilizing lower-grade coal for coke making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, B.J. (Iscor Limited, Newcastle (South Africa))

    1991-08-01

    The paper describes the difficulties experienced with inferior coking coals as Iscor began using larger blast furnaces for the production of liquid iron. Research conducted at Iscor from 1977 to 1979 showed that benefits could be gained from the use of partially briquetted charges, and it was decided to install briquetting plants at the Vanderbijlpark and Newcastle Works. Details are given of the latter plant, which was supplied by a consortium consisting of Voest Alpine, Didier Engineering, and Sumitomo Metal Industries. Sumitomo also supplied information on the optimization of coke quality along the lines of their Sumicoal System. The results have been a marked improvement in coke quality, much better blast-furnace operation, and increased productivity. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effectiveness of briquetting bio mass materials with different ratios in 10 kW down draft gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    K.sivakumar; B. Sivaraman; N.Krishna Mohan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discuss about the effectiveness of using Briquetting of rural bio mass material in Down draft gasifier for easy operation and power generation, during winter and rainy season. Sawdust a milling residue is available in huge quantity. Apart from the problems of transportation, storage, and handling, the direct burning of loosesaw dust biomass in conventional grates is associated with very low thermal efficiency and widespread air pollution. The conversion efficiency is as low as 40% ...

  13. Production of Briquetted Biomass Fuels Using a hand Operated Circular Piston Press Briquetter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has shown that, the future of fossil based fuel is uncertain. Most of the developing countries have concentrated most on traditional fuels such as firewood and charcoal leading to over exploitation of available wood resources. The most appropriate technology for such recovery is simple briquetting. The objective of this study were to design and construct a circular and hand operated briquetter and determine the properties of the briquettes produced. A circular piston press was designed and fabricated. The materials used were; a circular steel plate 92 cm in diameter 10 mm thick, three circular steel plates 92 cm diameter 6 mm, fifty eight pipes 4 cm diameter and 8 cm long with similar fifty eight pipes 3.8 cm diameter 10 long, a square threaded screw 1.5 m long, a 10 mm diameter nut and two nut bearings. Charcoal fines and clay soil soil were used as energy and binder materials respectively. The binder and charcoal fines were mixed in a ratio of 1:20 by weight, poured into the moulds and they were then spread uniformly. The pressing was done by screwing the pistons downwards. After maximum pressure was applied, the formula P=w xr tan (A+ +)/12. Using the depth, the wet density and work done were determined. The production level was calculated followed by the determination of the cost of production after which the machine profitability was was calculated. The maximum pressure obtained was 197.5Nmm-2. Average depth obtained was 6.685 cm. The wet density varied from 1.47 gcm-3 at the machine centre to 1.44gcm3 at the periphery with an average work done per piston being 57.86 N. cm. The dry density varied from 0.96gcm-3 at the centre to 0.94 gcm-3 at the periphery resulting to the average density of 0.954. The machine produced 55.68 bags each of 35 kg per month with a payback period of 8 months. Statistical package (SPSS) showed no significant difference between dry density and work done per hole. However there was significant differences in depth and wet

  14. Briquetting of self-reducing blendings of waste iron oxide mixtures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derungs, P.; Brouhon, J.M.; Harp, G. [ProfilARBED, Esch-sur Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop technologies to manufacture self-reducing briquettes out of waste iron oxides and to recycle them in an electric arc furnace or a cupola furnace. CRM has investigated and determined the optimal characteristics (binder, size, grain size, compositions and activator for the reduction reaction) for briquettes containing mixtures of mill scales, mill sludges, electric arc furnace (EAF) dust and coal as reduction agent. The goal of obtaining briquettes, in which iron oxides are totally reduced when these briquettes are loaded with the scrap into an electric arc furnace, was achieved. Trials at ProfilARBED have shown that it is possible to recycle mill and EAF by-products conditioned in self-reducing briquettes in an electric arc furnace without influence on the performance and on the environment. The iron content of the slag does not increase as the iron of the by-product is almost completely reduced. Zinc is completely removed and the concentration in the EAF dust increases. BFI has investigated the best recycling method for sludge and dust of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace, by laboratory testing and industrial trials in a cupola furnace. Self-reducing briquettes have been produced and reduced. The best conditions for achieving the required briquetting have been determined.

  15. Briquetting of self-reducing blendings of waste iron oxides mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derungs, P.; Brouhon, J.M.; Harp, G. [ProfilARBED, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2002-07-01

    Protection of the environment increasingly requires the reuse of by-products from the steel industry. The objectives of the project were to develop technologies to manufacture self-reducing briquettes out of waste iron oxides and to recycle them in an electric arc furnace or a cupola furnace. CRM has investigated and determinated the optimal characteristics (binder, size, grain size, compositions and activator for the reduction reaction) for briquettes containing mixtures of mill scales, mill sludges, electric arc furnace (EAF) dust and coal as reduction agent. The goal to obtain briquettes, in which iron oxides are totally reduced when these briquettes are loaded with the scrap into an electric are furnace, was achieved. Trials at ProfilARBED have shown that it is possible to recycle mill and EAF by-products conditioned in self-reducing briquettes in an electric arc furnace without influence on the performance and on the environment. The iron content of the slag does not increase as the iron of the by-products is almost completely reduced. Zinc is completely removed and the concentration in the EAF dust increases. BFI has investigated the best recycling method for sludge and dust of the blast furnace (BF) and basic oxygen furnace (BOF), by laboratory testing and industrial trials in a cupola furnace. Self-reducing briquettes have been produced and reduced. The best conditions to achieve the required briquetting strength have been determinated. 29 refs., 74 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Briquetting of empty fruit bunch fibre and palm shell using piston press technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian palm oil industry produces vast amount of biomass, mainly from the palm oil milling sector. Converting oil palm biomass into a uniform solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be potentially attractive solution in upgrading its properties and to add value as renewable energy fuels. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in fibrous form and palm shell were mixed in certain ratios and densified into briquettes at high pressure using piston press technology. The blending ratios of shell to EFB (w/ w%) for the production trials were fixed at 20%, 30%, 40% and 60%. The raw materials and briquettes produced were analysed to determine their physical and chemical properties. From the analysis, it was found that, the average calorific values for the blending ratios of 20% to 60% ranged from 17995 to 18322 kJ/ kg. The specific densities ranged from 1130 to 1250 kg/ m3. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared with those of the commercial sawdust briquettes according to DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Overall, the presence of high shell in palm briquette increased the calorific value, specific density and quality of the briquette as well. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future for the global market. (author)

  17. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust - effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, D.P.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Honaker, R. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-07-01

    The coal industry usually discards fine-size (-150 microns) coal because of its high-moisture content and handling problems. One avenue for utilization is to either pelletize or briquette this material. However, industry has not adopted this route due in large part to significant drying and binder costs. In an effort to reduce these costs, compacting and briquetting studies were conducted to determine the effect of combining a coarse (1.18x0.15mm) spiral separator product with a fine coal flotation product (-150microns), with and without adding sawdust. Maximizing the packing density of the coal and wood waste mixture could potentially reduce the binder requirement by minimizing the void space as well as reducing shipping costs. Accordingly, work reported here focused on evaluating the impact of the particle-size distribution of different blends of fine and coarse coal, with and without sawdust and/or binder. The modified Proctor density of compacted blends along with the porosity and compressive strengths of briquettes made from each blend were determined. For the coal-only blends, the packing density was maximized by a relatively high (70% to 80%) coarse coal content. However, the packing density did not correlate with the compressive strength of the briquette that instead maximized with 100% fine flotation coal and continuously decreased as higher proportions of coarse coal were added. Similar compaction and compressive-strength results were obtained with mixtures of sawdust and varying proportions of coarse and fine coal. With the addition of a binder, the highest strengths were no longer obtained with 100% fine coal but instead maximized between 20% and 50% coarse coal addition depending on how long the briquettes were cured.

  18. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  19. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. PMID:26684056

  20. Briquetting of Egyptian ilmenite ore with different organic binder and reduced its in hydrogen in temperature range 800-1200°C

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Gawad H.H.; El-Hussiny N.A.; Wassf M.A.; Khalifa M.G.; Iskander B.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Ilmenite ore fine was briquetted with different amounts of molasses or pitch pressed under different pressure was studied in this investigation. The results show at optimum amount of molasses added was 1.5 % and pitch, the pressure was 294.3 M.Pa.. Also the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses such as Xray and screen analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced by different amounts of hydrogen at different tempe...

  1. Assessment of Reactive Catch Basin Larvicide Treatments Toward Improved Water Quality Using FourStar(®) Briquets and CocoBear™ Larvicide Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Justin E; Zazra, Dave; Henry, Marlon; Xamplas, Christopher; Kafensztok, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    Because it is often logistically impossible to monitor all catch basins within an operational area, local mosquito control programs will preemptively treat catch basins with larvicides each season. However, these larvicides can, ostensibly, be considered water quality pollutants. To experimentally reduce the use of larvicides toward improving water quality, 30 basins within a small 0.7-km(2) residential area were monitored weekly for the presence of larvae and pupae for 14 wk in the summer of 2013. Once a basin was found to reach a threshold of 12 mosquitoes per dip sample, it received a FourStar® Briquet (a 180-day briquet formulation of 6% Bacillus sphaericus and 1% B. thuringiensis israelensis). Each week a FourStar-treated basin surpassed this threshold, it was treated with an application of CocoBear™ oil (10% mineral oil). By the end of trials, all but one basin received a briquet and 13 required at least 4 treatments of CocoBear, suggesting that preemptive treatment is appropriate for the study area. PMID:26375912

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Refuse Derived Fuel for Pyrolysis and Gasification by Bindless High Pressure Briquetting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪生; 解强; 厉伟; 沈吉敏

    2004-01-01

    A new type of refuse derived fuel (RDF) for pyrolysis and gasification was prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the presence of a small quantity of coal by bindless high pressure technology at room temperature. The physicochemical property of RDF was tested. Orthogonal experiment method was used to optimize the process parameters using dropping strength (mechanical strength) and thermal stability of the RDF as indices for quality of RDF. The result shows that the mixture of MSW and coal with a total moisture ranging from 5% to 17% can be easily compressed into RDF briquettes at a pressure above 70 MPa. When the briquetting pressure is higher than 100 kN and moisture content is about 10%, the qualified RDF can be obtained. The orthogonal experiment shows that the moisture can greatly affect the mechanical strength of RDF, while all the technique parameters have no obvious influence on thermal stability of RDF. The optimal parameters are a shaping pressure of 106 MPa, a moisture content of 10%, and a coal content of 20%.

  3. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    José E Gonçalves; Maria M. P. Sartori; Alcides L. Leão

    2009-01-01

    O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU) e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos ma...

  4. Produção e avaliação de briquetes de resíduos lignocelulósicos Production and evaluation of lignocellulosic residue briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Elis de Ramos e Paula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e avaliar briquetes de resíduos de biomassa vegetal e testar diferentes tempos e temperaturas de briquetagem para alguns deles. O material utilizado foi resíduos do processamento da madeira (maravalha e serragem; pergaminho do grão e caule do cafeeiro; caule e vagem do feijão; caule e vagem da soja; casca de arroz; folha, caule, palha e sabugo de milho e palha e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. A briquetagem foi realizada à pressão de 150 Bar. Foram testados diferentes tempos de briquetagem para a serragem da madeira e diferentes temperaturas para a casca do arroz e para o pergaminho do café. Na avaliação da qualidade dos briquetes, determinaram-se a densidade relativa aparente, a resistência à compressão e o índice de combustão. Os resultados indicaram que o tempo e a temperatura de briquetagem interferiram na resistência mecânica dos briquetes. O melhor tempo de prensagem foi de 8 minutos e a temperatura de 125 °C. Os briquetes da casca de arroz apresentaram maior densidade e alta resistência mecânica. O maior índice de combustão foi encontrado para os briquetes da vagem do feijão.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.103

    This study aimed to produce and evaluating the briquettes made from residues of plant biomass and test different times and temperatures. The material utilized was composed of wood processing residues (wood shaving and sawdust, coffee bean parchment and coffee tree stem, beam stem and pod, soybean stem and pod, rice husk, corn leaf, stem, straw and cob and sugar cane straw and bagasse. Briquetting was performed at a pressure of 150 Bar. Different times were tested for briquetting sawdust from wood and different temperatures for rice husk and parchment coffee. For evaluation of the briquettes quality, the apparent relative density, compression resistance and combustion index were determined. The results

  5. Briquetting of Egyptian ilmenite ore with different organic binder and reduced its in hydrogen in temperature range 800-1200°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Gawad H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilmenite ore fine was briquetted with different amounts of molasses or pitch pressed under different pressure was studied in this investigation. The results show at optimum amount of molasses added was 1.5 % and pitch, the pressure was 294.3 M.Pa.. Also the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses such as Xray and screen analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced by different amounts of hydrogen at different temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined.

  6. Clean Production Analysis of Biomass Briquetting Fuel%生物质成型燃料洁净生产分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树华; 王志伟; 李在峰; 何晓峰; 雷廷宙

    2012-01-01

    To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze biomass briquetting fuel of clean production, biomass briquetting fuel integration system, based on flat die and ring die machine, was taken as research object. The indexes of production process and equipment requirement such as selection rationality,parameter control efficiency, production stability,level of automatism of equipment, rationality of equipment layout,engineering energy conservation; resources and energy utilization indexes of fresh water consumption coefficient, energy consumption coefficient, matter consumption coefficient, clean energy consumption coefficient,toxic and hazardous compounds coefficient; production indexes of qualified rate, lifetime and hazardous materials coefficient were analyzed. The results indicated that biomass briquetting fuel is suitable for national policy with reasonable process籶recluding pollutant generation at the beginning and avoiding end treatment. The system has advantages of steady production, high level of automatism, reasonable layout of equipment and low energy consumption. There are almost zero water consumption, very low toxic and hazardous compounds coefficient, and low coefficient in matter,energy, clean energy. Additionally, biomass briquetting fuel is an acceptant and very clean production with combustion resistance.%为了定性和定量地对生物质成型燃料进行清洁生产评价,以平模和环模为成型设备的生物质一体化成型燃料生产系统为例,分析了生物质成型燃料工艺选择合理性、参数控制的有效性、生产稳定性、设备自动化程度、设备布置的合理性、公用工程节能要求等生产工艺与装备要求指标,新鲜水耗系数、能耗系数、物耗系数、清洁能源消耗系数、资源有毒有害系数等资源能源利用指标,产品合格率、产品寿命、有害产品系数等产品指标.结果表明:生物质成型燃料符合国家政策、工艺选择合理,从源头上杜

  7. Torrefaction of briquettes: technical-economic feasibility and perspective in Brazilian market; Briquetes torreficados: viabilidade tecnico-economica e perspectivas no mercado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    It is presented an study of the operational impact into a briquettes factory produced by the introduction of a torrefaction process. Through costs analysis it is shown that for a briquettes factory of 1.200 ton/year capacity, it is possible to increase Operational Profits and decrease the Break Even Point in 15.7 % when a torrefaction reactor is introduced into the manufacturing line. So, it is possible to insure that torrefaction increase the overall system efficiency without increasing yearly production since the number of 'biomass fuels' is increased enabling operation in other markets. This study also shows that torrefaction improves briquettes quality allowing access to the comparatively smaller consumer market still unreached by biomass briquets. (author)

  8. Briquetagem da granalha de aço recuperada do resíduo de rochas ornamentais Briquetting of steel grit recovered from the ornamental rocks cutting waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Junca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta os resultados obtidos com a confecção de briquetes a partir da granalha de aço presente no resíduo de rochas ornamentais. A granalha recuperada através de separação magnética foi caracterizada pelo método titulométrico, EDS (Espectrometria por Dispersão de Elétrons e difração de raios X. O tamanho e a distribuição das partículas foram obtidos por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise granulométrica. O concentrado ferroso recuperado apresentou teor de 93% de ferro metálico. Os briquetes apresentaram resistência a verde para força até 1,02 kN e a seco para a força máxima de 3,59 kN.This paper presents the results obtained with the production of briquettes from the steel grit found in the residue of ornamental rocks. The grit recovered by magnetic separation was characterized by titrimetric analysis, EDS (Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for the analysis of iron concentration in the residue. The size and distribution of particles were obtained by the granulometric analysis method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The process resulted in a concentrate containing 93% metallic iron. The maximum load before fracture of the green briquettes was 1.02kN and of the dry briquettes was 3.59kN.

  9. Torrefação e carbonização de briquetes de resíduos do processamento dos grãos de café Torrefaction and carbonization of briquettes made with residues from coffee grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de P. Protásio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesse trabalho, avaliar os briquetes dos resíduos do processamento dos grãos de café submetidos aos processos de carbonização e torrefação. Os briquetes foram carbonizados utilizando-se taxa de aquecimento de 1,67 ºC min-1 com temperatura inicial de 50 ºC e final de 450 ºC, por 30 min. A torrefação dos briquetes foi realizada em uma mufla em duas taxas de aquecimento: 1,5 e 3,0 ºC min-1 até 250 ºC, temperatura mantida durante 60 min. Foram determinados os rendimentos em briquetes torrificados e carbonizados, em líquido pirolenhoso, em gases não condensáveis e em carbono fixo. Para todos os briquetes foram quantificados os teores de carbono fixo, cinzas, voláteis, dos componentes elementares (C, H, N, S, O, o poder calorífico superior, a densidade aparente e energética e a resistência à compressão diametral. Os briquetes carbonizados apresentaram maior potencial energético devido aos elevados teores de carbono fixo e elementar e poder calorífico, porém baixa resistência mecânica. Os briquetes torrificados nas duas taxas de aquecimento consideradas apresentaram características e propriedades energéticas semelhantes mas densidade energética inferior em relação aos briquetes carbonizados e in natura.This research aimed to evaluate the briquettes made with residues from processing of coffee grain submitted to carbonization and torrefaction. The briquettes were carbonized at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 with initial temperature of 50 ºC and final of 450 ºC, which was kept during 30 min. The torrefaction of the briquettes was made in a muffle furnace at two heating rates: 1.5 and 3.0 ºC min-1 until 250 ºC, temperature kept during 60 min. The yields in torrefied and carbonized briquettes, pyroligneous liquor, non-condensable gases and fixed carbon were determined. For all briquettes the fixed carbon, ash, volatile and elemental components (C, H, N, S, O contents and higher heating value, apparent

  10. 果蓬类原料致密成型特征及其机制炭质量分析%Analysis of Densification and Molding of Epiear and the Quality of Briquetted Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杭瑞; 陈顺伟; 庄晓伟; 潘圻; 章江丽

    2012-01-01

    以山核桃、油茶和板栗3类果蓬为原料,研究了此类原料与杉木、松木屑在不同配比条件下对果蓬类致密成型特征及其机制炭质量的影响。证实了果蓬类原料因纤维素含量、木质素含量与杉木、松木存在差异,且因较高的灰分含量限制,需与杉木或松木屑等原料在一定配比条件下才可实现良好的致密成型。而配比选择试验结果则表明,果蓬原料与杉木、松木屑混合原料以3:7比例配料为宜;在此条件下,制备的机制炭外形平直无裂缝,得率为33.85%-36.73%,固定碳含量79.80%-86.20%,热值28.96-31.92MJ/kg。%In this research, briquette and briquetted charcoal were made by use of epiear of Carya cathayensis, Camellia oleifera, Chestnut and sawdust of pine and China fir. The character of densification and molding, and the quality of briquetted charcoal made by different proportions of epiear and sawdust were studied. The result indicated that cellulose and lignin content were dif- ferent between epiear and sawdust of pine and China fir. Because ash contents of epiear were high, the raw stuff of briquette which has good characteristics of densification and molding must be mixed by epiear and sawdust of pine and China fir at a regular ratio. This paper also tested briquetted charcoal made by different ratio of epiear and sawdust. The result showed that the optimal ratio of epiear and sawdust was 3 : 7. In this condition, the briquetted charcoal has flat shape and no cracks. The yield of carboni- zation was 33.85 % - 36.73 % , and the fixed carbon and combustion values of briquetted charcoal were 79.80 % - 86.20 % and 28.96 - 31.92 MJ/kg, respectively.

  11. Current Status of Biomass Briquetting Forming Equipment%生物质压块成型设备研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付敏; 郭婉丽; 梁栋

    2015-01-01

    This paper likes to provide a development of biomass briquette forming equipment at home and abroad.Summarized the main types and characteristics of biomass briquetting forming equipment. Analysis of existing domestic problems of molding equipment. And for the main problems of the forming equipment and the characteristics of the straw biomass resources in Heilongjiang Province. Proposed the development direction of the biomass straw equipment suitable for biomass raw materials in Heilongjiang.%该文介绍了国内外生物质压块成型设备的发展现状,综述了生物质压块成型设备的主要类型及特点,分析国内现有成型设备存在的问题,并针对目前黑龙江省生物质秸秆资源的特点及成型设备设备存在的主要问题,提出了适用于黑龙江地区秸秆原料的生物质秸秆压块成型设备的发展方向。

  12. 秸秆类生物质成型热黏塑性本构模型构建%Establishment of thermo viscoplastic constitutive model for straw biomass briquetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启新; 陈书法; 董玉平

    2015-01-01

    针对生物质颗粒生产能耗高、效率低的现状,该文从生物质组成角度,特别是木质素特性出发探讨其成型机理。秸秆成型过程由于内摩擦力的作用产生大量热量,温度的上升会造成木质素的软化,木质素的这一变化为纤维颗粒的团聚提供了黏结力。温度和木质素特性对生物质塑性成型性能产生巨大影响,是热黏塑变形过程。为研究生物质内部特性对塑性成型过程的影响,运用内时理论,以玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆和水稻秸秆为研究对象,构建了秸秆类生物质压缩成型内时本构方程。借助黏土流动理论,推导定义生物质黏塑性强化函数和核函数,运用数值分析和试验得出本构方程的系数。与试验数据相比较,基于内时理论的热黏塑性本构模型较好的模拟了生物质塑性流变过程。结果显示,向秸秆中添加20%的木质素,可有效提高其塑性流动性能,降低其在相同应变下的应力以及生产能耗;当成型温度在100~115℃之间,应变率在1×102~1×103 s-1之间,对于木质素质量分数分别为29%的玉米秸秆、33.5%的小麦秸秆和34.3%的水稻秸秆的固化成型性能最好。%Biomass briquetting is one of the key technologies to solve the problem of its collection, transportation and storage. Meanwhile biomass pellet, as a renewable energy, can be used instead of coal for heating, electricity, etc. Study on the mechanism of biomass briquetting is the basic way to develop new forming methods and equipments, and to improve productivity greatly. The research in this paper is about a thermo viscoplastic constitutive model for the biomass briquetting mechanism based on endochronic theory. Straw mainly consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a typical example of dissipative material. Biomass briquetting process is a mixed process of extrusion flow and interstitial flow. During the process, a large

  13. Produção e avaliação de briquetes de resíduos lignocelulósicos Production and evaluation of lignocellulosic residue briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Elis de Ramos e Paula; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Raphael Nogueira Rezende; Claudinéia Olímpia de Assis; Ana Elisa Rodarte Baliza

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e avaliar briquetes de resíduos de biomassa vegetal e testar diferentes tempos e temperaturas de briquetagem para alguns deles. O material utilizado foi resíduos do processamento da madeira (maravalha e serragem); pergaminho do grão e caule do cafeeiro; caule e vagem do feijão; caule e vagem da soja; casca de arroz; folha, caule, palha e sabugo de milho e palha e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. A briquetagem foi reali...

  14. Economic, environmental and social assessment of briquette fuel from agricultural residues in China – A study on flat die briquetting using corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass can be relatively easily stored and transported compared with other types of renewable energy sources. Crop straw can be converted into densified solid biofuel via briquette fuel technology to expand its possible applications and enhance its utilisation efficiency. However, the potential economic, environmental and social impacts of crop straw briquette fuel need to be assessed before its large-scale use. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of these impacts for a fully-operating 2 × 104 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China. The results show that with a life time of 15 years, a purchase price of 150 RMB/t for corn stalk and the current sales price of 400 RMB/t for briquette fuel, the plant has a net present value of 9.6 million RMB or 1.5 million USD, an internal rate of return of 36% and a short investment payback period of 4.4 years. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are found to be 323 t CO2,e/year or 1 kg CO2,e/GJ, much lower than that of coal. Additionally, the process reduces pollution by decreasing the amount of corn stalk that is discarded or burnt directly in the field. In terms of social impacts, the use of corn stalk briquetting fuel plant is expected to play an important role in increasing local residents' income, improving rural ecological environments, alleviating energy shortages, guaranteeing energy security, and promoting socialism new rural reconstruction. - Highlights: • A fully-operating 2 × 104 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China is analysed. • The plant has net present value of $1.5 million and payback period of 4.4 years. • Life cycle GHG emissions are 323 t CO2,e/year or 1 kg CO2,e/GJ, much lower than coal. • The plant will also have significant social benefits

  15. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  16. Caracterização e comparação entre diferentes granulometrias de serragem de Eucalyptus grandis para confecção de briquetes. Characterization and comparison between different sizes of Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for briquettes confection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Farrapo GONÇALVES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande geração de resíduos lignocelulósicos, a partir de processos industriais e da agricultura, torna o uso da biomassa uma fonte de energia térmica viável; sua compactação aumenta sua densidade, seu poder calorífico e sua resistência. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre briquetes produzidos a partir de diferentes granulometrias de serragens de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = serragem que passou pela peneira de 10 mesh e ficou retida na de 20 mesh (10 a 20; T2 = 20 a 60; T3 = 60 a 100 ; T4 = 10 a 100. As características da matéria-prima mostraram-se viáveis para a produção de briquetes, com teor de umidade de 12%, 88,65% de voláteis, 0,44% de cinzas, 10,80% de carbono fixo e poder calorífico de 4.229 kcal.kg-1. As comparações realizadas entre os tratamentos foram feitas a partir da expansão (diametral e longitudinal e de ensaios de compressão diametral para força máxima e tensão de força máxima dos briquetes. O tratamento T4 foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados nesses testes (1,04%; 15,06%; 90,22 kgf; 0,6714 MPa, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente, a nível de 5% dos outros tratamentos. A produção em larga escala do tratamento T4 viabiliza a produção dos briquetes, pois não é necessário o processo de separação granulométrica.The great generation of lignocellulose wastes from industrial processes and agriculture makes the use of biomass a source of viable thermal energy; its compaction increases its density, its calorific value and its strength. The objective of the research consisted in comparing briquettes produced from different particle sizes of sawdust of Eucalyptus grandis. The treatments were: T1 = sawdust that passed through 10 mesh sieve and was retained on the 20 mesh (10 to 20; T2 = 20 to 60; T3 = 60 to 100; T4 = 10 to 100. The characteristics of the raw material proved feasibility to produce briquettes, with moisture content of 12%, 88.65% of

  17. Caracterização química, física e mecânica de briquetes de duas variedades de bambu. Chemical, physical and mechanical characterization of briquettes from two bamboo varieties.

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Martucheli AMARAL; Fábio Minoru YAMAJI; Pamela Beatriz Moreira de OLIVEIRA; Diego Aleixo da SILVA; José Mauro Santana da SILVA; Saulo Philipe Sebastião GUERRA

    2015-01-01

    A demanda por energia de fontes renováveis vêm aumentando a cada dia, propiciando o uso de biomassa para que esta possa vir a ser uma alternativa viável como combustível sólido, sendo esta limpa e potencialmente expressiva em termos econômicos. Investigações sobre briquetes para uso doméstico também têm aumentado, pois este material compacto é de fácil transporte e apresenta elevado poder energético, além de contribuir para a preservação ambiental ao substituir matérias-primas ...

  18. Briquetting the lignite from Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignite found in Macedonia are relatively young and as a consequence, tend to have a low heating value and a high moisture content. Furthermore, these coals are friable, giving rise to enhanced fines formation and dust generation during mining. In mines at Piskupshtina and Brik-Berovo, some 305 of the mined coal becomes dust. Despite the problems associated with exploiting the indigenous lignite, a need for high-quality, hard coals for power generation, heating and industry is generated. Under normal capacity, industry could use over 300 000 tons of dried lignite. Domestic heating consumption could apparently exceed 100 000 tons of briquettes, if available at a price competitive to that of wood. Hence, the goal of the paper is to present the possibility of benefiting Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for electric energy production as well as for use in the industry, metallurgy and home heating. In the initial stage of work, the results of the laboratory studies are presented. (author)

  19. Caracterização química, física e mecânica de briquetes de duas variedades de bambu. Chemical, physical and mechanical characterization of briquettes from two bamboo varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martucheli AMARAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por energia de fontes renováveis vêm aumentando a cada dia, propiciando o uso de biomassa para que esta possa vir a ser uma alternativa viável como combustível sólido, sendo esta limpa e potencialmente expressiva em termos econômicos. Investigações sobre briquetes para uso doméstico também têm aumentado, pois este material compacto é de fácil transporte e apresenta elevado poder energético, além de contribuir para a preservação ambiental ao substituir matérias-primas não renováveis. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar física, mecânica e quimicamente os briquetes de resíduos oriundos de Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta e Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris, analisando o seu potencial para a produção de combustível sólido. Os teores de cinzas e voláteis reportados para a variedade vitatta foram de 7,19 e 75,54% na devida ordem, e para a variedade vulgaris, de 7,09 e 73,95%, respectivamente. O produto final de cada material compactado teve expansão longitudinal considerada normal, sendo estas de 7,3% para vitatta e 7,5% para vulgaris e apresentaram boa resistência à compressão suportando forças de 510,44 e 499,80 N, respectivamente, para variedade vitatta e vulgaris. Portanto, os briquetes produzidos usando-se resíduos das duas espécies estudadas neste trabalho, Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta e Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris, apresentaram propriedades químicas, físicas e mecânicas satisfatórias para seu uso final como combustível sólido. Nowadays, the request for renewable energy sources are increasing, leading to the use of biomass as a viable alternative for solid fuel, being cleaner and potentially significant regarding to economical values. The search for domestic use of briquettes has also increased because the solid compact has high source of energy power and can be easily transported, as well as contributes to environmental preservation as a substitute to the use of non

  20. A PRODUÇÃO DE BRIQUETES PARA AMENIZAR A PRESSÃO ANTRÓPICA SOBRE O BIOMA CAATINGA NA REGIÃO DO BAIXO-AÇU POTIGUAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Roberto de Lucena Tavares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 98% do território do Rio Grande do Norte estão incluídos nas chamadas Áreas Susceptíveis à Desertificação do Brasil. Na região do Baixo-Açu, o desmatamento sistemático da mata nativa para atender às necessidades do polo ceramista e de outras pequenas indústrias locais tem intensificado o grave quadro de devastação ambiental da região. Este estudo examinou a viabilidade econômico-financeira da produção comercial de briquetes como forma de suprir parte da demanda por lenha e carvão vegetal, mitigando assim os efeitos antrópicos sobre o bioma caatinga. Os briquetes seriam compostos  de resíduos da produção de cera de carnaúba e  de capim-elefante plantado exclusivamente para fins energéticos nas áreas irrigáveis da região. As estimativas de custos de instalação e manutenção da fábrica foram feitas tendo como parâmetros os custos de instalação de uma fábrica-escola em construção no Campus Ipanguaçu do IFRN e os custos de produção de uma fábrica idêntica a esta, em operação há cinco anos, no Estado do Paraná. Os dados foram sistematizados em planilhas do software Make Money, usado na avaliação da viabilidade econômica a partir de aferidores como Valor Presente Líquido, Payback e Taxa Interna de Retorno. Os resultados comprovaram que a produção de biocombustíveis sólidos adensados é viável no Baixo-Açu e pode contribuir de maneira efetiva para a recomposição da mata nativa, além de gerar ocupação e renda para os moradores da região.

