WorldWideScience

Sample records for bringing molecular tools

  1. Bringing molecules back into molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus O Wilke

    Full Text Available Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models and simulations to identify fundamental principles of molecular evolution; and atom-level, highly realistic computational modeling of molecular structure and function aimed at making predictions about possible future evolutionary events.

  2. Intrageneric Primer Design: Bringing Bioinformatics Tools to the Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andre O. S.; Garces, Sergio P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioinformatics is one of the fastest growing scientific areas over the last decade. It focuses on the use of informatics tools for the organization and analysis of biological data. An example of their importance is the availability nowadays of dozens of software programs for genomic and proteomic studies. Thus, there is a growing field (private…

  3. Bringing the Tools of Big Science to Bear on Local Environmental Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Scott; Jones, Keith W.; Brown, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We describe an interactive collaborative environmental education project that makes advanced laboratory facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory accessible for one-year or multi-year science projects for the high school level. Cyber-enabled Environmental Science (CEES) utilizes web conferencing software to bring multi-disciplinary,…

  4. Can agile software tools bring the benefits of a task board to globally distributed teams?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsma, Christiaan; Amrit, Chintan; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Sikkel, Klaas; Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia; Willcocks, Leslie P.

    2013-01-01

    Software-based tooling has become an essential part of globally disitrbuted software development. In this study we focus on the usage of such tools and task boards in particular. We investigate the deployment of these tools through a field research in 4 different companies that feature agile and glo

  5. MDMovie: a molecular dynamics viewing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J P

    1996-10-01

    The graphics program MDMovie (Molecular Dynamics Movie), written in C using IRIS GL graphics library calls, is designed to facilitate the visualization and interpretation of empirical force field data. MDMovie was created and initially adapted in accord with the needs of physical chemists and thereafter became an expandable analysis tool. Capabilities include the display of chemical structure, animation of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo trajectories, and the visual representation of various vector and scalar dynamical properties. In addition to being a research tool, MDMovie has features for creating presentation videos and hardcopy output. A library is also available for linking to Fortran simulation codes running on a remote machine and connecting to MDMovie via a socket connection. MDMovie continues to be an ongoing research project and new features are actively being added in collaboration with various research groups. Future plans include porting to OpenGL and the design of an XII-based user interface.

  6. Bringing the Tools of Big Science to Bear on Local Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bronson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an interactive collaborative environmental education project that makes advanced laboratory facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory accessible for one-year or multi-yearscience projects for the high school level. Cyber-enabled Environmental Science (CEES utilizes web conferencing software to bring multi-disciplinary, inquiry-based research opportunities to Districts who wish to participate. CEES serves as a model to show howstudents involved in distance learning and experimentation can engage in exciting, state-of-theart research to that enhances their skills for future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM careers. High school research opportunities through CEES support all seven NewYork State Standards for mathematics, science and technology (MST, Common Core and 12 of the National Geography Standards.

  7. Aptamers: molecular tools for analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, Teresa; Ozalp, Veli Cengiz; Lozano Sánchez, Pablo; Mir, Mònica; Katakis, Ioanis; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2008-02-01

    Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands, specifically generated against certain targets, such as amino acids, drugs, proteins or other molecules. In nature they exist as a nucleic acid based genetic regulatory element called a riboswitch. For generation of artificial ligands, they are isolated from combinatorial libraries of synthetic nucleic acid by exponential enrichment, via an in vitro iterative process of adsorption, recovery and reamplification known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Thanks to their unique characteristics and chemical structure, aptamers offer themselves as ideal candidates for use in analytical devices and techniques. Recent progress in the aptamer selection and incorporation of aptamers into molecular beacon structures will ensure the application of aptamers for functional and quantitative proteomics and high-throughput screening for drug discovery, as well as in various analytical applications. The properties of aptamers as well as recent developments in improved, time-efficient methods for their selection and stabilization are outlined. The use of these powerful molecular tools for analysis and the advantages they offer over existing affinity biocomponents are discussed. Finally the evolving use of aptamers in specific analytical applications such as chromatography, ELISA-type assays, biosensors and affinity PCR as well as current avenues of research and future perspectives conclude this review. PMID:17581746

  8. Healthcare, molecular tools and applied genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M

    2000-11-01

    Biotechnology 2000 offered a rare opportunity for scientists from academia and industry to present and discuss data in fields as diverse as environmental biotechnology and applied genome research. The healthcare section of the meeting encompassed a number of gene therapy delivery systems that are successfully treating genetic disorders. Beta-thalassemia is being corrected in mice by continous erythropoeitin delivery from engineered muscles cells, and from naked DNA electrotransfer into muscles, as described by Dr JM Heard (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). Dr Reszka (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin, Berlin, Germany), meanwhile, described a treatment for liver metastasis in the form of a drug carrier emolization system, DCES (Max-Delbrueck-Centrum fuer Molekulare Medizin), composed of surface modified liposomes and a substance for chemo-occlusion, which drastically reduces the blood supply to the tumor and promotes apoptosis, necrosis and antiangiogenesis. In the molecular tools section, Willem Stemmer (Maxygen Inc, Redwood City, CA, USA) gave an insight into the importance that techniques, such as molecular breeding (DNA shuffling), have in the evolution of molecules with improved function, over a range of fields including pharmaceuticals, vaccines, agriculture and chemicals. Technologies, such as ribosome display, which can incorporate the evolution and the specific enrichment of proteins/peptides in cycles of selection, could play an enormous role in the production of novel therapeutics and diagnostics in future years, as explained by Andreas Plückthun (Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland). Applied genome research offered technologies, such as the 'in vitro expression cloning', described by Dr Zwick (Promega Corp, Madison, WI, USA), are providing a functional analysis for the overwhelming flow of data emerging from high-throughput sequencing of genomes and from high-density gene expression microarrays (DNA chips). The

  9. Molecular Tools for Exploring Polyploid Genomes in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Carputo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a very common phenomenon in the plant kingdom, where even diploid species are often described as paleopolyploids. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid progenitors or exceed the range of the contributing species. Some of these traits may play a role in heterosis or could favor adaptation to new ecological niches. Advances in genomics and sequencing technology may create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring the molecular effects of polyploidization. Through this review, we provide an overview of technologies and strategies that may allow an in-depth analysis of polyploid genomes. After introducing some basic aspects on the origin and genetics of polyploids, we highlight the main tools available for genome and gene expression analysis and summarize major findings. In the last part of this review, the implications of next generation sequencing are briefly discussed. The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  10. Developing molecular tools for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor-Mohammadi, Samaneh

    Microalgae have garnered increasing interest over the years for their ability to produce compounds ranging from biofuels to neutraceuticals. A main focus of researchers has been to use microalgae as a natural bioreactor for the production of valuable and complex compounds. Recombinant protein expression in the chloroplasts of green algae has recently become more routine; however, the heterologous expression of multiple proteins or complete biosynthetic pathways remains a significant challenge. To take full advantage of these organisms' natural abilities, sophisticated molecular tools are needed to be able to introduce and functionally express multiple gene biosynthetic pathways in its genome. To achieve the above objective, we have sought to establish a method to construct, integrate and express multigene operons in the chloroplast and nuclear genome of the model microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here we show that a modified DNA Assembler approach can be used to rapidly assemble multiple-gene biosynthetic pathways in yeast and then integrate these assembled pathways at a site-specific location in the chloroplast, or by random integration in the nuclear genome of C. reinhardtii. As a proof of concept, this method was used to successfully integrate and functionally express up to three reporter proteins (AphA6, AadA, and GFP) in the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii and up to three reporter proteins (Ble, AphVIII, and GFP) in its nuclear genome. An analysis of the relative gene expression of the engineered strains showed significant differences in the mRNA expression levels of the reporter genes and thus highlights the importance of proper promoter/untranslated-region selection when constructing a target pathway. In addition, this work focuses on expressing the cofactor regeneration enzyme phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH) in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of C. reinhardtii. The PTDH enzyme converts phosphite into phosphate and NAD(P)+ into NAD(P)H. The reduced

  11. Molecular markers: tools to improve genebank efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.; Treuren, van R.

    2002-01-01

    Possibilities for using molecular markers to improve genebank efficiency are increasingly present thanks to developments in genebanks and developments in molecular genetics. These possibilities relate to all aspects of genebank management: acquisition, maintenance, characterisation and utilisation.

  12. Diversity-dependence brings molecular phylogenies closer to agreement with the fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, Rampal S.; Haegeman, Bart; Stadler, Tanja; Aze, Tracy; Pearson, Paul N.; Purvis, Andy; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2012-01-01

    The branching times of molecular phylogenies allow us to infer speciation and extinction dynamics even when fossils are absent. Troublingly, phylogenetic approaches usually return estimates of zero extinction, conflicting with fossil evidence. Phylogenies and fossils do agree, however, that there ar

  13. Biorefinery: a design tool for molecular gelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Shankar, Balachandran Vijai; Jadhav, Swapnil R; Vemula, Praveen Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Molecular gels, the macroscopic products of a nanoscale bottom-up strategy, have emerged as a promising functional soft material. The prospects of tailoring the architecture of gelator molecules have led to the formation of unique, highly tunable gels for a wide spectrum of applications from medicine to electronics. Biorefinery is a concept that integrates the processes of converting biomass/renewable feedstock and the associated infrastructure used to produce chemicals and materials, which is analogous to petroleum-based refinery. The current review assimilates the successful efforts to demonstrate the prospects of the biorefinery concept for developing new amphiphiles as molecular gelators. Amphiphiles based on naturally available raw materials such as amygdalin, vitamin C, cardanol, arjunolic acid, and trehalose that possess specific functionality were synthesized using biocatalysis and/or chemical synthesis. The hydrogels and organogels obtained from such amphiphiles were conceptually demonstrated for diverse applications including drug-delivery systems and the templated synthesis of hybrid materials. PMID:20465204

  14. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm as well as parallel execution of the hybrid simulation. We describe the implementational concept of the tool and its parallel extensions. We particularly focus on the parallel execution of particle insertions into dense molecular systems and propose a respective parallel algorithm. Our implementations are validated for serial and parallel setups in two and three dimensions. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. DockingShop: A Tool for Interactive Molecular Docking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ting-Cheng; Max, Nelson L.; Ding, Jinhui; Bethel, E. Wes; Crivelli, Silvia N.

    2005-04-24

    Given two independently determined molecular structures, the molecular docking problem predicts the bound association, or best fit between them, while allowing for conformational changes of the individual molecules during construction of a molecular complex. Docking Shop is an integrated environment that permits interactive molecular docking by navigating a ligand or protein to an estimated binding site of a receptor with real-time graphical feedback of scoring factors as visual guides. Our program can be used to create initial configurations for a protein docking prediction process. Its output--the structure of aprotein-ligand or protein-protein complex--may serve as an input for aprotein docking algorithm, or an optimization process. This tool provides molecular graphics interfaces for structure modeling, interactive manipulation, navigation, optimization, and dynamic visualization to aid users steer the prediction process using their biological knowledge.

  16. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease.

  17. Tools of the trade: studying molecular networks in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proost, Sebastian; Mutwil, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Driven by recent technological improvements, genes can be now studied in a larger biological context. Genes and their protein products rarely operate as a single entity and large-scale mapping by protein-protein interactions can unveil the molecular complexes that form in the cell to carry out various functions. Expression analysis under multiple conditions, supplemented with protein-DNA binding data can highlight when genes are active and how they are regulated. Representing these data in networks and finding strongly connected sub-graphs has proven to be a powerful tool to predict the function of unknown genes. As such networks are gradually becoming available for various plant species, it becomes possible to study how networks evolve. This review summarizes currently available network data and related tools for plants. Furthermore we aim to provide an outlook of future analyses that can be done in plants based on work done in other fields.

  18. Monitoring bioremediation of atrazine in soil microcosms using molecular tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular tools in microbial community analysis give access to information on catabolic potential and diversity of microbes. Applied in bioremediation, they could provide a new dimension to improve pollution control. This concept has been demonstrated in the study using atrazine as model pollutant. Bioremediation of the herbicide, atrazine, was analyzed in microcosm studies by bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. Genes from the atrazine degrading pathway atzA/B/C/D/E/F, trzN, and trzD were monitored during the course of treatment and results demonstrated variation in atzC, trzD and trzN genes with time. Change in copy number of trzN gene under different treatment processes was demonstrated by real-time PCR. The amplified trzN gene was cloned and sequence data showed homology to genes reported in Arthrobacter and Nocardioides. Results demonstrate that specific target genes can be monitored, quantified and correlated to degradation analysis which would help in predicting the outcome of any bioremediation strategy. - Highlights: ► Degradation of herbicide, atrazine. ► Comparison of bioremediation via bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. ► Gene profile analysis in all treatments. ► Variation in trzN gene numbers correlated to degradation efficiency. ► Cloning and sequence analysis of trzN gene demonstrates very high homology to reported gene. - This study demonstrates the use of molecular tools in bioremediation to monitor and track target genes; correlates the results with degradation and thereby predicts the efficiency of treatment.

  19. Earth Exploration Toolbook Workshops: Web-Conferencing and Teleconferencing Professional Development Bringing Earth Science Data Analysis and Visualization Tools to K-12 Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, C.; Ledley, T.

    2008-12-01

    our participants reported that they have not tried to locate a teaching resource in DLESE and forty-eight percent report that they have not to locate a teaching resource in NSDL. As part of an EET Data Analysis workshop, teachers actively visit both digital libraries. Virtual workshops using Web conferencing and teleconferencing are an effective and convenient way to deliver professional development that brings teachers from all over the nation together to learn new technology. Teachers report that the step-by-step facilitation along with the ability to ask questions and interact with their peers are some of the most useful aspects of the workshop. In this presentation, we will share successes and challenges of teachers as they implement these Earth science data analysis and visualization tools in their classrooms.

  20. Optogenetics: Molecular and Optical Tools for Controlling Life with Light

    OpenAIRE

    Boyden, Edward Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic tools are genetically-encoded reagents that, when targeted to specific brain cells, enable their activity to be controlled by light. These tools are having broad impact on science, and may serve clinical roles as well. 150-word Biography: Ed Boyden is Associate Professor of Biological Engineering and Brain and Cognitive Sciences, at the MIT Media Lab and the MIT McGovern Institute. He leads the Synthetic Neurobiology Group, which develops tools for analyzing and engineering the ci...

  1. Molecular beacon – tool for real time studying gene activity in stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Dufva, Martin

    and cancerogenesis. Molecular beacon technology is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and the complementary pairing principles. These fluorescent molecular probes are highly specific and sensitive and are one important tool in in vitro diagnostics. Here molecular beacons are used to follow...

  2. Molecular techniques as complementary tools in orchid mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchid breeders have always been dependent on hybridization technology to produce new orchid hybrids and varieties. The technology has proven very reliable and easy to use and has produced wide range of successful cultivars with attractive combinations of spray length, bud number, flower colour and form, vase life, fragrance, seasonality, and compactness. By introducing mutagenesis however, wide variations of flower colours, form and size can still be obtained in addition to overcoming the problem of sexual incompatibility and sterility. In addition, complementary use of molecular techniques will allow breeders to target more specific characteristic changes and cut short breeding time. PCR-based techniques used to analyse the DNA of mutagenic clones found polymorphic fragments that can be developed as molecular markers. This paper describes how mutagenesis and molecular techniques can be used to enhance orchid breeding efforts. (author)

  3. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh; Thibault Desbois; Daniele Romanini; Detlef Schiel; Olav Werhahn

    2011-01-01

    We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM) method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS), and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are ...

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation: A tool for exploration and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, Dennis C.

    2009-03-01

    The exploratory and didactic aspects of science both benefit from the ever-growing role played by computer simulation. One particularly important simulational approach is the molecular dynamics method, used for studying the nature of matter from the molecular to much larger scales. The effectiveness of molecular dynamics can be enhanced considerably by employing visualization and interactivity during the course of the computation and afterwards, allowing the modeler not only to observe the detailed behavior of the systems simulated in different ways, but also to steer the computations in alternative directions by manipulating parameters that govern the actual behavior. This facilitates the creation of potentially rich simulational environments for examining a multitude of complex phenomena, as well as offering an opportunity for enriching the learning process. A series of relatively advanced examples involving molecular dynamics will be used to demonstrate the value of this approach, in particular, atomistic simulations of spontaneously emergent structured fluid flows (the classic Rayleigh--B'enard and Taylor--Couette problems), supramolecular self-assembly of highly symmetric shell structures (involved in the formation of viral capsids), and that most counterintuitive of phenomena, granular segregation (e.g., axial and radial separation in a rotating cylinder).

  5. Bring Your Own Toy: Socialisation of Two-Year-Olds through Tool-Mediated Activities in an Australian Early Childhood Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne; Pramling, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on how young children are socialised in early childhood education practice in activities with and around toys. A premise of this study is the theoretical notion of sociocultural theory that people do things with artefacts and other cultural tools, and tools do things with people. This is captured in the unit of analysis,…

  6. Laser induced electron diffraction: a tool for molecular orbital imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Michel; Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman

    2012-01-01

    We explore the laser-induced ionization dynamics of N2 and CO2 molecules subjected to a few-cycle, linearly polarized, 800\\,nm laser pulse using effective two-dimensional single active electron time-dependent quantum simulations. We show that the electron recollision process taking place after an initial tunnel ionization stage results in quantum interference patterns in the energy resolved photo-electron signals. If the molecule is initially aligned perpendicular to the field polarization, the position and relative heights of the associated fringes can be related to the molecular geometrical and orbital structure, using a simple inversion algorithm which takes into account the symmetry of the initial molecular orbital from which the ionized electron is produced. We show that it is possible to extract inter-atomic distances in the molecule from an averaged photon-electron signal with an accuracy of a few percents.

  7. Molecular Imaging: A Promising Tool to Monitor Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of insulin production by pancreatic islet transplantation has great potential as a therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. At present, the lack of an effective approach to islet grafts assessment limits the success of this treatment. The development of molecular imaging techniques has the potential to fulfill the goal of real-time noninvasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of the islet grafts. We review the application of a variety of imaging modalities for detecting endogenous and transplanted beta-cell mass. The review also explores the various molecular imaging strategies for assessing islet delivery, the metabolic effects on the islet grafts as well as detection of immunorejection. Here, we highlight the use of combined imaging and therapeutic interventions in islet transplantation and the in vivo monitoring of stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

  8. Molecular tools for investigating ANME community structure and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallam, Steven J.; Page, Antoine P.; Constan, Lea; Song, Young C.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Brewer, Heather M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2011-05-20

    Methane production and consumption in anaerobic marine sediments 1 is catalyzed by a series of reversible tetramethanopterin (H4MPT)-linked C1 transfer reactions. Although many of these reactions are conserved between one-carbon compound utilizing microorganisms, two remain diagnostic for archaeal methane metabolism. These include reactions catalyzed by N5-methyltetrahydromethanopterin: coenzyme M methyltransferase and methyl coenzyme M reductase. The latter enzyme is central to C-H bond formation and cleavage underlying methanogenic and reverse methanogenic phenotypes. Here we describe a set of novel tools for the detection and functional analysis of H4MPT-linked C1 transfer reactions mediated by uncultivated anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME). These tools include polymerase chain reaction primers targeting ANME methyl coenzyme M reductase subunit A subgroups and protein extraction methods from marine sediments compatible with high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling population structure and functional dynamics. [910, 1,043

  9. Bringing reality into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Heck

    2009-01-01

    Technology offers ample opportunities to bring reality into the classroom. Students and teachers nowadays have many tools to work in an authentic way with real data in mathematics and science education. However, much research and development are still needed to create a consistent learning trajector

  10. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM) method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS), and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are in agreement with respective gravimetric values, showing that the TILSAM method is feasible with all different techniques. We emphasize the data quality objectives given by traceability issues and uncertainty analyses.

  11. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS, and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS, all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are in agreement with respective gravimetric values, showing that the TILSAM method is feasible with all different techniques. We emphasize the data quality objectives given by traceability issues and uncertainty analyses.

  12. Molecular tools in understanding the evolution of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Habibur; Islam, Tarequl; Colwell, Rita R; Alam, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, has been a scourge for centuries. Cholera remains a serious health threat for developing countries and has been responsible for millions of deaths globally over the past 200 years. Identification of V. cholerae has been accomplished using a variety of methods, ranging from phenotypic strategies to DNA based molecular typing and currently whole genomic approaches. This array of methods has been adopted in epidemiological investigations, either singly or in the aggregate, and more recently for evolutionary analyses of V. cholerae. Because the new technologies have been developed at an ever increasing pace, this review of the range of fingerprinting strategies, their relative advantages and limitations, and cholera case studies was undertaken. The task was challenging, considering the vast amount of the information available. To assist the study, key references representative of several areas of research are provided with the intent to provide readers with a comprehensive view of recent advances in the molecular epidemiology of V. cholerae. Suggestions for ways to obviate many of the current limitations of typing techniques are also provided. In summary, a comparative report has been prepared that includes the range from traditional typing to whole genomic strategies.

  13. Culture-Independent Molecular Tools for Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer M. Schenk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of methods for studying the structure, diversity, and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses of the rhizosphere have given new insights into the role of microbial communities in plant nutrition and plant protection against diseases. In this review, we present the most commonly used traditional as well as new culture-independent molecular methods to assess the diversity and function of soil microbial communities. Furthermore, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and provide a perspective on emerging technologies for soil microbial community profiling.

  14. 2. Molecular Biology as a Tool in Cancer Epidemiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@There can be little doubt that we are entering a new era in our understanding of the origins of human cancer. Unfortunately from the point of view of the cancer epidemiology community, some of the more recent advances in the molecular biology of cancer (once fully assimilated) will tend to make the talk of the up-to-date cancer epidemiologist a great deal less straightforward than many of us had previously envisaged it to be, There may still be a few cancers that will prove to result from only a few distinctive types of mutation in a relatively small number of genes, but I strongly suspect that the great majority of human cancers that we wish to study will prove to have their origins in a complex set of DNA changes whose precise

  15. Using reflexive tools for coping and bringing closure in pediatric palliative care: A music therapist's story of working with a terminally ill child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Rigney

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the therapeutic journey of a newly qualified music therapist and a young girl with terminal cancer. As well as describing the clinical sessions with this young girl and her family, it includes personal reflections from the journal of the therapist, used as a method of self-review and clarification of thoughts and feelings following each session. The aim of this paper is to narrate the music therapy journey with Tina * from the music therapist's perspective, and to share my thoughts and feelings on coping while working with terminally ill children. In addition to outlining the significance of using reflexive tools for this type of work as a way to improve coping skills and to work more effectively when the future with your client is uncertain, I hope to encourage further others to share their work in pediatric palliative care.

  16. Bringing together hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users through the WebGIS tool SPIDER in the context of the SIRIUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Osann, Anna; Calera, Alfonso; Moreno-Rivera, Juan Manuel; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquin; Solera, Abel; Fernández, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Scientific expertise on irrigated agriculture or hydrological modelling has achieved advance models with tested results. However, real connexions between this knowledge and its applications, and water end-users (either water managers on the field, or water policy makers) need a meeting point. According with the main aim of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) in order to provide global, timely and easily accessible information in applications like land and water management, the EU-project SIRIUS (Sustainable Irrigation water management and River-basin governance: Implementing User-driven Services, www.sirius-gmes.es), is linking hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users, through the webGIS tool SPIDER (System of Participatory Information, Decision support and Expert knowledge for River basin water management). The models employed are AQUATOOL (http://www.upv.es/aquatool/) and HidroMORE+® (http://www.hidromore.es/). AQUATOOL is a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of the water resources in a river basin which integrates in a comprehensive way all relevant water elements and its interactions, in order to provide different scenarios that incorporate water offers and demands. On the other hand, HidroMORE+® computes spatially distributed water balance components remote sensing driven, in large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution. Mainly applied to irrigation practices, HidroMORE+® is aimed to monitories the crop evolutions and water demands. Either AQUATOOL products such scenario reports, or HidroMORE+® products such time series of the water balance components can be integrated in SPIDER, which has been designed to display all these types of products. However, a general feature of models is that they often provide too many parameters, which makes it very difficult for non-experts to understand. Then, it is needed to select among the output variables those that provide maximum useful information, according

  17. GliomaPredict: a clinically useful tool for assigning glioma patients to specific molecular subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Howard A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in generating genome-wide gene expression data have accelerated the development of molecular-based tumor classification systems. Tools that allow the translation of such molecular classification schemas from research into clinical applications are still missing in the emerging era of personalized medicine. Results We developed GliomaPredict as a computational tool that allows the fast and reliable classification of glioma patients into one of six previously published stratified subtypes based on sets of extensively validated classifiers derived from hundreds of glioma transcriptomic profiles. Our tool utilizes a principle component analysis (PCA-based approach to generate a visual representation of the analyses, quantifies the confidence of the underlying subtype assessment and presents results as a printable PDF file. GliomaPredict tool is implemented as a plugin application for the widely-used GenePattern framework. Conclusions GliomaPredict provides a user-friendly, clinically applicable novel platform for instantly assigning gene expression-based subtype in patients with gliomas thereby aiding in clinical trial design and therapeutic decision-making. Implemented as a user-friendly diagnostic tool, we expect that in time GliomaPredict, and tools like it, will become routinely used in translational/clinical research and in the clinical care of patients with gliomas.

  18. A global indicator as a tool to follow airborne molecular contamination in a controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariou, Stéphane; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Pépin, Laurence; Kaluzny, Pascal; Faure, Louis-Paul

    2005-02-01

    The impact of pollutants on production quality in nanotechnology necessitates reduction of contaminant levels in cleanrooms. So, devising a global airborne-pollutant indicator (GAPI) for rapid determination of the level of pollution and its danger to the process is justified. This tool used relative impact weights of the different molecules to quantify the pollution. A calculation of impact weight is proposed in this paper. Impact weights could take into account several characteristics of the molecules (molecular volume, sticking coefficient, ...). They could also be combined to be as close as possible to reality. An example of calculations of the impact of molecular volumes on air quality is given.

  19. Bringing focus to entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Skelton (Tim); J.J.P. Jansen (Justin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFostering entrepreneurship has long been a core part of the RSM ethos. But a new centre bringing together some key players promises to take this philosophy to a new and even more successful level.

  20. Solvation thermodynamic mapping of molecular surfaces in AmberTools: GIST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Steven; Nguyen, Crystal; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Walker, Ross C; Gilson, Michael K; Kurtzman, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The expulsion of water from surfaces upon molecular recognition and nonspecific association makes a major contribution to the free energy changes of these processes. In order to facilitate the characterization of water structure and thermodynamics on surfaces, we have incorporated Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory (GIST) into the CPPTRAJ toolset of AmberTools. GIST is a grid-based implementation of Inhomogeneous Fluid Solvation Theory, which analyzes the output from molecular dynamics simulations to map out solvation thermodynamic and structural properties on a high-resolution, three-dimensional grid. The CPPTRAJ implementation, called GIST-cpptraj, has a simple, easy-to-use command line interface, and is open source and freely distributed. We have also developed a set of open-source tools, called GISTPP, which facilitate the analysis of GIST output grids. Tutorials for both GIST-cpptraj and GISTPP can be found at ambermd.org. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27317094

  1. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Kathryn A; Shearman, Deborah CA; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Sved, John A; Morrow, Jennifer L; Sherwin, William B; Riegler, Markus; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control ...

  2. DETERMINACIÓN DE SEXO EN AVES MEDIANTE HERRAMIENTAS MOLECULARES Sex Determination In Birds By Molecular Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUBIA E MATTA CAMACHO

    Full Text Available La ausencia de dimorfismo sexual en los estadios juveniles y durante la edad adulta de gran cantidad de especies de aves, dificulta o imposibilita la determinación del sexo basados en el fenotipo. El empleo de marcadores moleculares para determinar el sexo de las aves es una herramienta útil debido a la exactitud y rapidez de los resultados y a su vez se constituye en un método que minimiza el estrés durante la toma de muestra, comparado con otras técnicas invasivas que pudieran afectar la salud o estabilidad biológica del animal. La determinación temprana del sexo en aves resulta de especial relevancia cuando se consideran programas de conservación ex situ, producción, explotación y estudios de ecología de poblaciones. Esta revisión presenta las metodologías usadas para determinar el sexo, haciendo especial énfasis en herramientas moleculares, presentando sus ventajas y limitaciones.The lack of sexual dimorphism in nestling, juvenile or adult birds of large number of avian species, makes it difficult or impossible sex determination based on phenotipic characteristics. To use molecular markers for bird sex determination is a rapid and safe procedure; moreover this methodology minimizes the stress during sampling, compared to other invasive techniques that could affect the health or biological stability of the animal. The early sex determination in birds is of particular importance when considering ex situ conservation programs, production, exploitation or population ecology studies. This review presents the methodologies used to sex determination, making emphasize on molecular tools, showing its advantages and limitations

  3. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related......African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...

  4. FlaME: Flash Molecular Editor - a 2D structure input tool for the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallakian Pavel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, there have been no Flash-based web tools available for chemical structure input. The authors herein present a feasibility study, aiming at the development of a compact and easy-to-use 2D structure editor, using Adobe's Flash technology and its programming language, ActionScript. As a reference model application from the Java world, we selected the Java Molecular Editor (JME. In this feasibility study, we made an attempt to realize a subset of JME's functionality in the Flash Molecular Editor (FlaME utility. These basic capabilities are: structure input, editing and depiction of single molecules, data import and export in molfile format. Implementation The result of molecular diagram sketching in FlaME is accessible in V2000 molfile format. By integrating the molecular editor into a web page, its communication with the HTML elements on this page is established using the two JavaScript functions, getMol( and setMol(. In addition, structures can be copied to the system clipboard. Conclusion A first attempt was made to create a compact single-file application for 2D molecular structure input/editing on the web, based on Flash technology. With the application examples presented in this article, it could be demonstrated that the Flash methods are principally well-suited to provide the requisite communication between the Flash object (application and the HTML elements on a web page, using JavaScript functions.

  5. ms2: A molecular simulation tool for thermodynamic properties, new version release

    CERN Document Server

    Glass, Colin W; Rutkai, Gábor; Deublein, Stephan; Köster, Andreas; Carrión, Gabriela Guevara; Wafai, Amer; Horsch, Martin; Bernreuther, Martin F; Windmann, Thorsten; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran

    2015-01-01

    A new version release (2.0) of the molecular simulation tool ms2 [S. Deublein et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 182 (2011) 2350] is presented. Version 2.0 of ms2 features a hybrid parallelization based on MPI and OpenMP for molecular dynamics simulation to achieve higher scalability. Furthermore, the formalism by Lustig [R. Lustig, Mol. Phys. 110 (2012) 3041] is implemented, allowing for a systematic sampling of Massieu potential derivatives in a single simulation run. Moreover, the Green-Kubo formalism is extended for the sampling of the electric conductivity and the residence time. To remove the restriction of the preceding version to electro-neutral molecules, Ewald summation is implemented to consider ionic long range interactions. Finally, the sampling of the radial distribution function is added.

  6. FlaME: Flash Molecular Editor - a 2D structure input tool for the web

    OpenAIRE

    Dallakian Pavel; Haider Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background So far, there have been no Flash-based web tools available for chemical structure input. The authors herein present a feasibility study, aiming at the development of a compact and easy-to-use 2D structure editor, using Adobe's Flash technology and its programming language, ActionScript. As a reference model application from the Java world, we selected the Java Molecular Editor (JME). In this feasibility study, we made an attempt to realize a subset of JME's functionality i...

  7. Mathematical models in biology bringing mathematics to life

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Maria; Guarracino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an exciting collection of contributions based on the workshop “Bringing Maths to Life” held October 27-29, 2014 in Naples, Italy.  The state-of-the art research in biology and the statistical and analytical challenges facing huge masses of data collection are treated in this Work. Specific topics explored in depth surround the sessions and special invited sessions of the workshop and include genetic variability via differential expression, molecular dynamics and modeling, complex biological systems viewed from quantitative models, and microscopy images processing, to name several. In depth discussions of the mathematical analysis required to extract insights from complex bodies of biological datasets, to aid development in the field novel algorithms, methods and software tools for genetic variability, molecular dynamics, and complex biological systems are presented in this book. Researchers and graduate students in biology, life science, and mathematics/statistics will find the content...

  8. DataGenno: building a new tool to bridge molecular and clinical genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio F Costa

    2011-03-01

    , DataGenno’s system and search engine will be able to provide tools that will facilitate the discovery and description of new genetic syndromes. In conclusion, we believe that DataGenno's portal will be a helpful and innovative tool for health care professionals, scientists, genetic counselors, and other professionals in the clinical genetics field.Keywords: genetic diseases, signs and symptoms, molecular genetics, genomics, search engine, database

  9. BATMAN-TCM: a Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyang; Guo, Feifei; Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Zhang, Xinlei; Li, Honglei; Diao, Lihong; Gu, Jiangyong; Wang, Wei; Li, Dong; He, Fuchu

    2016-02-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), with a history of thousands of years of clinical practice, is gaining more and more attention and application worldwide. And TCM-based new drug development, especially for the treatment of complex diseases is promising. However, owing to the TCM’s diverse ingredients and their complex interaction with human body, it is still quite difficult to uncover its molecular mechanism, which greatly hinders the TCM modernization and internationalization. Here we developed the first online Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM). Its main functions include 1) TCM ingredients’ target prediction; 2) functional analyses of targets including biological pathway, Gene Ontology functional term and disease enrichment analyses; 3) the visualization of ingredient-target-pathway/disease association network and KEGG biological pathway with highlighted targets; 4) comparison analysis of multiple TCMs. Finally, we applied BATMAN-TCM to Qishen Yiqi dripping Pill (QSYQ) and combined with subsequent experimental validation to reveal the functions of renin-angiotensin system responsible for QSYQ’s cardioprotective effects for the first time. BATMAN-TCM will contribute to the understanding of the “multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway” combinational therapeutic mechanism of TCM, and provide valuable clues for subsequent experimental validation, accelerating the elucidation of TCM’s molecular mechanism. BATMAN-TCM is available at http://bionet.ncpsb.org/batman-tcm.

  10. BATMAN-TCM: a Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyang; Guo, Feifei; Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Zhang, Xinlei; Li, Honglei; Diao, Lihong; Gu, Jiangyong; Wang, Wei; Li, Dong; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), with a history of thousands of years of clinical practice, is gaining more and more attention and application worldwide. And TCM-based new drug development, especially for the treatment of complex diseases is promising. However, owing to the TCM's diverse ingredients and their complex interaction with human body, it is still quite difficult to uncover its molecular mechanism, which greatly hinders the TCM modernization and internationalization. Here we developed the first online Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM). Its main functions include 1) TCM ingredients' target prediction; 2) functional analyses of targets including biological pathway, Gene Ontology functional term and disease enrichment analyses; 3) the visualization of ingredient-target-pathway/disease association network and KEGG biological pathway with highlighted targets; 4) comparison analysis of multiple TCMs. Finally, we applied BATMAN-TCM to Qishen Yiqi dripping Pill (QSYQ) and combined with subsequent experimental validation to reveal the functions of renin-angiotensin system responsible for QSYQ's cardioprotective effects for the first time. BATMAN-TCM will contribute to the understanding of the "multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway" combinational therapeutic mechanism of TCM, and provide valuable clues for subsequent experimental validation, accelerating the elucidation of TCM's molecular mechanism. BATMAN-TCM is available at http://bionet.ncpsb.org/batman-tcm. PMID:26879404

  11. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains: a fundamental tool for tuberculosis control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cannas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An improvement of the strategies for disease control is necessary in both low- and high-incidence TB countries. Clinicians, epidemiologists, laboratory specialists, and public health players should work together in order to achieve a significant reduction in TB transmission and spread of drug-resistant strains. Effective TB surveillance relies on early diagnosis of new cases, appropriate therapy, and accurate detection of outbreaks in the community, in order to implement proper TB control strategies. To achieve this goal, information from classical and molecular epidemiology, together with patient clinical data need to be combined. In this review, we summarize the methodologies currently used in molecular epidemiology, namely molecular typing. We will discuss their efficiency to phylogenetically characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, and their ability to provide information that can be useful for disease control. We will also introduce next generation sequencing as the methodology that potentially could provide in a short time both, detection of new outbreaks and identification of resistance patterns. This could envision a potential of next generation sequencing as an important tool for accurate patient management and disease control.

  12. BATMAN-TCM: a Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyang; Guo, Feifei; Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Zhang, Xinlei; Li, Honglei; Diao, Lihong; Gu, Jiangyong; Wang, Wei; Li, Dong; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), with a history of thousands of years of clinical practice, is gaining more and more attention and application worldwide. And TCM-based new drug development, especially for the treatment of complex diseases is promising. However, owing to the TCM’s diverse ingredients and their complex interaction with human body, it is still quite difficult to uncover its molecular mechanism, which greatly hinders the TCM modernization and internationalization. Here we developed the first online Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM). Its main functions include 1) TCM ingredients’ target prediction; 2) functional analyses of targets including biological pathway, Gene Ontology functional term and disease enrichment analyses; 3) the visualization of ingredient-target-pathway/disease association network and KEGG biological pathway with highlighted targets; 4) comparison analysis of multiple TCMs. Finally, we applied BATMAN-TCM to Qishen Yiqi dripping Pill (QSYQ) and combined with subsequent experimental validation to reveal the functions of renin-angiotensin system responsible for QSYQ’s cardioprotective effects for the first time. BATMAN-TCM will contribute to the understanding of the “multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway” combinational therapeutic mechanism of TCM, and provide valuable clues for subsequent experimental validation, accelerating the elucidation of TCM’s molecular mechanism. BATMAN-TCM is available at http://bionet.ncpsb.org/batman-tcm. PMID:26879404

  13. Exome sequencing is an efficient tool for variant late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis molecular diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Catherine Patiño

    Full Text Available The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by epilepsy, visual failure, progressive mental and motor deterioration, myoclonus, dementia and reduced life expectancy. Classically, NCL-affected individuals have been classified into six categories, which have been mainly defined regarding the clinical onset of symptoms. However, some patients cannot be easily included in a specific group because of significant variation in the age of onset and disease progression. Molecular genetics has emerged in recent years as a useful tool for enhancing NCL subtype classification. Fourteen NCL genetic forms (CLN1 to CLN14 have been described to date. The variant late-infantile form of the disease has been linked to CLN5, CLN6, CLN7 (MFSD8 and CLN8 mutations. Despite advances in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders mutations in these genes may cause similar phenotypes, which rends difficult accurate candidate gene selection for direct sequencing. Three siblings who were affected by variant late-infantile NCL are reported in the present study. We used whole-exome sequencing, direct sequencing and in silico approaches to identify the molecular basis of the disease. We identified the novel c.1219T>C (p.Trp407Arg and c.1361T>C (p.Met454Thr MFSD8 pathogenic mutations. Our results highlighted next generation sequencing as a novel and powerful methodological approach for the rapid determination of the molecular diagnosis of NCL. They also provide information regarding the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of CLN7 disease.

  14. Translating molecular medicine into clinical tools: doomed to fail by neglecting basic preanalytical principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannello Ferdinando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary discusses a study on measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 in serum of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients recently published in Journal of Molecular Medicine. This study can be considered the typical "obstacle" to effective translational medicine as previously documented in JTM journal. Although serum has been frequently proven as inappropriate sample for determining numerous circulating MMPs, among them MMP-9, there are over and over again studies, as in this case, that measure MMP-9 in serum. Comparative measurements in serum and plasma samples demonstrated higher concentrations for MMP-9 in serum due to the additional release from leukocytes and platelets following the coagulation/fibrinolysis process. From this example it can be concluded that translating basic research discoveries into clinical tools needs a more intensive exchange between basic biomedical research and clinical scientists already in an early stage. Otherwise a lost of translation, as discussed in JTM journal, seems to be inevitable.

  15. Bio-AIMS Collection of Chemoinformatics Web Tools based on Molecular Graph Information and Artificial Intelligence Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Cristian R; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Garcia, Rafael; Loza, Mabel; Pazos, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular information encoding into molecular descriptors is the first step into in silico Chemoinformatics methods in Drug Design. The Machine Learning methods are a complex solution to find prediction models for specific biological properties of molecules. These models connect the molecular structure information such as atom connectivity (molecular graphs) or physical-chemical properties of an atom/group of atoms to the molecular activity (Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship, QSAR). Due to the complexity of the proteins, the prediction of their activity is a complicated task and the interpretation of the models is more difficult. The current review presents a series of 11 prediction models for proteins, implemented as free Web tools on an Artificial Intelligence Model Server in Biosciences, Bio-AIMS (http://bio-aims.udc.es/TargetPred.php). Six tools predict protein activity, two models evaluate drug - protein target interactions and the other three calculate protein - protein interactions. The input information is based on the protein 3D structure for nine models, 1D peptide amino acid sequence for three tools and drug SMILES formulas for two servers. The molecular graph descriptor-based Machine Learning models could be useful tools for in silico screening of new peptides/proteins as future drug targets for specific treatments.

  16. THE EVALUATION OF A TOOL FOR DISSEMINATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY CONCEPTS IN FORMAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Escanhoela

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, the CBME Scientific Dissemination Coordination hasdeveloped a project related to the production and distribution of a scientificdissemination newspaper, called CBME InFORMAÇÃO, directed to high-schoolstudents and teachers. It is a quarterly publication and shows the concepts andadvances of studies in molecular biology and biotechnology. In order to evaluatethe newspaper, a research was accomplished in 2005. It involved 177 studentsfrom six high schools of São Carlos and region. In addition, opinions of fivescience teachers that worked with the newspaper in their classrooms, as well aseight Biology undergraduates were collected. The teachers received somequestionnaires that had to be answered by them and their students after a specifyactivity with the periodical – basically, the activities consisted of three stages:individual reading of the newspaper; formulation of questions by the teacher and,finally, group discussion on the chosen theme. The research confirmed theimportance of the use of the periodical as a tool in the formation of critical readersof facts related to the biotechnology and molecular biology, what should contributewith the citizenship development in the students. Moreover, it provided a possibilityto reorganize the periodical.

  17. In search of a potential diagnostic tool for molecular characterization of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohd; Adnan, Mohd; Khan, Saif; Al-Shammari, Eyad; Mustafa, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic disease and is caused by the parasites Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti), Brugia malayi (B. malayi) and Brugia timori (B. timori). In the present study, Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite has been used. Previously, it has been reported that the S. cervi shares some common proteins and antigenic determinants with that of human filarial parasite. The larval stages of filarial species usually cannot be identified by classical morphology. Hence, molecular characterization allows the identification of the parasites throughout all their developmental stages. The genomic DNA of S. cervi adult were isolated and estimated spectrophotometrically for the quantitative presence of DNA content. Screening of DNA sequences from filarial DNA GenBank and Expressed Sequence Tags (EST's) were performed for homologous sequences and then multiple sequence alignment was executed. The conserved sequences from multiple sequence alignment were used for In Silico primer designing. The successfully designed primers were used further in PCR amplifications. Therefore, in search of a promising diagnostic tool few genes were identified to be conserved in the human and bovine filariasis and these novel primers deigned may help to develop a promising diagnostic tool for identification of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751881

  18. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer: a diagnostic tool for prognosis and molecular analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoshen Dong; R.Katherine Alpaugh; Massimo Cristofanilli

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is characterized by a combination of tumor growth,proliferation and metastatic progression and is typically managed with palliative intent.The benefit of standard systemic therapies is relatively limited and the disease is considered incurable suggesting the need to investigate the biological drivers of the various phases of the metastatic process in order to improve the selection of molecularly driven therapies.The detection,enumeration and molecular analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provide an intriguing opportunity to advance this knowledge.CTCs enumerated by the Food and Drugs Administration-cleared CellSearchTM system are an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MBC patients.Several published papers demonstrated the poor prognosis for MBC patients that presented basal CTC count ≥5 in 7.5 mL of blood.Therefore,the enumeration of CTCs during treatment for MBC provides a tool with the ability to predict progression of disease earlier than standard timing of anatomical assessment using conventional radiological tests.During the metastatic process cancer cells exhibit morphological and phenotypic plasticity undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).This important phenomenon is associated with down regulation of epithelial marker (e.g.,EpCAM) with potential limitations in the applicability of current CTCs enrichment methods.Such observations translated in a number of investigations aimed at improving our capabilities to enumerate and perform molecular characterization of CTCs.Theoretically,the phenotypic analysis of CTCs can represent a "liquid" biopsy of breast tumor that is able to identify a new potential target against the metastatic disease and advance the development and monitoring of personalized therapies.