  1. Thermal decomposition of torrefied and carbonized briquettes of residues from coffee grain processing Decomposição térmica de briquetes torrificados e carbonizados de resíduos do processamento dos grãos de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass has been recognized as a potential renewable energy and an alternative substitute that contributes to the decrease of fossil fuels consumption. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze the thermal behavior of briquettes made of residues from coffee grain processing in different conditions: in natura, torrefied and carbonized. Eucalyptus sawdust was used for comparison. The briquettes were carbonized considering final temperature of 450° C (kept for 30 min. The briquettes torrefaction was performed in an electric oven (muffle using two heating rates until 250° C (kept 60 min. The thermal-gravimetric analysis was made in nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature of 600° C. The contents of fixed carbon and volatile matter of the fuels were determined. The carbonized briquette of residues from coffee grain processing presented higher stability and low thermal decomposition. It was observed a low influence of torrefaction heating rate under thermal properties of briquettes, and fixed carbon and volatile matter content. Regarding the raw biomass, lower total mass loss was observed for the residues from coffee grain processing when compared to Eucalyptus sawdust. The carbonized and torrefied briquettes presented higher hydrophobicity than raw briquettes.O uso da biomassa tem sido reconhecido como uma energia potencial renovável e um substituto alternativo que contribua para a redução do consumo de combustíveis fósseis. Portanto, objetivou-se analisar o comportamento térmico de briquetes de resíduos do processamento dos grãos de café, em diferentes formas: in natura, torrificados e carbonizados. Utilizou-se a serragem de Eucalyptus como parâmetro de comparação. Os briquetes foram carbonizados considerando a temperatura final de 450° C (mantida por 30 min. A torrefação dos briquetes foi realizada em uma mufla em duas taxas de aquecimento até 250° C (mantida por 60 min. Realizou-se a análise termogravimétrica em

  2. Production and characterization of self-reducing briquettes to be used as metallic charge at Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao; Producao e caracterizacao de briquetes auto-redutores a serem utilizados como carga metalica na Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama Bentes, Marcos A. da [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST), Serra, ES (Brazil); Resende, Caio S.; D`Abreu, Jose C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1996-12-31

    The present work investigates the initial steps for characterization and production of self-reducing briquettes to be manufactured from a mixture of residues, which are generated in the various industrial processes at Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao. The main development consists of three main stages, encompassing the development and production of self-reducing briquette and the investigation of its reduction in both solid and liquid phases. The produced briquette can be used as an alternative metallic and recarburizing raw material to be charged in the converters, or substituting the cooling scrap added in the steel ladles. Furthermore, this material can be eventually be applied to the new developed technologies for iron and steel production. The results of briquetting agglomeration studies of various mixtures containing iron and carbon rich materials are presented, as well the metallization rates, which were obtained in the gas-solid reduction furnaces for the briquettes of different residue compositions. Finally, the liquid phase experiments to be carried out in a vacuum induction furnace are discussed. (author) 9 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Optimization of technique parameters of annular mould briquetting machine for straw briquette compressing%环模式成型机压缩水稻秆成型工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树人; 段建; 姚勇; 蒋晓霞; 蒋成宠

    2013-01-01

    为了确定环模式成型机压缩水稻秸秆最佳的成型工艺参数,该文以水稻秸秆为原料,利用9JYK-2000A型环模式成型机进行压缩成型,寻求工作参数对环模式成型机压缩水稻秸秆成型影响规律和优化工艺参数组合。采用四因素五水平二次回归正交旋转中心组合设计试验方法,以含水率、成型温度、模辊间隙和主轴转速为影响因子,以成型压块的松弛密度和抗破碎性为评价指标。利用Design-expert8.0.6的回归分析法及响应面分析法,建立并分析了4个因子对评价指标影响的数学模型。结果表明:当参数组合含水率为17.5%~27.1%、成型温度为81.9℃~88.1℃、磨辊间隙为2.49~3.78 mm、主轴转速为157.6~186.5 r/min条件下,成型压块的松弛密度大于1.0 g/cm3,成型压块的抗破碎性大于65%;各因素对松弛密度贡献率的主次关系为:主轴转速>磨辊间隙>含水率>成型温度,各因素对抗破碎性贡献率的主次关系为:含水率>主轴转速>磨辊间隙>成型温度。研究可为环模式成型机压缩水稻秸秆成型提供一定理论依据和技术支撑。%China is a large agricultural nation with abundant straw resources, and the crop straw is regarded as a kind of precious biology resource. Recently, the straw briquetting technology was found to be an effective way to solve the low comprehensive utilization of straw. The annular mould briquetting machine has become the mainstream equipment among lot of straw curing equipment, because of its lower energy consumption, wear resistance and high productivity, etc. However, the present biomass compression molding process research mainly concentrates on the experiments and theories of corn stalks, cotton stalks, wheat straw, and wood chips molding instead of rice straw molding, especially by using annular mould briquetting. A significant feature of molding briquette is the physical properties that directly

  4. Optimization of operating parameters for vertical ring mold straw briquetting machine%立式环模秸秆压块成型机作业参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞利沙; 孟海波; 赵立欣; 姚宗路; 田宜水; 侯书林

    2013-01-01

    Corn straw was used as raw material based on the low productivity, low quality of briquette and high energy consumption due to the operating parameters in the straw briquette production process,, We identified raw material particle size, moisture content, molding machine clearances between die and rollsas three factors for the corn straw The impacts of each factor were divided into three levels. Different combinations of the three process parameters on the productivity, briquetting fuel molding rate, density, mechanical durability and energy consumption per ton of product were studied in accordance with the biomass solid fuel test method. The test results were analyzed with variance analysis of orthogonal test. To ensure the test results can be used for real world production guidance, the orthogonal test results were verified. The results showed that the optimal combination of process parameters is the raw material particle size of 20-30 mm, the moisture content of 15%and the clearances between die and rolls of 2 mm for the briquette quality. To increase productivity and reduce energy consumption per ton of product, the best combinations of process parameters was the raw material particle size of 20-30 mm, the moisture content of 20% and the clearances between die and rolls of 2 mm. Appropriate combination of process parameters depend on the environment. When forming fuel needs long-range transport, it requires high mechanical durability. The process parameter combinations were achieved as raw material particle size of 10-20mm, moisture content of 15% and clearances between die and rolls of 2 mm. When there are no special requirements, the process parameter combinations were treated with particle size of 10-20mm, moisture content of 20%and clearances between die and rolls of 2 mm. According to quality requirements of briquetting fuel molding rate, density and mechanical durability, the moisture content of 10%to 20%range, an appropriate increase in moisture content

  5. Refining of Macedonian lignite through briquets production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 for the first time the scientific institutes from Republic of Macedonia got the opportunity to take part in competition to realize the scientific-research activity, financed by European Union. In the area of energy it could be applied for programs TERMI and COPERNICUS. A research project is applied for the program INCO COPERNICUS 97, with participation of the following research institutes: Koppern Aufbereitungstechnik GMbH and Co.KG - Germany; ENTEGRO - Greek Company for Energy Technology - Greece; Mining Institute Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty of Technical Sciences, Bitola - Macedonia; Central Institute for work protection, Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty for Industrial Chemistry and Metallurgy - Bulgaria. This paper presents the aim of the research, expected results, methodology and distribution of work among the research institutes

  6. Change of Pressing Chamber Conicalness at Briquetting Process in Briquetting Machine Pressing Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Križan; Miloš Matúš; Jaan Kers; Djordje Vukelić

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present the impact of the conical shape of a pressing chamber, an important structural parameter. Besides the known impact of the technological parameters of pressing chambers, it is also very important to pay attention to their structural parameters. In the introduction, we present a theoretical analysis of pressing chamber conicalness. An experiment aimed at detecting this impact was performed at our institute, and it showed that increasing the conicalness of a pressi...

  7. Optimum mushroom planted residual as briquetting binder inramulus mori pellet fuel improving their modeling ratio and combustion properties%添加适量菌棒废渣提高桑枝颗粒燃料成型率及改善燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎演明; 黄志民; 龙思宇; 韦光贤; 李俊晓

    2015-01-01

    A mass of Ramulus Mori (RM), Mushroom Planted Residual (MPR) are generated from sericulture and mushroom planting industries in China every year. After adequate drying and densification, these residues can be used as alternative raw materials of pellet fuel for heat generation. RM and MPR differ from crop stalks and sawdust for their physical characteristics and chemical composition. In order to produce high-quality pellet fuel from such materials,it is necessary to understand the role of these variations. The RM and MPR ( Main components: 85% Ramulus Mori, 12% cassava alcohol residues, 2% calcium oxide and 1% calcium sulfate) were tested for moisture content, net calorific value in air dried basis, contents of ash, volatile, fixed carbon, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). Also the glass transition temperature of two types of lignin which were extracted from RM and MPR, respectively, were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that RM had low ash, sulfur and nitrogen content, but high volatile, net calorific value and glass transition temperature at 72.54%, 17.57 MJ/kg and 160℃, respectively, implying that RM was an excellent raw material for pellet fuel production, especially if the pressure and temperature during its pelletization can be controlled. The volatile, net calorific value and glass transition temperature of MPR were 66.72 %, 15.23 MJ/kg and 136.8℃, respectively, which were very significantly different from those of RM by univariate variance statistical analysis. Compared with RM, MPR had lower content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. These results showed that the single MPR was not a suitable raw material for pellet fuel production, but an excellent briquetting binder. MPR was mixed with RM as a briquetting binder when the percentages of MPR content were 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, respectively. The composites were grounded by vibrating

  8. Potential of forestry residue briquetting of Seridó region species in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil Potencial de briquetagem de resíduos florestais da região do Seridó, no Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    .MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} --> Esse trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial de aproveitamento de resíduos gerados pela exploração florestal de espécies que ocorrem no semiárido brasileiro na região do Seridó, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, para a produção de briquetes, determinar as propriedades físicas e mecânicas dos briquetes, correlacionar a densidade da madeira com a densidade após a produção dos briquetes, e a densidade dos briquetes com a resistência à compressão. Foram coletadas 32 árvores (oito espécies com quatro repetições. A avaliação das propriedades físicas e químicas entre as madeiras foram realizadas segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Para as variáveis relacionadas aos briquetes, adotou-se o mesmo delineamento, com três repetições por espécie, totalizando 24 unidades amostrais. Os briquetes produzidos com a madeira de jurema-preta se destacaram em função dos maiores teores de carbono fixo, poder calorífico, e resistência à compressão plana. Os briquetes produzidos com os resíduos da madeira de imburana apresentaram os piores desempenhos para os parâmetros estudados. Foi observada correlação negativa entre a densidade básica das madeiras e o ganho de densidade relativa aparente dos briquetes e correlação positiva entre a densidade aparente dos briquetes e a resistência à compressão plana

  9. Briquetting mechanism and waterproof performance of bio-briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.; Chen, L.; Cao, J. [Henen Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2008-07-15

    Maize stalk and bio-briquette binder made from it were studied comparatively by FTIR and the microstructure of bio-briquette was observed and analyzed by microscopy. It was found that a large amount of unreacted biomass fibers exist in the binder. These form a multi-level network structure inside the bio-briquette and could make fine coal particles connect together. The multi-level network structure would be still present after the bio-briquettes are immersed in water for 24 hours. On the other hand, stalk materials could be partly degraded after treatment and, with other liquid ingredients in the binder, the degradation products could form a viscous fluid which would work as a bonding ingredient inside the bio-briquette and could improve the waterproofing ability of the binder after solidification. Therefore, the multi-level network structure of the biomaterial and the presence of viscous fluid are very important to the shaping and the improvement of the waterproofing ability of bio-briquettes. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Modelling of titanium sponge briquetting and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical apparatus and physical methods for modeling the process of billets pressing and extrusion from noncompact raw material are considered. As a result of natural modeling the possibility is shown for obtaining semifinished products from metallic raw materials, particularly from titanium sponge, without technological operations connected with production and treatment of large-size ingots. The comparison of results of mathematical and natural modeling shows the possibility of their application for solving technological problems

  11. Briquetting line from expertise through complex project up to implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Manufacturing Technologies of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering some year deals with effective utilising of biomass. The aim is research of basic technologies for assessing of biomass, research and examination of new construction of machines. Significant activity is designing of lines and gross complexes for assessing of wastes. The aim of this contribute is to acquaint with progress at designing of new line in stages from the expertise, complex project pending alone implementation

  12. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  13. Enrichment of Macedonian lignite through briquetting. Demonstration pilot-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 for the first time the scientific institutes from Republic of Macedonia got the opportunity to take part in competition to realize the scientific-research activity, financed by European Union. In the area of energy it could be applied for programs TERMI and COPERNICUS. A research project is applied for the program INCO COPERNICUS 97, with participation of the following research institutes: Koppern Aufbereitungstechnik GMbH and Co.KG - Germany; ENTEGRO - Greek Company for Energy Technology - Greece; Mining Institute Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty of Technical Sciences, Bitola - Macedonia; Central Institute for work protection, Skopje - Macedonia; Faculty for Industrial Chemistry and Metallurgy - Bulgaria. This paper presents the aim of the research, expected results, methodology and distribution of work among the research institutes

  14. Possibilities of Pelletizing and Briquetting of Dusts from Castings Grinding

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pribulová; Baricová, D.; P. Futaš; P. Gengeľ

    2010-01-01

    Foundry dust can be divided into three groups: metallic dust with Fe content over 70%, mixed dust with Fe or SiO2 content between 10 –70% and sand wastes with minimum content of SiO2 about 70%. Dust from castings grinding with high Fe content (87.9%) is still landfillin Slovakia. The aim of experiments with dust from grinding has been to find the cheapest way of dust agglomeration with minimumamount of binder because of melting in the electric induction furnace. The dust was pelletized and br...

  15. Investigation of briquetting of metal waste from the bearing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Kuczmaszewski, Jozef

    2005-10-01

    An economical method to process the metal waste that comes from the ball-bearing industry is presented. The purpose of the study was to determine the physical-chemical properties of the material, to present the most suitable binders and identify the factors that can affect briquette strength. The mechanical strength and resistance to gravitational drop were defined for both fresh briquettes and those that had been seasoned. The briquette structure was also tested. On the basis of the results of experimental studies and laboratory trials two techniques for processing the waste from the ballbearing industry on an industrial technological scale were developed. The economic and ecological impacts of these industrial applications were examined. The results of the investigations suggest that the briquettes might be recycled in steel-making furnaces. The reported solution to the problem of management of this type of waste appears to be universal and could also be applied by other waste-related enterprises. PMID:16273956

  16. Possibilities for briquetting of tinny particles of Macedonian lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal reserves in Macedonia are estimated to over 632 million tons. They are mostly immature coals - lignite, with high content of moisture (30-50%), ash (13-22%), and low content of C fix (14-20%). Today the coal deposits in Suvodol and Osiomej are mined which work for the requirements of the thermoelectric power plants in Bitola and Kicevo as well as the deposits of Brik-Berovo and Piskupstina-Struga, which supply the industry and the households. In respect of the fact that these lignite have weak mechanical characteristics, during the coal mining process they are degraded, i.e. small fraction in quantities of 20-30% are created. The interest in buying these quantities is at the minimum due to the limited industrial possibilities, the difficulties in the transportation and impossibility for their use in the households. Therefore the majority of these coal quantities are stored in the vicinity of the mines, which makes large financial losses to the producers on the part, and due to the air, water and soil pollution it is a big ecological problem, on the other part. For resolving these problems, i.e. finding a relevant method for making these small fractions larger at the Mining and Metallurgy Institute - in the framework of Mine and Iron Steelworks, and with the financial support of the Ministry of Science, it is made a detailed exploration of the possibilities for obtaining briquettes from the lignite of the deposits in Suvodol-Bitola, Brik-Berovo and Piskupstina-Struga. (Author)

  17. Technological fundamentals of briquetting cotton stalks as a biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    El Saeidy, Ehab

    2004-01-01

    In Ägypten überwintern in den Baumwollresten Insekten wie der rosafarbene Kapselwurm, der verschiedene Nutzpflanzen befällt. Insbesondere der Befall von Baumwolle verursacht große Verluste in Menge und Qualität der Baumwollernte, so dass die Landwirte vom Ministerium für Landwirtschaft verpflichtet worden sind, diese Reste auf dem Feld nach der Ernte sofort zu verbrennen, um diese Insekten zu töten. Unter der starken Rauchentwicklung dieser konzentrierten Verbrennungsaktion hatten vor allem K...

  18. Increase in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions due to briquetting: A challenge to the coal briquetting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Zhi, Guorui; Feng, Yanli; Chongguo Tian; Bi, Xinhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-09-01

    Both China and UNEP recommend replacing raw coal chunks with coal briquettes in household sector as clean coal technology (CCT), which has been confirmed by the decreased emissions of particulate matter and black carbon. However, the clean effect has never been systematically checked by other pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, 5 coals with different geological maturities were processed as both chunks and briquettes and burned in 3 typical coal stoves for the measurement of emission factors (EFs) of particle-bound PAHs. It was found that the EFs of 16 parent PAHs, 26 nitrated PAHs, 6 oxygenated PAHs, and 8 alkylated PAHs for coal briquettes were 6.90 ± 7.89, 0.04 ± 0.03, 0.65 ± 0.40, and 72.78 ± 18.23 mg/kg, respectively, which were approximately 3.1, 3.7, 1.9, and 171 times those for coal chunks, respectively. Such significant increases in PAH emissions increased human health risk and challenged the policy of CCT. PMID:25912887

  19. Effect of Briquetting Process Variables on Hygroscopic Property of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of water resistance capacity of briquettes is important in order to determine how sensitive the produced briquettes are to moisture change during storage. The relative changes in length and diameter of briquettes during immersion in water for 6 hours were investigated. This was conducted to determine hygroscopic property of produced briquettes under process variables levels of binder (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight of residue, compaction pressure (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 MPa and particle size (0.5, 1.6, and 4 mm of dried and ground water hyacinth. Data was statistically analysed using Analysis of Variance, the Duncan Multiple Range Test, and descriptive statistics. The relative change in length of briquettes with process variables ranged significantly from % to % (binder, % to % (compaction pressure, and % to % (particle size (. Furthermore, the relative change in diameter of briquettes with binder, compaction pressure, and particle size varied significantly from % to %, % to %, and % to %, respectively (. This study suggests optimum process variables required to produce briquettes of high water resistance capacity for humid environments like the Niger Delta, Nigeria, as 50% (binder proportion, 9 MPa (compaction pressure, and 0.5 mm (particle size.

  20. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Jake M. Laguador; April B. Tarcelo; Michael Angelo Marasigan; Kuster Kar C. Colina; Nemy H. Chavez

    2013-01-01

    Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respo...

  1. Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

  2. Evaluation of steel desulphurization in the ladle during the utilization of briquetting fluxing agents for slags

    OpenAIRE

    Socha, Ladislav; Bažan, Jiří; Gryc, Karel; Morávka, Jan; Styrnal, Petr; Pilka, Václav; Piegza, Zbygněv; Michalek, Karel; Tkadlečková, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the experience obtained from plant experiments specialized in the usage of three types of fluxing agents for slags based on Al2O3. Proper experiments took place during the steel treatment by secondary metallurgy. The objective of the plant experiments was to assess the degree of steel desulphurization and its course. An assessment of the steel desulphurization with the help of basic parameters, such as the degree of desulphurization, the basicity, the content of e...

  3. Effect of Briquetting Process Variables on Hygroscopic Property of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, R M; O. A. Davies

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of water resistance capacity of briquettes is important in order to determine how sensitive the produced briquettes are to moisture change during storage. The relative changes in length and diameter of briquettes during immersion in water for 6 hours were investigated. This was conducted to determine hygroscopic property of produced briquettes under process variables levels of binder (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) by weight of residue, compaction pressure (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 MPa)...

  4. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

  5. Characteristics of coal from the deposit 'Suvodol' and technological parameters for briquetting (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of small class coat as well as the lack of formed fuel needed for the industry and for the consumer goods has been a long lasting problem, and a challenge for the researchers of the Republic of Macedonia. For that purpose, all-inclusive analysis of the quality of the coals in Macedonia, their reserves and technical characteristics, as well as analysis of the petrographic structure were made. Classification of the coal deposits and the research for the possibility of making briquettes was done, too. All the analysis brought to conclusion that the deposit Suvodol should be selected as the biggest in the stage of exploitation with mine, thermo-power station and personnel equipment, too. Standard methods were used for the researches without connective means and the achieved results were mutually correlated. Technical-economic verification is necessary in the further process. (Author)

  6. Binder fraction reduction in non-ferrous metals concentrates briquetting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jodkowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results on a method of reducing the amount of binder applied during formation of metal concentrates are presented. Research was done on a model copper concentrate, which was mixed in assumed mass fraction with binder, as well as binder with addition of waste polyols. Such mixtures were formed and tested using static compressive strength, both immediately after forming and after the assumed seasoning times: 24, 96, 192 and 336 hours. The results confirm the possibility of binder dose lowering using high-efficiency system of binder dispersing with small addition of waste polyols and by homogeneous mixing of the binder with the material. In all examined cases increase in seasoning time influenced mechanical strength of the formed shapes advantageously.

  7. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  8. Meditation on the construction of exemplar plant for briquetted coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Kuiyi [China National Coal Industry Import and Export Corporation, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    China uses a considerable amount of anthracite, but the fines from anthracite mining are not sufficiently used. This project involved the construction of a plant for the manufacture of anthracite briquettes under high pressure, for use in gasification plants. The characteristics of the coals used and the types of briquette formed are described. 2 tabs.

  9. Binderless briquetting of thermally dried and degraded low-rank coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-bituminous coals of Wyoming's Powder River Basin represent the largest reserve of compliance (2/mmBTU) coal in North America. While the development and use of these coals has increased significantly since the early 1970's, it is generally agreed that the optimized utilization of these resources by the electric utility industry as part of a cost-effective national sulfur oxide emissions reduction program is yet to be fully realized. In this paper the factors which are frequently cited as being contributory to this current level of under-utilization include: The geographic isolation of the reserves relative to eastern markets and the absence of river transport as a low-cost (and/or competing) alternative to relatively high-cost rail transportation for delivering large quantities of product over the distances required to satisfy those markets. The possibility of forced derating: of generation station capacity because of the relatively lower As Received calorific values of sub-bituminous coal (as compared to bituminous compliance coal) and the resulting inability of the pulverizer circuit in the plant to physically process the quantity of fuel necessary to satisfy the heat input requirements of the boiler. The greater propensity for the more alkaline western-type coals to give rise to increased slagging and fouling problems in the convective pass sections of the boiler and/or the propensity for these coals to produce a relatively light colored ash which is sometimes thought to reflect heat and thereby reduce heat transfer (and therefore steam generation), especially in the radiant section

  10. Briquetting of palm fibre and shell from the processing of palm nuts to palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Z.; Zainac, Z.; Abdullah, Z. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-06-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 million tonnes per year (8.5x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}) of palm oil from 38.6x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1} of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residues such as fibre (5.4x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}), shell (2.3x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}), and empty fruit bunches (8.8x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}). A large fraction of the fibre and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity in the palm processing mill itself. However, much is wasted by pile burning in the open air with attendant air pollution, dumped in areas adjacent to the mill, or utilized as manure in the palm oil plantation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid fuel. The palm shell and fibre is densified into briquettes of diameter 40, 50 and 60mm under moderate pressure of 5-13.5 MPa in a hydraulic press. Experiments are carried out to determine density, durability, impact and compressive strength of the briquettes. The heating value, burning characteristics, ash and moisture content are other objects of the study. A relationship between press pressure and the briquette density has been established. The produced briquettes have densities between 1100 and 1200 kgm{sup -3}. The briquettes properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration, and will withstand wetting. The gross calorific value is about 16.4 MJkg{sup -1} (maf), and the ash content is about 6% and the equilibrium moisture content is about 12%. Further work is required to acquire complete understanding of the densification process before good quality and durable briquettes could be made free from cracks. (Author)

  11. Avaliação do óleo essencial de Aloysia sellowii (Briquet) moldenke (Verbenaceae) do Sul do Brasil Evaluation of the essential oil of Aloysia sellowii (Briquet) moldenke (Verbenaceae) from South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Rossato; Ana Cristina Atti dos Santos; Luciana Atti Serafini; Fabiana Agostini; Marcia Regina Pansera; Ronaldo Wasum; Rosa Lia Barbieri

    2006-01-01

    This work was performed with the aim of evaluating the chemical variability among samples of Aloysia sellowii (Verbenaceae) collected in different geographical regions as well as the application of supercritical CO2 for obtaining essential oil. Thus, samples were collected in different localities and oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2. Results showed existence of two chimiotypes in the species (cineole and sabinene). The supercritical CO2 extraction process was appr...

  12. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found that briquettes produced with compaction pressure over 7 MPa passed both impact resistance and compressive strength tests. The density-pressure relationship and strength-pressure relationship over studied range were also developed and validated.

  13. Evaluation of slag regime in ladle during utilization of briquetted synthetic slag in VHM a.s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Socha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper focuses on evaluation of slag regime by the help of synthetic slags based on Al2O3. The comparion of influence of synthetic slags on the production of two chosen grades of steels focused on evaluation of effectivity of created refining slag during treatment in the secondary metallurgy was the objective of plant experiments.Design/methodology/approach: During evaluation of slag regime in the ladle, steel samples for assessment of desulphurization degree were taken under the plant conditions. Slag samples were also taken for evaluation of chosen parameters: basicity, content of easily reducible oxides, proportion of CaO/Al2O3and Mannesmann’s index. The temperature and oxygen activity in steel was continuously measured too.Findings: From plant experiments, it was found out that during using of two different types of synthetic slags during production of steel grades St52-3 and S34MnV similar values of desulphurization degree were achieved. Chosen parameters of ladle slag were monitored and it was demonstrated that the developed synthetic slag B reaches the results comparable with the standard used synthetic slag A.Research limitations/implications: Plant experiments were made under conditions of VÍTKOVICE HEAVY MACHINERY a.s. plant Obtained results are limited by the testing during production of two different steel grades St52-3, S34MnV and by the specific technology of production formed by EAF→LF→VD/VCD.Practical implications: The research results made it possible to realize the optimalization of slag regime under the plant conditions of VÍTKOVICE HEAVY MACHINERY a.s. plant. It was proved that developed synthetic slag B from the company JAP TRADING s.r.o. can adequately replace the common synthetic slag A.Originality/value: Results mentioned in this paper are intended for steel producers and they represent basic information about possibilities of slag regime optimalization in the ladle.

  14. Avaliação do óleo essencial de Aloysia sellowii (Briquet moldenke (Verbenaceae do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossato Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed with the aim of evaluating the chemical variability among samples of Aloysia sellowii (Verbenaceae collected in different geographical regions as well as the application of supercritical CO2 for obtaining essential oil. Thus, samples were collected in different localities and oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2. Results showed existence of two chimiotypes in the species (cineole and sabinene. The supercritical CO2 extraction process was appropriate for extraction of A. sellowii essential oil at 40 ºC, 110 bar, 2 mL/min of flow and 10 min of extraction time.

  15. Avaliação do óleo essencial de Aloysia sellowii (Briquet) moldenke (Verbenaceae) do Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato Marcelo; Santos Ana Cristina Atti dos; Serafini Luciana Atti; Agostini Fabiana; Pansera Marcia Regina; Wasum Ronaldo; Barbieri Rosa Lia

    2006-01-01

    This work was performed with the aim of evaluating the chemical variability among samples of Aloysia sellowii (Verbenaceae) collected in different geographical regions as well as the application of supercritical CO2 for obtaining essential oil. Thus, samples were collected in different localities and oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2. Results showed existence of two chimiotypes in the species (cineole and sabinene). The supercritical CO2 extraction process was appr...

  16. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

  17. Wittorski, R. & Briquet-Duhazé, S. (Eds., Comment les enseignants apprennent-ils leur métier ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Stumpf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif a été élaboré par l’équipe « Professionnalisation des enseignants » de l’IUFM de Rouen, à laquelle se sont associés des chercheurs des IUFM de Caen et de Nantes. Ce sont les actes du symposium « formation et travail : dynamique de professionnalisation d’enseignants des premier et second degrés » du congrès AREF (2007 qui le composent. Il vise à comprendre comment les enseignants apprennent leur métier, par la formation en alternance mais également par les expériences pr...

  18. Conditions for new biofuel raw materials. Systems for small scale briquetting and pelletizing; Foerutsaettningar foer nya biobraensleraavaror. System foer smaaskalig brikettering och pelletering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Holmgren, Kristina (The Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosenqvist, Haakan; Boerjesson, Paal (Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    The increasing demand for biomass has driven exploitation of the most easily available and cheapest biomass resources such as sawmill waste and logging residues. More knowledge is needed about exploitation and production of potential new biomass resources, currently not used for energy production (or only to a very small extent), in order to meet the future demands from various biomass users. The project aimed to examine the conditions for use of 'new' biomass materials for heat production from technical, economic and other perspectives (price trends, attitudes etc.). More specifically, the study looked at which biomass raw materials have the best characteristics for processing into briquettes and pellets in small-scale production plants (1 000 - 10 000 tonnes fuel produced per year) situated close to the source of the raw material. The study includes a comprehensive analysis of the appropriateness of the different raw materials and a case study including cost estimates for the entire production chain for production of briquettes from reed canary grass on a chosen farm (Laattra gaard). The raw materials judged to have potential to supplement the current biomass range for heat production are willow (and to a certain extent other fast-growing hardwoods), straw and reed canary grass. In the future, other perennial grasses may be of interest. Other forestry products that may help to meet in creasing demand include logging residues, stumps and wood from thinning and precommercial thinning. The study shows that the prerequisites for processing these raw materials into briquettes and pellets in small-scale production plants are relatively good from several aspects (technology, economics, market) but are limited by the types of end user that can use that form of biomass. The study concluded that straw has a low production cost and good prerequisites as a raw material for production of fuel briquettes, fuel pellets and horse bedding pellets. However, use is limited by the raw material's combustion characteristics. Reed canary grass has the best potential nationally to be used as a raw material in small-scale production plants. For reed canary grass, briquette production is favourable over pellet production because pellets production is more expensive, involves a more advanced process and is dependent on a small-scale household market in order to be profitable. The results show that a price difference of 90 Swedish kronor/MWh between reed canary grass in bales and briquettes is sufficient for briquette production to be more profitable than bales for larger heating plants. The production of pellets from the products of thinning and precommercial thinning in small local plants can become a viable alternative where a shortage of traditional raw materials (e.g. sawmill waste) begins to limit the supply of cheap raw materials to larger pellets production plants. However, this is dependant on the technology and methods becoming more cost effective and on the demand for refined biomass continuing to increase. One alternative is biomass polygeneration in combined heat and power plants where pellets are produced from forestry raw materials. In the introductory phase, it may be of interest to use existing technology in the form of mobile pellet plants

  19. Pre-study - mobile briquetting plant for reed canary grass in inland Northern Sweden; Foerstudie - mobil briketteringsanlaeggning foer roerflen i norrlands inland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Lundmark, Bo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to summarize existing information and to develop an outline plan for a mobile briquette plant based on the conditions and requirements of reed canary grass production on forestry land. The results of the study show that there is potential to build up small-scale briquette production from reed canary grass in the areas around Arvidsjaur, Lycksele and Malaa. Important conclusions from the study are that there are potential users for reed canary grass briquettes in all three areas studied, but that profitability for mobile briquette plants is dependent on the willingness of the users to pay well for the briquettes. These briquette plants would need a relatively high degree of automation for commercial operation to be profitable. The first plant should therefore be collocated with another business so that staff, machinery (e.g. loader) and storage space can be shared with other operations. One appropriate location would be to build up activities for a mobile reed canary grass briquette plant around Glommers Miljoeenergi's pellet plant in Glommerstraesk. Thus, the plant could be used as a demonstration mobile unit, with a stationary 'home production base'CO{sub 2} Glommerstraesk

  20. 玉米秸秆致密成型燃料燃烧动力学分析%Analysis on combustion kinetics of corn stalk briquetting densification fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘圣勇; 王艳玲; 白冰; 苏超杰; 杨国峰; 张飞

    2011-01-01

    为近一步实现秸秆致密成型燃料高效燃烧的合理利用,该文选用玉米秸秆致密成型燃料进行燃烧动力学分析,通过对玉米秸秆在不同粒度(1、0.25 mm)和不同升温速率(10、20、40℃/min)进行热重分析,采用一级反应动力学模型,得出小同实验水平下的热重、热重变化率及差热,利用热重和热重变化率计算出动力学参数——活化能和频率因子,最后得到玉米秸秆的热解动力学方程.研究表明:玉米秸秆致密成型燃料的燃烧过程大致可以分为燃料吸热失水反应、挥发分析出和燃烧反应及固定碳的燃烧反应3个阶段,升温速率和样品细度的变化对燃料的活化能及最大失重速率有一定影响,玉米秸秆致密成型燃料的活化能在升温速率为20℃/min时最大.该研究为进一步研究生物质成型燃料的实际热解过程分析以及燃烧设备的设计参数选择提供理论依据.%To further realize biomass briquette fuel of high efficiency combustion, the dynamic analysis was performed for the corn stalk briquette. The com straws in different sizes (1, 0.25 mm) and different heating rate (10,20, 40°C/min) had been studied using thermogravimetric analysis, and then were treated by first order or pseudo-second order kinetics. Thermo gravimetry-. Digital thermogravimetry and differential thermal could be obtained. The kinetic parameters like activation energy and frequency factor could be calculated by using thermo gravimetry and digital thermogravimetry. Thermal decomposition kinetics equation of corn straws was obtained. The results showed that corn stalk briquette combustion process could be divided into three parts: endothermic and dehydration, precipitation of volatile and the combustion reaction, fixed carbon combustion reaction. Different rate of temperature and sample fineness had some influences on the activation energy and the maximum weight loss rate. The activation energy of cornstalk briquette reached maximum at heating rate of 20°C/min. The study could provide theoretical basis for further research on the actual pyrolysis process of biomass briquette fuel and determine design parameters of burning equipments.