  19. DINAMO: a coupled sequence alignment editor/molecular graphics tool for interactive homology modeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M; Bentz, J; Baucom, A; Gregoret, L

    1998-01-01

    Gaining functional information about a novel protein is a universal problem in biomedical research. With the explosive growth of the protein sequence and structural databases, it is becoming increasingly common for researchers to attempt to build a three-dimensional model of their protein of interest in order to gain information about its structure and interactions with other molecules. The two most reliable methods for predicting the structure of a protein are homology modeling, in which the novel sequence is modeled on the known three-dimensional structure of a related protein, and fold recognition (threading), where the sequence is scored against a library of fold models, and the highest scoring model is selected. The sequence alignment to a known structure can be ambiguous, and human intervention is often required to optimize the model. We describe an interactive model building and assessment tool in which a sequence alignment editor is dynamically coupled to a molecular graphics display. By means of a set of assessment tools, the user may optimize his or her alignment to satisfy the known heuristics of protein structure. Adjustments to the sequence alignment made by the user are reflected in the displayed model by color and other visual cues. For instance, residues are colored by hydrophobicity in both the three-dimensional model and in the sequence alignment. This aids the user in identifying undesirable buried polar residues. Several different evaluation metrics may be selected including residue conservation, residue properties, and visualization of predicted secondary structure. These characteristics may be mapped to the model both singly and in combination. DINAMO is a Java-based tool that may be run either over the web or installed locally. Its modular architecture also allows Java-literate users to add plug-ins of their own design.

  20. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  1. PathogenMIPer: a tool for the design of molecular inversion probes to detect multiple pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhras Michael

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe PathogenMIPer, a software program for designing molecular inversion probe (MIP oligonucleotides for use in pathogen identification and detection. The software designs unique and specific oligonucleotide probes targeting microbial or other genomes. The tool tailors all probe sequence components (including target-specific sequences, barcode sequences, universal primers and restriction sites and combines these components into ready-to-order probes for use in a MIP assay. The system can harness the genetic variability available in an entire genome in designing specific probes for the detection of multiple co-infections in a single tube using a MIP assay. Results PathogenMIPer can accept sequence data in FASTA file format, and other parameter inputs from the user through a graphical user interface. It can design MIPs not only for pathogens, but for any genome for use in parallel genomic analyses. The software was validated experimentally by applying it to the detection of human papilloma virus (HPV as a model system, which is associated with various human malignancies including cervical and skin cancers. Initial tests of laboratory samples using the MIPs developed by the PathogenMIPer to recognize 24 different types of HPVs gave very promising results, detecting even a small viral load of single as well as multiple infections (Akhras et al, personal communication. Conclusion PathogenMIPer is a software for designing molecular inversion probes for detection of multiple target DNAs in a sample using MIP assays. It enables broader use of MIP technology in the detection through genotyping of pathogens that are complex, difficult-to-amplify, or present in multiple subtypes in a sample.

  2. Molecular genetic tools to modulate post-harvest physiology in cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 24-72 hours of harvest the starchy storage roots of cassava deteriorate rapidly depending on variety and environmental conditions. This post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) necessitates their prompt consumption or processing. In traditional village society, cassava roots are left in the ground until required; but, with increased urbanisation and the entry of cassava into the cash economy, distances have increased and PPD has become a major constraint to the development of this important crop, which impacts on farmers, processors and consumers alike. Improvement of cassava with respect to its PPD response via breeding is fraught with difficulties due to the high heterozygosity of the crop, a strong association between PPD and high dry matter content, and a high genetic X environment interaction. Molecular genetic tools may offer alternative approaches via insights into the PPD response itself, the provision of molecular markers for use in marker assisted selection and via the direct manipulation of the cassava genome. cDNA microarrays identify 73 genes whose expression changes significantly during the time-course of PPD; these clones are available to the cassava community for mapping or other research. These data support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species mediated programmed cell death is at the heart of the PPD response. Currently we are further testing this hypothesis through the genetic modification of cassava using genes with the ability to alter the reactive oxygen defence status of the roots or to enhance the root's antiprogrammed cell death response. These modifications have the potential to extend the shelf-life of the cassava roots and ultimately to benefit resource-poor farmers. (author)

  3. The Annotation, Mapping, Expression and Network (AMEN suite of tools for molecular systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primig Michael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genome biological experiments yield large and multifaceted datasets that require flexible and user-friendly analysis tools to facilitate their interpretation by life scientists. Many solutions currently exist, but they are often limited to specific steps in the complex process of data management and analysis and some require extensive informatics skills to be installed and run efficiently. Results We developed the Annotation, Mapping, Expression and Network (AMEN software as a stand-alone, unified suite of tools that enables biological and medical researchers with basic bioinformatics training to manage and explore genome annotation, chromosomal mapping, protein-protein interaction, expression profiling and proteomics data. The current version provides modules for (i uploading and pre-processing data from microarray expression profiling experiments, (ii detecting groups of significantly co-expressed genes, and (iii searching for enrichment of functional annotations within those groups. Moreover, the user interface is designed to simultaneously visualize several types of data such as protein-protein interaction networks in conjunction with expression profiles and cellular co-localization patterns. We have successfully applied the program to interpret expression profiling data from budding yeast, rodents and human. Conclusion AMEN is an innovative solution for molecular systems biological data analysis freely available under the GNU license. The program is available via a website at the Sourceforge portal which includes a user guide with concrete examples, links to external databases and helpful comments to implement additional functionalities. We emphasize that AMEN will continue to be developed and maintained by our laboratory because it has proven to be extremely useful for our genome biological research program.

  4. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  5. Molecular Investigations of Bacteroides as Microbial Source Tracking Tools in Southeast Louisiana Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, C. J.; Childers, G. W.; Engel, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial Source Tracking (MST) is a developing field that is gaining increased attention. MST refers to a host of techniques that discriminates among the origins of fecal material found in natural waters from different sources (e.g. human, livestock, and wildlife) by using microbial indicator species with specificity to only certain host organisms. The development of species-specific molecular markers would allow for better evaluation of public health risks and tracking of nutrient sources impacting a watershed. Although several MST methods have been reported with varying levels of success, few offer general applicability for natural waters due to spatial and temporal constraints associated with these methods. One group of molecular MST markers that show promise for broad environmental applications are molecular 16S rDNA probes for Bacteroides. This method is based on 16S rDNA detection directly from environmental samples without the need for a preliminary cultivation step. In this study we have expanded previous sampling efforts to compile a database of over 1000 partial 16S rRNA Bacteroides genes retrieved from the fecal material of 15 different host species (human, cat, dog, pig, kangaroo). To characterize survival of Bacteroides outside of the host, survival time of the Bacteroides marker was compared to that of E.coli under varying natural environmental conditions (temperature and salinity). Bacteroides displayed a survival curve with shouldering and tailing similar to that of E.coli, but log reduction times differed with treatment. In summary, MST marker stability was identified within host species and the overall Bacteroides community structure correlated to host diet, suggesting that detection of a Bacteroides community could confidently identify fecal contamination point sources. Natural water samples from southeast Louisiana were collected for MST including the Tangipahoa River watershed where the source of fecal contamination has been hotly debated. The

  6. Single-stranded DNA phages: from early molecular biology tools to recent revolutions in environmental microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Anna J; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-03-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages are profoundly different from tailed phages in many aspects including the nature and size of their genome, virion size and morphology, mutation rate, involvement in horizontal gene transfer, infection dynamics and cell lysis mechanisms. Despite the importance of ssDNA phages as molecular biology tools and model systems, the environmental distribution and ecological roles of these phages have been largely unexplored. Viral metagenomics and other culture-independent viral diversity studies have recently challenged the perspective of tailed, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages, dominance by demonstrating the prevalence of ssDNA phages in diverse habitats. However, the differences between ssDNA and dsDNA phages also substantially limit the efficacy of simultaneously assessing the abundance and diversity of these two phage groups. Here we provide an overview of the major differences between ssDNA and tailed dsDNA phages that may influence their effects on bacterial communities. Furthermore, through the analysis of 181 published metaviromes we demonstrate the environmental distribution of ssDNA phages and present an analysis of the methodological biases that distort their study through metagenomics. PMID:26850442

  7. Stability of Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to Bacillus sphaericus evaluated by molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Liliane Barbosa; de Barros, Rosineide Arruda; Chalegre, Karlos Diogo de Melo; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin action on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae relies on the binding to Cqm1alpha-glucosidases, which act as midgut receptors. Resistance of two laboratory-selected colonies is associated with the allele cqm1(REC) that prevents Cqm1 expression as membrane-bound molecules. This study evaluated stability of resistance after the interruption of selection pressure and introduction of susceptible individuals in these colonies. Bioassays showed that frequency of resistant larvae did not decrease throughout 11 generations, under these conditions, and it was associated to a similar frequency of larvae lacking the Cqm1alpha-glucosidase receptor, detected by in gel enzymatic assays. Direct screening of the cqm1(REC) allele, by specific PCR, showed that its frequency remained stable throughout 11 generations. Parental resistant colony did not display biological costs regarding fecundity, fertility and pupal weight and data from susceptibility assays, enzymatic assays and PCR screening showed that cqm1(REC) was not disfavored in competition with the susceptible allele and persisted in the progenies, in the lack of selection pressure. Characterization of molecular basis of resistance is essential for developing diagnostic tools and data have relevant implication for the establishment of strategies for resistance management. PMID:20211258

  8. CHEM-PATH-TRACKER: An automated tool to analyze chemical motifs in molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João V; Cerqueira, N M F S A; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we propose a method for locating functionally relevant chemical motifs in protein structures. The chemical motifs can be a small group of residues or structure protein fragments with highly conserved properties that have important biological functions. However, the detection of chemical motifs is rather difficult because they often consist of a set of amino acid residues separated by long, variable regions, and they only come together to form a functional group when the protein is folded into its three-dimensional structure. Furthermore, the assemblage of these residues is often dependent on non-covalent interactions among the constituent amino acids that are difficult to detect or visualize. To simplify the analysis of these chemical motifs and give access to a generalized use for all users, we developed chem-path-tracker. This software is a VMD plug-in that allows the user to highlight and reveal potential chemical motifs requiring only a few selections. The analysis is based on atoms/residues pair distances applying a modified version of Dijkstra's algorithm, and it makes possible to monitor the distances of a large pathway, even during a molecular dynamics simulation. This tool turned out to be very useful, fast, and user-friendly in the performed tests. The chem-path-tracker package is distributed as an independent platform and can be found at http://www.fc.up.pt/PortoBioComp/database/doku.php?id=chem-path-tracker. PMID:24775806

  9. Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett’s esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Bennett; Hiroshi; Mashimo

    2014-01-01

    Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and sur-veillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of highrisk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus.

  10. Bringing physics to life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    `I'm doing a physics that is pulling me towards it.' `I like the course being more up to date.' `You learn the physics but you also think ``well I actually see a point in knowing this physics''.' `This course presents physics in a more interesting way as it focuses on practical activity and applications of physics.' `The industrial visit gives students the opportunity to look for science in action.' These are just some of the comments from students and teachers piloting the new Salters Horners Advanced Physics course (SHAP). Contexts and applications drive the course, providing interest and motivation for students and alerting them to some of the many career areas that involve physics. For example, the operation of a CD player leads to a study of waves and superposition; archaeological surveying and analysis brings in d.c. circuitry and x-ray diffraction; consideration of safety in rail transport involves learning about mechanics and electromagnetism. The course is produced by a team directed from the University of York and funded by a consortium of industrial and charitable sponsors. It is examined by Edexcel and support materials are published by Heinemann. The pilot, involving some 50 centres, began in September 1998 with the new subject core and the AS qualification intermediate between GCSE and the full A-level standard. The course has been fully approved by QCA, and from September 2000 it will be open to all. For comprehensive information about SHAP, visit the project's website: www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics . Pilot materials for students, teachers and technicians are available from Heinemann. They will be re-edited and published in full colour for September 2000. Members of the team will attend the annual ASE meeting in Leeds this month; there will be a talk and a hands-on workshop where student activities can be sampled. Materials will be on view at the University of York stand. In addition, Edexcel and the York team are running a series of

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of subnanometric tool-workpiece contact on a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo for ultra-precision microcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yindi; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Liangchi

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the contact characteristics between a copper workpiece and a diamond tool in a force sensor-integrated fast tool servo (FS-FTS) for single point diamond microcutting and in-process measurement of ultra-precision surface forms of the workpiece. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to identify the subnanometric elastic-plastic transition contact depth, at which the plastic deformation in the workpiece is initiated. This critical depth can be used to optimize the FS-FTS as well as the cutting/measurement process. It is clarified that the vibrations of the copper atoms in the MD model have a great influence on the subnanometric MD simulation results. A multi-relaxation time method is then proposed to reduce the influence of the atom vibrations based on the fact that the dominant vibration component has a certain period determined by the size of the MD model. It is also identified that for a subnanometric contact depth, the position of the tool tip for the contact force to be zero during the retracting operation of the tool does not correspond to the final depth of the permanent contact impression on the workpiece surface. The accuracy for identification of the transition contact depth is then improved by observing the residual defects on the workpiece surface after the tool retracting.

  12. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kathryn A; Shearman, Deborah C A; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Sved, John A; Morrow, Jennifer L; Sherwin, William B; Riegler, Markus; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

  13. Potential molecular tools for assessing the public health risk associated with waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J

    2012-08-01

    The use of multiple barrier stages at water and wastewater treatment facilities allows for the effective removal of the vast majority of coliforms and other enteric and non-enteric microbes. Subsequent disinfection steps (chlorine, ozone and UV irradiation) are utilized to inactivate microbes that escape the preceding treatment stages. Most viruses, bacteria and protozoa, such as Giardia, are effectively inactivated by chlorination; however, Cryptosporidium is relatively more resistant to environmental conditions and to chlorination. Therefore, UV disinfection has been introduced at many water and wastewater treatment plants to increase log inactivation. Any accidental treatment failure may pose a significant risk to public health. Waterborne transmission of coccidian parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia continues to be a major public health concern. No effective therapies currently exist to treat cryptosporidiosis and the global increase in immunocompromised populations has emphasized the need for water utilities and public health laboratories to have immediate and reliable access to highly sensitive test methods that can determine the host specificity, viability and infectivity of protozoa in the water supply. The most common method used for monitoring Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at intermediate treatment stages and in finished drinking water is the US EPA Method 1623. Although Cryptosporidium species are morphologically indistinguishable, they differ greatly in their host specificity and infectivity. Method 1623 provides quantitative information about Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination but cannot distinguish between species for intervention purposes in outbreak situations, nor is this method reliable for determining whether the oocyst on the slide is infective for humans. Molecular methods have proven valuable in diagnosing infectious diseases, especially those for which the causative agent is difficult to grow in culture, and

  14. Molecular Tools for the Selective Detection of Nine Diatom Species Biomarkers of Various Water Quality Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cimarelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the composition of diatom communities and their response to environmental changes is currently limited by laborious taxonomic identification procedures. Advances in molecular technologies are expected to contribute more efficient, robust and sensitive tools for the detection of these ecologically relevant microorganisms. There is a need to explore and test phylogenetic markers as an alternative to the use of rRNA genes, whose limited sequence divergence does not allow the accurate discrimination of diatoms at the species level. In this work, nine diatom species belonging to eight genera, isolated from epylithic environmental samples collected in central Italy, were chosen to implement a panel of diatoms covering the full range of ecological status of freshwaters. The procedure described in this work relies on the PCR amplification of specific regions in two conserved diatom genes, elongation factor 1-a (eEF1-a and silicic acid transporter (SIT, as a first step to narrow down the complexity of the targets, followed by microarray hybridization experiments. Oligonucleotide probes with the potential to discriminate closely related species were designed taking into account the genetic polymorphisms found in target genes. These probes were tested, refined and validated on a small-scale prototype DNA chip. Overall, we obtained 17 highly specific probes targeting eEF1-a and SIT, along with 19 probes having lower discriminatory power recognizing at the same time two or three species. This basic array was validated in a laboratory setting and is ready for tests with crude environmental samples eventually to be scaled-up to include a larger panel of diatoms. Its possible use for the simultaneous detection of diatoms selected from the classes of water quality identified by the European Water Framework Directive is discussed.

  15. A combined reaction class approach with integrated molecular orbital+molecular orbital (IMOMO) methodology: A practical tool for kinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new practical computational methodology for predicting thermal rate constants of reactions involving large molecules or a large number of elementary reactions in the same class. This methodology combines the integrated molecular orbital+molecular orbital (IMOMO) approach with our recently proposed reaction class models for tunneling. With the new methodology, we show that it is possible to significantly reduce the computational cost by several orders of magnitude while compromising the accuracy in the predicted rate constants by less than 40% over a wide range of temperatures. Another important result is that the computational cost increases only slightly as the system size increases. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  16. Buried Volume Analysis for Propene Polymerization Catalysis Promoted by Group 4 Metals: a Tool for Molecular Mass Prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2015-10-02

    A comparison of the steric properties of homogeneous single site catalysts for propene polymerization using the percentage of buried volume (%VBur) as molecular descriptor is reported. The %VBur calculated on the neutral precursors of the active species seems to be a reliable tool to explain several experimental data related to the propene insertion and to the monomer chain transfer. Interestingly, a linear correlation between the buried volume calculated for a large set of neutral precursors and the energetic difference between propagation and termination steps calculated by DFT methods is found for Group 4 metal catalysts. The “master curves” derived for Ti, Zr and Hf confirm not only that the %VBur is an appropriate molecular descriptor for the systems considered but also that it could be used as tool for a large computational screening of new ligands.

  17. Phylemon 2.0: a suite of web-tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rubén; Serra, François; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; de María, Alejandro; Capella-Gutíerrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Dopazo, Joaquín; Dopazo, Hernán

    2011-07-01

    Phylemon 2.0 is a new release of the suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing. It has been designed as a response to the increasing demand of molecular sequence analyses for experts and non-expert users. Phylemon 2.0 has several unique features that differentiates it from other similar web resources: (i) it offers an integrated environment that enables evolutionary analyses, format conversion, file storage and edition of results; (ii) it suggests further analyses, thereby guiding the users through the web server; and (iii) it allows users to design and save phylogenetic pipelines to be used over multiple genes (phylogenomics). Altogether, Phylemon 2.0 integrates a suite of 30 tools covering sequence alignment reconstruction and trimming; tree reconstruction, visualization and manipulation; and evolutionary hypotheses testing.

  18. Galaxy tools and workflows for sequence analysis with applications in molecular plant pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.A. Cock

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galaxy Project offers the popular web browser-based platform Galaxy for running bioinformatics tools and constructing simple workflows. Here, we present a broad collection of additional Galaxy tools for large scale analysis of gene and protein sequences. The motivating research theme is the identification of specific genes of interest in a range of non-model organisms, and our central example is the identification and prediction of “effector” proteins produced by plant pathogens in order to manipulate their host plant. This functional annotation of a pathogen’s predicted capacity for virulence is a key step in translating sequence data into potential applications in plant pathology. This collection includes novel tools, and widely-used third-party tools such as NCBI BLAST+ wrapped for use within Galaxy. Individual bioinformatics software tools are typically available separately as standalone packages, or in online browser-based form. The Galaxy framework enables the user to combine these and other tools to automate organism scale analyses as workflows, without demanding familiarity with command line tools and scripting. Workflows created using Galaxy can be saved and are reusable, so may be distributed within and between research groups, facilitating the construction of a set of standardised, reusable bioinformatic protocols. The Galaxy tools and workflows described in this manuscript are open source and freely available from the Galaxy Tool Shed (http://usegalaxy.org/toolshed or http://toolshed.g2.bx.psu.edu.

  19. Molecular beacon – tool for real time studying gene activity in stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Dufva, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Cells respond to their internal genetic programs and external stimuli by modulating the synthesis of specific mRNAs. Direct observation of mRNA expression in living cells can provide valuable information with regards to understanding fundamental processes such cell differentiation, regeneration and cancerogenesis. Molecular beacon technology is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and the complementary pairing principles. These fluorescent molecular probes are highly specifi...

  20. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluorescent labeled (NIRF) tracers for detection of breast cancer. Thus far, only a few molecular imaging tracers have been taken to the clinic of which most are suitable for PET. My thesis describes the e...

  1. Molecular docking as a popular tool in drug design, an in silico travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyck, Jerome; Brysbaert, Guillaume; Blossey, Ralf; Lensink, Marc F

    2016-01-01

    New molecular modeling approaches, driven by rapidly improving computational platforms, have allowed many success stories for the use of computer-assisted drug design in the discovery of new mechanism-or structure-based drugs. In this overview, we highlight three aspects of the use of molecular docking. First, we discuss the combination of molecular and quantum mechanics to investigate an unusual enzymatic mechanism of a flavoprotein. Second, we present recent advances in anti-infectious agents' synthesis driven by structural insights. At the end, we focus on larger biological complexes made by protein-protein interactions and discuss their relevance in drug design. This review provides information on how these large systems, even in the presence of the solvent, can be investigated with the outlook of drug discovery.

  2. Molecular docking as a popular tool in drug design, an in silico travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyck, Jerome; Brysbaert, Guillaume; Blossey, Ralf; Lensink, Marc F

    2016-01-01

    New molecular modeling approaches, driven by rapidly improving computational platforms, have allowed many success stories for the use of computer-assisted drug design in the discovery of new mechanism-or structure-based drugs. In this overview, we highlight three aspects of the use of molecular docking. First, we discuss the combination of molecular and quantum mechanics to investigate an unusual enzymatic mechanism of a flavoprotein. Second, we present recent advances in anti-infectious agents’ synthesis driven by structural insights. At the end, we focus on larger biological complexes made by protein–protein interactions and discuss their relevance in drug design. This review provides information on how these large systems, even in the presence of the solvent, can be investigated with the outlook of drug discovery. PMID:27390530

  3. Computational genes: a tool for molecular diagnosis and therapy of aberrant mutational phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Zoya

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A finite state machine manipulating information-carrying DNA strands can be used to perform autonomous molecular-scale computations at the cellular level. Results We propose a new finite state machine able to detect and correct aberrant molecular phenotype given by mutated genetic transcripts. The aberrant mutations trigger a cascade reaction: specific molecular markers as input are released and induce a spontaneous self-assembly of a wild type protein or peptide, while the mutational disease phenotype is silenced. We experimentally demostrated in in vitro translation system that a viable protein can be autonomously assembled. Conclusion Our work demostrates the basic principles of computational genes and particularly, their potential to detect mutations, and as a response thereafter administer an output that suppresses the aberrant disease phenotype and/or restores the lost physiological function.

  4. Review on the Molecular Tools for the Understanding of the Epidemiology of Animal Trypanosomosis in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvallet G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis around Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa benefited a lot in the last years from the progress of molecular tools. The two most used molecular techniques were the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of the disease in cattle and the characterization of the trypanosomes in the host and the vector on one hand, and the microsatellite DNA polymorphism in tsetse flies to study the intraspecific genetic variability of the vector on the other hand. The results obtained in the Sideradougou area during a recent two year survey with these techniques, associated with many other georeferenced informations concerning vector and cattle distribution, natural environment, landuse, ground occupation, livestock management, were combined in a Geographical Information System. This new approach of a complex pathogenic system led to a better evaluation of the risk of trypanosome transmission.

  5. Molecular Docking of Enzyme Inhibitors: A Computational Tool for Structure-Based Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Aleksandra; Torok, Bela; Torok, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    Molecular docking is a frequently used method in structure-based rational drug design. It is used for evaluating the complex formation of small ligands with large biomolecules, predicting the strength of the bonding forces and finding the best geometrical arrangements. The major goal of this advanced undergraduate biochemistry laboratory exercise…

  6. Application of Machine Learning tools to recognition of molecular patterns in STM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksov, Artem; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Kalinin, Sergei; Sumpter, Bobby

    The ability to utilize individual molecules and molecular assemblies as data storage elements has motivated scientist for years, concurrent with the continuous effort to shrink a size of data storage devices in microelectronics industry. One of the critical issues in this effort lies in being able to identify individual molecular assembly units (patterns), on a large scale in an automated fashion of complete information extraction. Here we present a novel method of applying machine learning techniques for extraction of positional and rotational information from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of π-bowl sumanene molecules on gold. We use Markov Random Field (MRF) model to decode the polar rotational states for each molecule in a large scale STM image of molecular film. We further develop an algorithm that uses a convolutional Neural Network combined with MRF and input from density functional theory to classify molecules into different azimuthal rotational classes. Our results demonstrate that a molecular film is partitioned into distinctive azimuthal rotational domains consisting typically of 20-30 molecules. In each domain, the ``bowl-down'' molecules are generally surrounded by six nearest neighbor molecules in ``bowl-up'' configuration, and the resultant overall structure form a periodic lattice of rotational and polar states within each domain. Research was supported by the US Department of Energy.

  7. CAChe Molecular Modeling: A Visualization Tool Early in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R. David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a "Synthesis and Reactivity" curriculum that focuses on the correlation of laboratory experiments with lecture topics and the extension of laboratory exercises beyond the usual four-hour period. Highlights experiments developed and an out-of-class computational chemistry exercise using CAChe, a versatile molecular modeling software…

  8. PET for molecular imaging of cancer: a tool for tailored therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of personalised medicine has led to a need for improved phenotyping as well as prediction of treatment response early after therapy initiation. Most of the molecular biology methods used today need tissue sampling for in vitro analysis. In contrast, molecular imaging allows for non-invasive studies at the molecular level in living, intact organisms. Accordingly, molecular imaging with PET has been one of the most successful techniques in such phenotyping and response prediction using FDG. In addition, recent development of new PET tracers has further improved the value of PET in tumor characterization. Such new PET tracers allow for visualization of tumor specific receptors and tissue characteristics such as ability to metastasize. Furthermore, PET has a high sensitivity and allows for quantification and is not prone to sampling error as seen with biopsies. We will present examples of development of probes targeting the somatostatin receptor type 2, over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, including our first-in-man studies of 64Cu-DOTATATE. Also development in probes for visualization of the invasive phenotype will be presented. Finally, with the most recent development of true integrated PET/MRI scanners it has now become possible to add information from MRI. The value of such hybrid imaging will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluoresc

  10. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us More COPD: Lifestyle Management Avoiding Infections Breathing Retraining Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Exercises Giving Up Smoking ... mucus is allowed to collect in the airways, breathing may become difficult and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  11. Bringing science to the people

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an opinion editorial piece about the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). It describes the active role that the ISHS takes in bringing scientific information to people throughout the world. The society holds periodic symposia on 10 different crops and 14 different cross-co...

  12. Structural distributions from single-molecule measurements as a tool for molecular mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Chain-length-dependent flexural rigidity revealed by molecular conformation distributions. The open circles are experimental data of poly-proline and the solid lines are fits to the full-width half-maximum of the semi-flexible chain model, from which the effective persistence lengths (lp) and apparent contour lengths (Leff) were estimated. Highlights: ► A mechanical view is an attractive alternative for predicting the behavior of complex molecules. ► We propose using structural distribution from smFRET to extract molecular mechanical properties. ► Short poly-L-proline peptides were used to experimentally illustrate this new approach. ► The effective persistence lengths were found to be size-dependent. ► This is the first experimental evidence of such behavior on the molecular level. - Abstract: A mechanical view provides an attractive alternative for predicting the behavior of complex systems since it circumvents the resource-intensive requirements of atomistic models; however, it remains extremely challenging to characterize the mechanical responses of a system at the molecular level. Here, the structural distribution is proposed to be an effective means to extracting the molecular mechanical properties. End-to-end distance distributions for a series of short poly-L-proline peptides with the sequence PnCG3K-biotin (n = 8, 12, 15 and 24) were used to experimentally illustrate this new approach. High-resolution single-molecule Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments were carried out and the conformation-resolving power was characterized and discussed in the context of the conventional constant-time binning procedure for FRET data analysis. It was shown that the commonly adopted theoretical polymer models—including the worm-like chain, the freely jointed chain, and the self-avoiding chain—could not be distinguished by the averaged end-to-end distances, but could be ruled out using the molecular details gained by

  13. Assessment of Changes in Microbial Community Structure during Operation of an Ammonia Biofilter with Molecular Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sakano, Y.; Kerkhof, L.

    1998-01-01

    Biofiltration has been used for two decades to remove odors and various volatile organic and inorganic compounds in contaminated off-gas streams. Although biofiltration is widely practiced, there have been few studies of the bacteria responsible for the removal of air contaminants in biofilters. In this study, molecular techniques were used to identify bacteria in a laboratory-scale ammonia biofilter. Both 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes were used to characterize the heterotro...

  14. Molecular docking as a popular tool in drug design, an in silico travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruyck J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jerome de Ruyck, Guillaume Brysbaert, Ralf Blossey, Marc F Lensink University Lille, CNRS UMR8576 UGSF, Lille, FranceAbstract: New molecular modeling approaches, driven by rapidly improving computational platforms, have allowed many success stories for the use of computer-assisted drug design in the discovery of new mechanism- or structure-based drugs. In this overview, we highlight three aspects of the use of molecular docking. First, we discuss the combination of molecular and quantum mechanics to investigate an unusual enzymatic mechanism of a flavoprotein. Second, we present recent advances in anti-infectious agents' synthesis driven by structural insights. At the end, we focus on larger biological complexes made by protein–protein interactions and discuss their relevance in drug design. This review provides information on how these large systems, even in the presence of the solvent, can be investigated with the outlook of drug discovery.Keywords: structure-based drug design, protein–protein docking, quaternary structure prediction, residue interaction networks, RINs, water position

  15. Molecular diversity and tools for deciphering the methanogen community structure and diversity in freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Brablcová, Lenka; Buriánková, Iva; Rulík, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Methanogenic archaeal communities existing in freshwater sediments are responsible for approximately 50 % of the total global emission of methane. This process contributes significantly to global warming and, hence, necessitates interventional control measures to limit its emission. Unfortunately, the diversity and functional interactions of methanogenic populations occurring in these habitats are yet to be fully characterized. Considering several disadvantages of conventional culture-based methodologies, in recent years, impetus is given to molecular biology approaches to determine the community structure of freshwater sedimentary methanogenic archaea. 16S rRNA and methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene-based cloning techniques are the first choice for this purpose. In addition, electrophoresis-based (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques have also found extensive applications. These techniques are highly sensitive, rapid, and reliable as compared to traditional culture-dependent approaches. Molecular diversity studies revealed the dominance of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales of methanogens in freshwater sediments. The present review discusses in detail the status of the diversity of methanogens and the molecular approaches applied in this area of research.

  16. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamoon; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70-80% of microbial diversity - recently called the "microbial dark matter" - remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  17. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Mamoon

    2015-09-25

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70–80% of microbial diversity – recently called the “microbial dark matter” – remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  18. Molecular tools for epidemiological investigations into Legionella pneumophila environmental diffusion: applications for the prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Microbiological typing is a useful tool in the epidemiological investigations of infectious diseases, given that it allows for the identification of specific clones among a set of isolates.

     In the last ten years several studies have demonstrated how genotyping methods can be useful in Legionella spp investigations in hospital setting (e.g., epidemic events. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphisms are the current typing methods of choice, even though multilocus sequence typing will probably be the gold standard of the future.

  19. In vivo recombination as a tool to generate molecular diversity in phage antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sblattero, D; Lou, J; Marzari, R; Bradbury, A

    2001-06-01

    The creation of diversity in populations of polypeptides has become an important tool in the derivation of polypeptides with useful characteristics. This requires efficient methods to create diversity coupled with methods to select polypeptides with desired properties. In this review we describe the use of in vivo recombination as a powerful way to generate diversity. The novel principles for the recombination process and several applications of this process for the creation of phage antibody libraries are described. The advantage and disadvantages are discussed and possible future exploitation presented.

  20. Computational and molecular tools for scalable rAAV-mediated genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Ivaylo; Ali, Muhammad Akhtar; Pandzic, Tatjana; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2015-03-11

    The rapid discovery of potential driver mutations through large-scale mutational analyses of human cancers generates a need to characterize their cellular phenotypes. Among the techniques for genome editing, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene targeting is suited for knock-in of single nucleotide substitutions and to a lesser degree for gene knock-outs. However, the generation of gene targeting constructs and the targeting process is time-consuming and labor-intense. To facilitate rAAV-mediated gene targeting, we developed the first software and complementary automation-friendly vector tools to generate optimized targeting constructs for editing human protein encoding genes. By computational approaches, rAAV constructs for editing ~71% of bases in protein-coding exons were designed. Similarly, ~81% of genes were predicted to be targetable by rAAV-mediated knock-out. A Gateway-based cloning system for facile generation of rAAV constructs suitable for robotic automation was developed and used in successful generation of targeting constructs. Together, these tools enable automated rAAV targeting construct design, generation as well as enrichment and expansion of targeted cells with desired integrations. PMID:25488813

  1. An efficient tool to calculate two-dimensional optical spectra for photoactive molecular complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Hong-Guang; Nalbach, Peter; Thorwart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We combine the coherent modified Redfield theory (CMRT) with the equation of motion-phase matching approach (PMA) to calculate two-dimensional photon echo spectra for photoactive molecular complexes with an intermediate strength of the coupling to their environment. Both techniques are highly efficient, yet they involve approximations at different levels. By explicitly comparing with the numerically exact quasi-adiabatic path integral approach, we show for the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex that the CMRT describes the decay rates in the population dynamics well, but final stationary populations and the oscillation frequencies differ slightly. In addition, we use the combined CMRT+PMA to calculate two-dimensional photon-echo spectra for a simple dimer model. We find excellent agreement with the exact path integral calculations at short waiting times where the dynamics is still coherent. For long waiting times, differences occur due to different final stationary states, specifically for strong system-bath couplin...

  2. Generation of mouse mutants as tools in dissecting the molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sneha N; Edwards, Jessica K; Nolan, Patrick M

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular basis of mammalian circadian rhythms has progressed dramatically in recent years through the characterization of mouse mutants. With the implementation of numerous mouse genetics programs, comprehensive sets of mutations in genes affecting circadian output measures have been generated. Although incomplete, existing arrays of mutants have been instrumental in our understanding of how the internal SCN clock interacts with the environment and how it conveys its rhythm to remote oscillators. The use of ENU mutagenesis has proven to be a significant contributor, generating mutations leading to subtle and distinct alterations in circadian protein function. In parallel, progress with mouse gene targeting allows one to study gene function in depth by ablating it entirely, in specific tissues at specific times, or by targeting specific functional domains. This has culminated in worldwide efforts to target every gene in the mouse genome allowing researchers to study multiple gene targeting effects systematically.

  3. Parasite zoonoses and climate change: molecular tools for tracking shifting boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Lydden; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-06-01

    For human, domestic animal and wildlife health, key effects of directional climate change include the risk of the altered occurrence of infectious diseases. Many parasite zoonoses have high potential for vulnerability to the new climate, in part because their free-living life-cycle stages and ectothermic hosts are directly exposed to climatic conditions. For these zoonoses, climate change can shift boundaries for ecosystem components and processes integral to parasite transmission and persistence, and these shifts can impact host health. Vulnerable boundaries include those for spatial distributions, host-parasite assemblages, demographic rates, life-cycle phenologies, associations within ecosystems, virulence, and patterns of infection and disease. This review describes these boundary shifts and how molecular techniques can be applied to defining the new boundaries.

  4. Classical and molecular approaches as a powerful tool for the characterization of rumen polycentric fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegerová, K; Hodrová, B; Voigt, K

    2004-01-01

    Ribosomal ITS1 and ITS2 fragments from 8 isolates of polycentric rumen anaerobic fungi were PCR-amplified and sequenced; the sequences obtained were aligned with published data and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Analysis of the ITS1 fragment clearly differentiated between the two polycentric genera Orpinomyces and Anaeromyces and this classification is supported by morphological observation. A multi-order phylogram based on ITS2 sequences proved that anaerobic rumen fungi are separated from aerobic chytrids, which form a well-supported monophylum with the highest possible bootstrap proportion values of 100%. Sequence analysis of ITS regions is a powerful tool for classification of anaerobic fungi but morphological description of strains is still necessary because some genera of rumen fungi display a high genetic heterogeneity. PMID:15227788

  5. Bringing nursing to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Cornelia; Schwendimann, René

    2009-11-01

    For the past 5 years, an unusual program has been evolving in the University of Basel's Institute of Nursing Science master's program in Basel, Switzerland. A special course designed to help nurses master public communication skills requires students to play the roles of journalist, exhibition curator, conference organizer, radio reporter, and news producer. Two faculty members, an experienced radio and newspaper journalist and a nurse scientist, teach and support the students. By developing their competence in media relations, participants prepare themselves to tackle the course's long-term goal of bringing the nursing profession into the public eye. PMID:19731893

  6. An interaction network predicted from public data as a discovery tool: application to the Hsp90 molecular chaperone machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C Echeverría

    Full Text Available Understanding the functions of proteins requires information about their protein-protein interactions (PPI. The collective effort of the scientific community generates far more data on any given protein than individual experimental approaches. The latter are often too limited to reveal an interactome comprehensively. We developed a workflow for parallel mining of all major PPI databases, containing data from several model organisms, and to integrate data from the literature for a protein of interest. We applied this novel approach to build the PPI network of the human Hsp90 molecular chaperone machine (Hsp90Int for which previous efforts have yielded limited and poorly overlapping sets of interactors. We demonstrate the power of the Hsp90Int database as a discovery tool by validating the prediction that the Hsp90 co-chaperone Aha1 is involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Thus, we both describe how to build a custom database and introduce a powerful new resource for the scientific community.

  7. Molecularly Characterised Xenograft Tumour Mouse Models: Valuable Tools for Evaluation of New Therapeutic Strategies for Secondary Liver Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human cancers, well-characterised preclinical model systems are a prerequisite. To this aim, we have established xenotransplantation mouse models and corresponding cell cultures from surgically obtained secondary human liver tumours. Established xenograft tumours were patho- and immunohistologically characterised, and expression levels of cancer-relevant genes were quantified in paired original and xenograft tumours and the derivative cell cultures applying RT-PCR-based array technology. Most of the characteristic morphological and immunohistochemical features of the original tumours were shown to be maintained. No differences were found concerning expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis. Interestingly, cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase encoding genes appeared to be expressed differentially. Thus, the established models are closely reflecting pathohistological and molecular characteristics of the selected human tumours and may therefore provide useful tools for preclinical analyses of new antitumour strategies in vivo.

  8. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-10-28

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of changes in microbial community structure during operation of an ammonia biofilter with molecular tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Y.; Kerkhof, L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Biofiltration has been used for two decades to remove odors and various volatile organic and inorganic compounds in contaminated off-gas streams. Although biofiltration is widely practiced, there have been few studies of the bacteria responsible for the removal of air contaminants in biofilters. In this study, molecular techniques were used to identify bacteria in a laboratory-scale ammonia biofilter. Both 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes were used to characterize the heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria collected from the biofilter during a 102-day experiment. The overall diversity of the heterotrophic microbial population appeared to decrease by 38% at the end of the experiment. The community structure of the heterotrophic population also shifted from predominantly members of two subdivisions of the Proteobacteria (the beta and gamma subdivisions) to members of one subdivision (the gamma subdivision). An overall decrease in the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase genes was not observed. However, a shift from groups dominated by organisms containing Nitrosomonas-like and Nitrosospira-like amoA genes to groups dominated by organisms containing only Nitrosospira-like amoA genes was observed. In addition, a new amoA gene was discovered. This new gene is the first freshwater amoA gene that is closely affiliated with Nitrosococcus oceanus and the particulate methane monooxygenase gene from the methane oxidizers belonging to the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria.

  10. Assessment of changes in microbial community structure during operation of an ammonia biofilter with molecular tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakano, Y.; Kerkhof, L. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Biofiltration has been used for two decades to remove odors and various volatile organic and inorganic compounds in contaminated off-gas streams. Although biofiltration is widely practiced, there have been few studies of the bacteria responsible for the removal of air contaminants in biofilters. In this study, molecular techniques were used to identify bacteria in a laboratory-scale ammonia biofilter. Both 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes were used to characterize the heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria collected from the biofilter during a 102-day experiment. The overall diversity of the heterotrophic microbial population appeared to decrease by 38% at the end of the experiment. The community structure of the heterotrophic population also shifted from predominantly members of two subdivisions of the Proteobacteria (the beta and gamma subdivisions) to members of one subdivision (the gamma subdivision). An overall decrease in the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase genes was not observed. However, a shift from groups dominated by organisms containing Nitrosomonas-like and Nitrosospira-like amoA genes to groups dominated by organisms containing only Nitrosospira-like amoA genes was observed. In addition, a new amoA gene was discovered. This new gene is the first freshwater amoA gene that is closely affiliated with Nitrosococcus oceanus and the particulate methane monooxygenase gene from the methane oxidizers belonging to the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria.

  11. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy eGuiheneuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60–65% of dry weight, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors like nitrogen starvation , salinity, heat shock etc. can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  12. Genetic characterisation of microsporidia infecting Indian tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, using morphology and molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wazid; Surendra Nath, B

    2015-01-01

    The utility of inter simple sequence repeat-PCR (ISSR-PCR) assay in the genetic characterisation and elucidation of the phylogenetic relationship of different microsporidian isolates infecting tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury, is demonstrated. A total of 22 different microsporidians collected from the diseased tasar silkworms from Jharkhand state of India were analysed using morphological characters and ISSR-PCR. Observations spores under phase contrast microscope revealed oval to elongate in shape with length ranging from 3.8 μm to 5.1 μm and width from 2.6 μm to 3.3 μm. All the microsporidian isolates except MIJ-1gC showed gonadal infection and transovarial transmission in infected tasar silkworms. Fourteen out of 20 ISSR primers tested generated reproducible profiles and yielded a total of 281 fragments, of which 273 were polymorphic (97%). The degree of banding pattern was used to evaluate genetic distances and for phylogenetic analysis. The results demonstrated that ISSR analysis may be a useful and efficient tool for taxonomical grouping and phylogenetic classification of different microsporidians in general. PMID:26198429

  13. Genetic Engineering: A Promising Tool to Engender Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Stress Resilience in Green Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Khan, Asif; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2016-01-01

    As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest toward a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60-65% of dry weight), carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors such as nitrogen starvation, salinity, heat shock, etc., can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests. PMID:27066043

  14. Biodiversity Patterns on an Inshore to Offshore Gradient Using Metabarcoding and Barcoding Molecular Tools

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    It has been estimated that coral reefs shelter 830 000 species. Well-studied biodiversity patterns provide tools for better representation of species in marine protected areas. A cross-shelf gradient in biodiversity exists for fishes, corals, and macroalgae. Here, an inshore to offshore gradient in biodiversity on the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea was sampled using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) with barcoding and metabarcoding techniques. It was hypothesized that differences in community structure would be driven by an increase in habitat area. The difference was attributed to the greater accumulation of sediments close to shore that increases the area habitable for sediment dwelling organisms and favors macroalgal cover. Macroalgae are inhabited by a greater number of species than live coral. Only 10% of the sequences of the barcoded fraction and <1% of the metabarcoded fraction had a BLAST hit on the NCBI database with a previously identified species sequence. In addition, the rarefaction curves for all fractions did not plateau. The ARMS community composition changed from inshore to offshore and was significantly correlated with the percentage of algal and bryozoan plate cover. The differences in community composition were related to changes in habitat but not to sediments retrieved from the ARMS.