  1. Survey analysis and chemical characterization of solid inhomogeneous samples using a general homogenization procedure including acid digestion, drying, grinding and briquetting together with X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Eskil; Magnusson, Bertil

    2012-08-15

    A survey analysis and chemical characterization methodology for inhomogeneous solid waste samples of relatively large samples (typically up to 100g) using X-ray fluorescence following a general homogenization procedure is presented. By using a combination of acid digestion and grinding various materials can be homogenized e.g. pure metals, alloys, salts, ores, plastics, organics. In the homogenization step, solid material is fully or partly digested in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in an open vessel. The resulting mixture is then dried, grinded, and finally pressed to a wax briquette. The briquette is analyzed using wave-length dispersive X-ray fluorescence with fundamental parameters evaluation. The recovery of 55 elements were tested by preparing samples with known compositions using different alloys, pure metals or elements, oxides, salts and solutions of dissolved compounds. It was found that the methodology was applicable to 49 elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Th, that all had recoveries >0.8. 6 elements were lost by volatilization, including Br, I, Os, and Hg that were completely lost, and S and Ge that were partly lost. Since all lanthanides are chemically similar to La and Ce, all actinides are chemically similar to Th, and Hf is chemically similar to Zr, it is likely that the method is applicable to 77 elements. By using an internal standard such as strontium, added as strontium nitrate, samples containing relatively high concentrations of elements not measured by XRF (hydrogen to fluorine), e.g. samples containing plastics, can be analyzed. PMID:22841048

  2. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  3. Analysis of the economic viability of the briquette production in the Brazilian market; Analise da viabilidade economica da producao de briquetes no mercado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: silvioa@gmail.com; Barbosa, Bruno de Luca Lima; Souza, Julia do Rego Mello Fernandes de; Monteiro, Paulo Victor da Conceicao; Gomes, Thiago de Carvalho [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEI/CT/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial], E-mail: brunodeluca@poli.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a study of economic viability of a 3 ton/hour briquette industry. For establish of study, premises such as costs, investments, prices at Brazilian and european markets and growing of sector forecast were established according to criteria defined by the authors. Two scenarios were considered: investors which hold all the capital necessary for the business and investors which need of a financing for realization of the enterprise. For the second scenery considering a certain interest rate and a mode of financing. Both scenery revealed profitable for the investor.

  4. Brown coal, power plants, briquetes. The north of the Rhenish brown coal district; Braunkohle, Kraftwerke, Briketts. Der Norden des Rheinischen Braunkohlenreviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenker, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The depiction of the history of the brown coal mining industry in the north of the Rhenish brown coal district suggests a description of this section of German industrial history in two independent chapters in the book under consideration. In the first part, the brown coal mining industry in Neurath (Federal Republic of Germany) with its briquette factories is described. The second part describes the lignite mining in Frimmersdorf (Federal Republic of Germany) with its brown coal power stations. Of course, the author of this book also elaborates on the production of peat, because the peat was the only energy supplier prior to brown coal available in these regions.

  5. Obtention of charcoal briquettes from rice husks using low compaction pressure; Obtencao de briquetes de carvao vegetal de cascas de arroz utilizando baixa pressao de compactacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Marcia R.; Seye, Omar; Freitas, Katrina T. de; Rodrigues, Monica; Santos, Eyde C.S. dos; Souza, Rubem C.R. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2006-07-01

    This work consists of the preparation of briquette from carbonized rice's husks in low pressure. The results demonstrate are necessary a fine granulation of the rice's husks coal to obtainment of briquettes. The ultimate analysis of the briquette did not detect the presence of nitrogen and sulfur, and that prevents the formation and emission of acid gases that can produce corrosion in the equipment and pollute the atmosphere. The performance of the briquette production was superior to 80%. The briquettes present high heating value (HHV) 17,73 MJ/kg and adequate mechanic resistance for the use in gasifier-engine system. (author)

  6. Evaluation of thermal power plant with biomass (pell of rice briquets): real case - 'Experimental farm of the Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas'; Avaliacao de planta termica com biomassa (briquete de casca de arroz): caso real 'Fazenda experimental do Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Rogerio Olavo; Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Cavalcante, Italo Ricardo Lopes [Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The panorama established in the current scenery signals that the sources of energy renewed they should assume growing paper in the world energy head office, forced by the perspective of reduction of the reservations of fossil fuels and, more and more, for environmental subjects. Among the countless sources you renewed of energy, the biomass is shown as an alternative one quite promising, among the energy of the win and solar. In this context the use of alternative sources of energy, in particular the biomass (residues of cane of sugar and of wood, besides the peel of rice), they appear as an opportunity of private importance to collaborate in the offer of energy of the inter linked system of Brazil, in the form of decentralized generation and close to the consumption points, through equipment and national fuel (example process residues); advantages these that, formed an alliance thoroughly with the environmental benefits known, they do with that the biomass is a strategic option for the country, that only depends on politics adapted for its situation. On the other hand, areas still exist in Brazil, specifically in the North area, that they do not belong to the interlinked system, with generation exclusively based on oil diesel, what corresponds to an important the bottom net in our energy head office. Brazil, besides importer of gross petroleum to refine, it is forced to import oil pure diesel to guarantee the offer of this fuel. In the last ten years the import of oil pure diesel increased ten times data of ANP approximately (www.anp.gov.br). Besides this subject of the import of the diesel and of the emissions current west of its use, such as: oxides of sulfur, material powder and gases of effect stove, among other, the generation in the Isolated Systems with motors diesel (largely old and inefficient) it is based on the subsidies of the Bill Consumption of Fuel (CCC), that pays an additional of US$ 100 for MWh generated in this alternative system. The conventional options for substitution of these motors to diesel depend on investments elevated in transport systems and distribution of the natural gas a substitute of smaller impact to the oil, and still the environmental impacts caused by the gas pipe line construction through the Amazon forest. In this context, the biomass use produced locally (or generated, as residues) in the communities for production of energy appears as a viable and maintainable possibility for this model. Vegetable oils in adapted motors diesel and agricultural residues as fuel in systems of generation of small load come as possible technological alternatives and, now, viable economically, in function of the use of CCC for energy renewed - what became possible for the recent regulation of ANEEL. It is worth to stand out that the different sceneries presented in the regions of the country influence directly in the parameters of use of the biomass as energy. In a general way, the biomass like this maid perfectly in the concept of the maintainable development, because it allows the creation of employments in the area, economic activities, it reduces the relative costs to the distribution and transmission of the generated energy and, when used in a maintainable way, it presents null the emissions of carbon, not attacking, in this way, the environment. However, it is known that the economic viability of a generation project depends, in first place of the characteristics of the own unit, of the tariff of electric energy and of the cost of the fuel for the consumer. Specifically, the viability of each installation is determined in the conceptual project where he/she takes place the cash flow study and of the cost of the energy for modality of fuel. The economic evaluation of a project consists of pondering the factors that involve the taking of decision, with larger success probability in the development of an investment project. After the decision of execution of a project, defined its characteristics, its implementation place, the equipment, the labor and necessary materials, it is necessary to calculate all the involved costs and which will be the necessary investment. The success of any project goes by one it analyzes the most exact possible of the whole necessary investment to the implementation, from investment in lands, constructions, equipment, expenses with personnel in the production and maintenance, to the administration of the project, etc., as well as the determination of its profitability or its 'profit'. After these calculations, it will be necessary to verify investment alternatives that become more advantageous in investment terms and its return exist, that it is necessary to do the comparison of alternatives. (author)

  7. Technologie a technika pro výrobu lisovaných tuhých biopaliv

    OpenAIRE

    Zavadil, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    This work brings a complete view about the technology and technic used to produce pressed solid biofuels. The work characterizes the biomass which can be used for the production of pressed solid biofuels. The rules and regulations dealing with the solid biofuels are mentioned. This work deals with the briquetting technology and pelleting technology. It describes briquets and pellets. The press machine used for the production of briquets (BrikStar CS 25) and the pellets assembly line (KOVO NOV...

  8. 褐煤干燥提质和无粘结剂成型技术的研究现状及进展%Research on lignite drying and upgrading technology and its binderless briquetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余江龙; Arash Tahmasebi; 李先春; 韩艳娜; 尹丰魁

    2012-01-01

    论述了褐煤中水分的存在形式,即褐煤中的水分主要由外在水分、内在水分和结晶水组成,其中外在水分较易脱除.介绍了国内外褐煤干燥提质技术、针对高水分褐煤干燥研发的新技术及与褐煤干燥相关的其他提质技术的研究进展,其中,新研发的褐煤干燥技术中,过热蒸汽流化床褐煤干燥技术(WTA)具有效率高、能耗低、安全等特点,在单位能耗方面具有明显优势.通过对褐煤无粘结剂型煤的成型工艺及型煤耐水性能的试验研究,说明褐煤无粘结剂成型技术制备的型煤样品质量良好,吸收水分的速率大大降低,热解与燃烧活性也有所下降.最后分析了褐煤无粘结剂成型机理,即主要有沥青假说、腐植酸假说、毛细孔假说、胶体假说和分子粘合假说5种.

  9. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  10. Study of technical and economic feasibility of a manufacturing briquettes for energy generation; Estudo da viabilidade tecnico-economica de uma fabrica de briquetes para fins de geracao energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Claudinei Augusto da; Simoes, Andre Felipe [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: claudinei@fem.unicamp.br, afsimoes@fem.unicamp.br; Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    Current scenario indicates that renewable energy sources are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world energy matrix, mainly due to a potential reduction of fossil fuel reserves and environment issues. In this context, the use of alternative energy sources, specifically biomass briquettes, shows up as a great opportunity. However, it is known that an economic feasibility assessment for the project depends on decision-making factors such as equipment, labor and material implementation. All costs and investments were calculated. A company headquartered in the city of Tiete, Sao Paulo State, analyzed the total costs of implementing a high density briquette factory. Tow scenarios were considered. In scenario 1, with tax exemption, the Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and the Intern Rate of Return is 16,9%, is an economic feasible scenario. Scenario 2, with no tax exemption, is not economically feasible, the NPV is negative and the Intern Rate Return is 13,9%, lower than 15.0% of the minimum rate of investor attractiveness. (author)

  11. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A RING-DIE GRANULATOR FOR STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu, Tingzhou Lei,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an optimal design of structural parameters for ring-die granulators used in the cool briquetting process. Experimental research on the briquetting rate of pellets was carried out for three kinds of crop straws with different granularities, moisture ratios, and length-diameter ratios of the die hole. Results showed that: when the swoop angle β was 45o and the diameter ratio of roller to die was equal to 0.585, the equipment would have higher productivity and lower die-roller contact strength, yielding a good comprehensive briquetting effect; when the granularity was 4mm, the moisture ratio was 16% and the length-diameter ratio was 5.2, the equipment would ensure a higher briquetting rate of pellets and the lowest power consumption per ton of material, yielding the best briquetting effect. This provides references for structural design and process parameters selection of ring-die granulators.

  12. Breeding ratio analysis of a fast reactor cooled by supercritical light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the breeding ratio of a supercritical pressure light water cooled fast reactor (SCFR) and to design a breeding core of SCFR. The sensitivities of core parameters to the breeding ratio are analyzed. The core is designed by coupling two-dimensional R-Z neutronics and a multi-channel thermal-hydraulic calculation. The parameters which have high sensitivities to the breeding ratio are the diameter of the fuel rods and the diameter of the coolant tubes of the briquet blanket. The briquet fuel assembly means that the coolant flows in tubes and the fuel is contained outside of the tubes, 'a tube in shell' fuel assembly. For increasing heavy metal fraction, briquet blanket is considered. The positions of the fuel and the coolant are exchanged for increasing heavy metal fraction in briquet blanket. The breeding ratio of SCFR is 1.021 with fuel rod type blanket and 1.034 with the briquet blanket. When both seed and blanket are composed of briquet type fuel elements, the breeding ratio reaches 1.046 because of the high fuel volume fraction. The reactor power also increases with the briquet core. But SCFR can be a breeding reactor even if both seed and blanket consist of rod type fuels. (author)

  13. Benefits of weakening in thermogravimetric signals of hemicellulose and lignin for producing briquettes from soybean crop residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermogravimetric signals of hemicellulose and lignin were found to subside due to the binderless briquetting of soybean crop residue. Minor but distinct thermogravimetric signals of secondary charring reactions were observed in raw crop residue and its briquetted biofuel. The bio-component related kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method. Activation energy level of intrinsic cellulosic biopolymer was found higher in briquette than that level in crop residue. The activation energy profile with respect to conversion fraction for raw residue and its briquette was analyzed by the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose method. The activation energy profile of briquette was superior to raw residue of soybean crop showing the better thermal stability in briquetted biofuel, highlighting the benefits of briquetting process. In addition to the physico-chemical transformations occurred in lignin, the hemicellulose and cellulose related transitions were also expected to play positive role for briquetting. - Highlights: • Briquette of soybean-crop-residue showed weak TG-signals of hemicellulose & lignin. • Activation energy profile of briquette was superior to raw crop residues. • Thermal stability of different constituents due to briquetting was explained. • Hemicellulose and cellulose played positive role for briquetting along with lignin

  14. A review of biomass energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews some recent development in biomass utilisation systems in Malaysia. The technology reviewed are direct combustion of biomass , wood briquetting technology, pyrolysis of biomass and gasification of wood in Malaysia

  15. Assessment of forest biomass technology: Direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the efficient forest biomass technology in groups of direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification for application in developing countries. Other technologies, such as briquetting, biogas and alcohol distillation, are not covered. 7 refs, 7 tabs

  16. Innovative organic binders for metallurgy and the refractories industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zemlyanoi, K. G.; Kiik, A. A.; Markova, S. V.; Kormina, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    Questions related to the use of binders for briquetting in industry are considered. Results of pilot-plant and industrial tests of domestically produced innovative binders are presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  17. 40 CFR 420.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this...) Direct-reduced iron. (b) Forging operations. (c) Briquetting. There shall be no discharge of...

  18. Briketování nekovových materiálů

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This work shows the basic view on the briquetting technology of non-metallic materials. The aim is to use waste materials (biomass) with the possibility of their use in the form of briquettes. The work deals with the measurement of mechanical resistance and the density of produced briquettes of diameter 50 and 65 mm, cross-comparison of the achieved values and statistical evaluation of measured data. It also includes the comparison of the cost of acquisition and operation of briquetting press...

  19. Control of a wood biquetting machine

    OpenAIRE

    Plestenjak, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the renewal and modernization of an old wood briquetting machine. Wood briquetting machine is a machine that is used in the timber industry to compress fine wood waste material. The machine outputs woden briquettes, which are biomass, suitable for heating in the kiln. Machinery itself consists of a hardware and software part. The hardware part consists of hydraulic and electrical components. The key hydraulic components are the pump,the electric cylinders and the valv...

  20. Radionuclide identification in industrial production by means of the absorber method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing processes in briquetting plants labelling experiments for have proved to be especially efficient when raw coal of different origin was selectively labelled using various radionuclides. The concentration of the raw coal corresponds with the nuclide concentration in the produced briquettes. An absorber method has been developed for determining the nuclide concentration at the place of production (briquetting press). Comparison with energy-dispersive gamma spectrometry shows good agreement. (author)

  1. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal; William Fernando Mora Pulido; Luís Ignacio Rodríguez Varela; Javier Ramírez; José de Jesús Díaz Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40), coke reactivity index (CRI) with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index). Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain c...

  2. Binding and desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejoon; Lu, Guoqing; Li, Tianji; Sadakata, Masayoshi

    2002-04-01

    To control pollutant emissions from coal combustion in some developing countries, biocoalbriquette, an artificially produced solid fuel, was developed. Both the breaking strength and production costs of the biocoalbriquette have become essentially the most important factors in popularizing it in these countries. To increase the breaking strength and decrease the production costs, it is proposed in this study to use pulp black liquor, a byproduct from the pulp production industry, as a binder. The influences of pulp black liquor on the briquetting and combustion characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor were also evaluated through combustion experiments. The study results show that the briquetting pressure has a limited effect on the breaking strength. An increase in the briquetting pressure yields greater breaking strength of up to the 50 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the breaking strength changes very little with the briquetting pressure. The use of pulp black liquor has had a greater effect on increasing the breaking strength than on changing the briquetting pressure and also on improving the combustion characteristics of the biocoalbriquette. On the other hand, pulp black liquor has some desulfurization capabilities. When used as a binder, it not only increases the breaking strength and decreases the necessary briquetting pressure, but it also improves some characteristics of the combustion and reduces the pollutants emission. PMID:11999073

  3. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  4. Caracterização cromatográfica de compostos orgânicos presentes nos resíduos sólidos provenientes de indústria de reciclagem de papel e sua aplicação na produção de briquetes de carvão vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Schneider

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of paper in industrial scale has become an established practice worldwide. In this work, organic compositions of three different kinds of sludge generated in recycle paper industry were studied, and the incorporation of one of those sludge in briket was also investigated. The characterization of organic compounds in sludge samples and briket was performed using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry after a Soxhlet extraction. Different chemical classes were identified in each type of sludge, but just the sludge composed by cellulose residue did not presented polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Four formulations of sludge incorporated with charcoal for briket production were evaluated.

  5. Caracterização cromatográfica de compostos orgânicos presentes nos resíduos sólidos provenientes de indústria de reciclagem de papel e sua aplicação na produção de briquetes de carvão vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Anelise Schneider; Carin von Mühlen

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of paper in industrial scale has become an established practice worldwide. In this work, organic compositions of three different kinds of sludge generated in recycle paper industry were studied, and the incorporation of one of those sludge in briket was also investigated. The characterization of organic compounds in sludge samples and briket was performed using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry after a Soxhlet extraction. Different chemical classes were identified in...

  6. Evaluation of the potential energy briquettes made with corn stubble (Zea mays) and soybean residue (Glycine max (L.)) combined with waste wood; Avaliacao do potencial energetico de briquetes confeccionados com residuo de milho (Zea mays) e residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Oyama, Paulo; Possan, Edna; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br, oyama_pt@hotmail.com, epossan@gmail.com, paulob@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The agriculture industry produces a large amount of biomass whose use constitutes an economically viable alternative energy through the compression of the lignocellulosic portion, replacing the wood with an equivalent product. This is possible through the briquette, which is a very efficient way to concentrate the available energy in biomass. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of burning briquettes. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electro mechanics and burning at the Laboratory of Environmental UTFPR Campus Medianeira / PR. For the analysis, the energy balance of the combinations we used a bomb calorimeter IKA C5000, Laboratory of Biomass Energy (LEB), Federal University of Parana - UFPR. From the results we can conclude that in all aspects of the briquettes made from soybean residues are more efficient and still points to the need for studies to the development of more efficient equipment for these specific applications. (author)

  7. [Evaluation of a methodology to determine texture characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) tortilla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula-Villa, Gerónimo; Méndez-Albores, J Abraham; González-Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Arias, Edmundo; Moreno-Martínez, Ernesto

    2004-06-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) tortilla is the primary staple food of the Mexican people, with annual consumption estimated at 12 millions tons. Despite this huge volume of consumption, tortillas are commercially produced with inconsistent quality, mainly in terms of texture characteristics. Different methods to evaluate the texture of maize tortillas have been reported, but the values obtained and their parameters have not yielded reliable results, largely because the methods used do not reflect homogeneous elements for comparison. In addition, evaluation of the reliability of methods for comparing tortilla texture as well as the equipment used has been difficult, as such information perhaps remains largely unpublished. In this study, the reliability of two tortilla sample shapes (rectangle and briquet) and some of the quality parameters (maximum force, total area under curve, area to reach maximum force, elasticity and elongation) from tensile and cut force tested with a texture meter were evaluated. According to the results, the briquet shape of the tortilla samples was better (than the rectangle shape) for determining tensile and elasticity. In regard to cutting force, both the rectangle and the briquet shape presented good repeatability. For tensile and cutting-force curves, the maximum force was the parameter with the highest reliability, 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. The elasticity showed an adequate reliability with the tortilla briquet shape (0.94). The evaluated parameters with the texture meter and the sample shape type briquet, showed a high reliability degree what makes possible the comparison of maize tortilla texture data. PMID:15586691

  8. Analysis of the optimization possibilities to recover the powdery wastes containing iron and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Darius-Alexandru; Vilceanu, Lucia; Socalici, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Most industrial activities result in one or more secondary products and wastes besides the primary product, with a variety of uses. The iron & steel industry is highly energy intensive, but it is also a major source of environmental pollution with gases and dusts, especially the extractive branch. The researches aimed the recovery of the dust from the sintering plants and blast furnaces through the briquetting technology. Its recovery is required either for preventing the pollution or for reducing the consumption of raw materials. The mechanical properties are important for the quality of briquettes. We presented in this paper a series of mathematical correlations among the mechanical properties and the components of the briquetting batch, obtained using Excel spreadsheet and MATLAB programs. After analysing the results, we choose the optimal variation limits for the briquetting batch components.

  9. Method of dismantling and disposing nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the space for waste disposal by reducing the volume of dismantled scraps. Method: Pressure vessels or the likes used up to their life limits are roughly divided in the primary cutting step, finely divided in the secondary cutting step and then finally crushed into scraps of small granule pieces in the final cutting step. Thereafter, the granule scraps are subjected to briquetting by way of pressing or the like and then the solid scraps subjected to the briquetting are covered with concretes into a block. Since the scraps are finely crushed into granules and thereafter pressed, the volume thereof can be reduced. (Ikeda, J.)

  10. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A RING-DIE GRANULATOR FOR STRAWS

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Hu, Tingzhou Lei,; Shengqiang Shen,; Quanguo Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This research provides an optimal design of structural parameters for ring-die granulators used in the cool briquetting process. Experimental research on the briquetting rate of pellets was carried out for three kinds of crop straws with different granularities, moisture ratios, and length-diameter ratios of the die hole. Results showed that: when the swoop angle β was 45o and the diameter ratio of roller to die was equal to 0.585, the equipment would have higher productivity and lower die-ro...

  11. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics of groundnut shell and waste paper admixture briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    O.A Oyelaran; B.O. Bolaji; M.A. Waheed; Adekunle, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the heat released of briquettes produced from waste paper and groundnut shell admixture in five mixing ratios (90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; and 50:50). The briquettes were prepared on an existing motorized briquetting machine. The suitability of briquetted fuel as domestic fuel was studied in terms of flame propagation, afterglow, calorific value, and utilized heat, after sun drying the prepared briquettes for nineteen (19) days. The results of propagation ra...

  12. Eldorado plans second uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. intends to open a new uranium refinery at Port Granby, Ont., by 1980, thereby tripling output of uranium hexafluoride. In the 1980's, the company plans to build a third refinery in Saskatchewan. The process of producing uranium hexafluoride from crude yellowcake is explained, and improvements introduced by Eldorado are discussed. They include a continuous denitrator for producing uranium trioxide, and 'pillow block' briquetting rollers for briquetting it before it is reduced with hydrogen to uranium dioxide. (N.D.H.)

  13. Reducibility study of Rossetta ilmenite ore briquettes and powder with coke breeze at 800-1100°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd el Gawad Hala H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilmenite ore fine and coke breeze as reduced material were briquetted with different amounts of organic materials such as molasses or pitch were studied in this investigation. The produced briquettes at reasonable condition were reduced in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature range 800 - 1100oC to determine the factors controlling the reduction and to determine the controlling mechanism. Also ilmenite ore fine with coke breeze were reduced at the same temperature range in nitrogen atmosphere without briquetting process, for the sake of comparison.

  14. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40, coke reactivity index (CRI with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index. Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain coke having 19.0 % CRI and 75.6% CSR, these being the characteristics required in metallurgical processes.

  15. Furnace bottom rise mechanism in preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experiments of preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process were carried out respectively in 20 kW, 100 kW and 1 800 kW DC arc furnaces. The mechanism of furnace bottom rise was studied.It was found that the bottom rise can be divided into three types, including the low bottom temperature, abnormal reducing reaction and carbide deposition. The furnace bottom rise is related to the carbon ratio of the briquet, the heating speed of the briquet and the parameters and operation of furnace.

  16. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  17. 40 CFR 420.136 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 420.136 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any... must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and must achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS): (a) Direct-reduced iron. (b) Forging operations. (c) Briquetting. There shall be no discharge...

  18. 40 CFR 420.132 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... per thousand pound of product. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (c) Briquetting. There shall be...

  19. Importance of the radiometric ash content determination by means of beta backscattering for coal transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method for ash content determination based on beta backscattering has been evaluated from the point of view of quality control and quality assurance in lignite mining and use of lignite. Applying the method, optimum control and distribution to generation of power, briquetting or coal transformation depending on ash content is possible

  20. Development of processes and equipment for manufacture of fuel briquettes from the biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Трошин, Алексей Григорьевич; Моисеев, Виктор Фёдорович; Тельнов, Иван Алексеевич; Завинский, Сергей Иванович

    2010-01-01

    In the article the production of solid biofuel by briquetting of biomass waste is considered. The general analysis of the production technology of briquettes is carried out, its basic problem stages are revealed, and also the comparative analysis of the existing equipment is carried out.

  1. Influence of briquette properties on the intensity of Kα lines in x-ray emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical properties of briquetted samples can be affected by a number of factors. Among them, the hardness of the components as well as the shape and size of the grains can act on the segregation and distribution of the components. To investigate the segregation process and the distribution of components as a result of briquetting and their influence on the intensity of the Kα lines, samples with components of different hardness (calcite, scale and quartz) and grain size were prepared, using boric acid as binder. The results of electron microanalysis confirmed the presence of the grain segregation process in the briquetted sample. The assumption that a difference in the measured intensities (ΔI) on opposite sides of the briquette could exist as a result of the observed segregation was confirmed experimentally. Results of the investigation of one-component and multicomponent samples are discussed. By measurement of ΔI for each analytical line, the optimal conditions of briquetting can be obtained. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Fossil-energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Progress in the following areas of fossil energy is reported: physiochemical cleaning and recovery of fine coal; a systematic investigation of the organosulfur components in coal; microstructures of coal; rapid analysis of mineral content in coal; coal blending experiments; performance characteristics of heavy media cyclones using fly ash derived heavy media; briquetting solvent treated coal; and coal preparation and testing.

  3. Briquettability of lignite and woody wastes composite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beker, U.G.

    2000-03-01

    Woody wastes have favorable burning characteristics compared to lignite, as well as low ash content and reduced smoke emission. The aim of this study was to blend lignite with woody wastes to obtain a solid fuel that retains the advantageous characteristics of woody materials. Blends with lignite were made up with 7, 9, 12, 15, and 20% of waste and then briquetted under pressures of 400, 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and paper mill wastes were used in different amounts with molasses as binder. Studies were carried out on a laboratory scale to determine optimum parameters for briquetting, such as moisture content of lignite and pressure. Briquetting of lignite without waste materials produces products of low strength. The strongest briquettes were obtained with waste contents of 12--20% and lignite moisture contents of 10--12% at briquetting pressures of 550, 700, and 800 MPa. Briquettes with adequate mechanical strength are obtained from lignite-waste blends with the addition of 8% molasses.

  4. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold, silver, and base metals on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method proposed involves ashing of the sample at a low temperature in a muffle furnace, mixing of the ash with alumina and boric acid in a Siebtechnik mill, and briquetting of the mixture. The elements are measured in the briquette by the use of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The detailed laboratory method is given in an appendix

  5. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  6. FASTMELT! Your waste to profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, F.; Kopfle, J.T.; Landow, M. [Midrex Direct Reduction Corporation, Charlotte, NC (United States). Marketing and Sales

    1998-12-31

    Use of the FASTMET and FASTMELT processes for treating steel mill wastes is described. The mill wastes are first briquetted before being fed to the rotary hearth furnace. Zinc can be recovered for sale, as well as iron products (FASTIRON). 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Development of scientific background for smokeless fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychly, J.; Zakrzewski, Z.; Sekula, M.; Malczyk, R. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze (Poland))

    1992-09-01

    Reviews research and development work on hot briquetting carried out at the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal. In 1976-85, government supported investigations covered mainly coal gasification and liquefaction. Soon hot briquetting of small grained coke and coal was also introduced. In 1979, a semi-commercial plant was commissioned for this purpose; in 1983 it was put into continuous operation. The plant was subject to retrofitting in 1989-90 and organized into 4 units: char heating, caking coal drying and heating, mixing, and briquetting sections. A flow-sheet and more detailed description are presented for this plant. At their initial stage, the experiments were expected to produce formed fuel for industry. Later production of smokeless fuel for communal use was added. Under present conditions, the principal raw materials employed incorporate caking coal and chars from circulating fluidized bed coal pyrolysis. Their average properties and properties of briquets obtained are tabulated. The tests resulted in production of good quality smokeless fuel (30 tons). The plant capacity is 300 kg/h now and its operation proved the process to be applicable on a pilot plant scale and commercially. 21 refs.

  8. Breeding ratio analysis of a fast reactor cooled by supercritical light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breeding ratio of a fast reactor cooled by supercritical light water (SCFR) adopting MOX fuel is studied. In this study, fissile Plutonium surviving ratio (FPSR) is used as breeding ratio. The breeding ratio when adopting a briquet blanket is studied. In a briquet blanket, the positions of the fuel and the coolant are exchanged for increasing heavy metal fraction. It is shown that the parameters, which have high sensitivity to breeding ratio, are the diameter of the fuel pins, the coolant density and the diameter of the coolant tube of a briquet blanket. On the basis of this survey, a core of a breeding reactor (SCFBR) is designed. The core adopts blankets cooled by descending flow so that the average core temperature is not decreased by mixing above the core. A radial heterogeneous core with zirconium hydride (ZrH1,7) layers between driver assemblies and blanket assemblies is employed to keep the void reactivity negative. The FPSR of this core is 1,034 and the electric power is 1700 MW. Other two type cores are designed. One is a core of which seed and blanket consist of normal pin type fuel assemblies. The FPSR of this core is 1,021 and the electric power is 1600 MW. The other is a core of which seed and blanket fuel type is briquet. The FPSR of this core is 1,046 and the electric power is 1900 MW. Both breeding ratio and core power are high in the briquet type core because of the higher heavy metal fraction. (author)

  9. Compaction of plant biomass for solid biofuels production Compactação de biomassa vegetal visando à produção de biocombustíveis sólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This research aimed to evaluate briquettes made from coffee husk, eucalyptus sawdust and maize harvesting residues, and the influence of post compaction interval on some properties of the briquettes. After oven drying of the biomass, the briquettes were produced in a laboratory briquetting machine at 120 ºC and 15 MPa. Bulk density and heating value of the fresh biomass were analyzed. After compaction, influence of time on moisture content, volumetric expansion an bulk density of the briquettes was analyzed. From the results, it was observed that milled coffee husk had the highest mean value of bulk density. There was no statistical difference for higher heating value among the biomass analyzed. The effect of pos compaction interval was significant on moisture content based on dry mass and bulk density for all briquettes produced. The briquettes produced from maize harvesting residues had high volumetric expansion. Considering tensile strength by diametric compression, coffee husk briquettes were more resistant. The results highlight the potential of energetic use of briquettes obtained by compaction of coffee husks.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.273

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar briquetes produzidos a partir de casca de café, serragem de eucalipto e resíduos da colheita do milho, e a influência do tempo após a compactação em algumas propriedades dos briquetes. Após a biomassa ser previamente seca em estufa, os briquetes foram produzidos em uma briquetadeira laboratorial, à temperatura de 120±5ºC e pressão de 15 MPa. Determinaram-se a densidade a granel e o poder calorífico das biomassas in natura. Após a compactação, avaliou-se a influência do tempo sobre a umidade, a expansão volumétrica e a densidade aparente dos briquetes. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pode-se observar que a casca de café moída apresentou o maior valor médio para densidade a granel. Estatisticamente, as biomassas analisadas

  10. 垃圾衍生燃料(RDF)的成型工艺及物理特性%STUDY ON THE OPERATION CONDITIONS FOR MAKING REFUSE DERIVED FUEL(RDF)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小汾; 杨雪莲; 陈勇; 谢克昌

    2001-01-01

    提出了垃圾衍生燃料(RDF)的制备方法,研究了不同成型条件对RDF的物理特性及脱氯效率的影响,根据实验结果总结了制备垃圾衍生燃料的优化工艺。%In this paper,the briquetting proce ss of RDF was put forward.Theinfluences of such briquetting conditions as compr e ssion pressure,the ratio of calcium on the qualities of the refuse briquette are systematically investigated.Based on the experimental results obtained,the opti mum conditions for making RDF are determined.