  15. The Molecular Bronchoscope: A Tool for Measurement of Spatially Dependent CO2 Concentrations in the Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffoni, Luca; Couper, John H; Richmond, Graham; Hancock, Gus; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory physicians use bronchoscopy for visual assessment of the lungs' topography and collecting tissue samples for external analysis. We propose a novel bronchoscope tool that would enable spatially dependent measurements of the functioning of the lungs by determining local concentrations of carbon dioxide, which will be produced by healthy parts of the lung at rates that are higher than from portions where gas exchange is impaired. The gas analyzer is based on a compact laser absorption spectrometer making use of fiber optics for delivery and return of low intensity diode laser radiation to and from the measurement chamber at the distal end of a flexible conduit. The appropriate optical wavelength was chosen such that light is selectively absorbed only by gaseous CO2. The optical absorption takes place over a short path (8.8 mm) within a rigid, 12 mm long, perforated probe tip. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy was adopted as the analytical technique to reduce the noise on the optical signal and yield measurements of relative CO2 concentration every 180 ms with a precision as low as 600 part-per-million by volume. The primary objective of such a device is to see if additional spatial information about the lungs functionality can be gathered, which will complement visual observation. PMID:27487178

  16. BYOD: Bring your own disaster

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever heard of “BYOD”? No, it is not a pop band. Try again. It is short for “Bring Your Own Device” (the French use “AVEC” -  “Apporter Votre Equipement personnel de Communication”) and describes an option long since offered at CERN: the possibility to bring along your personal laptop, smartphone or PDA, use it on CERN premises and connect it to the CERN office network. But hold on. As practical as it is, there is also a dark side.   The primary advantage, of course, is having a digital work environment tuned to your needs and preferences. It allows you to continue working at home. Similarly, you always have your music, address books and bookmarks with you. However, as valuable as this is, it is also a responsibility. Laptop theft is happening - outside CERN but also on site. In France, 30% of stolen laptops were stolen out of cars or homes, and 10% during travel. At CERN, on average one ...

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation: a tool for exploration and discovery using simple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Emergent phenomena share the fascinating property of not being obvious consequences of the design of the system in which they appear. This characteristic is no less relevant when attempting to simulate such phenomena, given that the outcome is not always a foregone conclusion. The present survey focuses on several simple model systems that exhibit surprisingly rich emergent behavior, all studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The examples are taken from the disparate fields of fluid dynamics, granular matter and supramolecular self-assembly. In studies of fluids modeled at the detailed microscopic level using discrete particles, the simulations demonstrate that complex hydrodynamic phenomena in rotating and convecting fluids—the Taylor-Couette and Rayleigh-Bénard instabilities—can not only be observed within the limited length and time scales accessible to MD, but even allow quantitative agreement to be achieved. Simulation of highly counter-intuitive segregation phenomena in granular mixtures, again using MD methods, but now augmented by forces producing damping and friction, leads to results that resemble experimentally observed axial and radial segregation in the case of a rotating cylinder and to a novel form of horizontal segregation in a vertically vibrated layer. Finally, when modeling self-assembly processes analogous to the formation of the polyhedral shells that package spherical viruses, simulation of suitably shaped particles reveals the ability to produce complete, error-free assembly and leads to the important general observation that reversible growth steps contribute to the high yield. While there are limitations to the MD approach, both computational and conceptual, the results offer a tantalizing hint of the kinds of phenomena that can be explored and what might be discovered when sufficient resources are brought to bear on a problem.

  18. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  19. CapsID: a web-based tool for developing parsimonious sets of CAPS molecular markers for genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provart Nicholas J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping may be carried out by a number of different methods including direct sequencing and polymorphism analysis. For a number of reasons, PCR-based polymorphism analysis may be desirable, owing to the fact that only small amounts of genetic material are required, and that the costs are low. One popular and cheap method for detecting polymorphisms is by using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, or CAPS, molecular markers. These are also known as PCR-RFLP markers. Results We have developed a program, called CapsID, that identifies snip-SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter restriction endonuclease cut sites within a set or sets of reference sequences, designs PCR primers around these, and then suggests the most parsimonious combination of markers for genotyping any individual who is not a member of the reference set. The output page includes biologist-friendly features, such as images of virtual gels to assist in genotyping efforts. CapsID is freely available at http://bbc.botany.utoronto.ca/capsid. Conclusion CapsID is a tool that can rapidly provide minimal sets of CAPS markers for molecular identification purposes for any biologist working in genetics, community genetics, plant and animal breeding, forensics and other fields.

  20. Use of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Species Responsible for Snakebite in Nepal: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Kuch, Ulrich; Höde, Patrick; Bruhse, Laura; Pandey, Deb P.; Ghimire, Anup; Chappuis, François; Alirol, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite is an important medical emergency in rural Nepal. Correct identification of the biting species is crucial for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment and anticipate complications. This is particularly important for neurotoxic envenoming which, depending on the snake species involved, may not respond to available antivenoms. Adequate species identification tools are lacking. This study used a combination of morphological and molecular approaches (PCR-aided DNA sequencing from swabs of bite sites) to determine the contribution of venomous and non-venomous species to the snakebite burden in southern Nepal. Out of 749 patients admitted with a history of snakebite to one of three study centres, the biting species could be identified in 194 (25.9%). Out of these, 87 had been bitten by a venomous snake, most commonly the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja; n = 42) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus; n = 22). When both morphological identification and PCR/sequencing results were available, a 100% agreement was noted. The probability of a positive PCR result was significantly lower among patients who had used inadequate “first aid” measures (e.g. tourniquets or local application of remedies). This study is the first to report the use of forensic genetics methods for snake species identification in a prospective clinical study. If high diagnostic accuracy is confirmed in larger cohorts, this method will be a very useful reference diagnostic tool for epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. PMID:27105074

  1. Lipids and Molecular Tools as Biomarkers in Monitoring Air Sparging Bioremediation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heipieper, Hermann J.; Fischer, Janett

    2010-05-01

    The fluctuation of membrane lipids offers a promising tool as biomarkers for the analysis of microbial population changes as well as for the physiological status of micro-organisms. The investigation of changes in lipid composition is of common use for the assessment of physiological conditions in pure cultures. However, as lipid composition does not show drastic diversity among living organisms the use of lipids as biomarkers in mixed cultures and environmental samples has certain limitations. Therefore, special marker phospholipid fatty acids as well as modern statistical analysis of the results are necessary to receive certain information about the qualitative and quantitative changes of e.g. a soil microflora due to a contamination with organic compounds and its bioremediation. The use of lipids as biomarker in monitoring bioremediation are shown at the Hradčany site, a former Russian air force base in the Czech Republic that operated until 1990. In this time in an area of 32 ha soil and groundwater were contaminated with kerosene and BTEX compounds in an amount of 7,150 tons. This highly contaminated site is treated with the so-called air sparging method to clean-up the contamination by aerobic biodegradation. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift to a gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. The results, including a principal component analysis (PCA) of the obtained fatty acid profiles, showed that the air sparging leads to substantial differences in microbial communities depending on the contamination levels and length of treatment, respectively. Obviously, the length of air sparging treatment controlling the BTEX concentration in soils causes temporal changes of bacterial community and adaptations of its respective members. This work was supported by the project BIOTOOL (Contract No. 003998) of the European Commission within its Sixth Framework Programme. Kabelitz N., Machackova J., Imfeld G., Brennerova M., Pieper D.H., Heipieper H

  2. Molecular Probes: A Tool for Studying Toxicity of VOCs to P.Putida F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are of great concern in ground water remediation, and are generally present in the form of NAPLs in subsurface environments. Among the various treatment technologies, in situ bioremediation is one of the most effective and low-cost treatment options. Many soil bacteria are reported to degrade these organic contaminants via metabolism (using them as a source of carbon to derive energy) or co- metabolism up to certain concentrations. However, larger concentrations of these contaminants are toxic to bacteria. Thus, in order to achieve successful bioremediation, it is important to determine the optimal concentrations of various contaminants that is beneficial for the activity and survival of degrading bacteria. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel method for toxicity analyses of VOC contaminants to the soil bacteria that degrade them. The present study is based on a two-color fluorescence assay of bacterial viability which facilitates actual counting of live and dead bacteria. Pseudomonas putida F1 cells were labeled with a LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM bacterial viability kit (Invitrogen), which consists of a mixture of two dyes, SYTO 9 and propidium iodide, each with a different ability to penetrate healthy bacterial cells. Live cells stain green whereas propidium iodide (red dye) only penetrates cells with compromised membranes that are considered dead or dying. Stained cells were exposed to different concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene in sealed vials. Change in the concentrations of green and red cells were monitored over the time using fluorescence microscopy. UTHSCSA ImageTool software was used to count the live and dead cells in the images. It was observed that live (green) cell concentrations decreased and dead/damaged (red) cell concentrations increased over time when cells were exposed to TCE. No significant changes were observed in control experiments. Death rate constants calculated based on live cell

  3. The Polymerase chain reaction as a tool of molecular diagnosis of Leishmania infection in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishmaniasis, manifesting on it's different clinical forms is endemic in different regions of the Sudan. diagnosis of the disease in the Sudan is usually done using simple methods such as microscopical examination of slit smirs, Histological sections and cultures. Serological diagnosis using enzymes linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)- and direct agglutination test (DAT) are sometimes used as more sensitive tool has thrown light on the epidemiology of the disease in the Sudan. This study was conducted on 126 subjects to identify the parasites-causing the different clinical manifestations, to determine the genetic diversity of different isolates of Lieshmania- and to detect parasites in the peripheral blood of subjects from highly endemic foci. The study population consisted of 7 with suspected VL, 12 with suspected ML, 14 with suspected PKDL, 2 with sporotrichoid CL and 89 healthy games wardens and army soldiers from highly endemic foci. Parasites were cultured in biphasic medium and subcultured in liquid medium until mass production was stabilized. Extraction of DNA was done using three methods which were phenol/ chloroform/ isoamylalcohol, K buffer and proteinase K as well as lysing of the parasite with distilled water. The KDNA was amplified using species namely AJSI and DeB8. The products were analysed on 1.5% agarose gel-and were visualized and photographed with U.V. transilluminator and camera. Characteristic bands of 700 and 800 b.p corresponding to the full length of mini circle of L.major and L.donovani respectively were obtained on amplification of KDNA from patients with VL and CL. In some cases lower bands of 400 and 500 b.p PKDL and multiple bands for sporotrichoid CL.Leishmania DNA was detected from the conjucativa of the eye of a patient with PKDL. The genetic diversity of Leishmania parasite was determined by digesting PCR products from PKDL, sporotrichoids CL and VL patients. Different patterns were produced for each digesting product. This result

  4. ESIF: Bring Us Your Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    This brochure highlights the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) -- the United States' premier lab focused on energy systems research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Topics covered include an overview of Energy Systems Integration, research focus areas, RD&D tools unique to the ESIF, and information on how to partner with NREL at the ESIF.

  5. MDcons: Intermolecular contact maps as a tool to analyze the interface of protein complexes from molecular dynamics trajectories

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat

    2014-05-06

    Background: Molecular Dynamics ( MD) simulations of protein complexes suffer from the lack of specific tools in the analysis step. Analyses of MD trajectories of protein complexes indeed generally rely on classical measures, such as the RMSD, RMSF and gyration radius, conceived and developed for single macromolecules. As a matter of fact, instead, researchers engaged in simulating the dynamics of a protein complex are mainly interested in characterizing the conservation/variation of its biological interface. Results: On these bases, herein we propose a novel approach to the analysis of MD trajectories or other conformational ensembles of protein complexes, MDcons, which uses the conservation of inter-residue contacts at the interface as a measure of the similarity between different snapshots. A "consensus contact map" is also provided, where the conservation of the different contacts is drawn in a grey scale. Finally, the interface area of the complex is monitored during the simulations. To show its utility, we used this novel approach to study two protein-protein complexes with interfaces of comparable size and both dominated by hydrophilic interactions, but having binding affinities at the extremes of the experimental range. MDcons is demonstrated to be extremely useful to analyse the MD trajectories of the investigated complexes, adding important insight into the dynamic behavior of their biological interface. Conclusions: MDcons specifically allows the user to highlight and characterize the dynamics of the interface in protein complexes and can thus be used as a complementary tool for the analysis of MD simulations of both experimental and predicted structures of protein complexes.

  6. Evaluation of a gp63-PCR based assay as a molecular diagnosis tool in canine leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheila Guerbouj

    Full Text Available A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania (L. parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture or serological (IFAT techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N = 18 and control dogs (N = 45 originating from non-endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (κ test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8-95.4% or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5-71.3%. However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia.

  7. Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N = 18) and control dogs (N = 45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (κ) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

  8. Integration of molecular biology tools for identifying promoters and genes abundantly expressed in flowers of Oncidium Gower Ramsey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Shu-Yun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orchids comprise one of the largest families of flowering plants and generate commercially important flowers. However, model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana do not contain all plant genes, and agronomic and horticulturally important genera and species must be individually studied. Results Several molecular biology tools were used to isolate flower-specific gene promoters from Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey' (Onc. GR. A cDNA library of reproductive tissues was used to construct a microarray in order to compare gene expression in flowers and leaves. Five genes were highly expressed in flower tissues, and the subcellular locations of the corresponding proteins were identified using lip transient transformation with fluorescent protein-fusion constructs. BAC clones of the 5 genes, together with 7 previously published flower- and reproductive growth-specific genes in Onc. GR, were identified for cloning of their promoter regions. Interestingly, 3 of the 5 novel flower-abundant genes were putative trypsin inhibitor (TI genes (OnTI1, OnTI2 and OnTI3, which were tandemly duplicated in the same BAC clone. Their promoters were identified using transient GUS reporter gene transformation and stable A. thaliana transformation analyses. Conclusions By combining cDNA microarray, BAC library, and bombardment assay techniques, we successfully identified flower-directed orchid genes and promoters.

  9. Next-generation phage display: integrating and comparing available molecular tools to enable cost-effective high-throughput analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Dias-Neto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combinatorial phage display has been used in the last 20 years in the identification of protein-ligands and protein-protein interactions, uncovering relevant molecular recognition events. Rate-limiting steps of combinatorial phage display library selection are (i the counting of transducing units and (ii the sequencing of the encoded displayed ligands. Here, we adapted emerging genomic technologies to minimize such challenges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gained efficiency by applying in tandem real-time PCR for rapid quantification to enable bacteria-free phage display library screening, and added phage DNA next-generation sequencing for large-scale ligand analysis, reporting a fully integrated set of high-throughput quantitative and analytical tools. The approach is far less labor-intensive and allows rigorous quantification; for medical applications, including selections in patients, it also represents an advance for quantitative distribution analysis and ligand identification of hundreds of thousands of targeted particles from patient-derived biopsy or autopsy in a longer timeframe post library administration. Additional advantages over current methods include increased sensitivity, less variability, enhanced linearity, scalability, and accuracy at much lower cost. Sequences obtained by qPhage plus pyrosequencing were similar to a dataset produced from conventional Sanger-sequenced transducing-units (TU, with no biases due to GC content, codon usage, and amino acid or peptide frequency. These tools allow phage display selection and ligand analysis at >1,000-fold faster rate, and reduce costs approximately 250-fold for generating 10(6 ligand sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses demonstrates that whereas this approach correlates with the traditional colony-counting, it is also capable of a much larger sampling, allowing a faster, less expensive, more accurate and consistent analysis of phage enrichment. Overall

  10. Obesity management: what brings success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Rössner, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The upward trend in obesity prevalence across regions and continents is a worldwide concern. Today a majority of the world's population live in a country where being overweight or obese causes more deaths than being underweight. Only a portion of those qualifying for treatment will get the health care they need. Still, a minor weight loss of 5-10% seems to be sufficient to provide a clinically significant health benefit in terms of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Diet, exercise and behavior modifications remain the current cornerstones of obesity treatment. Weight-loss drugs play a minor role. Drugs which were available and reasonably effective have been withdrawn because of side effects. The fact that the 'old' well known, but pretty unexciting tools remain the basic armamentarium causes understandable concern and disappointment among both patients and therapists. Hence, bariatric surgery has increasingly been recognized and developed, as it offers substantial weight loss and prolonged weight control. The present review highlights the conventional tools to counter obesity, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery, including some of the barriers to successful weight loss: (1) unrealistic expectations of success; (2) high attrition rates; (3) cultural norms of self-acceptance in terms of weight and beliefs of fat being healthy; (4) neighborhood attributes such as a lack of well-stocked supermarkets and rather the presence of convenience stores with low-quality foods; and (5) the perception of the neighborhood as less safe and with low walkability. Prevention is the obvious key. Cost-effective societal interventions such as a tax on unhealthy food and beverages, front-of-pack traffic light nutrition labeling and prohibition of advertising of junk food and beverages to children are also discussed. PMID:23320052

  11. Selective tools for the solid-phase extraction of Ochratoxin A from various complex samples: immunosorbents, oligosorbents, and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Valérie; Combès, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of instrumentation in terms of separation and detection has allowed a real improvement of the sensitivity and the analysis time. However, the analysis of ultra-traces of toxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA) from complex samples (foodstuffs, biological fluids…) still requires a step of purification and of preconcentration before chromatographic determination. In this context, extraction sorbents leading to a molecular recognition mechanism appear as powerful tools for the selective extraction of OTA and of its structural analogs in order to obtain more reliable and sensitive quantitative analyses of these compounds in complex media. Indeed, immunosorbents and oligosorbents that are based on the use of immobilized antibodies and of aptamers, respectively, and that are specific to OTA allow its selective clean-up from complex samples with high enrichment factors. Similar molecular recognition mechanisms can also be obtained by developing molecularly imprinted polymers, the synthesis of which leads to the formation of cavities that are specific to OTA, thus mimicking the recognition site of the biomolecules. Therefore, the principle, the advantages, the limits of these different types of extraction tools, and their complementary behaviors will be presented. The introduction of these selective tools in miniaturized devices will also be discussed. PMID:27585915

  12. Integrated system brings hospital data together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K F

    1987-10-01

    Healthcare industry changes during the 1980s--increased competition and alterations in the Medicare payment methodology--place new and more complex demands on a hospital's information systems, which often fall short of meeting those demands. These systems were designed for financial reporting, billing, or providing clinical data, and few of them are capable of linking with other unrelated systems. Today's hospital manager needs timely and simultaneous access to data from a variety of sources within the hospital. All the elements to accomplish this are collected somewhere in the hospital, but finding them and bringing them together is difficult. The key to the efficient management and use of data bases is in understanding the fundamental concept of relational data bases, which is the capability of linking or joining separate data files through a common data element in each file. In this way, data files may be integrated into a "related" data base. Any number of separate files, or tables, may exist within a "relational" data base as long as a series of threads links them. A strategic management information data base includes the information necessary to analyze, understand, and manage the hospital's markets, products, resources, and profitability. The major components of this information system are the case mix and cost accounting, budgeting, and modeling systems. The case mix and cost accounting factors involve managing concrete pieces of data, whereas the budgeting and modeling factors manipulate data to create a scenario. The strategic management information data base is the foundation of a hospital's decision support system, which is rapidly moving into the category of a necessary tool of the hospital manager's trade.

  13. Bringing the Unidata IDV to the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. I.; Oxelson Ganter, J.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining software compatibility across new computing environments and the associated underlying hardware is a common problem for software engineers and scientific programmers. While traditional software engineering provides a suite of tools and methodologies which may mitigate this issue, they are typically ignored by developers lacking a background in software engineering. Causing further problems, these methodologies are best applied at the start of project; trying to apply them to an existing, mature project can require an immense effort. Visualization software is particularly vulnerable to this problem, given the inherent dependency on particular graphics hardware and software API's. As a result of these issues, there exists a large body of software which is simultaneously critical to the scientists who are dependent upon it, and yet increasingly difficult to maintain.The solution to this problem was partially provided with the advent of Cloud Computing; Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations, with little-to-no re-engineering required. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily bring the same visualization software to a desktop, a netbook, a smartphone, and the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be.Unidata has been able to harness Application Streaming to provide a tablet-compatible version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  14. A Proposal for Measuring Interactivity that Brings Learning Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosh Yamamoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed in this paper that some type of way to measure and visualize interactivity in the multimedia or e-Learning contents is necessary in order to clearly identify interactivity that brings learning effectiveness. Interactivity during learning will arouse students’ intellectual curiosity and motivate them to learn further. Although the interaction in the communication between the teacher and his/her students in a regular classroom is ideal, it is not possible to maintain the equivalence in the multimedia or e-Learning contents. In order to rigorously formalize the field of measuring interactivity as a theory, theoretical constructs such as interactivity, interest, knowledge, and experience are redefined first. Then, the defined “interactivity” is broken down to subcomponents to develop an assessment tool for the interactivity which brings learning effectiveness. In the end, it is proved that the interactivity in learning can be measured.

  15. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing ... are very similar genetically. They also share many lifestyle factors: low rates of childhood obesity, large family ...

  16. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk Health Capsules Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Paralyzed Men Regain Movement Featured Website: Mental Health Topics Past Issues Most Viewed May 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit ...

  17. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  18. Zika Infection May Bring Future Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161496.html Zika Infection May Bring Future Immunity: Study Individuals, and ... HealthDay News) -- People who've been infected with Zika face a low risk for another bout with ...

  19. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT) to Education

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M. Woodside; Shahram Amiri

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT). Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explore...

  20. Smart Technology Brings Power to the People

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Gephart, Julie M.