  11. Density Equation of Bio-Coal Briquettes and Quantity of Maize Cob in Phitsanulok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important crops in Phitsanulok, a province in Northern Thailand, is maize. Base on the calculation, the quantity of maize cob produced in this region was approximately 220 kton year-1. The net heating value of maize cob was found to be 14.2 MJ kg-1. Therefore, the total energy over 874 TJ year-1 can be obtained from this agricultural waste. In the experiments, maize cob was utilized as the major ingredient for producing biomass-coal briquettes. The maize cob was treated with sodium hydroxide solution before mixing with coal fine. The ratios of coal:maize were 1:2 and 1:3, respectively. The range of briquetting pressures was from 4-8 MPa. The result showed that the density was strongly affected by both parameters. Finally, the relationship between biomass ratio, briquetting pressures and briquette density was developed and validated by using regression technique.

  12. X-ray fluorescence analysis of fluorite fluxes for steel electroslag remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of a method for specimen preparation by sample remelting with lithium tetraborate (1:5) and sodium tetraborate (1:3) for fusing agent, and also by powder sample briquetting on boric acid base, calibration curves for analysis of thirteen composing elements in the different concentration range have been built. Direct briquetted sample analysis is notable for its expressiveness combined with high accuracy and reproducibility, but it is restricted by the necessity standard specimens with the same chemical, mineralogical and grain-size analysis for each type of the samples to be used. Remelting method using lithium or sodium tetraborate enables the preparation of lasting synthetic reference samples in a desired concentration range and ensures high accuracy and reproducibility. The melts with sodium and lithium tetraborate and the briquettes on boric acid base have comparable accuracy and reproducibility indices. (author)

  13. Analysis of tungsten carbides by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinson, K; Knott, A C; Belcher, C B

    Five sample presentation techniques were examined for the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of tungsten carbide alloys in powder and cemented forms. Powder samples may be oxidized by air at 600 degrees before fusion (I), or preferably by lithium nitrate during fusion (II); the fusion is effected with lithium-lanthanum tetraborate followed by briquetting with graphite. Powder samples may also be blended with wax and briquetted (III). Cemented carbides are surface-prepared with silicon carbide before analysis (V). Briquettes prepared by blending carbide powder, lithium-lanthanum tetraborate and graphite (IV), give poor reproducibility, however, owing to micro-absorption effects the technique is not recommended. The determination of eight common elements in tungsten carbide is discussed and the relative standard deviations are 0.002-0.004 for major and 0.008-0.01 for minor elements. PMID:18961988

  14. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics of groundnut shell and waste paper admixture briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to assess the heat released of briquettes produced from waste paper and groundnut shell admixture in five mixing ratios (90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; and 50:50. The briquettes were prepared on an existing motorized briquetting machine. The suitability of briquetted fuel as domestic fuel was studied in terms of flame propagation, afterglow, calorific value, and utilized heat, after sun drying the prepared briquettes for nineteen (19 days. The results of propagation rate and afterglow obtained for all the six compositions are satisfactory they range between 0.13 to 0.14 and 365 to 380 respectively. These energy values obtained for the whole samples are sufficient enough to produce heat required for household cooking and small scale industrial cottage applications. Finally it was observed that composition variation affects the properties of the briquettes.

  15. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO2. In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO2, NOx, and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO2 (2--5 ppm), and NOx (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring

  16. Evaluation of fluxing agents effect on desulphurization in secondary metallurgy under plant conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Socha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the steel industry, a number of fluxing agents based on Al2O3 is commonly used. They are produced in different forms. This paper deals with plant results and experiences with the usage of briquetted and sintered fluxing agents for slags based on Al2O3. Proper plant heats were processed under conditions of steel plant Vítkovice heavy machinery a.s. during production of steel S34MnV by specific technology: EAF→LF→VCD. During experiments, the basic parameters influencing the steel desulphurization were monitored. Obtained results allow us to make a basic comparison of briquetted fluxing agents produced from secondary raw materials and of sintered fluxing agents, which are produced from pure raw materials.

  17. Use of grape must as a binder to obtain activated carbon briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Deiana; D. L. Granados; L. M. Petkovic; M. F. Sardella; H. S. Silva

    2004-01-01

    The results of studies on briquetting activated-carbon-based adsorbent materials, prepared from raw materials from the region of Cuyo, Argentina, are reported in this article. Several steps were carried out to obtain activated-carbon briquettes from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn wood. These steps included carbonization of wood to obtain char; blending of char and a novel binder, i.e., grape must; formation of cylinder-like briquettes by pressure; and activation of the resulting material. The ...

  18. X-ray spectral determination of molybdenum in powder ferromolybdenum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precesion X-ray spectral determination of molybdenum in powder samples of ferromolybdenum containing Fe3Mo2, Mo, FeMo, Fe7Mo6 phases is suggested. Effects of phase composition, grinding conditions, size of ferromolybdenum powder particles and the surface texture on fluorescnce intensity are considered. The error of Mo determination usng the suggested method is decreased by a factor of 2, therewith the sample briquetting is not necessary

  19. Reducibility study of Rossetta ilmenite ore briquettes and powder with coke breeze at 800-1100°C

    OpenAIRE

    Abd el Gawad Hala H.; El-Hussiny N.A.; Wassef Marguerite A.; Khalifa M.G.; Soliman Aly A.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ilmenite ore fine and coke breeze as reduced material were briquetted with different amounts of organic materials such as molasses or pitch were studied in this investigation. The produced briquettes at reasonable condition were reduced in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature range 800 - 1100oC to determine the factors controlling the reduction and to determine the controlling mechanism. Also ilmenite ore fine with coke breeze were reduced at the same temperature range in nitrogen atmosph...

  20. Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Hamidul Islam; Md. Mosharraf Hossain; Md. Abdul Momin

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the predominant renewable energy sources and the use of biomass for the energy generation has got much attention due to its environmental friendliness. Densification of coir dust into fuel briquette can solve waste disposal problem as well as can serve as an alternative energy source. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing briquette from coir dust and rice husk blend without binder. During this study, a briquetting experiment was conducte...

  1. Zpracování přehledu strojních linek využívaných pro sklizeň a následnou úpravu píce k energetickým účelům se zaměřením na oblast jihozápadních Čech.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUKUP, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor paper deals with an overview of machine lines processing straw and hay, which is used for energy purposes, from areas difficult to harvest. The theoretical part describes the terms such as biomass, harvest of hay and straw, and machine lines for harvesting hay and straw. Further the fundamental principles of pelletizing and briquetting lines are described. In the practical part selected machine lines for hay and straw harvest, which are used for the production of shaped fuel, ar...

  2. Modularity of Pressing Tools for Screw Press Producing Solid Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Matúš; Peter Križan

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of the newly-patented structure of a screw briquetting machine for compacting biomass into a solid biofuel. The design of the machine is based on the results of a comprehensive study of the complicated process of biomass compaction. The patented structure meets two main goals: the elimination of axial forces, leading to increased lifetime of the bearings, and the new modular design of a pressing chamber and tools with their geometry based on the applicati...

  3. Zpracování odpadu z pily ve Slavonicích

    OpenAIRE

    Kubek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with proposal of elaboration of waste from sawmill in Slavonice. Solves condition of current operations and technological equipment of the company. It also deals with three variants of the technological organization and mechanization of elaboration of waste. The first variant solves briquetting line, the second is focused on the pelletizing line and the third part constitutes sorter sawmill waste. All of the mentioned variants are supported by the drawings. Diploma thesis...

  4. Recycling of Coking Plant Residues in a Finnish Steelworks—Laboratory Study and Replacement Ratio Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Suopajärvi, Hannu; Salo, Antti; Paananen, Timo; Mattila, Riku; Fabritius, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Material efficiency is one of the most effective methods for achieving more sustainable operations in iron and steelmaking. Sintering and briquetting processes are commonly used in integrated steel plants to recycle carbon- and iron-containing residues back to blast furnace. In the Ruukki steelworks in Finland, a surplus of solid coking plant by-products is produced, none of which are presently utilized within the steelworks. In this paper, a novel concept for recycling solid coking plant by-...

  5. BRIQUETTES – A COST EFFECTIVE, SUSTAINABLE, ECOFRIENDLY, ENERGY SOURCE FOR RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dipti Giri; Adiba Sheikh; Shanta Satyanarayan; Sanjeev Satyanarayan

    2015-01-01

    Briquetting of biomass can address the problem of energy crisis. The main objective of this study was to compare the heat value of the different types of biomass briquettes prepared differently. Many agricultural residues like cotton stalk, Leguminous plants (dried), coconut shell and fiber, teak leaves, guava leaves, chrysanthemum stalks, gum waste, dried and hardened guava, lady’s finger, Bamboo leaves, ordinary grass and cow dung etc. were densified using binder materials like cla...

  6. TORQUE MEASUREMENT IN WORM AGLOMERATION MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DUDZIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the operating characteristics of the worm agglomeration machine. The paper indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the value of the torque due to the efficiency of the machine. An original structure of torque meter which is built in the standard drive system of briquetting machine was presented. A number of benefits arising from the application of the proposed solution were presented. Exemplary measurement results obtained by means of this torque meter were presented.

  7. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Nasrin; A. N. Ma; Y. M. Choo; Mohamad, S.; M. H. Rohaya; A. Azali; Z. Zainal

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its phys...

  8. INVESTIGATION ON THE QUALITY OF BRIQUETTES MADE FROM RARELY USED WOOD SPECIES, AGRO-WASTES AND FOREST BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Aurel LUNGULEASA

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of briquettes made from various biomass resources (staghorn sumac wood, vineyard and apple tree pruning biomass, pine cones, corn stalk and corn cobs) were investigated in the present paper. The moisture content of raw materials was first determined, before compacting them in a hydraulic briquetting machine. Briquettes with diameter of 40mm and various lengths were obtained. Five replicates of each briquette type were selected for the determination of density, compression stre...

  9. Production of Indigenous and Enriched Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Coal Briquettes: Combustion and Disintegration Strength Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Unsia Habib; Abdul Rehman Memon; Amad Ullah Khan; Muddasar Habib

    2013-01-01

    Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan has considerable amounts of low ranked coal. However, due to the absence of any centrally administered power generation system there is a need to explore indigenous methods for effectively using this valuable energy resource. In the present study an indigenous coal briquetting technology has been developed and evaluated in terms of combustion characteristics such as moisture content, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and calorific value of the resulti...

  10. Zpracování rostlinné biomasy briketováním

    OpenAIRE

    Hlatký, Přemysl

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis in its literary part is focused on summarization of knowledge about legislative support of renewable energy sources, biomass for energy purposes, Miscanthus, technologies of biomass processing and briquetting, standardization of briquettes and its mechanical quality. An overall view on the biomass, which is considered to be relatively inexpensive and available renewable energy source and one of the most important pillars, which contributes to the mitigation of greenhouse ...

  11. Výroba a využití tvarovaných biopaliv v podmínkách České republiky

    OpenAIRE

    Pondělíček, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to summarize the findings from the production of compressed biofuels in the Czech Republic. It focuses on the production process from the very beginning, which is the harvesting of raw biomass, through its processing and subsequent testing of products quality. The second part describes the comparison of three briquetting presses using known parameters that are normally provided by the manufacturers.. The work was created on the basis of information from literature, web sites, a...

  12. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  13. TORQUE MEASUREMENT IN WORM AGLOMERATION MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Marian DUDZIAK; Ireneusz MALUJDA; Krzysztof TALAŚKA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the operating characteristics of the worm agglomeration machine. The paper indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the value of the torque due to the efficiency of the machine. An original structure of torque meter which is built in the standard drive system of briquetting machine was presented. A number of benefits arising from the application of the proposed solution were presented. Exemplary measurement results obtained by means of this torque meter were presented.

  14. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-01-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust...

  15. New sorts of compacted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report discusses new developmental trends at field of briquetting and pelleting technology used for compressing of the solid organic waste in order to energy utilization. Many a time mainly in operation of pelleting engines fall problems because breach of entry fraction parameters (mainly dimensions of sawdust). Therefore comes new developed shape of wood fuel briquettes and some ideas about new production engine for it. Nowadays it is very important question considering actual costs of energy and situation in ecology. (authors)

  16. Economic efficiency of the radiometric ash content determination of lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with quality-control problems in lignite mining and in use of lignite in generation of power, coal transformation, residential and industrial heating, or briquetting, a radiometric procedure is proposed for the fast determination of the ash content of lignite as one quality parameter among others. The conditions of application and the advantages are discussed. Finally, a cost benefit study for the radiometric method has been carried out

  17. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Quantometer has been applied to the determination of aluminum, berylium, calcium, iron, silicon and zinc in magnesium alloys Magnox, after the conversion of the samples to the oxide. For the aluminum, whose concentration is relatively high, the conducting briquets technique with an interrupted discharge is employed, using the magnesium as the internal standard. For the other elements a total burning method with direct current arc is employed, using also the magnesium as the internal standard. (Author) 7 refs

  18. A neurological bias in the history of hysteria: from the womb to the nervous system and Charcot

    OpenAIRE

    Marleide da Mota Gomes; Eliasz Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Hysteria conceptions, from ancient Egypt until the 19th century Parisian hospital based studies, are presented from gynaecological and demonological theories to neurological ones. The hysteria protean behavioral disorders based on nervous origin was proposed at the beginning, mainly in Great Britain, by the “enlightenment nerve doctors”. The following personages are highlighted: Galen, William, Sydenham, Cullen, Briquet, and Charcot with his School. Charcot who had hysteria and hypnotism prob...

  19. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    OpenAIRE

    D. Baricová; P. Futáš; A. Pribulová; G. Fedorko; P. Demeter

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace) and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with ...

  20. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following sha...

  1. Physiochemical Characterization of Briquettes Made from Different Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Karunanithy, C.; Wang, Y.; Muthukumarappan, K.; Pugalendhi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Densification of biomass can address handling, transportation, and storage problems and also lend itself to an automated loading and unloading of transport vehicles and storage systems. The purpose of this study is to compare the physicochemical properties of briquettes made from different feedstocks. Feedstocks such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie cord grass, sawdust, pigeon pea grass, and cotton stalk were densified using a briquetting system. Physical characterization includes particl...

  2. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  3. Application of radioactive isotopes for analysis of complex industrial processes on example of coal mining combined establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of mobile multidetector computing systems and the possibility of processing of the results of measurements on a computer, permits to conduct marking experiments in a large scale. This has been shown on the example of briquetting of lignite. Ordinary briquetting factory is supplied by different quality lignites, which are mixed in the process of briquetting: K1, K2, K3... In this case, one of the main problem is to preserve on the constant level such parameters of the product as strength and caloricity - Q of briquettes. For this purpose it is necessary to determine influence of each of the lignite grade on the briquettes quality. Marking different lignite grades by different isotopes as sodium-24, bromine-82, lantanum-140 and gold-198 it is possible to determine their concentrations in the briquette. If the strength and caloricity of the saim kind of briquettes is measured, correlation functions of Q = F(K1, K2, K3...) type are obtained. According to the pulses correlations from different lignite grades, labelled by different isotopes, all possible combinations of the composition of mixtures are determined. Tracing distribution of activity from the labelled lignite, the time of passing the mixture through installation and effectiveness are determined

  4. Material and operating variables affecting the physical quality of biomass briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.; Xin, M. [Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Iroba, K.L.; Tabil, L.G.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although biomass is an environmentally sound substitute for fossil fuels, its low bulk density makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. This challenge can be addressed by densifying the biomass to a high density product like briquettes. Briquetting is influenced by several material properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. This paper reported on a study in which briquettes were produced with barley straw, canola straw, oat straw, and wheat straw. The chopped samples were densified using a laboratory hydraulic press briquetting machine at pressure levels of 7.5, 10, and 12.5 MPa and at temperatures of 90, 110 and 130 degrees C. Three moisture content levels and 3 levels of particle size were used. Ten briquettes were manufactured for each treatment combination. The dimensions of all the samples were measured after compression. The samples were then stored in sealed plastic bags in a controlled environment. Durability, dimensional stability, and moisture content tests were conducted after 2 weeks of storage. The study showed that moisture content plays a key role in briquetting.

  5. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkyi, Nana S.A.; Sekyere, Daniel [CSIR-FORIG, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST Box 63 (Ghana); Okyere, Philip Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Darkwa, Nicholas A. [FRNR, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Nketiah, Samuel K. [TROPENBOS International (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  6. Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hamidul Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the predominant renewable energy sources and the use of biomass for the energy generation has got much attention due to its environmental friendliness. Densification of coir dust into fuel briquette can solve waste disposal problem as well as can serve as an alternative energy source. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing briquette from coir dust and rice husk blend without binder. During this study, a briquetting experiment was conducted with different coir dust and rice husk blends (i.e. coir dust and rice husk ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. Briquetting operation was performed using a die-screw press type briquetting machine. The briquettes were tested to evaluate their density, compressive strength, calorific value, burning rate and water vaporizing capacity and it was found that mixing ratio had a significant effect on the physical, mechanical and combustion properties of the coir dust-rice husk briquettes. Density, compressive strength and calorific value and water vaporizing capacity were increased with increasing mixing ratio while burning rate was decreased. Coir dust-rice husk briquettes with mixing ratio of 20:80 had higher density (1.413 g/cm3, compressive strength (218.4 N/cm2, calorific value (4879 kcal/kg, water vaporizing capacity (0.853 l/kg and low burning rate (0.783 kg/hour followed by the mixing ratio 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 0:100. The results indicate that coir dust and rice husk blend briquettes were found to have better overall handling characteristics over rice husk briquette. However, production of briquettes from coir dust and rice husk at mixing ratio of 50:50 was found to be more suitable for commercial application in terms of cost effectiveness.

  7. Torrefied biomass. The perfect CO2 neutral coal substitute is maturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass upgrading to a coal-like fuel is long a topic of R and D. Today, the torrefaction technology is mature allowing industrial-scale production and cost competitive large-scale supply of CO2 neutral fuel. Torrefaction exposes lingo-cellulosic biomass to 250 to 350 C. Approximately 30 % increase in energy density, improved combustion particulars, 1/10 of milling energy requirement and improved water resistance are achieved results. Various torrefaction technologies are available. Pelleting or briquetting is obligatory for torrefied product transport. Numerous plants of app 1t/h are in operation; industrial-scale torrefaction lines are under construction.

  8. Comparison and Appraisal of Four Different Methods for CO2 Enrichment%几种主要CO2施肥肥源性能的比较与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏珉; 王秀峰; 邢禹贤; 张衍鹏; 王纪银

    2001-01-01

    在空闲拱棚和黄瓜日光温室内,分别研究了化学反应法(H2SO4+NH4HCO3)、煤球燃烧法和颗粒CO2气肥3种肥源的性能,并与液体CO2进行成本比较,结果表明:化学反应法产气迅速,设备折旧成本较低;煤球燃烧法产气速度中等,原料成本最低;颗粒CO2气肥产气速度较慢且不易调控,原料成本最高。考虑化学反应产物的再利用因素,化学反应法、煤球燃烧法和液体CO2 3种肥源总成本接近,但从生态、节能、成本和效果等方面综合评价,煤球燃烧法原料丰富、成本低廉,较符合我国目前的设施、经济、资源和技术条件。%Three methods for CO2 enrichment-chemical reaction(H2SO4+NH4HCO3), briquet combustion, granular CO2 fertilizer were comparatively studied in free tunnels and solar greenhouses for cucumber cultivation, and the yearly total cost of different methods(including pure liquid CO2) were compared. Chemical reaction had higher CO2 releasing velocity and relatively lower equipment depreciation charge; honeycomb briquet combustion produced CO2 at moderate rate, and the raw material cost was the least; granular CO2 fertilizer having highest raw material cost released CO2 slowest. When the re-use of by-product of chemical reaction was concerned, annual cost of chemical reaction was similar with that of briquet combustion and liquid CO2. Comprehensively evaluated from viewpoints of ecology, energy-saving, cost and effect, briquet combustion was in more accordance with the present situations in China including facility type, economic situation, resource condition and technique level, and so on.

  9. Physical Characteristics of Maize Cob Briquette under Moderate Die Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2007-01-01

    The potential energy content of maize cob available in Thailand was calculated based on maize productivity, the residue-to-product ratio and the heating value of maize cob. It was found that the computed value was about 74.2 PJ/year. Besides, the potential energy value exceed 1,000 TJ/year was also reported for the case of five provinces of Thailand. Concerning with maize cob briquette, the effect of molasses binder ratio and briquetting pressure on briquette density was experimentally invest...

  10. Studying properties of carbonaceous reducers and process of forming primary titanium slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When smelting a rich titanium slag the most suitable are low-ash reducers, and the studies revealed the suitability for this purpose of special coke and coal. An important property of a reducer is its specific resistance. Therefore there were carried out studies for measuring electric resistance of briquettes consisting of ilmenite concentrate and different carbonaceous reducers. It is recommended to jointly smelt the briquetted and powdered burden (the amount of the powdered burden varies form 20 tо 50 %, this leads to the increase of technical-economic indicators of the process.

  11. INVESTIGATION ON THE QUALITY OF BRIQUETTES MADE FROM RARELY USED WOOD SPECIES, AGRO-WASTES AND FOREST BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of briquettes made from various biomass resources (staghorn sumac wood, vineyard and apple tree pruning biomass, pine cones, corn stalk and corn cobs were investigated in the present paper. The moisture content of raw materials was first determined, before compacting them in a hydraulic briquetting machine. Briquettes with diameter of 40mm and various lengths were obtained. Five replicates of each briquette type were selected for the determination of density, compression strength and calorific value. The results were compared to those of beech and pine briquettes obtained under similar conditions. Based on the experimental results, mathematical correlations between density and compression strength and density and calorific value were investigated.

  12. Experimental study on preparation of biomass briquette fuel by sawdust%锯末制备生物质成型燃料的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 陈铁军; 饶发明; 丁春江; 李圣辉

    2012-01-01

    Biomass briquette fuel was prepared by sawdust in the techniques of cold briquetting and carbonized briquetting. The effects of material moisture content and forming pressure of cold briquetting technique on forming properties of the briquette fuel was studied- The results show that the product biomass briquette fuel' has a good forming properties when material moisture content was 12%~16% and forming pressure was 60 MPa, and the density was 0.94 g/cm3 and shatter strength was 99%. The effect of mix moisture content, anthracite ratio, addition of J binder and forming pressure of carbonized briquetting technique on forming properties of the briqiiette fuel was stuied. The experiments results show that the product superior biomass briquette fuel has a good forming properties when anthracite ratio was 50%, mix moisture content was 30%, addition of J binder was 8%, forming pressure was 45 MPa, and the density was 0.93 g/cm3 and shatter strength was 99.3%,%分别采用冷压成型和炭化成型工艺以锯末制备生物质成型燃料.冷压成型工艺主要考察原料水分、成型压力对燃料的成型性能影响.试验结果表明:原料水分为12%~16%,成型压力为60 MPa的条件下能够制得成型性能较好的生物质成型燃料,其密度与抗跌强度分别能够达到0.94 g/cm3和99%;炭化成型工艺主要考察混合料水分、无烟煤配比、J型粘结剂添加量、成型压力对燃料的成型性能影响.试验结果表明:无烟煤配比为50%、混合料水分为30%、J型粘结剂添加量为8%、成型压力为45 MPa的条件下能够制得成型性能较好的优质生物质成型燃料,其密度与抗跌强度分别为0.93 g/cm3和99.3%.

  13. Torrefied biomass. The perfect CO{sub 2} neutral coal substitute is maturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Michael [Wild and Partner LLC, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-01

    Biomass upgrading to a coal-like fuel is long a topic of R and D. Today, the torrefaction technology is mature allowing industrial-scale production and cost competitive large-scale supply of CO{sub 2} neutral fuel. Torrefaction exposes lingo-cellulosic biomass to 250 to 350 C. Approximately 30 % increase in energy density, improved combustion particulars, 1/10 of milling energy requirement and improved water resistance are achieved results. Various torrefaction technologies are available. Pelleting or briquetting is obligatory for torrefied product transport. Numerous plants of app 1t/h are in operation; industrial-scale torrefaction lines are under construction.

  14. Modularity of Pressing Tools for Screw Press Producing Solid Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Matúš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of the newly-patented structure of a screw briquetting machine for compacting biomass into a solid biofuel. The design of the machine is based on the results of a comprehensive study of the complicated process of biomass compaction. The patented structure meets two main goals: the elimination of axial forces, leading to increased lifetime of the bearings, and the new modular design of a pressing chamber and tools with their geometry based on the application of a mathematical model.

  15. Radionuclides for process analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process analysis in industrial plants includes the overall determination of process and operating parameters, such as throughput, material composition, residence time, mixing behaviour, flow rates etc. in the individual steps of a process. General instructions for the performance of industrial tracer experiments are presented, and radionuclide investigations in briquetting and in the large-scale production of caprolactam are discussed. In both cases the results of the tracer experiments indicated the way towards greater operational efficiency and high economic benefits. They had a positive effect on both the output and the quality of the final products. (author)

  16. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pribulová; P. Futáš; Baricová, D.

    2012-01-01

    Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite) and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition ...

  17. Technology of new generation of manufacture of liquid products from coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given work the review about a condition of research and trial works on technology perfection hydrogenation coals is made. Done design work on processing 65 thousand tons / year Karazhyra coal to liquid fuels and other products of combustion purposes. The basic advantage of the Kazakhstan technology for producing motor fuels coal hydrogenation at low pressure hydrogen (up to 5 MPa compared to the processes developed in the USA, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, and Russia. An integrated low-waste technology and coal processing, which allows the production of industrially important: liquid and patent fuel, binders for briquetting, and allocate bitumen due to the utilization of sludge.

  18. Device for continuous measurement of straw briquette expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molenda M.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A device was developed for the continuous monitoring of the expansion of straw or hay briquettes after removal from the die. The instrument was tested within a trial of briquetting of various straws submitted for mechanical and chemical pre-treatments. The deve-loped device proved to be easy to use, while allowing measurement sensitivity better than 0.5 mm over a long period of time. It was possible to record even slight briquette expansion and to determine different trends of expansion for wheat and rice straw and for straws that had undergone different treatment.

  19. Effect of Organic Binders on The Quality of Manganese Ore Sinter Fines Briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinai Manganese Company imports the manganese ore sinter from abroad for ferromanganese alloy production. Large quantities of manganese ore sinter fines are produced in this process. These fines must be agglomerated to a suitable size in order to be reused for charging the electric arc furnace. The aim of this work is studying the briquetting ability of these fines using organic binders such as starch and bitumen. The results showed that, the suitable briquettes were produced with the addition of 5 % of starch and 20% H2O under pressure 3 ton/cm2 or 8 % bitumen under pressure 4 ton/cm2 and 3 days curing time

  20. Device for continuous measurement of straw briquette expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Molenda M.; Ferrero A.

    1999-01-01

    A device was developed for the continuous monitoring of the expansion of straw or hay briquettes after removal from the die. The instrument was tested within a trial of briquetting of various straws submitted for mechanical and chemical pre-treatments. The deve-loped device proved to be easy to use, while allowing measurement sensitivity better than 0.5 mm over a long period of time. It was possible to record even slight briquette expansion and to determine different trends of expansion for w...

  1. Spectrographic Determination of Trace Constituents in Rare Earths; Determinacion espectrografica de impurezas en tierras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C.; Alvarez, F.

    1962-07-01

    A spectrographic method was developed for the determination of 18 trace elements in lanthanum, cerium, praseodimium, neodimium and samarium compounds. The concentrations of the impurities cover the range of 0,5 to 500 ppm. Most of these impurities are determined by the carrier distillation method. Several more refractory elements have been determined by total burning of the sample with a direct current arc or by the conduction briquet excitation technique with a high voltage condensed spark. The work has been carried out with a Hilger Automatic Large Quartz Spectrograph. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. Agglomeration techniques for the production of spheres for packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One attractive fusion-breeder-blanket design features a lithium bearing ceramic in the form of spheres packed into a random array. The spheres have diameters of 3 mm and 0.3 mm. This report surveys techniques used to produce ceramic spheres on an industrial scale. The methods examined include tumbling and mixing granulation, extrusion, briquetting and pelletizing. It is concluded that the required quantities of 0.3 mm diameter spheres can be produced by the tumbling agglomeration of a feed powder. The 3 mm diameter spheres will be made using a process of extrusion, chopping and rolling

  3. Properties of charcoal derived from hazelnut shell and the production of briquettes using pyrolytic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Black Sea Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Science Education

    1999-02-01

    Hazelnut shells were converted to charcoal and to liquid, and gaseous products using pyrolysis at different temperatures. The chemical compositions and yields of the charcoals were determined as functions of the carbonization temperature. Higher heating values (HHVs) were estimated using both ultimate and proximate analyses. Hazelnut shells and the derived charcoal were densified to briquettes using pyrolytic oil or tar as binder. Briquette properties improved with an increase in briquetting pressures and percentages of binder materials. The best charcoal briquettes were obtained at 800 MPa pressure at 400 K. (author)

  4. Pengaruh Impregnasi NaCl Terhadap Nilai Kalor Bakar Dan Kuat Tekan Briket Arang Tempurung Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Sibarani, Esther

    2010-01-01

    A materil such as charcoal briquet can be used as an alternative energy. This material has been regenerated from a coconut shell charcoal blended with organic glue. It has caloric value approximatly 5000 cal/gr with compressibility number is 2,64 kgf/cm2. To improve the quality both caloric value and compressibility number is an objective of this study. A coconut shell was carbonized at (600 - 700) 0C in limited air condition. The charcoal formed then was crushed, sized to (40 - 60) in mesh. ...

  5. 矿山地质学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    粉煤成型原料粒度组成的试验研究=The examination study of the size composition of the fine coal briquetting[刊,中]/吉登高(中国矿业大学(北京)化学与环境工程学院,北京100083),王祖讷,张丽娟,马永和//煤炭学报.-2005,30(1).-100~103……

  6. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  7. Density equation of bio-coal briquettes and quantity of maize cob in Phitsanulok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patomsok Wilaipon [Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    One of the most important crops in Phitsanulok, a province in Northern Thailand, is maize. BaseD on the calculation, the quantity of maize cob produced in this region was approximately 220 kton year{sup -1}. The net heating value of maize cob was found to be 14.2 MJ kg{sup -1}. Therefore, the total energy over 874 TJ year-1 can be obtained from this agricultural waste. In the experiments, maize cob was utilized as the major ingredient for producing biomass-coal briquettes. The maize cob was treated with sodium hydroxide solution before mixing with coal fine. The ratios of coal:maize were 1:2 and 1:3, respectively. The range of briquetting pressures was from 4-8 MPa. The result showed that the density was strongly affected by both parameters. Finally, the relationship between biomass ratio, briquetting pressures and briquette density was developed and validated by using regression technique. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Studies On Development Of Fuel Briquettes Using Locally Avaliable Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. A. I. Raju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy requirement is increasing day by day as the number of industries is increasing proportionately and the present power supply is unable to meet the energy demand. To combat this energy shortage, developed as well as developing countries are putting more efforts into R&D to tap alternative energy sources. State policies are also being formulated to encourage alternative sources of energy. In India alone, it is proposed that 17,000 MW should be produced from biomass. Although other options like gasification can be used for power generation, briquetting of biomass can be considered for its economics, reliability and ease of operation. Briquettes of small size can be used in gasifies for power generation. If the plant sites are chosen properly for easy availability of raw material, the agro-residues can be briquetted to reduce further transportation costs and associated pollution. This also improves the handling characteristics of biomass. The briquettes so obtained are very good fuels for local small scale industries and domestic purposes.

  9. Torrefied biomass for use in power station sector; Torrefizierte Biomasse zum Einsatz im Kraftwerkssektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Schaubach, Kay [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Kiel, Jaap; Carbo, Michiel [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Wojcik, Magdalena [OFI Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In the torrefaction process biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of at least 250 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage. Torrefaction also creates superior properties for biomass in many major end-use applications. The process has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for sustainable biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass (residues). The article will briefly introduce the concept and objectives of the project and the different torrefaction technologies involved and then focus on the results obtained within the first project phase of the EU-project SECTOR. This comprises production of torrefied biomass batches, subsequent densification (pelletisation and briquetting), characterisation and Round Robin testing of characterisation methods, initial logistics and end-use performance testing, material safety data sheet preparation and sustainability assessment along the value chain. (orig.)

  10. The Effect of Composition and Pressure on Briquette Production of Zircon Sand Toward Chlorination Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, the production of zirconium metal from zirconium sand is carried out through drying method process, that is direct chlorination process. Sand material and carbon powder are mixed thoroughly, and sucrose solution, which functions as an adhesive, is then added to the mixture. After that the mixture is formed into briquette with 10 millimeters in diameter and 20 millimeters in height. The briquette is than heated in the temperature of 350 oC. The proceeded briquette is than chlorinated in the temperature of 950 oC, Cl2 gas is then flowed to the briquette yellowish gas is formed in this process, that is ZrCl4, SiCl4 and CO2. The process adopts fluidization theory. The investigation examination the parameter of the composition of briquette material as well as the pressure of briquetting toward ZrCl4 conversion. This investigation gives following result the composition of briquette material which is comprised of zirconium sand : carbon powder : sucrose is 71 : 23 : 6, and briquetting pressure given is 20 Knewton, which yielded chlorination conversion of 18.6 %. (author)

  11. Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

    2011-06-01

    To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant. PMID:21507625

  12. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several climatic zones and have different weather characteristics and cultural conditions. In the present study, we assessed five types of straw-reuse technologies (straw-biogas production, -briquetting, -based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production, using emergy analysis, in northeast China. Within each type, five individual cases were investigated, and the highest-performing cases were used for comparison across technologies. Emergy indices for comprehensive benefits for each category, namely, EYR, ELR, and ESI were calculated. Calculated indices suggest that straw-briquetting and -biogas production are the most beneficial technologies in terms of economy, environmental impact, and sustainability compared to straw-based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production technologies. These two technologies can thus be considered the most suitable for straw reuse in China.

  13. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  14. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-12-19

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age-hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted. The ESO residue, having a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{sm_bullet}s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, AAD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age-hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a silicious Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquets. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquets. The abbreviations used above for the asphalts and the aggregates are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program nomenclature.

  15. Utilização de um aparato em escala de laboratório para o estudo da recuperação do cromo contido em resíduos gerados na produção de aço inoxidável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Nolasco Sobrinho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos gerados no processo de fabricação de aço inoxidável representam um problema para as siderúrgicas devido ao teor de metais pesados e à forma hexavalente do cromo. Visando a contribuir para o desenvolvimento de um processo que possa tratar esses tipos de resíduos, foi realizado o presente estudo. Quatro diferentes tipos de resíduos, sendo uma poeira e três lamas, foram caracterizados utilizando várias técnicas. Depois, os resíduos foram aglomerados na forma de briquetes juntamente com a liga FeSi75, utilizada como redutor. Além da liga FeSi75, a cal ou a sílica (dependendo da composição química do resíduo foi adicionada à composição do briquete para o ajuste da basicidade binária da escória que seria formada no experimento. Foram fabricados três briquetes com cada tipo de resíduo para a realização dos experimentos de fusão - introdução de briquetes em aço líquido a 1570, 1600 e 1635ºC e retirada periódica de amostras de aço do banho. Para a fusão do aço e do briquete, foi utilizado um aparato experimental em escala de laboratório. Verificou-se que o cromo que se encontrava no resíduo foi completamente incorporado ao aço para determinadas condições experimentais. O tempo necessário para se atingir esse percentual de incorporação foi de cerca de 15 minutos na temperatura de 1635ºC.Currently the Brazilian stainless steel production is around 350.000t per year. The stainless steel industries generate more than 7,000t of dusts with high amount of chromium, nickel, and iron. These wastes represent a problem to the stainless steel industries due to their high content of chromium, nickel, led and iron. The solution to this problem can be in the recycling of these wastes. The first step in this research was the characterization of these wastes. Twelve briquettes were prepared using the wastes (dust/sludge, Fe-Si, CaO and SiO2. The briquettes were introduced in molten steel at three different

  16. Investigation of solid-phase interaction of Ln2O3 with CoO (Ln--Sm,Eu,Gd,Dy,Ho)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermogravimetric analysis has been used to study the kinetics and mechan nism of solid-phase synthesis of cobaltites of the LnCoO3 composition (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho) during the interaction of Ln2O3 powders with h CoO in the 920-1030 deg c range. The LnCoO3 synthesis is realized unde diffusion conditions. Kinetic parameters of the LnCoO3 production are clcu ulated. The rate of LnCoO3 solid-phase synthesis is shown to decrease with increasing re order number. The effect of gas atmosphere composition, pressure of mixture briquetting, velocity of air supply into the reactor on the rate and conditions of interactions is estimated

  17. Use of grape must as a binder to obtain activated carbon briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Deiana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on briquetting activated-carbon-based adsorbent materials, prepared from raw materials from the region of Cuyo, Argentina, are reported in this article. Several steps were carried out to obtain activated-carbon briquettes from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn wood. These steps included carbonization of wood to obtain char; blending of char and a novel binder, i.e., grape must; formation of cylinder-like briquettes by pressure; and activation of the resulting material. The material was activated with steam under different temperatures, activation times, and activating agent flow rates. Impact resistance index, axial compressive strength, tensile strength by diametrical compression, BET area, and pore volume were measured for product characterization. Satisfactory surface areas and mechanical strengths were found in the final products.

  18. The Influence of Tool Composite's Structure During Process of Diamond Grinding of Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the tests performed during the grinding process of the ceramic materials: – polycrystalline ceramics (Zirconium ZrO2 and mono-crystalline ceramics (sapphire α-Al2O3 by the diamond tools. Studies have shown that the concentration (thickening of the tool composite changes the tool's pore structure when using suitable wetted adamantine additives. Such modified composite has positive impact on tribological properties of the subsurface layer of the machined components. This is manifested by the reduction of the surface roughness and reduction of the vibration amplitude of the coefficient of friction. The possibilities of the positive effects when using wetted additives on the tool's composite during the pressing (briquetting stage confirm the study results.

  19. An approach to the estimation of the value of agricultural residues used as biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple demand side approach for estimating the monetary value of agricultural residues used as biofuels is proposed. Some of the important issues involved in the use of biomass feedstocks in coal-fired boilers are briefly discussed along with their implications for the maximum acceptable price estimates for the agricultural residues. Results of some typical calculations are analysed along with the estimates obtained on the basis of a supply side approach (based on production cost) developed earlier. The prevailing market prices of some agricultural residues used as feedstocks for briquetting are also indicated. The results obtained can be used as preliminary indicators for identifying niche areas for immediate/short-term utilization of agriculture residues in boilers for process heating and power generation. (author)

  20. Hydrogen storage on high-surface-area carbon monoliths for Adsorb hydrogen Gas Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yuchoong; Pfeifer, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Carbon briquetting can increase hydrogen volumetric storage capacity by reducing the useless void volume resulting in a better packing density. It is a robust and efficient space-filling form for an adsorbed hydrogen gas vehicle storage tank. To optimize hydrogen storage capacity, we studied three fabrication process parameters: carbon-to-binder ratio, compaction temperature, and pyrolysis atmosphere. We found that carbon-to-binder ratio and pyrolysis atmosphere have influences on gravimetric excess adsorption. Compaction temperature has large influences on gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity. We have been able to optimize these parameters for high hydrogen storage. All monolith uptakes (up to 260 bar) were measured by a custom-built, volumetric, reservoir-type instrument.

  1. Amendment of the administrative skeleton provision for minimum requirements to be met by waste water discharged into bodies of water. Administrative skeleton provision on waste water of 25 November, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This provision applies to waste water to be discharged into bodies of water and whose pollution load stems mainly from the sectors indicated in appendices. Without prejudice to stricter requirements governing the execution of the Water Resources Act, the requirements to be met by the discharge of waste water, as indicated in appendices, are defined in accordance with section 7a, subsection 1, number 3 of the Water Resources Act. - The maximum concentrations indicated in appendices, for instance for waste water from brown coal briquetting plant, black coal treatment plant, petroleum refineries and flue gas scrubbers at combustion plant, relate to waste water in the discharge pipe of the waste water treatment plant. Contrary to technical rules that may apply in each instance, these concentrations must not be attained by dilution or mixing. (orig.)

  2. Recycling of hazardous waste materials in the coking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Barriocanal, C; Díez, M A; Cimadevilla, J L G; Casal, M D; Canga, C S

    2004-03-01

    Every year the coking industry produces a significant amount of tarry and other wastes in byproducts plants. For the most part these wastes have not been put to any practical use. In addition, an integrated factory produces several waste oils which differ in composition and quantity, e.g., wastes from the steel rolling-mill process. In this work, the possibility of using such waste materials as binders in a partial briquetting process for metallurgical coke production is explored. By means of this coking procedure, a strong metallurgical coke not inferior in quality to coke from conventional coal blends is produced at pilot and semi-industrial scales. The use of such wastes, some of which are classified as hazardous materials, will avoid the need for dumping, thereby contributing to the protection of the environment as well as reducing the costs related to waste disposal. PMID:15046368

  3. Improvement in tungsten sponge production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of searching methods of direct reduction of tungsten oxide concentrates or thermodynamical study of the W-O-C system is accomplished. It is established that the following thermodynamic equilibria are of interest for practice: equilibria of WO2 formation reaction, equilibria of tungsten reduction with carbon, tungsten carbide and carbon monoxide. A two-stage process of manufacturing tungsten-bearing metallized concentrate is developed on the basis of study results. The first stage of reduction runs at 973-1223 K for 4-9 h. The second stage is carried out at 1273-1723 K during 2-6 h with subsequent cooling in a gas environment down to 273-303 K. The density of produced metallized briquets equals 3.2-3.67 g/cm3

  4. What is the bioelectric that the sugar industry and Cuba need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most relevant bioelectric illustrating its current development on the basis of which technical and economic parameters to support the definition of a strategy are discussed are described. These include, efficiency, consumption of process steam, alternative biomass and storage, water quality, the ability to harvest and no harvest, new technologies, cost and price of biomass and kWh , investment and financing conditions, among others. We conclude that the result of bioelectrical has to be not only ecological but also economic, to be maximized power production operating at higher pressure and temperatures possible with turbo extraction-condensing and biomass availability is crucial because regulating capacity, economies of scale, duration of the operation and profitability of bioelectrical. We must urgently assess whole cane processing and eventually to the briquetting of biomass store. It is desirable to standardize the capacity of sugar factories. The SEN can and must assimilate biokWh at any time of day, anywhere from Cuba to occur. (full text)

  5. Halogenated aromatics from steel production: results of a pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Tomas

    2004-08-01

    The potential environmental impact of emissions of halogenated aromatics from the steel industry is of growing concern. It has been suggested that electric arc furnaces are the only industrial source with constant or increasing emissions of dioxins to air. Here the results are reported from a pilot plant study on how scrap composition and various treatment alternatives affect the formation and release of chlorinated and brominated aromatics. The experiments were conducted with a statistical mixture design, and it is shown that scrap composition has a significant impact on the outcome. In contrast, the various treatment schemes examined--shredding, disassembly, and briquetting--did not affect the formation and release of halogenated aromatics. Parallel experiments with injection of adsorbents showed that it is possible to reduce emissions without substantial investments, and this option is recommended as a low-cost solution. PMID:15212909

  6. Effect of some important sample parameters on the X-ray fluorescence determination of impurities in pure materials: determination of Ca, Y, Gd and Th in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration standards obtained by dry mixing of the components in appropriate proportions may be compositionally accurate but they can be a major source of error in the x-ray fluorescence analytical results owing to the mismatch in the degree of their homogeneity with that of the sample. An in-depth study has been made on the above aspect taking U3O8 as a matrix and Ca, Y, Gd and Th in the low concentration range (0-1500 ppm) as representative impurities. This study clearly illustrates the incompatibility of the truly homogeneous standards with the standards obtained by dry mixing and grinding. This incompatibility is dependent on the analytical line wavelength, being large for soft x-ray lines and small for harder x-rays. The effect of binding material which is often required for briquetting the sample into a pellet form and is necessarily to be mixed with the sample by dry mixing is discussed. (author)

  7. Investigation of the automatic and continuous determination of the moisture content of fine coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the ground of the Niederaussen briquetting plant, the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G. is operating a hearth-type furnace, built according to the Salem-Lurgi principle, which will produce around 110 000 t a year of fine coke from dried lignite. The task was to measure continuously the moisture content of the fine coal just after cooling of the coal and prior to loading. For that purpose the applicability of the neutron back-scatter process for the automatic measurement and control of the final moisture content of the coal was investigated. The measurement showed that because of the low moisture content of the coal, as well as its fluctuating hydrogen content, the tolerances were exceeded. Thus, it was recognised that the process is not useful for this purpose. (orig.)

  8. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted pelleting of wheat straw: a predictive model for energy consumption using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Meng; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass can be used as a feedstock for biofuel manufacturing. Pelleting of cellulosic biomass can increase its bulk density and thus improve its storability and reduce the feedstock transportation costs. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) pelleting can produce biomass pellets whose density is comparable to that processed by traditional pelleting methods (e.g. extruding, briquetting, and rolling). This study applied response surface methodology to the development of a predictive model for the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting of wheat straw. Effects of pelleting pressure, ultrasonic power, sieve size, and pellet weight were investigated. This study also optimized the process parameters to minimize the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to minimize the energy consumption were the following: ultrasonic power at 20%, sieve size at 4 mm, and pellet weight at 1g, and the minimum energy consumption was 2.54 Wh. PMID:23859359

  9. BRIQUETTES – A COST EFFECTIVE, SUSTAINABLE, ECOFRIENDLY, ENERGY SOURCE FOR RURAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Giri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Briquetting of biomass can address the problem of energy crisis. The main objective of this study was to compare the heat value of the different types of biomass briquettes prepared differently. Many agricultural residues like cotton stalk, Leguminous plants (dried, coconut shell and fiber, teak leaves, guava leaves, chrysanthemum stalks, gum waste, dried and hardened guava, lady’s finger, Bamboo leaves, ordinary grass and cow dung etc. were densified using binder materials like clay, cow dung, waste wheat flour and Tamarind seed paste. Briquettes were prepared manually and were sun dried. Briquettes were prepared by two methods, one by pre-charring the raw material and mixing with a binder material, while in second method, raw biomass were directly mixed with binder material.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  11. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  12. Production of Indigenous and Enriched Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Coal Briquettes: Combustion and Disintegration Strength Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan has considerable amounts of low ranked coal. However, due to the absence of any centrally administered power generation system there is a need to explore indigenous methods for effectively using this valuable energy resource. In the present study an indigenous coal briquetting technology has been developed and evaluated in terms of combustion characteristics such as moisture content, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and calorific value of the resulting coal briquette and disintegration strength using polyvinyl acetate (PVA) in combination with calcium carbonate (sample no 3 with highest disintegration strength value of 2059N). Comparison of test samples with the commercially available coal briquettes revealed improved combustion characteristics for the PVA bonded (sample no 1 and 5) coal briquettes having higher fixed carbon content and calorific value, lower ash contents as well as lower initial ignition time. (author)

  13. Production of Indigenous and Enriched Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Coal Briquettes: Combustion and Disintegration Strength Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia Habib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan has considerable amounts of low ranked coal. However, due to the absence of any centrally administered power generation system there is a need to explore indigenous methods for effectively using this valuable energy resource. In the present study an indigenous coal briquetting technology has been developed and evaluated in terms of combustion characteristics such as moisture content, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and calorific value of the resulting coal briquette and disintegration strength using polyvinyl acetate (PVA in combination with calcium carbonate (sample no 3 with highest disintegration strength value of 2059N. Comparison of test samples with the commercially available coal briquettes revealed improved combustion characteristics for the PVA bonded (sample no 1 and 5 coal briquettes having higher fixed carbon content and calorific value, lower ash contents as well as lower initial ignition time.

  14. Energy crises and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy consumption is one of the parameters for measuring the prosperity of a country. Energy situation of Pakistan has been critical for the last few years as the reserves of natural resources of energy are depleting at a very fast rate, resulting in the current energy crises and load shedding, badly affecting industrial and agricultural growth. Based on the observations and experience, energy resources of the country have been discussed, emphasising on the utilisation of indigenous resources, particularly, coal and hydel resources for minimising dependence on imported energy. Research and development work, carried out in the country on various fuels, has been discussed. Among them coal briquetting, coal carbonization (coking) of Sharigh coal, extraction of chemicals and desulphurisation of Pakistani lignites have been discussed. Studies on alternate/renewable and non-conventional sources of energy have also been presented with special reference to bio-gas, solar and wind energies, etc. (author)

  15. Analysis of non-conducting powders by glow-discharge atomic emission spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method for control of the impurity levels of non-conducting powders during their preparation (particularly milling processes) is proposed. Impurity concentrations between some hundredths and a few percent as well as admixtures concentrations higher than 10% are determined. The glow discharge emission spectrography is applied after briquetting the samples with an excess of copper powder using a Grimm-type glow discharge lamp and a grating plan spectrograph with photographic detection. Difficulties arise from the band spectra due to non-metallic elements in the sample and from insufficient grain sizes, mixture homogeneity and compactness of the briquettes. The efficiency and detection limits in determination of SiO2 and ZrO2 in Al2O3 and of SiO2 in Bi2Ru2O7 are described. (author)

  16. A neurological bias in the history of hysteria: from the womb to the nervous system and Charcot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hysteria conceptions, from ancient Egypt until the 19th century Parisian hospital based studies, are presented from gynaecological and demonological theories to neurological ones. The hysteria protean behavioral disorders based on nervous origin was proposed at the beginning, mainly in Great Britain, by the “enlightenment nerve doctors”. The following personages are highlighted: Galen, William, Sydenham, Cullen, Briquet, and Charcot with his School. Charcot who had hysteria and hypnotism probably as his most important long term work, developed his conceptions, initially, based on the same methodology he applied to studies of other neurological disorder. Some of his associates followed him in his hysteria theories, mainly Paul Richer and Gilles de La Tourette who produced, with the master's support, expressive books on Salpêtrière School view on hysteria.

  17. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  18. SMS Demag technology for zero-waste steel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, P.; Degel, R.

    2004-06-01

    Increased landfill costs for steel mill waste residues, stricter environmental regulations and decreasing public acceptance of waste dumping is driving the iron and steel industry to apply environmentally balanced solutions on site. The rotary hearth furnace based technologies fulfill the requirements of zero-waste steelmaking. Basically they allow the treatment of all accumulated steel mill waste under the avoidance of negative side effects on the steel quality and plant productivity with minimized overall steel plant emissions. This paper reflects possible waste recycling principles: Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF), RedSmelt and cold briquetting technology. In addition SMS Demag is currently commissioning a pilot facility applying a combination of a rotary hearth furnace with a coal-oxygen based smelter (RedSmelt NST) at Lucchini in Piombino/Italy. If results meet the expectations, this process too could become an attractive solution for steel mill waste recycling.

  19. A status report on the FASTMET{reg_sign} process from the Kakogawa demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.E. [Midrex Direct Reduction Corp., Charlotte, NC (United States); Harada, Takao [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Construction of the Kakogawa FASTMET{reg_sign} demonstration plant (KDP) was completed in August, 1995, and the first dried greenball pellets were fed to the rotary hearth furnace (RHF) in December of that year. Round the clock operation commenced in April, 1996. Testing of raw materials suitable for the first commercial plant application (hematite iron ore concentrate and medium volatile pulverized coal) began in July, 1996. Integration of batch hot briquetting of FASTMET{reg_sign} with RHF operation has been successfully demonstrated and is routinely used. Wet greenball size to the dryer remains 9--20mm and RHF production rates have ranged 1.5--2.0 tonnes-DRI/hour. DRI product chemistry (+6mm size fraction) routinely exceeds 85% metallization with approximately 3--4% carbon, and is easily obtained at furnace temperatures of 1,300--1,400 C.

  20. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  1. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 μm). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, ZnO e SiO2. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  2. GDR surface mining technology - a programme for complicated geological and climatic conditions of surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, W.; Klose, W.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes surface mining as an expanding technology with a work productivity 2.5 to 6.0 times higher than in underground mining. Increasing amounts of overburden can be removed, from 100,000 m3 to 300,000 m3 per day, by large excavation complexes. TAKRAF had exported 300 surface mining machines to various countries as of 1979. Surface mining technology is continually being improved with developments in equipment, such as better service life, unit construction and interchangeability of parts, higher capacity, automation, climatic resistance to 60 C, etc. The TAKRAF equipment series are introduced including information on their range of capacity. TAKRAF bucket wheel and bucket chain excavators, conveyor belt systems, overburden conveyor bridges and swing chutes are described. Equipment for briquetting plants, brown coal enrichment and power plants is also produced by TAKRAF.

  3. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse; Caracterizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica visando o seu reaproveitamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, F.F.; Oliveira, E.B.G.; Oliveira, J.R. de, E-mail: fgrillo@ifes.edu.b [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Telles, V.B.; Tenorio, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 {mu}m). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO e SiO{sub 2}. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  4. Determination of thorium by fluorescent x-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I.; Axelrod, J.M.

    1955-01-01

    A fluorescent x-ray spectrographic method for the determination of thoria in rock samples uses thallium as an internal standard. Measurements are made with a two-channel spectrometer equipped with quartz (d = 1.817 A.) analyzing crystals. Particle-size effects are minimized by grinding the sample components with a mixture of silicon carbide and aluminum and then briquetting. Analyses of 17 samples showed that for the 16 samples containing over 0.7% thoria the average error, based on chemical results, is 4.7% and the maximum error, 9.5%. Because of limitations of instrumentation, 0.2% thoria is considered the lower limit of detection. An analysis can be made in about an hour.

  5. Шляхи підвищення енергоємності біопалива на основі торфу і біомаси

    OpenAIRE

    Корінчук, Д. М.

    2013-01-01

    Дослідження присвячене визначенню впливу брикетування, гранулювання та термічної обробки біомаси на якісні показники біопалива. Запропоновані нові методи переробки біомаси з використанням в’яжучого та термічною обробкою за температур 275–295 °С. The study is devoted to the influence of effects of biomass briquetting, granulation, and heat treatment to improve the quality of biofuels. Another method of biomass treatment, such as briquetting and granulation with bonding and thermal treatmen...

  6. STUDY ON SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND COMBUSTION CHARECTERISTICS OF BINDERLESS BRIQUETTE FROM AN INDONESIAN LOW RANK COAL%印尼褐煤无黏结剂型煤自燃与燃烧特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先春; 余江龙; Arash Tahmasebi; 孟繁锐; 韩艳娜

    2012-01-01

    An Indonesian low rank coal was compressed into high strength binderless briquettes in a double roller briquetting machine. The BET surface, pore volume and surface functional group of raw coal and briquette coal were analyzed and compared. The briquette's relative ignition temperature and adiabatic oxidation heating rate were measured. The pyrolysis and combustion characteristics have been studied. The results showed that the collapse of pores in coal, leading to coal shrinkage, took place while hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups decomposed during drying and high pressure binderless briquetting. The upgraded coal had lower spontaneous combustion propensity, and its reactivity during pyrolysis and combustion decreased.%在内辊式高压型煤机上将一种印度尼西亚褐煤压制成高强度的无黏结剂型煤,对其比表面积、孔容积和表面官能团进行分析,测定了型煤的相对着火温度和绝热氧化升温速率,研究了其热解和燃烧行为特性.结果表明,印尼褐煤在干燥和高压成型过程中,发生了孔的收缩和崩塌,特别是微孔收缩程度要更大一些;干燥和成型过程中有羟基、羰基和羧基含氧官能团的分解;经过提质处理后,褐煤的自燃着火倾向降低,热解和燃烧反应性降低.

  7. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  8. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  9. 真空铝热还原法制备金属锶工艺研究%Study on Preparation Technology of Strontium by Vacuum Aluminothermy Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹兴武; 王树轩; 杨占寿; 王舒娅; 祁米香

    2012-01-01

    采用真空铝热还原法制备了金属锶,金属锶纯度可达98%~99%.通过XRD和XRFF分析渣相,其主要成分为SrO·Al2O3.研究了还原温度、保温时间、制团压力、铝粉过量系数、CaF2加入量对锶还原率的影响,获得最佳工艺参数,即真空度0~100 Pa,铝粉过量20%,制团压力20 MPa,还原温度1200~1250℃,保温3h,CaF2加入量3%.在最佳工艺条件下锶还原率可达80%左右.%Prepared metal strontium by vacuum alnminothermy reduction, the purity of the metal strontium can be 98 -99%. Through a nalysis residue phase by XRD and XRF, the main components of residue phase are SrO Al2O3. Studied the impact of reduction temperature, holding time, briquetting pressure, aluminum excess coefficient, reaction calcium fluoride dosage and strontium reduction rate of SrO, we got the optimum process parameters, namely vacuum 0 ~ 100 Pa, the aluminum excess 20% , briquetting pressure 20 Mpa, the reduction temperature of 1 200 to 1 250℃ , insulation 3 hours,CaF2 amount of 3%. In optimum conditions, the strontium reduction rate of SrO can be up to 80%.

  10. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  11. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO2, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case with

  12. Aprovechamiento de partículas de ultrafinos de carbón de una planta lavadora en la producción de coque metalúrgico Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Velásquez José de Jesús

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el aprovechamiento en mezclas de ultrafinos provenientes de una planta de lavado de carbón para la producción de coque por el proceso de briquetación, utilizando 6% en peso de alquitrán de carbón como aglomerante. Se caracterizaron las materias primas y se realizó una prueba piloto de coquización en un horno tipo Koppers. Se determinó la calidad del coque por pruebas de análisis próximo, estabilidad (Micum 10, M10 y Micum 40, M40, índice de reactividad del coque al CO2 (CRI y de resistencia después de la reacción con dióxido de carbono (CSR. Los resultados mostraron que la briquetación permite obtener un coque con un CRI de 19,0% y un CSR de 75,6%, características requeridas en los procesos metalúrgicos.

    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40, coke reactivity index (CRI with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index. Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain coke having 19.0 % CRI and 75.6% CSR, these being the characteristics required in metallurgical processes.

  13. Análise dos resíduos madeireiros gerados nas marcenarias do município de Viçosa - Minas Gerais An analysis of the wood residues generated by carpentry shops in Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaíra Morais dos Santos Hurtado de Mendoza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os resíduos gerados nas marcenarias do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e propor ações potencializadoras para o seu melhor aproveitamento. Foram coletados dados sobre os resíduos de madeira gerados em 17 marcenarias da cidade, por intermédio da aplicação de questionários. Os resultados mostraram que a serragem, os sarrafos, as maravalhas e os cavacos foram os principais tipos de resíduos produzidos, sendo a serragem o resíduo mais abundante. As máquinas que mais geraram resíduos foram a desengrossadeira e a desempenadeira. A maioria das marcenarias doava ou vendia os resíduos produzidos. Constatou-se que não havia preocupação por parte dos proprietários das marcenarias quanto à agregação de valor ao resíduo gerado e quais os danos ambientais que estes poderiam ocasionar. A partir dos resultados, propuseram-se as seguintes medidas de melhor aproveitamento dos resíduos gerados: geração de energia através da queima direta de resíduos oriundos da madeira sólida, fabricação de briquetes, fertilizantes e de "pequenos objetos de madeira" (POM.The objectives of this work were to analyze the residues produced by carpentry shops in Viçosa and to propose actions that would lead to their better use. For this, data were gathered from questionnaires sent to 17 shops in town. The results showed that sawdust, wood strips, planner shavings and chips are the more common type of residues, sawdust being the most abundant. The machines that produced most of the waste were the planners and the jointers. Most of the shops either donate or sell their waste. It was found that the owners showed no regard to increasing the value of the residue or to environmental damage they may cause. Based on the information collected, the following measures are indicated for waste utilization: generation of energy through direct burning of solid wood residues, production of briquet and fertilizers and production

  14. History of physical and 'moral' treatment of hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussolle, Emmanuel; Gobert, Florent; Danaila, Teodor; Thobois, Stéphane; Walusinski, Olivier; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This historical review presents the advances made mostly during the last 200 years on the description, concepts, theories, and (more specifically) cure of patients suffering from hysteria, a still obscure entity. The denomination of the syndrome has changed over time, from hysteria (reinvestigated by Paul Briquet and Jean-Martin Charcot) to pithiatism (Joseph Babinski), then to conversion neurosis (Sigmund Freud), and today functional neurological disorders according to the 2013 American Neurological Association DSM-5 classification. The treatment was renewed in the second half of the 19th century in Paris by Paul Briquet and then by Jean-Martin Charcot. Hysterical women, who represented the great majority of cases, were cured by physical therapy (notably physio-, hydro-, and electrotherapy, and in some cases ovary compression) and 'moral' therapies (general, causal therapy, rest, isolation, hypnosis, and suggestion). At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, and persuasion were established respectively by Pierre Janet, Sigmund Freud, and Joseph Babinski. During World War I, military forces faced a large number of posttrauma neurosis cases among soldiers (named the 'Babinski-Froment war neurosis' and Myers 'shell shock', in the French and English literature, respectively). This led to the use of more brutal therapies in military hospitals, combining electrical shock and persuasion, particularly in France with Clovis Vincent and Gustave Roussy, but also in Great Britain and Germany. After World War I, this method was abandoned and there was a marked decrease in interest in hysteria for a long period of time. Today, the current treatment comprises (if possible intensive) physiotherapy, together with psychotherapy, and in some cases psychoanalysis. Antidepressants and anxiolytics may be required, and more recently cognitive and behavioral therapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a new technique under investigation which

  15. Generation of Solid Recovered Fuel from Sewage Sludge Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kliopova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research which was carried out in KTU APINI when implementing one stage of the PF7 program project “Polygeneration of energy, fuels, and fertilizers from biomass residues and sewage sludge (ENERCOM” (No TREN/FP7/EN/218916. The research objective was to assess possibilities of producing solid recovered fuel (SRF from compost produced from pre-treated sewage sludge and biomass residuals in “Soil-Concept” plant (Luxemburg. Feasibility of producing pellets and briquettes using the composites of compost, sawdust, and peat was analyzed. Technical and environmental evaluations of SRF production were carried out on the basis of pelleting and briquetting tests. Main chemical and physical parameters of produced SRF were analyzed and compared to the recovered fuel classificatory (CEN/TC 343. All pellets and briquettes, produced during the experiment, were attributed to a certain class of recovered fuel. Results of technical and environmental evaluations of SRF production and their burning as well as conclusions and recommendations made are presented.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2742

  16. Advances in solar silicon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of carbothermic reduction experiments carried out at a preindustrial scale with a 240 KVA submerged are furnace fed with pellets of carbon black and silica sand are reported and discussed. It was demonstrated that all powder agglomeration techniques used to fabricate the pellets (pellettizing, briquetting, extrusion) give rise to small or negligible contamination of the charge. The results of experiments support the view that furnace handling is a powerful source of impurity contamination. Contamination from furnace lining could be however controlled and rendered negligible by an improved furnace design and proper choice of refractory materials. Graphite or graphite coated tools could eventually improve also the furnace tapping and handling operations. The solution of these problems, which is in substantial progress in this case, presents however additional problems in the case of larger size furnace and presumibly will limit the size of furnaces for PMS production to 500-1000 KVA. As the authors demonstrated that the boron and phosphorous is not influenced by furnace operation, one can conclude that the use of the granulated lump quartz of higher purity quartz sands could reconduct our PMS within the specifications of a solar grade material

  17. Energetic and ecological aspects of the modernisation of prefabricated large-panel buildings; Ergebnisse der Sanierung von industriell errichteten Gebaeuden der Blockbauart unter energetischen und oekologischen Aspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H. [Gebaeudewirtschaft Merseburg GmbH (Germany); Schramek, E.R.; Kaiser, M. [Gertec GmbH, Essen (Germany); Goerres, M. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1997-12-31

    In the new federal states, some four million residential units are still heated with individual stoves fired with briquetted brown coal. These stoves will be replaced by modern heating systems using natural gas or fuel oil or by district heat. Action taken within the framework of this research project is to permit making informative statements as to the amount of energy to be saved by modernization measures and the potential for cutting down carbon dioxide emissions. The data provided concern space heat energy consumption, end-use energy consumption, and primary energy consumption. Regarding the pollutant budget, information on climate-relevant and other pollutants is given. (MSK) [Deutsch] In den neuen Bundeslaendern werden noch ca. 4 Millionen Wohnungen mit Braunkolebriketteinzeloefen beheizt. Diese werden durch moderne mit Erdgas und Heizoel betriebene Heizungssysteme oder Fernwaerme ersetzt werden. Die in diesem Forschungsprojekt durchgefuehrten Massnahmen sollen aussagekraeftige Daten ueber die erreichbare Energieeinsparung durch Sanierungsmassnahmen und das Minderungspotential der Kohlendioxid-Emissionen liefern. Es sind Daten zum Heizwaermeverbrauch, zum Endenergieverbrauch, sowie zum Primaerenergieverbrauch enthalten. Fuer die Schadstoffbilanz werden Angaben zu klimarelevanten und zu sonstigen Schadstoffen gemacht. (MSK)

  18. Restructuring economic mechanisms and the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadan, K.

    1987-10-01

    Discusses the effect on the coal industry of the Czechoslovak version of 'perestroika'. After giving a summary of main thrusts of this restructuring (democratic centralism, state planning, unified efficiency criteria, objective assessments, etc.), describes their application to the coal industry in the face of need for increased investment, as illustrated by coal production and cost figures for 1990 and 1995. Describes in general terms main factors to be taken into account when formulating Five Year Plans with particular reference to wage costs, regulation of labor, capital investment, foreign trade and self-financing. This will entail making coal prices more realistic and based more on real production costs so that prices of energy coal, brown coal and briquets will be 11% higher in 1989 (as against 1985), coking coal will be 31% more expensive and coke 34% more expensive. Discusses financial policies underlying these changes, including system of making withdrawals from and contributions to state budget and accounting systems for self-financing organizations. Concludes by emphasizing that individual economic units, including coal industry, will be more autonomous and have more responsibility for internal organization and control, although specific plans for coal industry are not yet complete. 8 refs.