    2006-12-01

    Imagine you’re at home one Saturday morning on the computer, as your son takes a shower, your daughter is watching TV, and a load of laundry is in your washer and dryer. Meanwhile, the fragrance of fresh-brewed coffee fills the house. You hear a momentary beep from the dryer that tells you that if you were to look, a high-energy price indicator would be displayed on the front panels of some of your favorite appliances. This tells you that you could save money right now by using less energy. (You’ve agreed to this arrangement to help your utility avoid a substation upgrade. In return, you get a lower rate most of the time.) So you turn off some of the unneeded lights in your home and opt to wait until evening to run the dishwasher. Meanwhile, some of your largest appliances have automatically responded to this signal and have already reduced your home’s energy consumption, saving you money. On January 11, 2006, demonstration projects were launched in 200 homes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States to test and speed adoption of new smart grid technologies that can make the power grid more resilient and efficient. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory in Richland, Washington, is managing the yearlong study called the Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration, a project funded primarily by DOE. Through the GridWise™ Demonstration projects, researchers are gaining insight into energy consumers’ behavior while testing new technologies designed to bring the electric transmission system into the information age. Northwest utilities, appliance manufacturers and technology companies are also supporting this effort to demonstrate the devices and assess the resulting consumer response. A combination of devices, software and advanced analytical tools will give homeowners more information about their energy use and cost, and we want to know if this will modify their behavior. Approximately 100

  1. IS element IS16 as a molecular screening tool to identify hospital-associated strains of Enterococcus faecium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Guido; Fleige, Carola; Geringer, Uta; van Schaik, Willem; Klare, Ingo; Witte, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hospital strains of Enterococcus faecium could be characterized and typed by various molecular methods (MLST, AFLP, MLVA) and allocated to a distinct clonal complex known as MLST CC17. However, these techniques are laborious, time-consuming and cost-intensive. Our aim was to identify hos

  2. Unexpected diversity of Anopheles species in Eastern Zambia: implications for evaluating vector behavior and interventions using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Neil F; St Laurent, Brandyce; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Hamainza, Busiku; Chanda, Javan; Chinula, Dingani; Krishnankutty, Sindhu M; Mueller, Jonathan D; Deason, Nicholas A; Hoang, Quynh T; Boldt, Heather L; Thumloup, Julie; Stevenson, Jennifer; Seyoum, Aklilu; Collins, Frank H

    2015-12-09

    The understanding of malaria vector species in association with their bionomic traits is vital for targeting malaria interventions and measuring effectiveness. Many entomological studies rely on morphological identification of mosquitoes, limiting recognition to visually distinct species/species groups. Anopheles species assignments based on ribosomal DNA ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA COI were compared to morphological identifications from Luangwa and Nyimba districts in Zambia. The comparison of morphological and molecular identifications determined that interpretations of species compositions, insecticide resistance assays, host preference studies, trap efficacy, and Plasmodium infections were incorrect when using morphological identification alone. Morphological identifications recognized eight Anopheles species while 18 distinct sequence groups or species were identified from molecular analyses. Of these 18, seven could not be identified through comparison to published sequences. Twelve of 18 molecularly identified species (including unidentifiable species and species not thought to be vectors) were found by PCR to carry Plasmodium sporozoites - compared to four of eight morphological species. Up to 15% of morphologically identified Anopheles funestus mosquitoes in insecticide resistance tests were found to be other species molecularly. The comprehension of primary and secondary malaria vectors and bionomic characteristics that impact malaria transmission and intervention effectiveness are fundamental in achieving malaria elimination.

  3. Computational Immunology Meets Bioinformatics: The Use of Prediction Tools for Molecular Binding in the Simulation of the Immune System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, N.; Lund, Ole; Bernaschi, M.;

    2010-01-01

    proliferate more than any other. These results show that the simulator produces dynamics that are stable and consistent with basic immunological knowledge. We believe that the combination of genomic information and simulation of the dynamics of the immune system, in one single tool, can offer new perspectives...

  4. Electron-Induced Vibrational Spectroscopy. A New and Unique Tool To Unravel the Molecular Structure of Polymer Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pireaux, J.J.; Gregoire, Ch.; Caudano, R.; Rei Vilar, M.; Brinkhuis, R.; Schouten, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Among the surface-sensitive spectroscopies used to characterize clean and surface-modified polymers, one technique has rather recently emerged as a very promising complementary tool. High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, or electron-induced vibrational spectroscopy, has potentially all

  5. ELECTRON-INDUCED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY - A NEW AND UNIQUE TOOL TO UNRAVEL THE MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE OF POLYMER SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIREAUX, JJ; GREGOIRE, C; CAUDANO, R; VILAR, MR; BRINKHUIS, R; SCHOUTEN, AJ

    1991-01-01

    Among the surface-sensitive spectroscopies used to characterize clean and surface-modified polymers, one technique has rather recently emerged as a very promising complementary tool. High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, or electron-induced vibrational spectroscopy, has potentially all

  6. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Woodside

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT. Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explores the technology devices, and educational implications of policies, device management, security and included components.

  7. Assessing molecular docking tools for relative biological activity prediction: a case study of triazole HIV-1 NNRTIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Tomasz; Siwek, Agata; Paneth, Piotr

    2013-12-23

    Molecular docking is a technique widely used in drug design. Many studies exist regarding the general accuracy of various docking programs, but case studies for a given group of related compounds are rare. In order to facilitate identification of novel triazole HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), several docking and scoring programs were evaluated for their ability to predict relative biological activity of 111 known 1,2,4-triazole and 76 other azole type NNRTIs. Glide, FlexX, Molegro Virtual Docker, AutoDock Vina, and Hyde were used. Different protocols, settings, scoring functions, and interaction terms were analyzed. We have found that the programs performance was dependent on the data set, indicating the importance of choosing good quality target data for any comparative study. The results suggest that after optimization and proper validation, some of the molecular docking programs can help in predicting relative biological activity of azole NNRTIs. PMID:24266618

  8. In-Silico search of Tailored Cox-2 Inhibitors: Screening of Quinazolinone derivatives via molecular modeling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Abdul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel Quinazoline derivatives were designed through in silico studies including Molecular properties prediction, Toxicity risk prediction and by Molecular Docking approaches. The hypothetically designed molecules were studied for Lipinski rule of 5 properties. The successful molecules were subjected to toxicity risk prediction by Osiris property calculator.The docking methodology applied in the study was first validated by redocking the celecoxib in cox-2 domain with the co-crystallized one. Cox-2 protein was explored for the residues imperative for activity by analyzing the binding pattern of celecoxib and selected compounds of quinazolinone derivatives in the active domain. All the selected molecules passed Lipinski rule of five successfully and they were safe. The docking results explored that compound IQ1, IQ2, IQ5, IQ8 and IQ12 have binding affinity -9.3, which indicated that these compounds may prove successful anti-inflammatory oral candidates.

  9. FieldChopper, a new tool for automatic model generation and virtual screening based on molecular fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Ronkko, Toni; Poso, Antti

    2008-06-01

    Algorithms were developed for ligand-based virtual screening of molecular databases. FieldChopper (FC) is based on the discretization of the electrostatic and van der Waals field into three classes. A model is built from a set of superimposed active molecules. The similarity of the compounds in the database to the model is then calculated using matrices that define scores for comparing field values of different categories. The method was validated using 12 publicly available data sets by comparing the method to the electrostatic similarity comparison program EON. The results suggest that FC is competitive with more complex descriptors and could be used as a molecular sieve in virtual screening experiments when multiple active ligands are known. PMID:18489083

  10. Investigation of torsional potentials, molecular structure, vibrational properties, molecular characteristics and NBO analysis of some bipyridines using experimental and theoretical tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, J.; Reddy, B. Venkatram; Rao, G. Ramana

    2016-08-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of 2,2‧-bipyridine (2BPE); 4,4‧-bipyridine (4BPE); and 2,4‧-bipyridine (24BPE) were measured in the range 4000-450 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1, respectively. Torsional potentials were evaluated at various angles of rotation around the C-C inter-ring bond for the three molecules in order to arrive at the molecular conformation of lowest energy. This conformation was further optimized to get ground state geometry. Vibrational frequencies along with infrared and Raman intensities were computed. In the above calculations, DFT employing B3LYP functional with 6311++G(d,p) basis set was used. The rms error between observed and calculated frequencies was 10.0, 10.9 and 10.2 cm-1 for 2BPE, 4BPE and 24BPE, respectively. A 54-parameter modified valence force field was derived by solving inverse vibrational problem using Wilson's GF matrix method. The force constants were refined using 117 experimental frequencies of the three molecules in overlay least-squares technique. The average error between observed and computed frequencies was 12.44 cm-1. PED and eigen vectors calculated in the process were used to make unambiguous vibrational assignments of all the fundamental vibrations. The values of dipole moment, polarizability and hyperpolarizability were computed to determine the NLO behaviour of these molecules. The HOMO and LUMO energies, thermodynamic parameters and molecular electrostatic surface potentials (MESP) were also evaluated. Stability of the molecules arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  11. A Critical Appraisal of Molecular Xenomonitoring as a Tool for Assessing Progress toward Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Hoda A.; Morsy, Zakariya S.; HELMY, HANAN; Reda M R Ramzy; Setouhy, Maged El; Weil, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    We used molecular xenomonitoring (MX, detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes) to evaluate the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) in sentinel locations in Egypt with high (11.5%) and low (4.1%) baseline microfilaria prevalence rates. Blood-fed Culex pipiens were pooled by household and tested for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA by PCR. There was no significant relationship between the infection status of household residents and parasite DNA status of mosquitoes from the same houses. After 5 MD...

  12. Magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy--a sensitive tool for investigating the molecular orientation in organic semiconductor films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Björn; Fronk, Michael; Lehmann, Daniel; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Salvan, Georgeta

    2009-11-12

    The detection and control of the molecular growth mode is a key prerequisite for fabricating opto-electronic devices. In this work we present the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy to be a highly sensitive method for the detection of the molecular orientation. On the example of metal free phthalocyanine (H(2)Pc) in thin films, it will be shown that also for diamagnetic molecules a strong magneto-optical response can be expected. The growth mode and thus the intensity of the MOKE signal of H2Pc is strongly influenced by a templating effect using ultrathin layers of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). From the MOKE spectra in the energy range from 1.5 to 5.0 eV and the optical constants, the Voigt constant of thin organic films was determined. From the strong in-plane/out-of-plane anisotropy of the optical constants and the value of the Voigt constant the average molecular tilt angle of H2Pc molecules with respect to the substrate plane can be obtained. PMID:19888764

  13. The use of agrobiodiversity for plant improvement and the intellectual property paradigm: institutional fit and legal tools for mass selection, conventional and molecular plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes.

  14. DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…

  15. Bringing Research into Educational Practice: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Bringing research into educational practice is necessary but does not happen automatically. The Transfercenter for Neuroscience and Learning, at the University of Ulm in Germany, is set up to transfer (neuro)scientific knowledge into educational practice. In doing so we have learned why this does not happen automatically, and have tried to make…

  16. Bringing together the best in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Voss, Georgina

    2006-01-01

    With the planned formation of a "European Institute of Technology" announced last week, the EU hopes to bring European innovation and knowledge back into the global picture. The institute, which is planned to be built by 2010, will aim to compete and even rival like institutes in Janpan and the United States (1½ page)

  17. Talent Show Brings Changsha Fame and Fortune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Super Girl, a TV singing contest,became famous nationwide almost overnight. The show brought Hunan Satellite TV over 100 million yuan(US$12.5 million) last year and is estimated to bring 200 million yuan (US$25 million) of advertising sales to the TV station this year.

  18. WI-38 cell long-term quiescence model system: a valuable tool to study molecular events that regulate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprano, K J

    1994-04-01

    A number of cell culture model systems have been used to study the regulation of cell cycle progression at the molecular level. In this paper we describe the WI-38 cell long-term quiescence model system. By modulating the length of time that WI-38 cells are density arrested, it is possible to proportionately alter the length of the prereplicative or G-1 phase which the cell traverses after growth factor stimulation in preparation for entry into DNA synthesis. Through studies aimed at understanding the cause and molecular nature of the prolongation of the prereplicative phase, we have determined that gene expression plays an important role in establishing growth factor "competence" and that once the cell becomes "competent" there is a defined order to the molecular events that follow during the remainder of G-1. More specifically, we have determined that the prolongation represents a delay in the ability of long term quiescent cells to become fully "competent" to respond to growth factors which regulate progression through G-1 into S. This prolongation appears to occur as a result of changes during long term quiescence in the ability of immediate early G-1 specific genes (such as c-myc) to activate the expression of early G-1 specific genes (such as ornithine decarboxylase). While ODC is the first and thus far only growth associated gene identified as a target of c-myc (and the Myc/Max protein complex), it is likely that further studies in this model system will reveal other early G-1 growth regulatory genes. We anticipate that future follow-up studies in this model system will provide additional valuable information about the function of growth-regulatory genes in controlling growth factor responsiveness and cell cycle progression.

  19. Root gravitropism: an experimental tool to investigate basic cellular and molecular processes underlying mechanosensing and signal transmission in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Guan, C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of plant organs to use gravity as a guide for growth, named gravitropism, has been recognized for over two centuries. This growth response to the environment contributes significantly to the upward growth of shoots and the downward growth of roots commonly observed throughout the plant kingdom. Root gravitropism has received a great deal of attention because there is a physical separation between the primary site for gravity sensing, located in the root cap, and the site of differential growth response, located in the elongation zones (EZs). Hence, this system allows identification and characterization of different phases of gravitropism, including gravity perception, signal transduction, signal transmission, and curvature response. Recent studies support some aspects of an old model for gravity sensing, which postulates that root-cap columellar amyloplasts constitute the susceptors for gravity perception. Such studies have also allowed the identification of several molecules that appear to function as second messengers in gravity signal transduction and of potential signal transducers. Auxin has been implicated as a probable component of the signal that carries the gravitropic information between the gravity-sensing cap and the gravity-responding EZs. This has allowed the identification and characterization of important molecular processes underlying auxin transport and response in plants. New molecular models can be elaborated to explain how the gravity signal transduction pathway might regulate the polarity of auxin transport in roots. Further studies are required to test these models, as well as to study the molecular mechanisms underlying a poorly characterized phase of gravitropism that is independent of an auxin gradient.

  20. HBP Builder: A Tool to Generate Hyperbranched Polymers and Hyperbranched Multi-Arm Copolymers for Coarse-grained and Fully Atomistic Molecular Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunyang; Ma, Li; Li, Shanlong; Tan, Haina; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2016-05-01

    Computer simulation has been becoming a versatile tool that can investigate detailed information from the microscopic scale to the mesoscopic scale. However, the crucial first step of molecular simulation is model building, particularly for hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) and hyperbranched multi-arm copolymers (HBMCs) with complex and various topological structures. Unlike well-defined polymers, not only the molar weight of HBPs/HBMCs with polydispersity, but the HBPs/HBMCs with the same degree of polymerization (DP) and degree of branching (DB) also have many possible topological structures, thus making difficulties for user to build model in molecular simulation. In order to build a bridge between model building and molecular simulation of HBPs and HBMCs, we developed HBP Builder, a C language open source HBPs/HBMCs building toolkit. HBP Builder implements an automated protocol to build various coarse-grained and fully atomistic structures of HBPs/HBMCs according to user’s specific requirements. Meanwhile, coarse-grained and fully atomistic output structures can be directly employed in popular simulation packages, including HOOMD, Tinker and Gromacs. Moreover, HBP Builder has an easy-to-use graphical user interface and the modular architecture, making it easy to extend and reuse it as a part of other program.

  1. New molecular tools for the identification of 2 endangered smooth-hound sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Ilaria A M; Riginella, Emilio; Cariani, Alessia; Tinti, Fausto; Farrell, Edward D; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Zane, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The smooth-hounds represent a significant proportion of the elasmobranch catch in the Adriatic basin of the Mediterranean Sea, where the common (Mustelus mustelus) and blackspotted (Mustelus punctulatus) smooth-hounds co-occur. The 2 species share several morphological and morphometric characters that lead to frequent misidentification. In order to provide information useful for their species identification, we performed a morphological identification of several Mustelus specimens to select individuals unambiguously attributed to 1 of the 2 species, and assayed these with 3 new molecular tests. First, we developed and validated a mitochondrial DNA assay based on species-specific amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI). Second, a fragment analysis of 15 microsatellites cross-amplified from several triakid species was performed to identify diagnostic loci. Finally, a length difference was identified in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and a diagnostic test based on its amplification was established. All the samples classified morphologically as M. mustelus and M. punctulatus showed a species-specific profile using all the 3 molecular tests. In addition, cross-amplification of microsatellites allowed identification of 9 highly polymorphic loci that will be useful for the study of the mating system and population differentiation of the 2 species.

  2. Development of molecular tools to differentiate Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus meat from exotic and local domestic pig meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Kumar Jadav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Identification of wild pig and domestic pig is essential to prevent illegal poaching of wild pig and to implement Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972. PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate Wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus from Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica meat. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from meat samples of both the sub species and a fragment of Cytochrome b gene was amplified using universal primers and the PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion. Results: All the known samples of each of the sub-species amplified 474 bp fragment successfully using b1 and b2 primers. To differentiate between wild and domestic pig meat, restriction digestion of the PCR products was carried out to produce characteristic PCR-RFLP patterns for each species. StuI digestion yielded a RFLP pattern which distinguished the closely related sub species. The alignment of sequences of Wild pigs with sequences of local domestic pig, European wild pig and exotic breeds revealed 7 intra-species polymorphic sites within Cytochrome b gene fragment.Conclusion: This study showed that The PCR-RFLP is a simple and very effective tool for differentiating the samples of both the sub species and could prove to be a useful tool in forensic identification of wild pig and domestic pig.

  3. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  4. Virtual Waterless Port:" BRING THE PORT FORWARD"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ To deal with the crisis,the central government of China carried out"ten major industries stimulating programme",which includes logistics and information industry.Lifting the development of logistics and information industry to a level of national strategy,it shows that the central governments is paying great attention to construct modern logistics service system,cut the costs and improve efficiency,bringing an opportunity for Chinese logistics industry.

  5. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy.

  6. China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),a delegation headed by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku and composed of a medical team from Beijing Tongren Hospital made a"China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour to Vietnam"from November 13 to 20,2009 and gave free cataract surgery to about 100 patients in Bac Giang Province.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymers as a tool for the study of the 4-ethylphenol metabolic pathway in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Deiene; Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Guerreiro, Antonio; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramon J

    2015-09-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based methodology is described here for the determination of compounds that belong to the 4-ethylphenol (4EP) metabolic pathway in red wines. To this end, two MIP materials have been developed: a 4EP MIP as a class-selective material to extract phenols that belong to the 4EP metabolic pathway and a coumaric acid (CA) imprinted polymer as a MIP-based stationary phase capable of selectively separating these phenols on HPLC analysis, obtaining clean chromatograms. 4-vinyl pyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were respectively used as functional monomer and cross-linker for both MIPs. Once polymer compositions were optimised, the 4EP MIP was packed into SPE cartridges for wine sample clean-up and CA MIP was packed into HPLC columns to chromatographically separate the compounds present in the eluates obtained after SPE extraction. The accuracy of the proposed method was tested spiking wine samples with known concentrations of target compounds and subsequently, analytes were quantified by the standard addition method. Registered mean recoveries ranged from 95.2 to 109.2% and RSD values were below 10% in most cases. The described methodology was found to be suitable for the selective extraction and quantification of the compounds that belong to the 4EP metabolic pathway in red wines with minimal matrix effects and could be undoubtedly exploited to monitor 4EP and its precursors in wines.

  8. Efficient somatic embryogenesis and molecular marker based analysis as effective tools for conservation of red-listed plant Commiphora wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK KUMAR PARMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined and high efficiency protocol for in vitro regeneration of Commiphora wightii, a red-listed medicinal plant of medicinal importance, has been developed through optimized somatic embryogenesis pathway. Cultures from immature fruits were induced and proliferated on B5 medium supplemented with 2.26 µM 2,4-D. Embryogenic calli were obtained and then maintained for extended periods by alternately subculturing on modified MS medium supplemented with 1.11 µM BAP, 0.57 µM IBA and with 0.5% activated charcoal or without PGR every 3-4 weeks. Cyclic embryogenesis was obtained. Late torpedo and early cotyledonary stages somatic embryos were regularly harvested from PGR-free modified MS medium. It was found that percent moisture available in culture containers play a critical role in maturation and subsequent germination of somatic embryos of C. wighti. Maximum germination of more than 80% was achieved through media recycling. Somatic embryo derived plants (emblings were acclimatized. After 5 months, acclimatized plants were out-planted in experimental field. These morphologically normal plants have been surviving for over 3 years. Molecular polymorphism was clearly evident when these plants were tested using RAPD primers, making the plants suitable for use in its species restoration program.

  9. Detection of aberrant methylation in fecal DNA as a molecular screening tool for colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Hui Huang; Li-Hua Li; Fan Yang; Jin-Fu Wang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of detecting methylated fecal DNA as a screening tool for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and precancerous lesions.METHODS: Methylated secreted frizzled-related protein gene 2 (SFRP2), hyperplastic polyposis protein gene (HPP1) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) in stools from 52 patients with CRC, 35 patients with benign colorectal diseases and 24 normal individuals were analyzed using methylation-specific PCR.RESULTS: Methylated SFRP2, HPP1 and MGMT were detected in 94.2%, 71.2%, 48.1% of CRC patients and 52.4%, 57.1%, 28.6% of adenoma patients, respectively. The overall prevalence of fecal DNA with at least one methylated gene was 96.2% and 81.8% in patients with CRC and precancerous lesions, respectively. In contrast, only one of the 24 normal individuals revealed methylated DNA. These results indicated a 93.7% sensitivity and a 77.1% specificity of the assay for detecting CRC and precancerous lesions.CONCLUSION: Methylation testing of fecal DNA using a panel of epigenetic markers may be a simple and promising non-invasive screening method for CRC and precancerous lesions.

  10. Bringing macromolecular machinery to life using 3D animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid rise in the use of three-dimensional (3D) animation to depict molecular and cellular processes. Much of the growth in molecular animation has been in the educational arena, but increasingly, 3D animation software is finding its way into research laboratories. In this review, I will discuss a number of ways in which 3d animation software can play a valuable role in visualizing and communicating macromolecular structures and dynamics. I will also consider the challenges of using animation tools within the research sphere.

  11. Molecular diagnostic tools for detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas based on chaperonin-60 reveal differences in host plant infection patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Dumonceaux

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas ('Candidatus Phytoplasma' spp. are insect-vectored bacteria that infect a wide variety of plants, including many agriculturally important species. The infections can cause devastating yield losses by inducing morphological changes that dramatically alter inflorescence development. Detection of phytoplasma infection typically utilizes sequences located within the 16S-23S rRNA-encoding locus, and these sequences are necessary for strain identification by currently accepted standards for phytoplasma classification. However, these methods can generate PCR products >1400 bp that are less divergent in sequence than protein-encoding genes, limiting strain resolution in certain cases. We describe a method for accessing the chaperonin-60 (cpn60 gene sequence from a diverse array of 'Ca.Phytoplasma' spp. Two degenerate primer sets were designed based on the known sequence diversity of cpn60 from 'Ca.Phytoplasma' spp. and used to amplify cpn60 gene fragments from various reference samples and infected plant tissues. Forty three cpn60 sequences were thereby determined. The cpn60 PCR-gel electrophoresis method was highly sensitive compared to 16S-23S-targeted PCR-gel electrophoresis. The topology of a phylogenetic tree generated using cpn60 sequences was congruent with that reported for 16S rRNA-encoding genes. The cpn60 sequences were used to design a hybridization array using oligonucleotide-coupled fluorescent microspheres, providing rapid diagnosis and typing of phytoplasma infections. The oligonucleotide-coupled fluorescent microsphere assay revealed samples that were infected simultaneously with two subtypes of phytoplasma. These tools were applied to show that two host plants, Brassica napus and Camelina sativa, displayed different phytoplasma infection patterns.