  19. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-09-01

    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  20. Magnesium production from Asian Abe-Gram dolomite in pidgeon-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ore mineral characterization and various experimental test work were carried out on Asian Abe-Garm dolomite, Qazvin province, Iran. The test work consisted of calcining, chemical characterization, LOI determination, and reduction tests on the calcined dolomite (doloma), using Semnan ferrosilicon. Calcining of dolomite sample was carried out at about 1400degreeC in order to remove the contained CO2, moisture, and other easily volatilised impurities. The doloma was milled, thoroughly mixed with 21percentSemnan ferrosilicon and briquetted in hand press applying 30 MPa pressure. The briquettes were heated at 1125-1150degreeC and 500 Pa in a Pidgeon-type tube reactor for 10-12 hours to extract the magnesium. Ferrosilicon addition, relative to doloma, was determined based on the chemical analysis of the two reactants using Mintek's Pyrosim software package. Magnesium extraction calculated as 77.97percentand Mg purity of 96.35percent. The level of major impurities in the produced magnesium crown is similar to those in the crude metal production.

  1. Technical benefit and risk analysis on cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article demonstrates the potential technical benefit and risk for cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon, a laboratory-phase developing technique, from 9 aspects, including the heat consumption of clinkering and exhaust heat utilization, clinker quality, adaptability to alternative fuels, the disposal ability of industrial offal and civil garbage, adaptability to the raw materials and fuels with high content of chlorine, sulphur and alkali, the feasibility of process scale up, the briquetting process of the coal-containing cement raw meal pellet, NOx emission and the capital cost and benefit of conversion project. It is concluded that it will be able to replace the modern precalciner rotary kiln process and to become the main stream technique of cement clinkering process in low carbon economy times. - Highlights: • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to run stably. • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to scale up. • New process triples energy efficiency with excellent environmental performance. • It will be able to compete with and replace the existing precalciner kiln process. • It will become the mainstream clinkering process in low carbon economy

  2. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN TEKNIS DAN FINANSIAL DARI INVESTASI PENGADAAN TRAY DRYER BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOMASSA PADA USAHA ARANG TEMPURUNG KELAPA BERBASIS EKSPOR (Studi Kasus di Tropica Nucifera Industry – Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Widadie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the technical and financial feasibility of procurement investment Tray Dryer fueled biomass to operations of coconut shell charcoal briquette in PT. Tropica Nucifera Industry. The result showed that investment-Tray Dryer on cocnut shell charcoal briquette bussiness was highly feasibile both the technical and financial aspects. The technical aspect was seen that the quantity-production capabilities of coconut shell charcoal briquettes using a dryer-Tray Dryer could be increased 15 percent compared the previous consdition-used of solar energy. While the quality of the charcoal briquettes produced from Tray Dryer was a much butter quality, moisture content (6.39%; ash (2.65%; carbon-bound (85.83%, compared to using sunlight, water content (15.89; ash (2.57% and carbon-bound (77.32%.The financial aspects of procurement Tray Dryer investment that its value was more feasible than previous, nothing Tray Dryer. Coconut shell charcoal briquet enterprises without using Tray Dryer was feasible to be done with NPV 1,058,928.12, IRR 63%, Payback Period 1 year and 9 moths, Net B/C 2.25 and analysis of swicthcing value reached 20 percent. And after the business using Tray Drayer, the financial analysis was much more feasible with NPV 2,285,500,498.12, IRR 113%, Payback Period 11 months, Net B/C 3.5 and analysis of switching value reached 50 percent.

  3. Optimization and test of roller radius of ring die straw forming machine%环模秸秆成型机压辊半径的优选与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春华; 宋超; 朱天龙; 王川

    2013-01-01

    Biomass briquette technology is one of the ways of biomass energy conversion. A straw briquetting machine is a main machine of straw biomass briquette. At present, the ring die straw briquetting machine efficiency is low, In order to solve the problems of low efficiency of the ring die straw forming machine when briquetting biomass, the paper makes an analysis for the rolled compaction process of the pressure roller. Research for increasing the working efficiency of a ring die straw forming machine shows that the ratio of forage again pressed into the distance and pressure roller drive torque ratio size is related to the working efficiency of a ring die straw forming machine. In the mechanical analysis of rolled compacting biomass by the pressure roller, the paper establishes its mechanical model and mathematical model., The paper first establishes a mathematic mold of working efficiency of ring die straw forming machine and the ratio of the pressure roller, setting the ratio of circular mold at 275 mm, arranges different values of the pressure roller evenly(10mm~250mm,step value:5mm) and different friction coefficients between biomass and the pressure roller, and then calculates and maps curves of the efficiency of a ring die straw forming machine and the ratio of the pressure roller and circular’s mold radius. The experiment takes corn stalk as the object of study. Effects of moisture content of biomass at home and abroad as well as the biomass particle size on machine efficiency and biomass quality have been studied a lot. Considering the grass block (dry and wet) each index power density, the maximum extrusion force, press consumption, productivity, to determine the water content is about 29%, the maximum extrusion force is small, low power consumption, suitable density, high productivity. The maximum extrusion force of die hole is f=11590N-1.and the best moisture is 29%. due to the different coefficient of the sliding friction of different particle size of

  4. Physical Characteristics of Maize Cob Briquette under Moderate Die Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential energy content of maize cob available in Thailand was calculated based on maize productivity, the residue-to-product ratio and the heating value of maize cob. It was found that the computed value was about 74.2 PJ/year. Besides, the potential energy value exceed 1,000 TJ/year was also reported for the case of five provinces of Thailand. Concerning with maize cob briquette, the effect of molasses binder ratio and briquetting pressure on briquette density was experimentally investigated. It was found that the density of the briquettes was strongly influenced by the two factors. Moreover, a relationship between these factors over the studied range was also developed and validated. Thermogravimetric investigation was also carried out. The results showed that the maximum mass loss of maize cob occurred at the temperature of about 353oC. Finally, according to the ultimate analysis of the material, it was found that the maize cob used in the experiment is comprised of 40.50% carbon, 5.68% hydrogen and 0.37% hydrogen, respectively.

  5. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  6. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  7. A method of determining phase-transition temperatures using solar heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase-transition temperatures in oxide systems were determined on the basis of the process of solidification of specimens which were partially melted on the surface in the focus of a solar furnace. In the ZrO2-Y2O3 binary systems, the specimens with intermediate composition were prepared by combined precipitation of zirconium and yttrium hydroxides from nitric acid solutions followed by drying, roasting at 800 C, briquetting, and melting in the solar furnace. The described method of determination of the phase-transition temperatures in the oxide systems on the basis of the surface of the specimens partially melted in the focus of the solar furnace has a number of advantages in comparison with the method of evaluating the temperatures from the radiation of the rotating cavity: it is not necessary to form the cavity with the emissivity properties similar to those of the absolute blackbody; and the oxide melt formed in the course of melting is distributed mainly on the surface of the specimen so that after interrupting the radiation flux the melt solidifies in its entire volume

  8. Rural and Renewable Energy Project: Renewable and Alternative Energy Devices and Viable Alternatives to Fuelwood and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for conservation of the nation's trees and other forestry resources so as to make the Government's reafforestation, soil erosion and desertification control programs successful, is a matter that requires serious attention. This is because the bulk of the people of this country, who are in the rural areas, depend massively on fuelwood as their source of energy for cooking. For a large percentage of the urban dwellers, the situation is not much different since the recent increases in the prices of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas has forced many to opt for fuelwood for cooking. Viable renewable and alternative energy systems like solar cookers, biogas plants, improved wood burning stoves, briquetted biomass and smokeless coal briquettes and stoves are essential for the provision of alternative cooking fuels and methodologies. Furthermore, the inefficient open-to-sun drying method is prevalent, while the rural areas are particularly starved of petroleum products and grid electricity. Modern solar dryers, solar-PV, wind and hydropower can be used to meet some of the energy needs of the rural population. This paper discusses these renewable and alternative devices and how they can be integrated into the Nigerian rural energy system. (author)

  9. Natural binders and solid bridge type binding mechanisms in briquettes and pellets made from corn stover and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R Vance

    2010-02-01

    Corn stover and switchgrass are two important feedstocks considered for producing renewable fuels and energy in the US. Densification of these biomass feedstocks into briquettes/pellets would help reduce the problems and costs of bulk transportation, handling, and storage of biomass feedstocks. In this study, the role of the natural binders in corn stover and switchgrass to make durable particle-particle bonding in briquettes/pellets was investigated by micro-structural analyses. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of briquettes made by using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus in the laboratory, briquettes made by using a pilot-scale roll-press briquetting machine, and pellets made by using a pilot-scale conventional ring-die pelleting machine were analysed. The SEM images showed that the bonding between particles was created mainly through solid bridges. The solid bridges between particles were made by natural binders in the biomass expressed during the densification process. UV auto-fluorescence images of briquettes and pellets further confirmed that the solid bridges were made mainly by natural binders such as lignin and protein. It was found that activating (softening) the natural binders using moisture and temperature in the range of glass transition is important to make durable particle-particle bonding. PMID:19796933

  10. γ ray on-line ash monitor for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For instrumented and automated coal dressing and briquetting processes to be operated under the optimum conditions, it is necessary to continuously measure the content of inconbustibles in coal (ash content) and to feed back the data to each process control system. To this end, the authors developed an on-line coal ash monitor of a two-radiation-source transmission type using the radioactive isotopes of 241Am and 137Cs. The structure and functions of the automatic ash content analyzing system is outlined in this report. The ash content A can be calculated from the measurement P, the ratio of the mass absorption coefficients of coal for 241Am and 137Cs, regardless of the thickness of the coal layer on the basis of the linear relationship between A and M. The ash content monitoring system consists of three sections, i.e., for source-detector, measurement and data processing. The signals from the detectors are sent to the counting unit in the measurement section after being amplified. The counting data are then fed to the processing unit, where the ash content is calculated. The counting data and the calculated ash content are shown in the display unit of the computer and the indicator of the measuring apparatus, outputted by the printer and indicated in analog meters. (Nogami, K.)

  11. [Rapid determination of componential contents and calorific value of selected agricultural biomass feedstocks using spectroscopic technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kui-Chuan; Shen, Ying-Ying; Yang, Hai-Qing; Wang, Wen-Jin; Luo, Wei-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Rapid determination of biomass feedstock properties is of value for the production of biomass densification briquetting fuel with high quality. In the present study, visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy was employed to build prediction models of componential contents, i. e. moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed-carbon, and calorific value of three selected species of agricultural biomass feedstock, i. e. pine wood, cedar wood, and cotton stalk. The partial least squares (PLS) cross validation results showed that compared with original reflection spectra, PLS regression models developed for first derivative spectra produced higher prediction accuracy with coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.97, 0.94 and 0.90, and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 6.57, 4.00 and 3.01 for ash, volatile matter and moisture, respectively. Good prediction accuracy was achieved with R2 of 0.85 and RPD of 2.55 for fixed carbon, and R2 of 0.87 and RPD of 2.73 for calorific value. It is concluded that the Vis-NIR spectroscopy is promising as an alternative of traditional proximate analysis for rapid determination of componential contents and calorific value of agricultural biomass feedstock PMID:23285891

  12. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  13. Upgrading and dephosphorization of Western Australian iron ore using reduction roasting by adding sodium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, De-qing; Chun, Tie-jun; Pan, Jian; Lu, Li-ming; He, Zhen

    2013-06-01

    The technology of direct reduction by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and magnetic separation was developed to treat Western Australian high phosphorus iron ore. The iron ore and reduced product were investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that phosphorus exists within limonite in the form of solid solution, which cannot be removed through traditional ways. During reduction roasting, Na2CO3 reacts with gangue minerals (SiO2 and Al2O3), forming aluminum silicate-containing phosphorus and damaging the ore structure, which promotes the separation between iron and phosphorus during magnetic separation. Meanwhile, Na2CO3 also improves the growth of iron grains, increasing the iron grade and iron recovery. The iron concentrate, assaying 94.12wt% Fe and 0.07wt% P at the iron recovery of 96.83% and the dephosphorization rate of 74.08%, is obtained under the optimum conditions. The final product (metal iron powder) after briquetting can be used as the burden for steelmaking by an electric arc furnace to replace scrap steel.

  14. Quantification of emission reduction potentials of primary air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion by adopting cleaner fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng

    2015-11-01

    Residential low efficient fuel burning is a major source of many air pollutants produced during incomplete combustions, and household air pollution has been identified as one of the top environmental risk factors. Here we compiled literature-reported emission factors of pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSPs), PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different household energy sources, and quantified the potential for emission reduction by clean fuel adoption. The burning of crop straws, firewood and coal chunks in residential stoves had high emissions per unit fuel mass but lower thermal efficiencies, resulting in high levels of pollution emissions per unit of useful energy, whereas pelletized biofuels and coal briquettes had lower pollutant emissions and higher thermal efficiencies. Briquetting coal may lead to 82%-88% CO, 74%-99% TSP, 73%-76% PM2.5, 64%-98% OC, 92%-99% EC and 80%-83% PAH reductions compared to raw chunk coal. Biomass pelletizing technology would achieve 88%-97% CO, 73%-87% TSP, 79%-88% PM2.5, 94%-96% OC, 91%-99% EC and 63%-96% PAH reduction compared to biomass burning. The adoption of gas fuels (i.e., liquid petroleum gas, natural gas) would achieve significant pollutant reduction, nearly 96% for targeted pollutants. The reduction is related not only to fuel change, but also to the usage of high efficiency stoves. PMID:26574082

  15. Characterization of the fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuste, Daniel; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    2008-05-01

    The argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry is a hazardous waste due to the presence of chromium. While its coarse fraction is usually recycled into the own industrial process, the fine fraction is normally disposed in landfills. Techniques such as briquetting or magnetic separation were found to be inadequate to treat it for reuse purposes. So, in this work, the fine fraction of the AOD-L sludge was characterized aiming to find alternative methods to treat it. This sludge consists of a fine powder (mean diameter of 1 microm) containing 34 +/- 2% (w/w) of iron, 10.2 +/- 0.9% (w/w) of chromium and 1.4 +/- 0.1% (w/w) of nickel. The main crystalline phases identified in this study were chromite (FeCr(2)O(4)), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and calcite (CaCO(3)). In the digestion tests, the addition of HClO(4) has favored the dissolution of chromite which is a very stable oxide in aqueous media. Nickel was found in very fine particles, probably in the metallic form or associated with iron and oxygen. The sludge was classified as hazardous waste, so its disposal in landfills should be avoided. PMID:17889435

  16. The analysis of anode sludges by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the analysis, by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of anode sludges for the determination of antimony, bismuth, copper, iron, lead, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, tin, and zinc. The preparation of the samples involves fusion with a flux of barium peroxide and lithium hydroxide, and with dichromium trioxide as the internal standard, in a zirconium or vitreous-carbon crucible and casting of the melt in an aluminium mould; the fused disc so formed is then pulverized and briquetted to form pellets. Calibration curves, which are straight lines for all the elemets determined because the flux contains a heavy absorber, are established by measurement of pellets prepared from standard anode sludges, pure metals, compounds of the metals, or any combination of these materials. The precision of the results varies between 2 and 15 per cent relative standard deviation, depending on the concentration of the element being determined. The accuracy of the results is comparable with that obtained by wet-chemical methods. The laboratory method is given in an appendix

  17. Bioenergy from permanent grassland--a review: 2. Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, A; Heiermann, M; Plöchl, M; Amon, T; Hobbs, P J

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge on suitability and sustainability of grassland biomass for combustion. In the first section grassland management for solid biofuel as well as information on harvest, postharvest and firing technology are described. An extensive grassland management system with one late cut and low level of fertilization is favored for grass as a solid biofuel. The grass harvest usually involves drying in the field and clearing with conventional farm machinery. Pelleting or briquetting improves the biofuel quality. Grass combustion is possible as stand-alone biomass-firing or co-firing with other fuels. Firing herbaceous biomass requires various specific adaptations of the different combustion technologies. In the second section economic and environmental aspects are discussed. Costs for biomass supply mainly depend on yields and harvesting technologies, while combustion costs are influenced by the size and technical design of the plant. Market prices for grass and possible subsidies for land use are crucial for profitability. Regarding biogeochemical cycles a specific feature of combustion is the fact that none of the biomass carbon and nitrogen removed at harvest is available for return to the grassland. These exports can be compensated for by fixation from the air given legumes in the vegetation and sufficient biomass production. Greenhouse gas emissions can be considerably reduced by grass combustion. Solid biofuel production has a potential for predominantly positive impacts on biodiversity due to the extensive grassland management. PMID:19546000

  18. Physiochemical characterization of briquettes made from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanithy, C; Wang, Y; Muthukumarappan, K; Pugalendhi, S

    2012-01-01

    Densification of biomass can address handling, transportation, and storage problems and also lend itself to an automated loading and unloading of transport vehicles and storage systems. The purpose of this study is to compare the physicochemical properties of briquettes made from different feedstocks. Feedstocks such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie cord grass, sawdust, pigeon pea grass, and cotton stalk were densified using a briquetting system. Physical characterization includes particle size distribution, geometrical mean diameter (GMD), densities (bulk and true), porosity, and glass transition temperature. The compositional analysis of control and briquettes was also performed. Statistical analyses confirmed the existence of significant differences in these physical properties and chemical composition of control and briquettes. Correlation analysis confirms the contribution of lignin to bulk density and durability. Among the feedstocks tested, cotton stalk had the highest bulk density of 964 kg/m(3) which is an elevenfold increase compared to control cotton stalk. Corn stover and pigeon pea grass had the highest (96.6%) and lowest (61%) durability. PMID:22792471

  19. Adsorbed Methane Film Properties in Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yuchoong; Chada, Nagaraju; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Carbon briquetting can increase methane storage capacity by reducing the useless void volume resulting in a better packing density. It is a robust and efficient space-filling form for an adsorbed natural gas vehicle storage tank. To optimize methane storage capacity, we studied three fabrication process parameters: carbon-to-binder ratio, compaction temperature, and pyrolysis temperature. We found that carbon-to-binder ratio and pyrolysis temperature both have large influences on monolith uptakes. We have been able to optimize these parameters for high methane storage. All monolith uptakes (up to 260 bar) were measured by a custom-built, volumetric, reservoir-type instrument. The saturated film density and the film thickness was determined using linear extrapolation on the high pressure excess adsorption isotherms. The saturated film density was also determined using the monolayer Ono-Kondo model. Film densities ranged from ca. 0.32 g/cm3 - 0.37 g/cm3.The Ono-Kondo model also determines the binding energy of methane. Binding energies were also determined from isosteric heats calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and compared with the Ono-Kondo model method. Binding energies from Ono-Kondo were ca. 7.8 kJ/mol - 10 kJ/mol. Work funded by California Energy Commission Contract #500-08-022.

  20. Macedonian lignite - upgrading and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedonian lignites have a high moisture content, low heating value, and are friable, generating fines and dust. Macedonia has an urgent need to use indigenous solid fuel resources for domestic and industrial heating as well as metallurgical applications. The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential for beneficiating Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for metallurgical use as well as domestic/industrial heating. Laboratory studies have shown that treating the Macedonian lignite fines by two physical processes-cleaning and carbonization-followed by pelletizing. can generate acceptable lump fuels for heating applications. Carbonizing the float-sink-cleaned lignite to reduce the volatile matter content and pelletizing the resultant char with starch produced strong pellets, which could be used as a home-heating fuel, the char having a heat content of 13,400 Btu/lb (31.2 MJ/Kg). However, additional work is required at the pilot scale to determine optimum briquetting conditions and production costs. (Author)

  1. Production of beneficiated derivatives from Greek lignite for electrical and non-electrical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greek Lignite deposits exploitation started back in 1958 targeting to the further industrialization of Greece. The first plans barely incorporated electrical energy production since the priorities at that time had to do with the direct use of the heat or carbon enclosed in lignite. Today the non electric uses of lignite correspond to a rather negligible 0,5 % of the total coal production. The arrival of natural gas in the near future is considered to be a major drawback towards further non electrical lignite uses and the competition will get tougher. Greek Lignite, poor in quality (that is rich in moisture and inorganic matter) has to be dried before it can be considered for any non-electric use. Briquetting, semi-coking and gasification were the options used during the last 40 years. In Greece today, the most promising use for such a low heat value lignite is its preparation (dried lignite powder or beneficiated coal slurry) so as to be used as a compatible and trouble free supportive fuel during the combustion of raw lignite in the power production sector. Little has been done up to now in the area of enrichment and removal of the inorganic matter. Research on non-electric uses has to be carried on so as to be ready for application when appropriate economic circumstances occur. (Author)

  2. Перспективні шляхи утилізації кеку

    OpenAIRE

    Лучка, О. М.; Одноріг, З.С.; Сухопляс, В. В.

    2013-01-01

    Запропоновано принципову схему брикетування кеку, що уможливить вирішити проблему накопичення його великої кількості на мулових майданчиках. Схема є простою і екологічно завершеною. The principal scheme of briquetting the cake that allows to solve the problem of accumulation the large number of cake on the sludge sites is proposed. The scheme is simple and environmentally completed....

  3. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB, in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its physical and chemical properties, mechanical strength and burning characteristics. It was found that briquettes made either from 100% pulverized EFB or mixed with sawdust exhibited good burning properties. EFB fibre and PKE, due to their physical properties, were recommended to be blended with sawdust in producing quality briquettes. In overall, converting palm biomass into briquettes has increased its energy content and reduced moisture content about minimum of 5% and 38% respectively compared to its raw materials. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared to the commercial sawdust briquettes properties and to the minimum requirements of DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future.

  4. Cardboard/sawdust briquettes as biomass fuel: Physical-mechanical and thermal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lela, B; Barišić, M; Nižetić, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper elaborates experimental analysis of cardboard/sawdust briquettes as a viable option for biomass fuel. Physical-mechanical and thermal characteristics of cardboard/sawdust briquettes were investigated. The influence of the main parameters on heating content was also examined through an ANOVA and regression analysis, i.e. pressure influence (that was applied in a punch-and-die process), cardboard/sawdust ratio influence and finally drying temperature influence. In order to find the maximum heating value, minimum ash content and maximum compressive strength optimization were done. The optimal values obtained for the studied briquetting process parameters are a compression force of 588.6 kN, a sawdust mass of 46.66% and a drying temperature of 22°C. According to the mathematical model obtained, these optimal values give a maximum higher heating value of 17.41 MJ/kg, a minimum ash content of 6.62% and a maximum compressive strength of 149.54 N/mm. Finally, Cardboard/sawdust briquettes showed potential for application as viable biomass fuel. PMID:26560808

  5. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

    2001-10-05

    Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

  6. Evaluation of solid fuel char briquettes from human waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barbara J; Yacob, Tesfayohanes W; Montoya, Lupita D

    2014-08-19

    The developing world faces dual crises of escalating energy demand and lack of urban sanitation infrastructure that pose significant burdens on the environment. This article presents results of a study evaluating the feasibility of using human feces-derived char as a solid fuel for heating and cooking and a potential way to address both crises. The study determined the energy content and the elemental composition of chars pyrolyzed at 300, 450, and 750 °C. Fecal chars made at 300 °C were found to be similar in energy content to wood chars and bituminous coal, having a heating value of 25.6 ± 0.08 MJ/kg, while fecal chars made at 750 °C had an energy content of 13.8 ± 0.48 MJ/kg. The higher heating values of the studied chars were evaluated using their elemental composition and a published predictive model; results found good agreement between the measured and predicted values. Fecal chars made at low temperatures were briquetted with molasses/lime and starch binders. Briquettes made with 10% starch had an average impact resistance index of 79 and a higher heating value of 25 MJ/kg. These values are comparable to those of commercial charcoal briquettes, making fecal char briquettes a potential substitute that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. PMID:25020243

  7. Direct multielement trace analyses of silicon carbide powders by spark ablation simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiera, Arne F.; Schmidt-Lehr, Sebastian; Song, Ming; Bings, Nicolas H.; Broekaert, José A. C.

    2008-02-01

    A procedure for the direct analysis of silicon carbide powders (SiC) by simultaneous detection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using a Spectro-CIROS™ spectrometer (CCD-ICP-OES) and a novel spark ablation system Spectro-SASSy (SA) as sample introduction technique is described. The sample preparation procedure for SA of non-conducting material is based on mixing the sample powders with a conducting matrix, in this case copper and briquetting pellets. Pressing time, pressure and mixing ratio are shown to be important parameters of the pelleting technique with respect to their mechanical stability for the reliability of the analysis results. A mixing ratio of 0.2 g +0.6 g for SiC and Cu, a pressure of 10 t cm - 2 and a pressing time of 8 min have been found optimum. It has also been shown that the spark parameters selected are crucial for uniform volatilization. Electron probe micrographs of the burning spots and the analytical signal magnitude showed that a rather hard spark at 100 Hz was optimum. The determination of trace elements in silicon carbide powders is demonstrated using a calibration based on the addition of standard solutions. For Al, Ti, V, Mn and Fe detection limits in the lower µg g - 1 range can be achieved. Internal standardization with Y in combination with the addition of standard solutions allows relative standard deviations in the range of 4 to 24% for concentration levels of the order of 3 to 350 µg g - 1 .

  8. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  9. Study on the strength of cold-bonded high-phosphorus oolitic hematite-coal composite briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; Sun, Ti-chang; Liu, Zhen-zhen; Kou, Jue; Xu, Cheng-yan

    2014-05-01

    Composite briquettes containing high-phosphorus oolitic hematite and coal were produced with a twin-roller briquette machine using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, molasses, starch, sodium silicate, and bentonite as binders. The effect of these binders on the strength of the composite briquettes, including cold strength and high-temperature strength, was investigated by drop testing and compression testing. It was found the addition of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 not only improved the reduction of iron oxides and promoted dephosphorization during the reduction-separation process but also provided strength to the composite briquettes during the briquetting process; a compressive strength of 152.8 N per briquette was obtained when no binders were used. On this basis, the addition of molasses, sodium silicate, starch, and bentonite improved the cold strength of the composite briquettes, and a maximum compressive strength of 404.6 N per briquette was obtained by using starch. When subjected to a thermal treatment at 1200°C, all of the composite briquettes suffered from a sharp decrease in compressive strength during the initial reduction process. This decrease in strength was related to an increase in porosity of the composite briquettes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that the decrease in strength of the composite briquettes could be caused by four factors: decomposition of bonding materials, gasification of coal, transportation of byproduct gases in the composite briquettes, and thermal stress.

  10. Multiple-use marketing of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Marketing of lignite faces difficulties due to moisture and sulfur contents, as well as the sodium content, of the ash. The purpose of this study is to determine the economic viability of multiple-use marketing of lignite as a method to increase the use of North Dakota lignite by recapturing lost niche markets. Multiple-use marketing means using lignite and sulfur-capturing additives to clean agricultural wastewater followed by either direct steam and power generation or briquetting to produce a higher-Btu compliance fuel. Cooperative ownership of the resulting business by a coal company and an agriculture processing company helps ensure that lignite remains the coal of choice, especially when the ``good`` attributes of lignites are maximized, while the agricultural company obtains cleaner wastewater and a long-term supply of coal at a set price. The economic viabilities of the following scenarios were investigated: (1) Agriprocessing wastewater treatment using lignite and an additive followed by (2) the production of compliance fuel for resale or on-site cogeneration of steam and electricity. Laboratory tests were performed utilizing potato-processing plant wastewater with lignite and lime sludge.