  12. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a fast molecular diagnosis tool for left ventricular noncompaction in an infant with compound mutations in the MYBPC3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Elise; Helms, Pauline; Marcellin, Luc; Desprez, Philippe; Billaud, Philippe; Chanavat, Valérie; Rousson, Robert; Millat, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by a trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular myocardial recesses that communicate with the left ventricular cavity. LVNC is classified as a rare genetic cardiomyopathy. Molecular diagnosis is a challenge for the medical community as the condition shares morphologic features of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Several genetic causes of LVNC have been reported, with variable modes of inheritance, including autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance, but relatively few responsible genes have been identified. In this report, we describe a case of a severe form of LVNC leading to death at 6 months of life. NGS sequencing using a custom design for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy panel allowed us to identify compound heterozygosity in the MYBPC3 gene (p.Lys505del, p.Pro955fs) in 3 days, confirming NGS sequencing as a fast molecular diagnosis tool. Other studies have reported neonatal presentation of cardiomyopathies associated with compound heterozygous or homozygous MYBPC3 mutations. In this family and in families in which parental truncating MYBPC3 mutations are identified, preimplantation or prenatal genetic screening should be considered as these genotypes leads to neonatal mortality and morbidity.

  13. Methods and Tools to allow molecular flow simulations to be coupled to higher level continuum descriptions of flows in porous/fractured media and aerosol/dust dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyalka, Sudarshan [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The purpose of this project was to develop methods and tools that will aid in safety evaluation of nuclear fuels and licensing of nuclear reactors relating to accidents.The objectives were to develop more detailed and faster computations of fission product transport and aerosol evolution as they generally relate to nuclear fuel and/or nuclear reactor accidents. The two tasks in the project related to molecular transport in nuclear fuel and aerosol transport in reactor vessel and containment. For both the tasks, explorations of coupling of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo with Navier-Stokes solvers or the Sectional method were not successful. However, Mesh free methods for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method were successfully explored.These explorations permit applications to porous and fractured media, and arbitrary geometries.The computations were carried out in Mathematica and are fully parallelized. The project has resulted in new computational tools (algorithms and programs) that will improve the fidelity of computations to actual physics, chemistry and transport of fission products in the nuclear fuel and aerosol in reactor primary and secondary containments.

  14. Geodesy Brings the Geoscience Community Together as Geophysicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittross, S.; Rowan, L. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Morris, A. R.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geodesy, the science of determining Earth's shape, gravity field and rotation, has been in existence for millennia. Today, few geoscientists identify with the pure science of geodesy, though many use geodetic tools and data for their research. In 2014, we interviewed members of the UNAVCO community and asked, "Do you call yourself a geodesist?" Most replied that they used geodesy, but would call themselves "geophysicists". This "use of geodesy" for other fields of study, particularly for geophysics-related fields, is consistent with an analysis of AGU's sections and focus groups. Additional analysis of geoscience departments at U.S. universities would suggest a similar trend. The expanding use of geodetic tools and geodetic data for many fields of research such as geophysics, tectonophysics, geodynamics, space physics, geology, geomorphology, seismology, hydrology, volcanology, glaciology, paleontology, paleoseismology, structural geology, meteorology, ecology, archaeology, oceanography, geography, soil science, atmospheric science, and snow science, may provide an approach to bringing diverse fields together under the moniker of geoscience and geoscientists. Scientists using a shared approach to research and education might be able to see themselves under the broader identity of geoscientist. The hurdle to making this transformation towards a larger shared voice in public discourse, is the more common use of "geophysicist" among the geodesy community, which is tied to the strong foundation of physics and mathematics needed to work with geodetic data and tools.

  15. Bringing the power of dynamic languages to hardware control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caicedo, J M; Neufeld, N

    2009-01-01

    Hardware control systems are normally programmed using high-performance languages like C or C++ and increasingly also Java. All these languages are strongly typed and compiled which brings usually good performance but at the cost of a longer development and testing cycle and the need for more programming expertise. Dynamic languages which were long thought to be too slow and not powerful enough for control purposes are, thanks to modern powerful computers and advanced implementation techniques, fast enough for many of these tasks. We present examples from the LHCb Experiment Control System (ECS), which is based on a commercial SCADA software. We have successfully used Python to integrate hardware devices into the ECS. We present the necessary lightweight middle-ware we have developed, including examples for controlling hardware and software devices. We also discuss the development cycle, tools used and compare the effort to traditional solutions.

  16. The Bring Your Own Technology Initiative: An Examination of Teachers' Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Yanet; Tunks, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored teachers' concerns, use, and actual practices in their adoption of the Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT) initiative. Participants were 12 secondary teachers in a private school setting. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model tools provided data: Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ), Levels of Use interview, and the…

  17. 1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    extractable using cyclodextrin. Hence, while cyclodextrin extraction may serve as a good proxy for microbial bioavailability, our results suggest that it may not serve as a good proxy for earthworm bioavailability. 1H NMR metabolomics therefore offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor earthworm bioavailability of potentially toxic and persistent compounds in the environment.

  18. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaud, Julien; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2016-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relations...

  19. Tracing the oxygen triple isotopic composition of tropospheric molecular oxygen in biogenic apatite - a new tool for palaeoclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, A.; Süssenberger, A.; Gehler, A.; Wotzlaw, J.

    2009-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that tropospheric molecular oxygen posses a significant isotope anomaly [1, 2 and refs. therein]. Relative to the rocks- and minerals-defined terrestrial fractionation line (TFL), tropospheric O2 has an anomaly of -0.35‰ [2]. Because almost all oxygen on Earth is contained in rocks, we suggest that the rocks- and minerals-defined TFL [3] should be used as reference when reporting isotope anomalies with ∆17O = δ'17OSMOW - βTFL δ'18OSMOW. We have developed a new technique for the determination of δ17O and δ18O of silicates by means of laser fluorination GC-CF-irmMS. We have determined βTFL to 0.5247 (N > 100), which is identical to the value reported by other laboratories and techniques [2, 3]. The uncertainty in ∆17O is ±0.03 (1σ) for a single analysis. It was suggested that ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be used as proxy for the global bioactivity rate [GBR, 1] as well as for past atmospheric CO2 concentrations [4]. Past ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be determined by analyzing O2 trapped in ice [1, 5] or by analyzing sulfates from terrestrial sulphide oxidation [4]. Disadvantage of ice core data is the limitation in time back Elephant). The ∆17O of apatite varies between -0.16‰ for a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and +0.04‰ for a wild boar (Sus scrofa). Samples were analyzed between 5 and 7 times in order to reduce the analytical uncertainty to ±0.012-0.025‰. Our data confirm the prediction from mass balance that animals inherit a ∆17O signature from anomalous air O2. We have developed a detailed mass balance for mammals with respect to ∆17O. The mass balance considers the oxygen fluxes (drinking and food water, respired O2, metabolic water, excrements, evaporated water and exhaled CO2). The fractionation in δ18O and ∆17O (from associated β-value) was considered for each of the fluxes. The result is an allometric scaling model for ∆17O as function of log Mb. Predicted and measured data agree within the

  20. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    production of hermetic weld seams produced on radiator thermostats applying pulsed laser welding. This application has now been running in several years. 2 laser systems are currently welding each serving two welding stations. Another case story is describing a high precision assembly technique of a product......In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...

  1. Trying Al Qaeda: Bringing Terrorists to Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Bell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were attacked, the United States embarked on a mission to bring those responsible for the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 to justice. A tremendous effort ensued to find and capture the individuals who were responsible or associated with these events. Many of the individuals who were captured have remained imprisoned for an indefinite amount of time due to the political debate regarding what is the most appropriate venue to try suspecgts arrested and charged with acts of terrorism. The choices come down to trial either by a trial by a Military Commission or a U.S. Federal District Court. There are unique challenges for effective prosecution in both venues. Which venue the Obama Administration will deem appropriate to try the terrorists captured by the former administration remains uncertain at this point in time.

  2. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315 on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16. Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa, implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.

  3. Combined Use of Morphological and Molecular Tools to Resolve Species Mis-Identifications in the Bivalvia The Case of Glycymeris glycymeris and G. pilosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Anna; Bušelić, Ivana; Thébault, Julien; Featherstone, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and molecular tools were combined to resolve the misidentification between Glycymeris glycymeris and Glycymeris pilosa from Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. The ambiguous literature on the taxonomic status of these species requires this confirmation as a baseline to studies on their ecology and sclerochronology. We used classical and landmark-based morphometric approaches and performed bivariate and multivariate analyses to test for shell character interactions at the individual and population level. Both approaches generated complementary information. The former showed the shell width to length ratio and the valve asymmetry to be the main discriminant characters between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. Additionally, the external microsculpture of additional and finer secondary ribs in G. glycymeris discriminates it from G. pilosa. Likewise, landmark-based geometric morphometrics revealed a stronger opisthogyrate beak and prosodetic ligament in G. pilosa than G. glycymeris. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS2 genes identified that G. glycymeris and G. pilosa form two separate monophyletic clades with mean interspecific divergence of 11% and 0.9% for COI and ITS2, respectively. The congruent patterns of morphometric analysis together with mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic reconstructions indicated the separation of the two coexisting species. The intraspecific divergence occurred during the Eocene and accelerated during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. Glycymeris pilosa showed a high level of genetic diversity, appearing as a more robust species whose tolerance of environmental conditions allowed its expansion throughout the Mediterranean. PMID:27669452

  4. Clupeiformes' Egg Envelope Proteins characterization: The case of Engraulis encrasicolus as a proxy for stock assessment through a novel molecular tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Andrea; Leonori, Iole; Estonba, Andone; De Felice, Andrea; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-07-01

    Zona radiata proteins are essential for ensuring bactericidal resistance, oocyte nutrients uptake and functional buoyancy, sperm binding and guidance to the micropyle, and protection to the growing oocyte or embryo from the physical environment. Such glycoproteins have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, protein composition and phylogenetics in several chordate models. Nevertheless, research on teleost has not been extensive. In Clupeiformes, one of the most biologically relevant and commercially important order which accounts for over 400 species and totally contributes to more than a quarter of the world fish catch, Egg Envelope Protein (EEP) information exist only for the Clupea pallasii and Engraulis japonicus species. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, the target of a well-consolidated fishery in the Mediterranean Sea, has been ignored until now and the interest on the Otocephala superorder has been fragmentally limited to some Cypriniformes and Gonorynchiformes, as well. The aim of the present study was to fill the ZP protein-wise gap of knowledge afflicting the understanding of the European anchovy's reproductive process and to expand the background on Clupeiformes. We cloned the five Engraulis encrasicolus' zp genes and deduced their products, determined their tissue distribution, quantified their mRNA expression throughout the reproductive cycle and provided an insight into their evolution through phylogenetic tools. Furthermore, we proposed a multivariate statistics-based method to objectively infer and/or confirm the classification of Engraulis encrasicolus' sexual maturity stages by analyzing data of zp mRNAs' relative abundance. PMID:27060425

  5. Synthetic Tools for Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dervan, Peter B.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry has made tremendous advances over the past four decades in the broad fields of synthesis and understanding chemical reactivity. In that same time span, a series of revolutionary events occurred in biology. First came the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA in the 1950s by Watson and Crick. This discovery allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms of DNA replication -- how DNA makes copies of itself -- and DNA transcription and translation -- the processes that allow the ...

  6. Bringing Seismological Research into the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary goals of educational seismology programs is to bring inquiry-based research to the middle- and high-school classroom setting. Although it is often stated as a long-term goal of science outreach programs, in practice there are many barriers to research in the school setting, among them increasing emphasis on test-oriented training, decreasing interest and participation in science fairs, limited teacher confidence and experience for mentoring research, insufficient student preparedness for research projects, and the short term of university involvement (typically limited to brief one-day encounters). For the past three+ years we have tried to address these issues through a focused outreach program we have called the PEPP Research Fellows Program. This is treated as an honors program in which high school teachers in our group nominate students with interests in science careers. These students are invited to participate in the program, and those who elect to take part participate in a one-day education and training session in the fall. Rather than leave research projects completely open, we direct the students at toward one of two specific, group-oriented projects (in our case, one focusing on local recordings of mining explosions, and a second on teleseismic body-wave analysis), but we encourage them to act as independent researchers and follow topics of interest. The students then work on seismic data from the local educational network or from the IRIS facilities. Following several months of informal interaction with teachers and students (email, web conferencing, etc.), we bring the students and teachers to our university for a weekend research symposium in the spring. Students present their work in oral or poster form and prizes are given for the best papers. Projects range from highly local projects (records of seismic noise at school X) to larger-scale regional projects (analysis of teleseismic P-wave delays at PEPP network stations) From 20 to

  7. Poster power brings together electronics community

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    An 'Electronics at CERN' poster session was displayed on the mezzanine in building 500 for two days from 30 November. The display consisted of 20 posters and brought together a wide range of electronic projects designed and assembled by CERN teams and other collaborators involved in the building of the LHC. This was the first time this event had been held. As its organiser John Evans (IT/DES) explained, 'the idea came from the experience of attending conferences outside CERN, where you may find projects from CERN you didn't know about. It's nice to bring them together so we can all benefit from the efforts made.' The work on show spanned different departments and experiments, ranging from microelectronics to equipment designed for giant magnets. The invited audience was equally broad and included engineers, physicists as well as the electronics community at CERN. An informal gathering of all the exhibitors also offered an opportunity to view and discuss the work over a cup of coffee. 'The poster session acts...

  8. Bringing Reflections into the TEFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sri Samiati Tarjana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Reflective practice is defined by John Dewey as a proactive, ongoing examination of beliefs and practices, their origins and impacts. In the reflective practice, the teacher and learners are engaged in a continuous cycle of self-observation and self-evaluation in order to understand their own actions and reactions, and thereby develop the teaching-learning process on an on-going basis. While English is regarded as compulsory in the preparation of more qualified human resources for the country, there are still complaints about the low English mastery of the majority of secondary and tertiary education graduates in Indonesia. It seems likely that bringing the reflective practice in the TEFL classrooms will help improve the teaching-learning of English in a more caring and responsive manner. It is expected that this will not only improve the English mastery, but also develop personal talents and capacities of the learners. The features of reflective practice in TEFL and their advantages for personal and professional development will be further discussed.

  9. Bringing science to the policy table

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore." So says Isaiah 2:4, as transcribed on the famous wall in Ralph Bunche park, just the other side of 1st Avenue from the UN’s New York headquarters, where we held a celebration of our 60th anniversary year on Monday 20 October. I used the quotation in my opening address, since it is such a perfect fit to the theme of 60 years of science for peace and development.   The event was organised with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC, in the framework of CERN’s observer status at the UN, and although focused on CERN, its aim was broader. Presentations used CERN as an example to bring out the vital importance of science in general to the themes of peace and development. The event was presided over by Martin Sajdik, President of ECOSOC, and we were privileged to have presentat...

  10. De novo Transcriptome Sequencing and Development of Abscission Zone-Specific Microarray as a New Molecular Tool for Analysis of Tomato Organ Abscission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srivignesh; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Riov, Joseph; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Kuravadi, Nagesh A.; Kochanek, Bettina; Salim, Shoshana; Tucker, Mark L.; Meir, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Abscission of flower pedicels and leaf petioles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be induced by flower removal or leaf deblading, respectively, which leads to auxin depletion, resulting in increased sensitivity of the abscission zone (AZ) to ethylene. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive the acquisition of abscission competence and its modulation by auxin gradients are not yet known. We used RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to obtain a comprehensive transcriptome of tomato flower AZ (FAZ) and leaf AZ (LAZ) during abscission. RNA-Seq was performed on a pool of total RNA extracted from tomato FAZ and LAZ, at different abscission stages, followed by de novo assembly. The assembled clusters contained transcripts that are already known in the Solanaceae (SOL) genomics and NCBI databases, and over 8823 identified novel tomato transcripts of varying sizes. An AZ-specific microarray, encompassing the novel transcripts identified in this study and all known transcripts from the SOL genomics and NCBI databases, was constructed to study the abscission process. Multiple probes for longer genes and key AZ-specific genes, including antisense probes for all transcripts, make this array a unique tool for studying abscission with a comprehensive set of transcripts, and for mining for naturally occurring antisense transcripts. We focused on comparing the global transcriptomes generated from the FAZ and the LAZ to establish the divergences and similarities in their transcriptional networks, and particularly to characterize the processes and transcriptional regulators enriched in gene clusters that are differentially regulated in these two AZs. This study is the first attempt to analyze the global gene expression in different AZs in tomato by combining the RNA-Seq technique with oligonucleotide microarrays. Our AZ-specific microarray chip provides a cost-effective approach for expression profiling and robust analysis of multiple samples in a rapid succession. PMID:26834766

  11. De novo transcriptome sequencing and development of abscission zone-specific microarray as a new molecular tool for analysis of tomato organ abscission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivignesh eSundaresan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abscission of flower pedicels and leaf petioles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum can be induced by flower removal or leaf deblading, respectively, leading to auxin depletion, which results in increased sensitivity of the abscission zone (AZ to ethylene. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive the acquisition of abscission competence and its modulation by auxin gradients are not yet known. We used RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq to obtain the comprehensive transcriptome of tomato flower AZ (FAZ and leaf AZ (LAZ during abscission. RNA-Seq was performed on a pool of total RNA extracted from different abscission stages of tomato FAZ and LAZ, followed by de novo assembly. The assembled clusters contained transcripts that are already known in Solanaceae (SOL genomics database and NCBI databases, and over 8,823 identified novel tomato transcripts of varying sizes. An AZ-specific microarray, encompassing these novel transcripts identified in this study and all known transcripts from the SOL genomics and NCBI databases, was constructed to study the abscission process. Multiple probes for longer genes and key AZ-specific genes, including antisense probes for all transcripts, make this array a unique tool for studying abscission with a comprehensive set of transcripts, and for mining for naturally occurring antisense transcripts. We focused on comparing the global transcriptomes generated from the FAZ and the LAZ to establish the divergences and similarities in their transcriptional networks, and particularly to characterize the processes and transcriptional regulators enriched in gene clusters that are differentially regulated in these two AZs. This study is the first attempt to analyze the global gene expression in different AZs in tomato by combining the RNA-Seq technique with oligonucleotide microarrays. Our AZ-specific microarray chip provides a cost-effective approach for expression profiling and robust analysis of multiple samples in a rapid succession.

  12. Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Alice; Broholm, Mette M.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Palau, Jordi; Dennis, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Thermal tetrachloroethene (PCE) remediation by steam injection in a sandy aquifer led to the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from aquifer sediments resulting in more reduced redox conditions, accelerated PCE biodegradation, and changes in microbial populations. These changes were documented by comparing data collected prior to the remediation event and eight years later. Based on the premise that dual C-Cl isotope slopes reflect ongoing degradation pathways, the slopes associated with PCE and TCE suggest the predominance of biotic reductive dechlorination near the source area. PCE was the predominant chlorinated ethene near the source area prior to thermal treatment. After thermal treatment, cDCE became predominant. The biotic contribution to these changes was supported by the presence of Dehalococcoides sp. DNA (Dhc) and Dhc targeted rRNA close to the source area. In contrast, dual C-Cl isotope analysis together with the almost absent VC 13C depletion in comparison to cDCE 13C depletion suggested that cDCE was subject to abiotic degradation due to the presence of pyrite, possible surface-bound iron (II) or reduced iron sulphides in the downgradient part of the plume. This interpretation is supported by the relative lack of Dhc in the downgradient part of the plume. The results of this study show that thermal remediation can enhance the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, and that this effect can be traced to the mobilisation of DOC due to steam injection. This, in turn, results in more reduced redox conditions which favor active reductive dechlorination and/or may lead to a series of redox reactions which may consecutively trigger biotically induced abiotic degradation. Finally, this study illustrates the valuable complementary application of compound-specific isotopic analysis combined with molecular biology tools to evaluate which biogeochemical processes are taking place in an aquifer contaminated with chlorinated ethenes.

  13. Bringing the Fuzzy Front End into Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.F.; Boyack, K.W.; Bray, O.H.; Siemens, W.D.

    1999-03-03

    Technology planning is relatively straightforward for well-established research and development (R and D) areas--those areas in which an organization has a history, the competitors are well understood, and the organization clearly knows where it is going with that technology. What we are calling the fuzzy front-end in this paper is that condition in which these factors are not well understood--such as for new corporate thrusts or emerging areas where the applications are embryonic. While strategic business planning exercises are generally good at identifying technology areas that are key to future success, they often lack substance in answering questions like: (1) Where are we now with respect to these key technologies? ... with respect to our competitors? (2) Where do we want or need to be? ... by when? (3) What is the best way to get there? In response to its own needs in answering such questions, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and implementing several planning tools. These tools include knowledge mapping (or visualization), PROSPERITY GAMES and technology roadmapping--all three of which are the subject of this paper. Knowledge mapping utilizes computer-based tools to help answer Question 1 by graphically representing the knowledge landscape that we populate as compared with other corporate and government entities. The knowledge landscape explored in this way can be based on any one of a number of information sets such as citation or patent databases. PROSPERITY GAMES are high-level interactive simulations, similar to seminar war games, which help address Question 2 by allowing us to explore consequences of various optional goals and strategies with all of the relevant stakeholders in a risk-free environment. Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning process that helps answer Question 3 by collaboratively identifying product and process performance targets and obstacles, and the technology alternatives available to reach those targets.