  11. Physiochemical Characterization of Briquettes Made from Different Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanithy, C.; Wang, Y.; Muthukumarappan, K.; Pugalendhi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Densification of biomass can address handling, transportation, and storage problems and also lend itself to an automated loading and unloading of transport vehicles and storage systems. The purpose of this study is to compare the physicochemical properties of briquettes made from different feedstocks. Feedstocks such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie cord grass, sawdust, pigeon pea grass, and cotton stalk were densified using a briquetting system. Physical characterization includes particle size distribution, geometrical mean diameter (GMD), densities (bulk and true), porosity, and glass transition temperature. The compositional analysis of control and briquettes was also performed. Statistical analyses confirmed the existence of significant differences in these physical properties and chemical composition of control and briquettes. Correlation analysis confirms the contribution of lignin to bulk density and durability. Among the feedstocks tested, cotton stalk had the highest bulk density of 964 kg/m3 which is an elevenfold increase compared to control cotton stalk. Corn stover and pigeon pea grass had the highest (96.6%) and lowest (61%) durability. PMID:22792471

  12. Impact on indoor air quality during burning of Pakistani coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of airborne emissions from combustion of new types of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional fuels. A mud-lined Angethi stove was operated under the standard nominal conditions of burning 200 g charges of fuel inside a 12 m3 shed with a forced rate of air exchange of 14/hr. Coal was cold briquetted with lime, clay, and oxidant. Traditional fuels were wood, charcoal, and animal dung. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) while dramatically reducing overall SO2 release. Initial burning was restricted to the outer layers of the briquettes during which time reaction of SO2 with lime was incomplete and early emissions of SO2 were substantial. The measurements overall indicated that, with respect to CO, SO2, NOx, and RSP, substitution of amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality during domestic cooking. The traditional fuels and coal briquettes emit elevated peak amounts of CO (100-250μL/L), SO2 (2-5 μL/L), and NOx (1-5 μL/L) in the early phase of volatiles burning with much reduced emissions in the later char-burning phase. Stove operators can substantially lower exposures by lighting the fuel outside and later moving the stove inside

  13. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  14. Study on the strength of cold-bonded high-phosphorus oolitic hematite-coal composite briquettes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Yu; Ti-chang Sun; Zhen-zhen Liu; Jue Kou; Cheng-yan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Composite briquettes containing high-phosphorus oolitic hematite and coal were produced with a twin-roller briquette machine using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, molasses, starch, sodium silicate, and bentonite as binders. The effect of these binders on the strength of the composite briquettes, including cold strength and high-temperature strength, was investigated by drop testing and compression testing. It was found the addition of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 not only improved the reduction of iron oxides and promoted dephosphorization during the reduction-separation process but also provided strength to the composite briquettes during the briquetting process;a compressive strength of 152.8 N per briquette was obtained when no binders were used. On this basis, the addition of molasses, sodium silicate, starch, and ben-tonite improved the cold strength of the composite briquettes, and a maximum compressive strength of 404.6 N per briquette was obtained by using starch. When subjected to a thermal treatment at 1200°C, all of the composite briquettes suffered from a sharp decrease in compressive strength during the initial reduction process. This decrease in strength was related to an increase in porosity of the composite briquettes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that the decrease in strength of the composite briquettes could be caused by four factors:decomposition of bonding materials, gasification of coal, transportation of byproduct gases in the composite briquettes, and thermal stress.

  15. The development of bioenergy technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Z.; Yin, X.L.; Yuan, Z.H.; Zhou, Z.Q.; Zhuang, X.S. [The Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate Key Laboratory of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Among renewable energy resources, bioenergy is one of the fastest growth energy alternatives with tremendous potential in China. The thermal, physical, and biological processes of conversion of biomass yield a number of products and can be obtained as gases, liquids, solid fuels, and electricity as well as a variety of chemicals. Various bioenergy technologies that have been developed are at the fundamental research, demonstration, and commercialization stages. This review concentrates on the processes that are attracting the most attention in China. This paper presents the important roles bioenergy plays in China. Firstly, the application status of bioenergy technologies are introduced, including biogas, fuel ethanol, biodiesel, and power generation at the commercialization stage. Then, the current research progresses are analyzed of ethanol derived from lignocellulose, sweet sorghum and cassava, biodiesel from jatropha, biomass briquetting, synthesized fuels and pyrolysis technologies at the fundamental research and demonstration stages. Finally, it is concluded that the key areas for developing bioenergy for the future are the exploitation of new biomass resources and R and D in biofuels from non-food biomass resources, as well as the development of commercialization methods suitable for developing countries. (author)

  16. Phenolic resin binder for the production of metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze: Part II the effect of the type of the basic catalyst used in the resol production on the tensile strength of the formed coke briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Ayse; Coban, Abdullah [University of Erciyes, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Talu, Muzaffer [University of Gazi, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    In order to develop a new and cost effective formed coke production process which does not require higher temperature carbonization stage, coke breeze was briquetted with resol binders and the change in the tensile strength of the briquettes with the amount and the type of the alkaline metal hydroxides, alkaline earth metal oxides, their carbonates and amine catalysts were studied. It was recognized that carbonates of alkaline or alkaline earth metals have a modifying effect on the properties of resol binders which results in briquettes of higher tensile strength than the resol produced with hydroxide or oxides of these metals. The average tensile strength of the briquettes was found to be much higher with the sodium carbonates catalyzed resol used as binder comparing with sodium hydroxide catalyzed resoles. The former was 45.40 MPa while the latter was 33.72 MPa. Although triethanolamine catalyzed resol, resulted in the briquettes of the highest tensile strength (53.43 MPa), among the catalyst studied in this work, due to flammability caused by triethanolamine, it was found unsuitable for this purpose. (author)

  17. Screen classification - part of an effective utilization of raw material and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigert, H.; Ecke, R.

    1981-04-01

    The economic advantage of oscillating screens in lime, salt and coal preparation is proven. This is due to the relatively low energy consumption of the screens compared to other classification methods. Annual energy costs of these screens amount to only 1% of hydrocyclone energy costs. A technological example of employing additional oscillating screens in raw salt preparation, instead of investing in an additional grinding unit is demonstrated; power consumption was 40 kW compared to 600 kW which would have been required by the additional grinding variant. Various suggestions for employing oscillating screens in the brown coal industry with an economic benefit are presented. They include separation of coal fines at wholesale storage facilities from coal which is sold to households. These fines could be recycled to the coal industry. Improvement in the efficiency of coal crushing impact mills by pre-screening of coal fines is further suggested because coal fines hinder optimum operation of impact mills. Replacement of conventional screening equipment in briquetting plants for separation of coal fines <5 mm is also suggested. (6 refs.) (In German)

  18. Point reactivity burnup code DELIGHT-4 for high temperature, gas-cooled reactor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code DELIGHT-4 has been developed for analizing burnup characteristics of the graphite moderated reactor cells and producing the few-group constants. Calculation models for the code are as follows: (1) The number of neutron energy groups is 61 for fast neutrons (10 MeV -- 2.38 eV) and 50 for thermal neutrons (2.38 eV -- 0 eV). (2) The doubly space-heterogeneous effect of fuel (dispersion of coated fuel particles in fuel compacts and regular array of fuel rods in graphite blocks) is considered in the calculation of resonance absorption. (3) The double heterogenity of burnable poison (dispersion of absorber grains in rods) can be considered. (4) The chemical binding effect of graphite is introduced in the scattering of thermal neutrons. (5) The calculations of criticality and burnup are by a few-energy-group models (up to 10 groups for both fast and thermal neutrons), and nuclide chains of thorium-uranium and uranium-plutonium are used for burnup calculation. (6) Neutron streaming effect through holes and gaps in cells can be considered in criticality calculation. (7) The flux distribution in cells can be calculated. The cell-averaged few group constants can be produced in card form for 1-D transport approximation code SLALOM, 2-D S sub( n) code TWOTRAN, 1-D diffusion code BRIQUET, 2-D diffusion code ZADOC-3 and 3-D diffusion code CITATION-DEGA. (author)

  19. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  20. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  1. Binding waste anthracite fines with Si-containing materials as an alternative fuel for foundry cupola furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Fox, John T; Cannon, Fred S; Komarneni, Sridhar; Kulik, Joseph; Furness, Jim

    2011-04-01

    An alternative fuel to replace foundry coke in cupolas was developed from waste anthracite fines. Waste anthracite fines were briquetted with Si-containing materials and treated in carbothermal (combination of heat and carbon) conditions that simulated the cupola preheat zone to form silicon carbide nanowires (SCNWs). SCNWs can provide hot crushing strengths, which are important in cupola operations. Lab-scale experiments confirmed that the redox level of the Si-source significantly affected the formation of SiC. With zerovalent silicon, SCNWs were formed within the anthracite pellets. Although amorphous Si (+4) plus anthracite formed SiC, these conditions did not transform the SiC into nanowires. Moreover, under the test conditions, SiC was not formed between crystallized Si (+4) and anthracite. In a full-scale demonstration, bricks made from anthracite fines and zerovalent silicon successfully replaced a part of the foundry coke in a full-scale cupola. In addition to saving in fuel cost, replacing coke by waste anthracite fines can reduce energy consumption and CO2 and other pollution associated with conventional coking. PMID:21366305

  2. FGD [flue gas desulfurization] gypsum in research, development, production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research, development, production and application activities concerning flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in Germany are reviewed. Possibilities for the utilization of FGD gypsum were investigated in numerous laboratory and pilot plant tests. An agglomerating process was developed to dry the moist, fine gypsum powder into briquettes similar to natural crushed gyspum rock, and suitable for use alone or in conjunction with natural gypsum in existing factories producing plaster or Portland cement. After calcination, the FGD gypsum briquettes showed very good rheological properties in plaster with no thixotropy. The briquettes have a uniform 1 ton/m3 density and can be easily transported and stored outdoors. Utilization of FGD gypsum as a beta-hemihydrate plaster for production of prefabricated gypsum building components is now standard in Germany. A new factory was built in the early eighties using 50% FGD gypsum briquettes and 50% moist, finely divided FGD gypsum, producing 350,000 tonnes of projection plaster annually. A process was also developed for the production of alpha gypsum plaster from the moist, fine FGD gypsum. FGD gypsum has been found suitable for a wide range of filler applications currently filled by calcium carbonate and china clay. Main expenditures to be considered when performing economic assessments include: drying expenditure (ca 550,000 kJ/ton); energy consumption for briquetting (ca 10 kWh/ton); FGD gypsum transportation between power station and factory and associated handling; intermediate storage facilities; service and maintenance; and additive costs. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  3. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMASS PELLETIZATION – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stelte,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in a strong growth of biomass utilization for heat and power production. Attempts to overcome the poor handling properties of biomass, i.e. its low bulk density and inhomogeneous structure, have resulted in an increasing interest in biomass densification technologies, such as pelletization and briquetting. The global pellet market has developed quickly, and strong growth is expected for the coming years. Due to an increase in demand for biomass, the traditionally used wood residues from sawmills and pulp and paper industry are not sufficient to meet future needs. An extended raw material base consisting of a broad variety of fibrous residues from agriculture and food industries, as well as thermal pre-treatment processes, provides new challenges for the pellet industry. Pellet production has been an established process for several decades, but only in the past five years has there been significant progress made to understand the key factors affecting pelletizing processes. A good understanding about the pelletizing process, especially the processing parameters and their effect on pellet formation and bonding are important for process and product optimization. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest insights into the biomass pelletization processes, such as the forces involved in the pelletizing processes, modeling, bonding, and adhesive mechanisms. Furthermore, thermal pretreatment of the biomass, i.e. torrefaction and other thermal treatment to enhance the fuel properties of biomass pellets are discussed.

  4. Factors affecting the choice of suicide method in Okayama: a database analysis from a forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaishi,Satoru

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The annual number of suicides in Japan increased sharply in 1998, and since that time it has consistently exceeded 30,000 per year. In this study, we analyze a database of personal and background characteristics of 824 cases (605 men, 219 women who completed suicide in Okayama Prefecture in 2002 and 2003. The data were obtained with cooperation from the police. Using the methodologies in a previous European study as a model, we classified the suicide methods into 8 categories. To examine the generational and regional differences in the choice of methods, we stratified the sample into 4 age groups (<-24, 2544, 4564, and >-65 and 2 regional groups (Okayama/Kurashiki vs. other areas. Our results on gender differences in 7 of the suicide methods were mostly similar to the European data. However, our data showed a remarkably higher proportionate male-to-female mortality ratio for poisoning by other substances (ICD-10, X65-X69 codes (1.83, 1.15-2.92. In terms of generational differences in the choice of suicide methods, the Mantel-Haenszel test of homogeneity was significant for most of the categories in our study, suggesting an impact of age on how people commit suicide. There were no remarkable regional differences in our sample. An epidemic curve for suicides via carbon monoxide poisoning using charcoal briquets revealed a trend of time clustering not observed in the other 6 means. The database constructed and used in this study contains richer information than conventional death statistics and is expected to provide helpful knowledge and insights for future epidemiological studies.

  5. Density Equation of Cassava-Stalk Briquettes Under Moderate Die-Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agricultural residues seem to be the most promising energy resources for developing countries. However, the majority of them have low energy density. One of the favorable technologies for enhancing that property is briquetting. For the case of Phitsanulok, a province in Northern Thailand, cassava is one of the most important crops. Therefore, a large amount of cassava stalk is left in the field after harvest. This study was aimed to investigate the quantity of cassava stalk in this province and to study cassava stalk briquette production. Approach: The potential energy from cassava stalk was calculated based on the productivity, residue-to-product ratio, residue returned to soil ratio and its heating value. Besides, the effects of moderate-range compression pressure, 70-110 bar, and the binder ratio, 10-20%, on briquette density were investigated. An empirical model was also developed and validated. Results: Base on the estimation, the quantity of usable cassava stalk in this area was approximately 18 kton year-1. The heating value of cassava stalk was found to be 16.39 MJ kg-1. Therefore, the total energy over 289 TJ year-1 can be obtained from this agricultural waste. According to the experiment, briquette density was in the range of 0.40-0.77 g cm-3. The coefficient of multiple determination for prediction of the proposed model was about 94.7%. Conclusion: It appeared that cassava stalk has high potential as energy source for this area. The density of cassava stalk briquette was increased with an increase in compaction pressure. Besides, it was found that the proposed model can be used for density prediction over the studied range.

  6. Fundamental study on carbon composite iron ore hot briquette used as blast furnace burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Man-sheng; Liu, Zheng-gen; Wang, Zhao-cai [Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China); Yagi, Jun-ichiro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Carbon composite iron ore hot briquette (CCB) is the product of fine iron ore and fine coal by hot briquetting process, which attracts more and more attention as a new type of ironmaking raw materials aiming to improve the operation efficiency and reduce the coke consumption of blast furnace. This paper is devoted to experimental study on metallurgical properties of CCB and numerical simulation of the BF operation with CCB charging. At first, the metallurgical properties of CCB, including cold crushing strength, RDI, RSI, reducibility, high temperature strength, and softening and dripping are experimentally tested and compared with the common burdens, which revealed that the CCB possesses the required metallurgical properties and is suitable to use as the blast furnace burden. Then, the effects of charging CCB on the dripping properties of comprehensive burdens are elucidated based on the experiments under simulated blast furnace conditions. The results showed that the maximum charging ratio of CCB in the iron burdens is 40%-50% for achieving appropriate dripping properties of the mixed burdens. Finally, a multi-fluid blast furnace model is used to simulate BF operation with CCB charging. According to model simulations, charging CCB will cause the temperature level to decreases in the furnace and the location of the cohesive zone shifts downward. On the other hand, the productivity tends to increase while coke rate and total reducing agent rate decrease, the heat efficiency improves remarkably and the operation performance of BF is effectively enhanced. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. APPLICATION OF SPHEROIDIZING «CHIPS»-MASTER ALLOY ON COPPER BASE CONTAINING NANOSCALE PARTICLES OF YTTRIUM OXIDE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the technology of obtaining high-strength cast iron is application in out-furnace treatment various inoculants containing magnesium. In practice of foundry production spheroidizing master alloys based on ferrosilicon (Fe-Si-Mg type and «heavy» alloying alloys on copper and nickel base are widespread. The urgent issue is to improve their efficiency by increasing the degree of magnesium assimilation, reduction of specific consumption of additives, and minimizing dust and gas emissions during the process of spheroidizing treatment of liquid iron. One method of solving this problem is the use of inoculants in a compact form in which the process of dissolution proceeds more efficiently. For example, rapidly quenched granules or «chip»-inoculants are interesting to apply.The aim of present work was to study the peculiarities of production and application of «Chips»-inoculants on copper and magnesium base with additions of yttrium oxide. The principle of mechatronics was used, including the briquetting inoculants’ components after their mixing with the subsequent high-speed mechanical impact and obtaining plates with a thickness of 1–2 mm.Spheroidizing treatment of molten metal has been produced by ladle method using «Chips»-inoculants in the amount of 0.8%. Secondary graphitization inoculation was not performed. Studies have shown that when the spheroidizing treatment of ductile iron was performed with inoculants developed, the process of interaction of magnesium with the liquid melt runs steadily without significant pyroeffect and emissions of metal outside of the ladle.This generates a structure of spheroidal graphite of regular shape (SGf5. The presence in the inoculant of yttrium oxide has a positive impact on the spheroidal graphite counts and the tendency of high-strength cast iron to form «white» cast iron structure. Mechanical properties of the obtained alloy correspond to high-strength cast iron HSCI60.

  8. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  9. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. К ВОПРОСУ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ ЖИДКИХ ПРОДУКТОВ ПИРОЛИЗА ДРЕВЕСИНЫ В КАЧЕСТВЕ СВЯЗУЮЩЕГО ДЛЯ БРИКЕТИРОВАНИЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Гильфанов, М.; Забелкин, С.; Грачев, А.; Башкиров, В.

    2013-01-01

    В статье рассмотрен вопрос использования жидких продуктов пиролиза древесины в качестве связующего для брикетирования. Экспериментальные исследования показали, что жидкие продукты пиролиза позволяют улучшить свойства брикетов углеродного материала.The article reviewed the use of liquid products of pyrolysis of wood as a binder for briquetting. Experimental studies have shown that the liquid products of pyrolysis can enhance the properties of the carbon material briquettes....

  11. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO2 or U03) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250 degree C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U03 powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm3 and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm3, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U03 was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm3, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm3 (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U03 showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U02 and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U03 could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting

  12. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  13. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  14. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  15. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.

  16. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E USO DE MADEIRAS DE GALHOS DE ÁRVORES PROVENIENTES DA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE BRASÍLIA, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou a caracterização da madeira de galhos provenientes de poda de árvores da arborização de Brasília e constou da investigação da possibilidade de seu uso como lenha e carvão vegetal. Foram estudadas 12 espécies de maior presença na arborização de Brasília. As espécies Persea americana, Spathodea campanulata, Ficus sp, Chorisia speciosa e Ochroma pyramidale foram caracterizadas como madeiras moles, com massa específica abaixo de 0,44 g/cm3. Caesalpinea leiostachya, com 0,73 g/cm3 caracterizou-se como madeira dura e Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium, Mangifera indica, Syzygium jambolana, Ligustrum lucidum e Paquira aquática, com valores entre 0,5 e 0,7 g/cm3 estão no grupo das madeiras moderadamente duras. As espécies: Caesalpinea leiostachya, Syzygium jambolana, Ligustrum lucidum e Peltophorum dubium apresentaram os maiores valores para contração volumétrica, entre 13 e 15,5%, enquanto os menores valores foram encontrados para Ficus sp. e M. indica com, respectivamente, 6,70 e 7,41%. Uma característica favorável para o uso da madeira para produção energética é a maior quantidade de massa por unidade de volume, dessa forma, as espécies de maiores massas específicas seriam as mais indicadas. As demais espécies poderiam ser transformadas em briquetes, aumentando assim a quantidade de calor por unidade volumétrica. Outros usos seriam como: composto orgânico (compostagem e para a confecção de pequenos objetos (cinzeiros, cabos de ferramentas, enfeites, porta-jóias.

  17. Torrefaction Quality Control. Based on logistic and end-user requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, R.W.R.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Verhoeff, F.; Pels, J.R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Torrefaction is a promising key technology for boosting large-scale implementation of bioenergy. It involves the heating of biomass in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 200 to 300C. As a result, the biomass becomes easy to grind and water resistant, which reduces risks of spontaneous biological degradation and heating and permits outdoor storage. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass is converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel with superior properties in view of (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also in many major end-use applications (e.g., co-firing in coal-fired power stations, gasification-based biofuels production and production of bio-based chemicals). ECN is executing an extensive research and development program in which the most important aspects of torrefaction and pelletisation upstream as well as logistics and end-use downstream are investigated. ECN's torrefaction technology is now proven on bench-, lab- and pilot scale, with the 50-100 kg/hr pilot scale plant producing tonnes of torrefied material already used in specific semi-industrial milling and pelletisation trials. Furthermore, quality analysis are being performed in relation to logistics, on-site transport and handling, and end-use application of the torrefied wood pellets (i.e. co-firing in existing combustion and gasification plants). In the presentation, the results of torrefaction tests with different types of biomass (deciduous, herbaceous and coniferous) are outlined, including the consequences for logistics and end-use application. Furthermore, an update is be provided on the scale-up and demonstration of the ECN torrefaction technology, for which ECN has teamed up with a leading European energy company as well as a worldwide operating technology supplier to continue to develop its torrefaction technology and bring it to the market.

  18. Performance Evaluation of the Effect of waste paper on Groundnut Shell Briquette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde A Oyelaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current energy shortage and environmental issues resulting from the use of fossil fuels have lead to exploitation of renewable energy resources that includes municipal waste and agricultural residues. These residues are available, indigenous and are environmental friendly but some can not be used directly in combustion process due high moisture content and low volumetric energy unless by briquetting. The study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristic of binderless briquettes produced from waste paper and groundnut shell. Combustion characteristics investigated were ignition time, burning time, calorific values, burning rate, specific fuel consumption, fuel efficiency and water boiling time. The calorific values of the briquettes ranged from 19.51 - 19.92 MJ/kg, while the thermal efficiency ranges between 13.75 – 21.64%, other results shows that the average burning rate between 0.511 and 1.133 kg/hr and the specific fuel consumption ranges between 0.087 and 0.131 J/g. The recorded boiling time values were between 17.5 and 30.0 minutes for cold start and 15.0 and 20.0 minutes for hot start. The results shows that waste paper and groundnut shell up to 25% in composition composite briquettes were found to have good combustion characteristics which qualify them as alternative to firewood for domestic and industrial energy. However, production of briquettes from waste paper and groundnut shell at mixing ratio of 85:15 was found to comparatively better from all experiment conducted.

  19. Bio-Wastes as an Alternative Household Cooking Energy Source in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Terefe Tucho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to the present day, wood has been used to supply the needs for cooking in rural Africa. Due to the ongoing deforestation, households need to change to other energy sources. To cover this need, a large amount of people are using residues from agriculture (straw, manure instead. However, both straw and manure also have a function in agriculture for soil improvement. Using all the straw and manure will seriously affect the food production. In this paper we first determine the amount of energy that households need for cooking (about 7 GJ per year. Then we estimate the amount of residues that can be obtained from the agricultural system and the amount of energy for cooking that can be derived from this amount when different conversion techniques are used. The amount of residues needed is strongly affected by the technology used. The traditional three stone fires require at least two times as much resource than the more advanced technologies. Up to 4 ha of land or 15 cows are needed to provide enough straw and manure to cook on the traditional three stone fires. When more efficient techniques are used (briquetting, biogas this can be reduced to 2 ha and six cows. Due to large variation in resource availability between households, about 80% of the households own less than 2 ha and 70% holds less than four cows. This means that even when modern, energy efficient techniques are used the largest share of the population is not able to generate enough energy for cooking from their own land and/or cattle. Most rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa may share similar resource holding characteristics for which the results from the current findings on Ethiopia can be relevant.

  20. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  1. Treatment of active concrete waste arising from the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an investigation into a method of immobilizing dust following demolition of a concrete structure. It considers a number of materials that could be used for this purpose and selects sodium silicate for detailed assessment as a first choice, based on various practical factors. Part A dealing with the chemical aspects shows that sodium silicate will successfully encapsulate dust in bulk and will affix that left attached to rubble and which is not easily removable. It determines the technology of use of sodium silicate and its properties in relation to dust encapsulation paying attention to the effect of the silica/alkali ratio on the properties of sodium silicate solutions. Part B, dealing with the engineering and process aspects, examines how the dust may be collected and stabilized with silicate. The preferred process from operational considerations is to pelletize the dust, so that it can be held in a harmless form. The pellets can be packed economically with more active material. A study of pneumatic conveying shows that the feasibility of collection by suction nozzle, conveying and separation from the air stream is not in doubt. Pelletizing machines are selected from those in use on other materials. The most successful machines are a pan agglomerator and various forms of briquetting roller compaction machines. A comparison is made of the properties of pellets made in these trials. This leads to recommendations of the most suitable pelletizing machine and process parameters for a pilot plant. For a remotely controlled pelletizing process the proportions of dust in different particle size ranges has to be controlled, particularly to ensure the presence of a sufficient quantity of fine particles. The strength of binder solution and the dustbinder ratio must also be controlled to optima established to suit the dust

  2. on Application and Development of Hydraulic Press%液压机的应用及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩帅帅

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic press is a kind of machinery which process metal, plastic, rubber, wood, powder products with hydrostatic pressure . It is made according to PASCAL's law and transmits under liquid pressure and it used to transmit energy to achieve various techinques. Now,it can not only be used to form forging hydraulic press but also can be used during the process of fitting press, briquetting, pressing plate, packaging , rectifying and otherwise. The common process includes pressing process and compression-molding process, such as: stamping, forging, flanging, bending, fitting press, cold extrusion, straightening, powder metallurgy, sheet deep drawing, etc.%液压机是一种利用液体静压力来加工金属、塑料、橡胶、木材、粉末等制品的机械。它是利用帕斯卡定律制成的利用液体压强传动的机械和用来传递能量以实现各种工艺的机器。现在液压机不仅可用于锻压成形,也可用于压装、压块、压板、打包和矫正等工艺。比较常见的工艺有压制工艺和压制成形工艺,比如:冲压、锻压、翻边、弯曲、压装、冷挤、校直、粉末冶金、薄板拉深等。

  3. Direct multielement trace analyses of silicon carbide powders by spark ablation simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the direct analysis of silicon carbide powders (SiC) by simultaneous detection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using a Spectro-CIROSTM spectrometer (CCD-ICP-OES) and a novel spark ablation system Spectro-SASSy (SA) as sample introduction technique is described. The sample preparation procedure for SA of non-conducting material is based on mixing the sample powders with a conducting matrix, in this case copper and briquetting pellets. Pressing time, pressure and mixing ratio are shown to be important parameters of the pelleting technique with respect to their mechanical stability for the reliability of the analysis results. A mixing ratio of 0.2 g +0.6 g for SiC and Cu, a pressure of 10 t cm-2 and a pressing time of 8 min have been found optimum. It has also been shown that the spark parameters selected are crucial for uniform volatilization. Electron probe micrographs of the burning spots and the analytical signal magnitude showed that a rather hard spark at 100 Hz was optimum. The determination of trace elements in silicon carbide powders is demonstrated using a calibration based on the addition of standard solutions. For Al, Ti, V, Mn and Fe detection limits in the lower μg g-1 range can be achieved. Internal standardization with Y in combination with the addition of standard solutions allows relative standard deviations in the range of 4 to 24% for concentration levels of the order of 3 to 350 μg g-1

  4. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Sik, Kang Il; Seok, Hong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Jeon Gil [RADIN Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm{sup 3}). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets.

  5. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm3) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm3). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets

  6. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

  7. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  8. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  9. Avaliação do potencial de aproveitamento energético dos resíduos de madeira e derivados gerados em fábricas do polo moveleiro de Ubá - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Machado Pinto Farage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988454O presente estudo avaliou o potencial de reaproveitamento energético dos resíduos de madeira e seus derivados gerados no Polo Moveleiro de Ubá, MG. Painéis reconstituídos de MDF (medium density fiberboard, aglomerado e compensado foram caracterizados e classificados, identificando assim as oportunidades e possíveis limitações quanto à sua utilização. Por meio de diagnóstico realizado em 11 fábricas de móveis, verificou-se que os resíduos de madeira compreendem mais de 90 % do total dos resíduos sólidos gerados. Além da grande quantidade gerada, não foi identificada nenhuma ação integrada entre as fábricas do Polo para o adequado gerenciamento dos resíduos, negligenciando seus riscos ambientais e sanitários, bem como seu potencial energético. Contudo, os teores de umidade e poder calorífico dos resíduos demonstraram potencial para o seu reaproveitamento energético através da produção de briquetes. Os gases gerados em ensaios de combustão dos resíduos não apresentaram substâncias ou compostos tóxicos acima dos limites preconizados pelas normas ambientais, verificando, neste aspecto, um bom desempenho ambiental para o aproveitamento destes resíduos conforme proposto pelo presente estudo. Entretanto, as cinzas dos resíduos de aglomerado BP (baixa pressão e FF (finish foil apresentaram elevadas concentrações de cromo, enquadrando-se como Classe I (perigosos, segundo a ABNT/NBR 10004/2004.

  10. Program description for the program Fuel program conversion 2011-07-01 - 2015-06-30; Programbeskrivning foer programmet Braensleprogrammet omvandling 2011-07-01 - 2015-06-30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The Fuel program conversion is included as one of three programs in a cohesive commitment to increased, sustainable and efficient production and use of indigenous and renewable fuels that are implemented by the Swedish Energy Agency during the period July 1, 2011 - June 30, 2015. The program focuses on increasing knowledge and development of technologies for processing of the fuel feedstock, and conversion to primarily heat and electricity in plants up to about 10 MW. Issues of particular concern is to strengthen competitiveness, efficiency and sustainability in the chain from raw material to end use, and increasing raw material base by developing knowledge and technologies for new materials that are current. The program includes basic and applied research, development and demonstration. Within the sub-area Processing efforts are prioritized which streamline and reduce costs in different types of processing operations. Processing here means not just technology for pelleting and briquetting, but also sub-processes that prepare, dry, handle or process raw materials in other ways. Within the sub-area Conversion to heat and electricity in the range <10 MW, the focus is principally, on one hand increasing the knowledge of the interaction between fuel and combustion plant, and on the other hand to implement results of research in collaboration with users and equipment suppliers. Furthermore, great importance is given to increasing the competitiveness of local heating in the transition from oil to renewable heat supply and the use of new fuel materials and fuels. Questions about the fuel supply from forestry and agriculture, including issues of sustainability, environment and resource use are treated in the two parallel running programs, the Fuel program supply and the Fuel program sustainability

  11. Reciclagem da poeira e lama geradas na fabricação de aço inoxidável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Nolasco Sobrinho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado, em escala de laboratório, um estudo da recuperação dos metais cromo e níquel, contidos em resíduos gerados no processo de fabricação de aço inoxidável, utilizando-se altas temperaturas (1570, 1600 e 1635ºC. A maioria desses tipos de resíduos, principalmente a lama, ainda é disposta em aterros ou estocada. Nesse trabalho foram utilizados dois tipos de resíduo com alto teor de cromo, uma poeira (RESA e o uma lama (RESB. A primeira etapa do estudo, fundamental para o estudo visando à reciclagem dos resíduos, foi a caracterização utilizando as seguintes técnicas: análise química, distribuição granulométrica (MALVERN, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e análise de micro-regiões (EDS. A segunda etapa envolveu a aglomeração dos resíduos caracterizados e outros reagentes, antes de serem introduzidos no aço líquido, utilizando-se uma briquetadora manual. Foram fabricados três briquetes com cada um dos resíduos. A terceira etapa da pesquisa foi a adição dos briquetes de resíduos no aço líquido e retirada periódica de amostras do banho para avaliação da incorporação do cromo contido nos resíduos no aço. O tipo de aço utilizado foi o aço carbono ASTM 1020. Os experimentos foram realizados em um equipamento em escala laboratorial, composto de um forno vertical que pode atingir até 1700ºC e seu controlador. O forno possui uma região de temperatura uniforme de cerca de 13 cm e, nessa região, o cadinho de alumina contendo aço é colocado. Esse equipamento foi construído para o estudo das reações envolvidas quando se adicionam resíduos em aço líquido. A atmosfera interna do aparato pode ser controlada. Após a introdução do briquete no aço líquido e sua fusão foram retiradas, periodicamente, amostras do banho em intervalos de tempo de três em três minutos para análise dos teores de vários elementos, principalmente o cromo, o níquel e o sil

  12. The Swedish market for wood briquettes - Production and market development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlhager, Johan

    2008-02-15

    Wood briquettes have constituted an important input to the Swedish energy system during the last two decades. However, the development of the production and markets for briquettes during the years 2000-2007 has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the state of the briquette industry. More specifically, the aims were to map the production of briquettes, describe the development of its markets, describe the production process, describe the producers and to examine the competitive situation for the producers. To collect data regarding the production and the producers, the markets, raw materials and company structures, a questionnaire was sent out to the producers during the fall in the year 2007. The results were then compiled and compared to previous studies. The description of the production process was mainly based on literature studies. The results were analyzed and related to M.E. Porter's Five force model to be able to describe the competitive environment for the briquette producers. The study was limited to production in Sweden and did not intend to cover a possible import of briquettes. Regarding the production process, the most common types of briquetting equipment were described. The results showed that the trend in the briquette industry was neutral, possibly negative. The turnover derived from briquette sales during the year 2006 was roughly a quarter of a billion SEK. The industry was very concentrated, with one producer accounting for 43 % of the aggregate production in the year 2006. Since the year 2000, the production of briquettes among the participating producers increased from some 210 000 tons (980 GWh) (2002) to some 280 000 tons (1 300 GWh) in the year 2006. The planned expansion of the production capacity was 3,8 % within the two years to come. A typical small scale briquette producer was a small saw mill, planing mill or a joinery using their by-products as raw material. 78 % of the briquettes are produced

  13. Coal materials for the reduction of SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x}; Derivados del carbon para la reduccion de SO{sub 2}-No{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The project was divided in two well-differentiated parts: SO{sub 2} removal and NO{sub x} reduction. In both cases, carbon materials play a unique role in the processes, either as calcium sorbent suppor (SO{sub 2} removal) or as catalyst support and reducing agent (NO{sub x} reduction). Removal of SO{sub 2}. This process was carried out by calcium sorbents at relatively low temperature (T<300 degree centigree), forming CaSO{sub 3} (instead of CaSO{sub 4}) that decomposos at lower temperatures, making regeneration easier. High dispersion of the active species, CaO, has been obtained using carbon materials (activated carbons, chars, etc.) and other inorganic compounds as supports. The effect of oxygen, carbon dioxide and steam in the reaction atmosphere and the regeneration process have been also investigated. Thermal regeneration is possible for several cycles, however, carbon gasification also takes place. To control, and to void that effect, the reaction and regeneration temperatures should be carefully controlled and carbons with low reactivity should be selected. The process was scaled (100-2000) using briquete samples obtained by physical mixture of char and Ca(oh){sub 2}. The SO{sub 2} removal levels were similar to those found in the laboratory scale. NO{sub x} reduction. The possibility of using potassium containing coal-briquettes for NO and NO{sub x} reduction has been investigated. The preparation method of briquettes presents the advantage of using a binder agent (humic acid) which contains the catalyst (potassium). The system catalyst-binder-coal stays intimately joined by a moulding stage and subsequent pyrolysis, providing proper mechanical resistance to the coal-briquettes. With the purpose to improve the briquettesactivity, different variables of the preparation process have been investigated (potassium content-added with the binder and/or KOH-, rank and mineral matter content of the coal precursor, pyrolysis temperature and pressure of the moulding

  14. Nova variedade de Menta arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Rodrigues Lima

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available No quarto ano dos trabalhos de seleção com a menta japonêsa, foi encontrado um "seedling", o M. A. 701, que se destacou pela resistência à ferrugem e pela sua rusticidade. Os caracteres botânicos dessa variedade comercial, principalmente hábito vegetativo, coloração das fôlhas e das hastes, a tornam completa' mente distinta da variedade original. Esta distinção se confirma e acentua quando se compara a natureza dos componentes do óleo essencial da menta "Campinas" M. A. 701, descrita no presente trabalho, com a menta japonêsa comum. A maior produtividade da nova variedade comparada com a da menta japonesa comum foi desde logo também constatada pelos primeiros lavradores, a quem foram enviadas pequenas quantidades de rizomas, para plantio experimental. Foram cultivados em 1949-50 cêrca de 12 hectares; cm 1950-51, cêrca de 900 ha, e o prognóstico é que essa variedade tende a substituir totalmente a menta japonêsa anteriormente cultivada em São Paulo, devido ao seu maior valor econômico.A seedling, designated M.A.701, remarkable for its vigor and resistance to rust, was discovered during the fourth year of selection of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. subsp. haplocalix Briquet var. piperascens Holmes or forma piperascens Malinvaud. The botanical characters of the variety derived from this seedling, especially the vegetative habit and colouring of leaves and stems, make it quite different from the original variety. This difference is enhanced, when we compare the nature of the essential oil components of "Campinas" M.A.701, as described in the present paper, with that of the common Japanese mint. The higher yield of the new variety, compared with that of the common Japanese mint, was soon confirmed by the first cultivators, to whom small quantities of rhizomes were sent for experimental planting. About 12 hectars were cultivated em 1949/50 and about 900 hectars in 1950/51. It is expected that the new variety will, on account

  15. АКТУАЛЬНОСТЬ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ БРИКЕТИРОВАНИЯ КОКСОВОЙ ПЫЛИ

    OpenAIRE

    Кравцов, В.; Папин, А.

    2012-01-01

    Актуальность технологии брикетирования коксовой пыли / Кравцов В.П., Папин А.В. // Вестник КузГТУ. 2012. № 4. С. 112-113. Рассматривается технология производства коксовых брикетов путем утилизации коксовой пыли, проведен обзор актуальных существующих технологий брикетирования и определены приоритеты исследований процесса. Библиогр.3 назв. Importance of coke dust briquetting technology / Kravtsov V.P., Papin A.V. // The bulletin of KuzSTU, 2012, No 4. P. 112 113. Coke briquettes production is ...

  16. Consolidation process and plasticization bounded layer of material

    OpenAIRE

    Maljuda, I.

    2009-01-01

    Описано систему, що гідравлічно приводиться в дію безпалітурного брикетування тирси.Наведено математичну модель провідності тепла в тонкому шарі вільного матеріалу. Знання температурного розповсюдження в такому матеріалі - один з основних елементів виконання завдань тонкої вільної пластмаси матеріального шару, що застосовують під час брикетування. this paper presents a hydraulically operated system for binderless briquetting of sawdust. In this paper the mathematical model of heat thin of lo...

  17. TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT USAGE OF HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF MULTI-COMPONENT SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper

  18. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  19. Rapid Determination of Componential Contents and Calorific Value of Selected Agricultural Biomass Feedstocks Using Spectroscopic Technology%基于光谱技术的农林生物质原料组分和热值的快速测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛奎川; 沈莹莹; 杨海清; 王文金; 罗威强

    2012-01-01

    快速检测生物质原料特性对生产高品质压缩成型燃料具有重要意义.利用光谱技术建立松木、杉木和棉杆三类农林生物质组分(水分、灰分、挥发分和固定碳)和热值预测模型.相比原始光谱,基于一阶导数光谱的偏最小二乘回归(PLS)模型预测精度较高.灰分、挥发分和水分PLS模型交叉校验决定系数(R2)分别为0.97,0.94和0.90,预测偏差比率(RPD)分别为6.57,4.00和3.01.固定碳和热值PLS模型精度一般,R2分别为0.85和0.87,RPD分别为2.55和2.73.实验结果表明,利用可见-近红外光谱技术完全可以替代传统工业分析方法,从而实现农林生物质原料组分和热值的快速测定.%Rapid determination of biomass feedstock properties is of value for the production of biomass densification briquetting fuel with high quality. In the present study, visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy was employed to build prediction models of componential contents, i. e. moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed-carbon, and calorific value of three selected species of agricultural biomass feedstock, i. e. pine wood,cedar wood, and cotton stalk. The partial least squares (PLS) cross validation results showed that compared with original reflection spectra, PLS regression models developed for first derivative spectra produced higher prediction accuracy with coefficients of determination (R2) of 0. 97, 0. 94 and 0. 90, and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 6. 57, 4. 00 and 3. 01 for ash, volatile matter and moisture, respectively. Good prediction accuracy was achieved with R2 of 0. 85 and RPD of 2. 55 for fixed carbon, and R2 of 0. 87 and RPD of 2. 73 for calorific value. It is concluded that the Vis-NIR spectroscopy is promising as an alternative of traditional proximate analysis for rapid determination of componential contents and calorific value of agricultural biomass feedstock.

  20. Espaçamento para menta (Mentha arvensis L. resultados experimentais do período de 1943-44 a 1950-51 Field experiments on spacing of japanese mint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribeiro dos Santos

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o espaçamento na cultura da menta (Mentha arvensis L., foram efetuados quatro ensaios de campo, um na Estação Experimental de Pindorama e os outros na Estação Experimental de Tietê. No ensaio de Pindorama, instalado em 1943-44, e nos de Tietê, nos anos de 1943-44 e 1944-45. foram adotadas as distâncias de 50, 75 e 100 centímetros entre as fileiras. No experimento de 1950-51, de Tietê, essas distâncias foram um pouco menores: 40, 60 e 80 centímetros. Em todos os ensaios, os espaçamentos adotados entre plantas, nas fileiras, foram de 20 e de 40 centímetros. As produções registraram-se como: erva-verde, a parte vegetativa aérea, recém-ceifada; erva-murcha e óleo essencial, êste obtido por destilarão a vapor em alambique. Os resultados mostraram, de forma consistente, produções significativamente maiores nos espaçamentos mais compactos. Considerações de ordem econômica sôbre o consumo de rizomas para a plantação e necessidades de instalações de viveiro, de mão-de-obra no tratamento dos viveiros e transplante das mudas, são feitas na interpretação dos resultados experimentais.Field experiments is on spacing of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L., subsp. haplocalyx Briquet, var. piperascens Holmes or forma piperascens Malinvaud were conducted at the experiment stations of Pindorama and Tietê, during the 1943-44, 1944-45 and 1950-51 seasons. In Brazil, nowadays the leading world supplier of menthol and dementholized oil, mint is generally raised in newly cleared forest soils. In these areas planting is usual|y done at irregular spacings, due to the presence of trunk and branches of the felled trees, the distances between plants being rather wide. Yields, recorded as fresh and cured (wilted hay and oil, were significantly higher from the following spacings: 40 x 20, 50 x 20, 60 x 20 and 50 x 40 centimeters. Considerations on the amount of rhizomes and labor necessary for nurseries and transplanting were

  1. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  2. Reduced ash-related operational problems by co-combustion peat and agricultural fuels; Minskade askrelaterade driftsproblem genom inblandning av torv i aakerbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Skoglund, Nils; Grimm, Alejandro; Boman, Christoffer; Kofod-Hansen, Marie

    2010-06-15

    controlled combustion experiments in bench scale (grate/fluidized bed). Good agreement between the theoretical and practical results on critical ash-chemical sub-processes was observed. Combustion tests were carried out during approximately 2 days in a 4 MW grate fired boiler, using; - briquetted reed canary grass (RCG) fuel with high ash content (totally 25 ton DS). - a RCG with low ash content, co-briquetted with peat (85/15 % on DS basis, totally 25 tons). - Salix chips (approx. 40 tons). - Salix chips admixed with peat (15% on DS basis, totally approx. 40 tons). The overall conclusions of the model calculations concerning the ash content of a 'good peat' was that high ash content, high Si content, high S content and high Ca/Si ratio were favourable. Therefore the peat that mostly corresponded to these requirements was chosen for the demonstration tests. Combustion tests were also performed in a 20 kW underfed pellets burner attached to a pellets boiler. Pelletized straw (50 kg) and straw co-pelletized with peat (60/40% on DS basis, totally 50 kg), were used as fuel. The results shows that admixing a typical carex based peat into Salix and Reed canary grass with low ash content gives positive effects concerning both bed agglomeration and deposit formation (corrosion) in the convection parts of the boiler, already at low levels (15 weight% on DS basis). A carex based peat with a relative high Ca/Si ratio is recommended for co-firing with Salix in grate fired boilers, to avoid slagging. The same type of peat should also be utilized in co-firing Reed canary grass with low ash content (relative low admixing levels is sufficient) and wheat straw (high levels are required) to reduce the risk of slagging. In the choice of peat, a general recommendation can be made that peat with high ash content (carex based peat), preferably with high S content and a high Ca/Si ratio (a wt-ratio around 1 is desirable). Reed canary grass with high ash content is not expected to cause

  3. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  4. 污泥掺混制备生物质燃料技术现状与发展前景%Technical status and development prospect of biomass fuels prepared by sewage sludge and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志新

    2015-01-01

    drying technology of sewage sludge before briquetting, waterproofing technology of briquettes fuel, industrial applications of biomass fuel made from sewage sludge.

  5. "Ideal glassformers" vs "ideal glasses": studies of crystal-free routes to the glassy state by "potential tuning" molecular dynamics, and laboratory calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapko, Vitaliy; Zhao, Zuofeng; Matyushov, Dmitry V; Austen Angell, C

    2013-03-28

    The ability of some liquids to vitrify during supercooling is usually seen as a consequence of the rates of crystal nucleation (and∕or crystal growth) becoming small [D. R. Uhlmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 7, 337 (1972)]--and thus a matter of kinetics. However, there is evidence dating back to the empirics of coal briquetting for maximum trucking efficiency [D. Frenkel, Physics 3, 37 (2010)] that some object shapes find little advantage in self-assembly to ordered structures--meaning random packings prevail. Noting that key studies of non-spherical object packing have never been followed from hard ellipsoids [A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, P. M. Chaikin, and S. Torquato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004); A. Donev, I. Cisse, D. Sachs, E. A. Variano, F. H. Stillinger, R. Connelly, S. Torquato, and P. M. Chaikin, Science 303, 990 (2004)] or spherocylinders [S. R. Williams and A. P. Philipse, Phys. Rev. E 67, 051301 (2003)] (diatomics excepted [S.-H. Chong, A. J. Moreno, F. Sciortino, and W. Kob, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 215701 (2005)] into the world of molecules with attractive forces, we have made a molecular dynamics study of crystal melting and glass formation on the Gay-Berne (G-B) model of ellipsoidal objects [J. G. Gay and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981)] across the aspect ratio range of the hard ellipsoid studies. Here, we report that in the aspect ratio range of maximum ellipsoid packing efficiency, various G-B crystalline states that cannot be obtained directly from the liquid, disorder spontaneously near 0 K and transform to liquids without any detectable enthalpy of fusion. Without claiming to have proved the existence of single component examples, we use the present observations, together with our knowledge of non-ideal mixing effects, to discuss the probable existence of "ideal glassformers"--single or multicomponent liquids that vitrify before ever becoming metastable with respect to crystals. We find evidence that "ideal glassformer" systems might

  6. ``Ideal glassformers'' vs ``ideal glasses'': Studies of crystal-free routes to the glassy state by ``potential tuning'' molecular dynamics, and laboratory calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapko, Vitaliy; Zhao, Zuofeng; Matyushov, Dmitry V.; Austen Angell, C.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of some liquids to vitrify during supercooling is usually seen as a consequence of the rates of crystal nucleation (and/or crystal growth) becoming small [D. R. Uhlmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 7, 337 (1972), 10.1016/0022-3093(72)90269-4] - and thus a matter of kinetics. However, there is evidence dating back to the empirics of coal briquetting for maximum trucking efficiency [D. Frenkel, Physics 3, 37 (2010), 10.1103/Physics.3.37] that some object shapes find little advantage in self-assembly to ordered structures - meaning random packings prevail. Noting that key studies of non-spherical object packing have never been followed from hard ellipsoids [A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, P. M. Chaikin, and S. Torquato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.255506; A. Donev, I. Cisse, D. Sachs, E. A. Variano, F. H. Stillinger, R. Connelly, S. Torquato, and P. M. Chaikin, Science 303, 990 (2004), 10.1126/science.1093010] or spherocylinders [S. R. Williams and A. P. Philipse, Phys. Rev. E 67, 051301 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevE.67.051301] (diatomics excepted [S.-H. Chong, A. J. Moreno, F. Sciortino, and W. Kob, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 215701 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.215701] into the world of molecules with attractive forces, we have made a molecular dynamics study of crystal melting and glass formation on the Gay-Berne (G-B) model of ellipsoidal objects [J. G. Gay and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981), 10.1063/1.441483] across the aspect ratio range of the hard ellipsoid studies. Here, we report that in the aspect ratio range of maximum ellipsoid packing efficiency, various G-B crystalline states that cannot be obtained directly from the liquid, disorder spontaneously near 0 K and transform to liquids without any detectable enthalpy of fusion. Without claiming to have proved the existence of single component examples, we use the present observations, together with our knowledge of non-ideal mixing effects, to discuss the probable existence

  7. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  8. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  9. Bamboo/lignite_based activated carbons produced by steam activation with and without ammonia for SO2 adsorption%胺化竹木/褐煤活性炭的表面特性及其脱除SO2性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 田福海; 张永发; 丁佳丽; 付亚利; 王影; 张国杰

    2014-01-01

    A columnarbamboo/lignite material was prepared by briquetting a mixture of bamboo carbon and lignite. Activated car¯ bons were obtained by carbonizing the material at 500 ℃ for 30 min, followed by activation at 850 ℃ for 2 h using either steam or a gaseous mixture of ammonia in water with an ammonia concentration of 2. 42 mass%. The ammonia¯activated carbon was soaked in 21. 91% ammonia water for 5 h and dried at 200 ℃ to modify its surface chemical properties. The pore structure and surface chemical states of the activated carbons were investigated by physical adsorption and XPS. Their desulfurization performance was e¯ valuated in a simulated flue gas (SO2 0. 1439%, O2 8. 02% and water vapor 10. 11%) at 100 ℃. Results show that the activated carbons produced with and without ammonia have similar pore size distributions in the range 1¯2. 5 nm. Sulfur adsorption capacity of the ammonia¯activated one (106. 1 mg/g) is significantly higher than those of the steam¯activated one (69. 8 mg/g). Surface modi¯ fication of the ammonia¯activated carbon further improves its sulfur adsorption capacity to 155. 9 mg/g. The surfaces of the two kinds of activated carbons contain the same type of carbon groups. The ammonia¯activated carbon and its surface modified derivative have similar nitrogen contents with a similar proportion of pyridine or nitrile groups (398. 3¯398. 9 eV), amine, amide, imide and pyrrole class groups (400. 2¯400. 8 eV).%以竹炭与褐煤混合料压块制备出柱状母料,500益炭化30 min后,经0~21.91%氨水气化,850益活化2 h,获得胺化竹木/褐煤活性炭。采用BET和XPS研究竹木/褐煤活性炭的孔结构和表面化学,在100益下考察活性炭对模拟烟气(0.1439%SO2、8.02%O2和10.11%水蒸气)中SO2的脱除性能。结果表明,氨水活化与水蒸气活化形成的竹木/褐煤活性炭孔径分布类似,主要分布于1~2.5 nm,2.42%氨水活化制备的活性炭硫容是水蒸气活化的1.52倍;两种活

  10. Caracterização, beneficiamento e reciclagem de carepas geradas em processos siderúrgicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Ferreira da Cunha

    2006-03-01

    casting and rolling. Scale are iron oxides whose disposal at wastes yards must be carried out following the pertinent environmental laws, since they can be classified as dangerous wastes (Class I, NBR 10004:2004. However, there are few studies towards its improvement so as to enhance the worth of the by-product in reference. In this context, drying, sieving and briquetting unit operations were employed on the material processing. Physical and chemical characterizations enabled investigation of their properties and prospective industrial applications, aiming to adapt the environmental, economical and processing parameters to the companies' requirements.

  11. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    charge and those producing Hot Metal for charge to the EAF. (2) A pronounced sensitivity to Steel Scrap Cost was felt less by the Hot Metal Processes and the Fine Ore Processes that typically do not utilize much purchased scrap. (3) In terms of evolving processes, the Tecnored Process (and in particular, the lower-operating cost process with integral co-generation of electrical power) was in the most favorable groupings at all scrap cost sensitivities. (4) It should be noted also that the Conventional Blast Furnace process utilizing Non-Recovery coke (from a continuous coking process with integral co-generation of electrical power) and the lower-capital cost Mini Blast Furnace also showed favorable Relative Economics for the low and median Scrap Cost sensitivities. (5) The lower-cost, more efficient MauMee Rotary Hearth Process that uses a Briquetted Iron Unit Feed (instead of a dried or indurated iron ore pellet) also was in the most favorable process groupings. Those processes with lower-cost raw materials (i.e. fine ore and/or nonmetallurgical coal as the reductant) had favorable combined economics. In addition, the hot metal processes (in part due to the sensible heat impacts in the EAF and due to their inherently lower costs) also had favorable combined economics.

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1985-01-01

    de Las Americas, 1979. 157 pp., Ian Jacobs (eds -Jacqueline Anne Braveboy-Wagner, Andres Serbin, Geopolitica de las relaciones de Venezuela con el Caribe. Caracas: Fundación Fondo Editorial Acta Cientifica Venezolana, 1983. -Idsa E. Alegria-Ortega, Jorge Heine, Time for decision: the United States and Puerto Rico. Lanham MD: North-South Publishing Co., 1983. xi + 303 pp. -Richard Hart, Edward A. Alpers ,Walter Rodney, revolutionary and scholar: a tribute. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies and African Studies Center, University of California, 1982. xi + 187 pp., Pierre-Michel Fontaine (eds -Paul Sutton, Patrick Solomon, Solomon: an autobiography. Trinidad: Inprint Caribbean, 1981. x + 253 pp. -Paul Sutton, Selwyn R. Cudjoe, Movement of the people: essays on independence. Ithaca NY: Calaloux Publications, 1983. xii + 217 pp. -David Barry Gaspar, Richard Price, To slay the Hydra: Dutch colonial perspectives on the Saramaka wars. Ann Arbor MI: Karoma Publishers, 1983. 249 pp. -Gary Brana-Shute, R. van Lier, Bonuman: een studie van zeven religieuze specialisten in Suriname. Leiden: Institute of Cultural and Social Studies, ICA Publication no. 60, 1983. iii + 132 pp. -W. van Wetering, Charles J. Wooding, Evolving culture: a cross-cultural study of Suriname, West Africa and the Caribbean. Washington: University Press of America 1981. 343 pp. -Humphrey E. Lamur, Sergio Diaz-Briquets, The health revolution in Cuba. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983. xvii + 227 pp. -Forrest D. Colburn, Ramesh F. Ramsaran, The monetary and financial system of the Bahamas: growth, structure and operation. Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, 1984. xiii + 409 pp. -Wim Statius Muller, A.M.G. Rutten, Leven en werken van de dichter-musicus J.S. Corsen. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1983. xiv + 340 pp. -Louis Allaire, Ricardo E. Alegria, Ball courts and ceremonial plazas in the West Indies. New Haven: Department of

  13. Development and experiment on solid forming machine with planetary wheel style internal and external taper roller flat die%行星轮式内外锥辊固体燃料平模成型机研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜瑞; 甘声豹; 李粤; 梁栋; 郑侃

    2014-01-01

    . For now, biomass fuels are the main screw extrusion molding equipment, piston-type and roller die stamping. Roll mode compacted biomass molding machines are most widely used for it has a simple structure, being both compact and easy to use. Flat molding machines are one of the biomass briquetting machines. Flat molding machines applied on the market currently are mostly single pairs of straight rollers, using pulleys and gears for a 2-stage-transmission, and are mainly used with woody biomass, wheat straw, corn stalks, forestry waste and other raw materials. But there is not much research on the use of molding machines for solid fuel made of mixed raw materials such as tropical crop residues, including banana stalks, coconut shell, and sugarcane leaves. In the existing operation processes of die-cutting (flat molding) machines, the vertical rollers (straight press roller) have a more serious abrasion. And in order to achieve a greater transmission ratio, the 2-stage-transmission system applied will make the size of the complete machine too large. To solve the above problems, this paper research designed a tapered roller planetary wheel and an outside molding machine solid fuel level and describes the main components of the aircraft structure. This paper also focuses on the motion analysis and stress analysis of the roll device and determines the optimum value of the key parameter. Performance test results show that:In the case when motor power is 45 kW, cone roll revolution speed is 190 r/min and rotation speed is 543 r/min and the feed conveyor means is 3 kW. The production rate is 850 kg/h, pellet fuel forming rate is 96.5%, particle mass density is 1.25 g/cm3, and the moisture content of the particles after forming is 2.82%, mechanical durability is 96.74%, comply with the requirements of biomass pellet fuel molding. The whole working process with low noise and smooth operation, it has significant economic and ecological benefits and provides a reference for China

  14. Application of cogeneration technology of gas-liquid-solid products pyrolyzed from crop straw%农作物秸秆热解多联产技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘标; 陈应泉; 何涛; 杨海平; 王贤华; 陈汉平

    2013-01-01

      农作物秸秆是重要的可再生能源,开发先进高效的秸秆利用技术,有助于缓解能源危机,增加废弃物资源的二次化利用,降低环境污染。该文介绍了一种新型的农作物秸秆固定床干馏釜气固液联产技术,并以湖北省天门市杨林办集中供气示范站为商业化运行典型案例进行了经济效益分析。农作物秸秆固定床干馏釜气固液联产技术可以同时产出中等热值(8~12 MJ/m3)的民用燃气和低位发热量达到28 MJ/kg 的生物质焦炭,此外还有一定应用潜力的木焦油和木醋液。现有规模商业化运行,电价和用工成本的大幅上升降低了集中供气示范站的经济效益。%To improve the standard of living in rural areas, many distributed gas stations were constructed in Hubei province, and these stations were based on the biomass-polygeneration technology which could produce charcoal, fuel gas and bio-oil simultaneously. This paper presented a theoperational process and the character of products of a typical station. The gas station consisted of a biomass pretreatment system, retort equipment, condensation and purification system, gas storage tank, and pipeline. At first, agricultural straws were dried until their moisture content was below 12%. Subsequently, the dried straws were briquetted, and these briquettes were placed in an orderly manner in the retort equipment. The fuel gas or straws were combusted to supply heat for the pyrolysis process of the briquettes. A complete pyrolysis process would take above 8 hours. At the beginning of 2-3 hours, a large amount of water was formed from external water and bound water when the temperature was controlled below 250℃. At this stage, the gas product consisted of CO2, CO, and water vapor, and the heat value was rather lower, therefore, these gases would combust. After the gas product was heated about 5~6 hours, the temperature of the retort was up to 600℃, then, the

  15. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used

  16. Surface gear - connecting rod analysis and application of composite structure%端曲面齿轮-连杆复合机构的特性分析与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林超; 何春江; 蔡志钦

    2015-01-01

    analyze the selection method and principle of correlation parameters in surface gear pair design, and the solid simulation model of the surface gear pair and the briquetting machine model were established. And the movement simulation was done by importing the mechanism into the ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). The composited mechanism was produced by CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) machine, and the related experiment was finished in 2015. In the experiment, the surface gear was as the input part (constant rotating speed) and the slider as the output part (the displacement). During the experiment, the slider can realize the reciprocating movement. The displacement and velocity of the slider were recorded every 4 s, and the recording time was 60 s to reduce the conflict from assembly error. Compared with the theoretical data, the error of the gear pair, displacement, velocity and acceleration were 2.8%, 0%, 3.4% and 3.6%, respectively. These data confirm the correctness of the theoretical analysis, which has a guiding significance for subsequent similar research.%为研究异形齿轮及其与其他机构复合之后的运动特性,以典型异形齿轮—端曲面齿轮副为例进行研究,根据其相交轴间变传动比的特点结合连杆机构,提出了一种可同时实现预期运动轨迹和运动速度的运动形式,端曲面齿轮—连杆复合运动机构.建立了复合运动机构的传动坐标系,以坐标变换为基础推导了复合机构运动方程,通过矩阵实验软件(matrixlaboratory, MATLAB)分析了复合运动机构的位移、速度和加速度的影响因子及其变化规律.并基于复合机构的传动特性,设计了一种饲草压捆机捆压机构;采用Solidworks和机械系统动力学自动分析(automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems, ADAMS)进行仿真加工,构建了该机构的仿真模型并进行运动仿真分析,同时加工了齿轮副部分进行试验,将试验结果与 MATLAB

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2002-01-01

    invasion. New York: Viking, 1999. xix + 408 pp. -Alex Dupuy, John R. Ballard, Upholding democracy: The United States military campaign in Haiti, 1994-1997. Westport CT: Praeger, 1998. xviii + 263 pp. -Anthony Payne, Jerry Haar ,Canadian-Caribbean relations in transition: Trade, sustainable development and security. London: Macmillan, 1999. xxii + 255 pp., Anthony T. Bryan (eds -Bonham C. Richardson, Sergio Díaz-Briquets ,Conquering nature: The environmental legacy of socialism in Cuba. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2000. xiii + 328 pp., Jorge Pérez-López (eds -Neil L. Whitehead, Gérard Collomb ,Na'na Kali'na: Une histoire des Kali'na en Guyane. Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe: Ibis Rouge Editions, 2000. 145 pp., Félix Tiouka (eds -Neil L. Whitehead, Upper Mazaruni Amerinidan District Council, Amerinidan Peoples Association of Guyana, Forest Peoples Programme, Indigenous peoples, land rights and mining in the Upper Mazaruni. Nijmegan, Netherlands: Global Law Association, 2000. 132 pp. -Salikoko S. Mufwene, Ronald F. Kephart, 'Broken English': The Creole language of Carriacou. New York: Peter Lang, 2000. xvi + 203 pp. -Salikoko S. Mufwene, Velma Pollard, Dread talk: The language of Rastafari. Kingston: Canoe Press: Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. Revised edition, 2000. xv + 117 pp.

  18. A Complex Use of the Materials Extracted from an Open-Cast Lignite Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryan, Petr; Bučko, Zdeněk; Mika, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The company Sokolovská uhelná, was the largest producer of city gas in the Czech Republic. After its substitution by natural gas the gasification technology became the basis of the production of electricity in the combine cycle power plant with total output 400 MW. For the possibility of gasification of liquid by- -products forming during the coal gasification a entrained-flow gasifier capable to process also alternative liquid fuels has been in installed. The concentrated waste gas with these sulphur compounds is conducted to the desulphurisation where the highly desired, pure, 96 % H2SO4 is produced. Briquettable brown coal is crushed, milled and dried and then it is passed into briquetting presses where briquettes, used mainly as a fuel in households, are pressed without binder in the punch under the pressure of 175 MPa. Fine brown coal dust (multidust) is commercially used for heat production in pulverized-coal burners. It forms not only during coal drying after separation on electrostatic separators, but it is also acquired by milling of dried coal in a vibratory bar mill. Slag from boilers of classical power plant, cinder form generators and ashes deposited at the dump are dehydrated and they are used as a quality bedding material during construction of communications in the mines of SUAS. Fly ash is used in building industry for partial substitution of cement in concrete. Flue gases after separation of fly ash are desulphurized by wet limestone method, where the main product is gypsum used, among others, in the building industry. Expanded clays from overburdens of coal seams, that are raw material for the production of "Liapor" artificial aggregate, are used heavily. This artificial aggregate is characterized by outstanding thermal and acoustic insulating properties. Przedsiębiorstwo Sokolovska uhelna jest największym producentem gazu miejskiego w Republice Czeskiej. Po jego zastąpieniu przez gaz ziemny, technologia gazyfikacji stała się podstawą do

  19. 苎麻茎秆力学模型的试验分析%Experimental analysis on mechanical model of ramie stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈成; 李显旺; 田昆鹏; 张彬; 黄继承; 陈巧敏

    2015-01-01

    , material thickness thick. Compressive test briquetting was used. Thus, radial comprehensive stress-strain curve of each sample group was obtained. In bending test, xylem and stalk samples were 10 groups of samples with the length of about 120 mm. The sample cross section was tube-shape, and external and inner diameter was decided by material conditions. Sample was placed between the support and pressure head of three-point bending test fixture. Span of the support was 80 mm, pre-tightening force when starting was less than 5 N, and test loading rate was 5 mm/min. Radial bending force-deformation curve was obtained. At last, all elastic parameters of ramie stalk mechanical model were obtained with analysis of test data. The radial compressive elasticity modulus were 9.73 MPa (stalk), 10.34 MPa (xylem) and 8.03 MPa (phloem); the axis tensile elasticity modulus were 466.17 MPa (stalk), 320.92 MPa (xylem) and 2409.22 MPa (phloem); the radial bending shear modulus were 39.77 MPa (stalk), 69.02 MPa (xylem) and 33.80 MPa (phloem), the axis torsional shear modulus were 3.74 MPa (stalk), 3.98 MPa (xylem) and 3.09 MPa (phloem), the Poisson's ratios of plane XZ of each parts was assumed to 0.3, and the Poisson's ratios of plane XZ and the Poisson's ratios of plane XZ were equal, the values were <0.0269 (stalk), <0.0451 (xylem) and <0.0043 (phloem). Meanwhile, the test results of paper showed that the axial tension of ramie stalk played the load-bearing role much more in the xylem, and the adhesive force in the phloem and xylem was incapable to prevent the phloem from sliding along the surface of xylem; the measurement value of elastic parameter in the radial direction of ramie stalk was closed to the calculated value gained by calculating the elastic parameters of each fraction, and the radial direction of ramie stalk could match the characteristics of composite materials. In conclusion, the assumption of the composite model adopted in the experiment is reasonable, and experimental