  14. Disulfide Bridges: Bringing Together Frustrated Structure in a Bioactive Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin; Bansal, Paramjit S; Wilson, David; Daly, Norelle L

    2016-04-26

    Disulfide bridges are commonly found covalent bonds that are usually believed to maintain structural stability of proteins. Here, we investigate the influence of disulfide bridges on protein dynamics through molecular dynamics simulations on the cysteine-rich trypsin inhibitor MCoTI-II with three disulfide bridges. Correlation analysis of the reduced cyclic peptide shows that two of the three disulfide distances (Cys(11)-Cys(23) and Cys(17)-Cys(29)) are anticorrelated within ∼1 μs of bridge formation or dissolution: when the peptide is in nativelike structures and one of the distances shortens to allow bond formation, the other tends to lengthen. Simulations over longer timescales, when the denatured state is less structured, do not show the anticorrelation. We propose that the native state contains structural elements that frustrate one another's folding, and that the two bridges are critical for snapping the frustrated native structure into place. In contrast, the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge is predicted to form together with either of the other two bridges. Indeed, experimental chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance data show that an engineered peptide with the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge deleted can still fold into its near-native structure even in its noncyclic form, confirming the lesser role of the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge. The results highlight the importance of disulfide bridges in a small bioactive peptide to bring together frustrated structure in addition to maintaining protein structural stability. PMID:27119635

  15. Bringing Vision-Based Measurements into our Daily Life: A Grand Challenge for Computer Vision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Scharcanski, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Bringing computer vision into our daily life has been challenging researchers in industry and in academia over the past decades. However, the continuous development of cameras and computing systems turned computer vision-based measurements into a viable option, allowing new solutions to known problems. In this context, computer vision is a generic tool that can be used to measure and monitor phenomena in wide range of fields. The idea of using vision-based measurements is appealing, since the...

  16. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  17. Rice arbuscular mycorrhiza as a tool to study the molecular mechanisms of fungal symbiosis and a potential target to increase productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomomi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko

    2015-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a monocot model crop for cereal molecular biology. Following the emergence of molecular genetics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in model legumes in the 1990s, studies on rice genetic resources have considerably contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of root intracellular symbioses.In this review, we trace the history of these studies and suggest the potential utility of AM symbiosis for improvement in rice productivity.

  18. New genome sequence data and molecular tools promote the use of photosynthetic and edible cyanobacteria in bioregenerative systems to support human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Natalie; Morin, Nicolas; Janssen, Paul; Mergeay, Max

    Cyanobacteria are daily used as nutritional supplements (e.g. Spirulina) and are considered for promising applications beyond Earth, in space, where they can play a crucial role in closed miniaturised biological waste recycling systems that are currently developed to support future long-term space missions. Cyanobacteria can be cultured with artificial light in controllable photobioreactors, and used for the efficient removal of CO2 from and production of O2 in the at-mosphere of the confined spacecraft, for removal of nitrate from waste water that is recycled to potable water, and as complementary food source. In this context, the filamentous cyanobac-terium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was selected as part of the bio-regenerative life-support system MELiSSA from the European Space Agency. For bioprocess control and optimisation, the access to its genetic information and the development of molecular tools is crucial. Here we report on our efforts to determine the full genome of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005. The obtained sequence data were analysed in detail to gain a better insight in the photosynthetic, nutritive, or potential toxic potential of this strain. In addition, the sensitivity of PCC 8005 to ionizing radiation was investigated because prolonged exposure of PCC 8005 to cosmic radiation in space might have a deleterious effect on its metabolism and oxygenic properties. To our knowledge, of the 6 different research groups across the globe trying to sequence Arthrospira strains, none of them, including us, were yet able to obtain a complete genome sequence. For Arthrospira sp. strain PCC 8005, we obtained 119 contigs (assembled in 16 scaffolds), representing 6,3 Mb, with 5,856 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs) and 176 genes encoding RNA. The PCC 8005 genome displays an unusual high number of large repeated sequences, covering around 8% of the genome, which likely hampered the sequenc-ing. The PCC 8005 genome is also ridden by mobile

  19. The application of molecular microbial ecology tools to facilitate the development of more efficient feeding systems and reduce adverse environmental effects of ruminant livestock in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens) in the rumen would be a robust approach to quantifying the effect of reduced methanogenesis on important functional microbial groups. Similarly PCR primers that are species-specific can be designed to enumerate these populations by real time PCR. The molecular based ecology techniques are also likely to provide better insight into the interactions between methanogens and the other rumen microorganisms. All this information should assist in the development of strategies for improving production by reducing methanogenesis. A logical strategy would be the in vitro examination of various potential approaches for reduction of methanogenesis, followed by in depth in vivo evaluation of the promising approaches. Another interesting aspect is the establishment of correlation between methane production and methanogen numbers using molecular probes. This information could lead to the development of a simple tool based on the methanogen number, for investigations on strategies being developed and tested for methane reduction, without the need to measure methane emission, which is complex, time consuming and requires substantial resources. A Coordinated Research Project to address these aspects will be initiated under the auspicious of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in 2005

  20. Bringing Science Public Outreach to Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucas; Speck, A.; Tinnin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Many science "museums” already offer fantastic programs for the general public, and even some aimed at elementary school kids. However, these venues are usually located in large cities and are only occasionally used as tools for enriching science education in public schools. Here we present preliminary work to establish exciting educational enrichment environments for public schools that do not easily have access to such facilities. This program is aimed at motivating children's interest in science beyond what they learn in the classroom setting. In this program, we use the experience and experiments/demonstrations developed at a large science museum (in this case, The St. Louis Science Center) and take them into a local elementary school. At the same time, students from the University of Missouri are getting trained on how to present these outreach materials and work with the local elementary schools. Our pilot study has started with implementation of presentations/demonstrations at Benton Elementary School within the Columbia Public School district, Missouri. The school has recently adopted a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) centered learning system throughout all grade levels (K-5), and is therefore receptive to this effort. We have implemented a program in which we have given a series of scientific demonstrations at each grade level's lunch hour. Further enrichment ideas and plans include: addition demonstrations, hands-on experiments, and question and answer sessions. However, the application of these events would be to compliment the curriculum for the appropriate grade level at that time. The focus of this project is to develop public communications which links science museums, college students and local public schools with an emphasis on encouraging college science majors to share their knowledge and to strengthen their ability to work in a public environment.

  1. Molecular printing

    OpenAIRE

    Braunschweig, Adam B.; Huo, Fengwei; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular printing techniques, which involve the direct transfer of molecules to a substrate with submicrometre resolution, have been extensively developed over the past decade and have enabled many applications. Arrays of features on this scale have been used to direct materials assembly, in nanoelectronics, and as tools for genetic analysis and disease detection. The past decade has witnessed the maturation of molecular printing led by two synergistic technologies: dip-pen nanolithography a...

  2. Bringing Together Computational and Experimental Capabilities at the Crystal Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, N R; Bernier, J V; Edmiston, J K

    2009-07-23

    Many phenomena of interest occur at the scale of crystals or are controlled be events happening at the crystalline scale. Examples include allotropic phase transformations in metals and pore collapse in energetic crystals. The research community is increasingly able to make detailed experimental observations at the crystalline scale and to inform crystal scale models using lower length scale computational tools. In situ diffraction techniques are pushing toward finer spatial and temporal resolution. Molecular and dislocation dynamics calculations are now able to directly inform mechanisms at the crystalline scale. Taken together, these factors give crystal based continuum models the ability to rationalize experimental observations, investigate competition among physical processes, and, when appropriately formulated and calibrated, predict behaviors. We will present an overview of current efforts, with emphasis on recent work investigating phase transformations and twinning in metals.

  3. Use of molecular tools for the identification of males of some scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea, in pheromone traps used for monitoring and comparison with females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Tóbiás

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Species from Pseudococcidae family were studied. It was determined that the dry males of Planococcus citri, and Pseudococcus comstocki, collected by pheromone traps could be useful for the molecular analyses too. The ITS-2 sequences of males and females in case of Pl.citri, Planococcus ficus and Ps. comstocki were identical. This molecular method could differentiate the two mealybug species and this method can be useful to have idea specimens collected by pheromone traps.

  4. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2016-06-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. PMID:27194792

  5. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien

    2016-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. PMID:27194792

  6. Bring your own device (BYOD) to work trend report

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to Work examines the emerging BYOD (Bring Your Own Device to work) trend in corporate IT. BYOD is the practice of employees bringing personally-owned mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets, laptops) to the workplace, and using those devices to access company resources such as email, file servers, and databases. BYOD presents unique challenges in data privacy, confidentiality, security, productivity, and acceptable use that must be met proactively by information security professionals. This report provides solid background on the practice, original res

  7. Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.

  8. Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.

  9. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  10. Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160300.html Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas ... must be monitored "in the light of ongoing climate change, especially in coastal areas most heavily affected by ...

  11. Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Legêne, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antill...

  12. Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco, E.; Louie, J. N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Schmitz, M.; Moschetti, M. P.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Pasyanos, M.

    2013-12-01

    During July 2013, IRIS held an Advanced Studies Institute in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, that was designed to enable early-career scientists who already have mastered the fundamentals of seismology to begin collaborating in frontier seismological research. The Institute was conceived of at a strategic planning workshop in Heredia, Costa Rica, that was supported and partially funded by USAID, with a goal of building geophysical capacity to mitigate the effects of future earthquakes. To address this broad goal, we drew participants from a dozen different countries of Middle America. Our objectives were to develop understanding of the principles of earthquake hazard analysis, particularly site characterization techniques, and to facilitate future research collaborations. The Institute was divided into three main sections: overviews on the fundamentals of earthquake hazard analysis and lectures on the theory behind methods of site characterization; fieldwork where participants acquired new data of the types typically used in site characterization; and computer-based analysis projects in which participants applied their newly-learned techniques to the data they collected. This was the first IRIS institute to combine an instructional short course with field work for data acquisition. Participants broke into small teams to acquire data, analyze it on their own computers, and then make presentations to the assembled group describing their techniques and results.Using broadband three-component seismometers, the teams acquired data for Spatial Auto-Correlation (SPAC) analysis at seven array locations, and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) analysis at 60 individual sites along six profiles throughout Santo Domingo. Using a 24-channel geophone string, the teams acquired data for Refraction Microtremor (SeisOptReMi™ from Optim) analysis at 11 sites, with supplementary data for active-source Multi-channel Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis at five of them. The results showed that teams quickly learned to collect high-quality data for each method of analysis. SPAC and refraction microtremor analysis each demonstrated that dispersion relations based on ambient noise and from arrays with an aperture of less than 200 meters could be used to determine the depth of a weak, disaggregated layer known to underlie the fast near-surface limestone terraces on which Santo Domingo is situated, and indicated the presence of unexpectedly strong rocks below. All three array methods concurred that most Santo Domingo sites has relatively high VS30 (average shear velocity to a depth of 30 m), generally at the B-C NEHRP hazard class boundary or higher. HVSR analysis revealed that the general pattern of resonance was short periods close to the coast, and an increase with distance from the shore line. In the east-west direction, significant variations were also evident at the highest elevation terrace, and near the Ozama River. In terms of the sub-soil conditions, the observed pattern of HVSR values, departs form the expected increase of sediments thickness close to the coast.

  13. New genome sequence data and molecular tools promote the use of photosynthetic and edible cyanobacteria in bioregenerative systems to support human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Natalie; Morin, Nicolas; Janssen, Paul; Mergeay, Max

    Cyanobacteria are daily used as nutritional supplements (e.g. Spirulina) and are considered for promising applications beyond Earth, in space, where they can play a crucial role in closed miniaturised biological waste recycling systems that are currently developed to support future long-term space missions. Cyanobacteria can be cultured with artificial light in controllable photobioreactors, and used for the efficient removal of CO2 from and production of O2 in the at-mosphere of the confined spacecraft, for removal of nitrate from waste water that is recycled to potable water, and as complementary food source. In this context, the filamentous cyanobac-terium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was selected as part of the bio-regenerative life-support system MELiSSA from the European Space Agency. For bioprocess control and optimisation, the access to its genetic information and the development of molecular tools is crucial. Here we report on our efforts to determine the full genome of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005. The obtained sequence data were analysed in detail to gain a better insight in the photosynthetic, nutritive, or potential toxic potential of this strain. In addition, the sensitivity of PCC 8005 to ionizing radiation was investigated because prolonged exposure of PCC 8005 to cosmic radiation in space might have a deleterious effect on its metabolism and oxygenic properties. To our knowledge, of the 6 different research groups across the globe trying to sequence Arthrospira strains, none of them, including us, were yet able to obtain a complete genome sequence. For Arthrospira sp. strain PCC 8005, we obtained 119 contigs (assembled in 16 scaffolds), representing 6,3 Mb, with 5,856 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs) and 176 genes encoding RNA. The PCC 8005 genome displays an unusual high number of large repeated sequences, covering around 8% of the genome, which likely hampered the sequenc-ing. The PCC 8005 genome is also ridden by mobile

  14. Functional Genomics and Cell Biology of the Dolphin (Tursiops runcatus): Establishment of Novel Molecular Tools to Study Marine Mammals in Changing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mancia, Annalaura

    2010-01-01

    The dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a mammal that is adapted to life in a totally aquatic environment. Despite the popularity and even iconic status of the dolphin, our knowledge of its physiology, its unique adaptations and the effects on it of environmental stressors are limited. One approach to improve this limited understanding is the implementation of established cellular and molecular methods to provide sensitive and insightful information for dolphin biology. We initiated our studi...

  15. Molecular tools for studying the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus: improving the utility of the genome using a comparative poly(A) and Ribo-Zero RNAseq analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WEEDALL, GARETH D.; Irving, Helen; Hughes, Margaret A.; Wondji, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers great opportunities for studying the biology of insect vectors of disease. Prerequisites for successful analyses include high quality annotated genome assemblies and that techniques designed for use with model organisms be tested and optimised for use with these insects. We aimed to test and improve genomic tools for studying the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Results To guide future RNAseq transcriptomic studies of An. funestus, we...

  16. Does Satisfaction with Teaching Quality Factors Bring Conceptual Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifur Rehman Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore classroom teaching quality factors that determine the satisfaction level and ultimately bring conceptual change among students. This study tests the theories of customer satisfaction in educational psychology research on a sample of 972 respondents. Overwhelmingly the results point out that male students were highly dissatisfied and have little impact on conceptual change whereas female students were reported significant level of satisfaction and conceptual change. In conclusion, detailed empirical analyses promote the theory of learning-satisfaction with classroom teaching bring conceptual change.

  17. An Approach to Implement Bring Your Own Device (BYOD Securely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Vishal Gupta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BYOD (Bring Your Own Device is a business policy to allow employees to bring their own devices at their work. The same device is used in and out of the corporate office and during outside use, it may be connected to insecure internet and critical corporate data become public. This can be a big threat to the office as well as business strategies and future policies are derived from this data. In this paper an approach is explained to guard against this type of threat and to secure the corporate data even outside the corporate premises.

  18. Classical Molecular Tests Using Urine Samples as a Potential Screening Tool for Human Papillomavirus Detection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C.; Sanchez, Ricardo; Pineda-Peña, Andrea C.; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor associated with the development of cervical cancer (CC); however, there are other factors, such as immunosuppression caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that favor progression of the illness. This study was thus aimed at evaluating the functionality of classical PCR-based molecular tests for the generic identification of HPV DNA (GP5+/GP6+, MY09/MY11, and pU1M/2R primers, individually or in combination) using cervical and urine ...

  19. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  20. Pulsed synchrotron x-ray as a tool for providing molecular movies at 100-picosecond temporal and sub-nanometer spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, S; Kawata, H [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Nozawa, S; Ichiyanagi, K; Ichikawa, H; Guerin, L; Tazaki, R; Sato, T; Tomita, A; Koshihara, S [Non-Equilibrium Dynamics Project, ERATO, JST (Japan); Chollet, M [Frontier Collaborative Research Center and Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Sawa, H [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Arima, T, E-mail: shinichi.adachi@kek.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Time-resolved X-ray techniques utilizing pulsed nature of synchrotron radiation are becoming general and powerful tools to explore structural dynamics in materials and biological systems. The time-resolved technique enables to produce structural movies at 100-picosecond temporal and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. It will be fascinating to apply such capabilities to capture ultrafast cooperative phenomena in strongly-correlated electron systems, photochemical catalytic reaction dynamics in liquid or on solid surface, light-induced response of photosensitive protein molecules, etc. The time-resolved X-ray studies conducted at NW14, PF-AR, KEK will be presented.

  1. Pulsed synchrotron x-ray as a tool for providing molecular movies at 100-picosecond temporal and sub-nanometer spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved X-ray techniques utilizing pulsed nature of synchrotron radiation are becoming general and powerful tools to explore structural dynamics in materials and biological systems. The time-resolved technique enables to produce structural movies at 100-picosecond temporal and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. It will be fascinating to apply such capabilities to capture ultrafast cooperative phenomena in strongly-correlated electron systems, photochemical catalytic reaction dynamics in liquid or on solid surface, light-induced response of photosensitive protein molecules, etc. The time-resolved X-ray studies conducted at NW14, PF-AR, KEK will be presented.

  2. Time-resolved molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junliang; Blaga, Cosmin I.; Agostini, Pierre; DiMauro, Louis F.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved molecular imaging is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. In this article, we review present and future key spectroscopic and microscopic techniques for ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics and show their differences and connections. The advent of femtosecond lasers and free electron x-ray lasers bring us closer to this goal, which eventually will extend our knowledge about molecular dynamics to the attosecond time domain.

  3. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  4. Bringing internet connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthee, K.W.; Mweemba, G.; Pais, A.V.; Starn, G.V.; Rijken, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an initiative to bring connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. In particular, it focuses on a proof-of-concept Internet service that has been implemented in rural Macha located in the Southern Province of Zambia. The service operates using satellite terminals

  5. Foreign Aided: Why Democratization Brings Growth When Democracy Does Not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    2015-01-01

    if being one does not? This article shows that a substantial and immediate influx of foreign aid into new democracies accounts for the positive growth effect of democratization. The domestic regime characteristics of neither democracy nor democratization therefore seems to bring growth. The...

  6. Bring Your Own Digital Device in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, C. Paul; Cooper, Martin; Pagram, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to advise a teacher education institution on the feasibility of having a "Bring Your Own Digital Device" policy for students. The investigation built on components of two research projects while adding the comprehensive testing of representative potential hardware and software platforms. The…

  7. On Bringing Industry English Teaching into College English Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏圆圆

    2016-01-01

    With the development of global economy, it’s becoming increasingly important to bring industry English into College English Course. But there are still many problems about industry English teaching in most colleges. This paper will analyze these problems and put forward effective measures to promote industry English teaching.

  8. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization promotes…

  9. Model Testing - Bringing the Ocean into the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Hydrodynamic model testing, the principle of bringing the ocean into the laboratory to study the behaviour of the ocean itself and the response of man-made structures in the ocean in reduced scale, has been known for centuries. Due to an insufficient understanding of the physics involved, however...

  10. Bringing Curriculum Theory and Didactics Together: A Deweyan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2016-01-01

    Using Dewey's method of resolution for resolving a dualism exemplified in "The Child and the Curriculum," this article reconciles and brings together two rival schools of thought--curriculum theory and didactics--in China. The central thesis is that the rapprochement requires a reconceptualisation of curriculum theory and didactics in…

  11. The Chemedian Brings Laughter to the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkamp, Emma; Burnet, Frank

    2007-01-01

    "The Chemedian and the Crazy Football Match" is a comic strip developed by the authors to bring humor to aspects of the UK primary science curriculum. The comic strip was tested in six English primary school classes (years 3-5; ages 7-10); over 150 children participated in the project, together with six teachers. Children found the comic strip fun…

  12. Excelsior: Bringing the Benefits of Modularisation to Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Paine, Jocelyn

    2008-01-01

    Excel lacks features for modular design. Had it such features, as do most programming languages, they would save time, avoid unneeded programming, make mistakes less likely, make code-control easier, help organisations adopt a uniform house style, and open business opportunities in buying and selling spreadsheet modules. I present Excelsior, a system for bringing these benefits to Excel.

  13. High-field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hertkorn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-performance, non-target, high-resolution organic structural spectroscopy was applied to solid phase extracted marine dissolved organic matter (SPE-DOM isolated from four different depths in the open South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3° E, 18° S; Angola Basin and provided molecular level information with extraordinary coverage and resolution. Sampling was performed at depths of 5 m (Angola Current; near-surface photic zone, 48 m (Angola Current; fluorescence maximum, 200 m (still above Antarctic Intermediate Water, AAIW; upper mesopelagic zone and 5446 m (North Atlantic Deep Water, NADW; abyssopelagic, ~30 m above seafloor and produced SPE-DOM with near 40% carbon yield and beneficial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxation properties, a crucial prerequisite for the acquisition of NMR spectra with excellent resolution. 1H and 13C NMR spectra of all four marine SPE-DOM showed smooth bulk envelopes, reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap, with a few percent of visibly resolved signatures and variable abundances for all major chemical environments. The abundance of singly oxygenated aliphatics and acetate derivatives in 1H NMR spectra declined from surface to deep marine SPE-DOM, whereas C-based aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM increased in abundance. Surface SPE-DOM contained fewer methyl esters than all other samples, likely a consequence of direct exposure to sunlight. Integration of 13C NMR spectra revealed continual increase of carboxylic acids and ketones from surface to depth, reflecting a progressive oxygenation, with concomitant decline of carbohydrate-related substructures. Aliphatic branching increased with depth, whereas the fraction of oxygenated aliphatics declined for methine, methylene and methyl carbon. Lipids in the oldest SPE-DOM at 5446 m showed a larger share of ethyl groups and methylene carbon than observed in the other samples. Two-dimensional NMR spectra showed

  14. High-field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertkorn, N.; Harir, M.; Koch, B. P.; Michalke, B.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2013-03-01

    High-performance, non-target, high-resolution organic structural spectroscopy was applied to solid phase extracted marine dissolved organic matter (SPE-DOM) isolated from four different depths in the open South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3° E, 18° S; Angola Basin) and provided molecular level information with extraordinary coverage and resolution. Sampling was performed at depths of 5 m (Angola Current; near-surface photic zone), 48 m (Angola Current; fluorescence maximum), 200 m (still above Antarctic Intermediate Water, AAIW; upper mesopelagic zone) and 5446 m (North Atlantic Deep Water, NADW; abyssopelagic, ~30 m above seafloor) and produced SPE-DOM with near 40% carbon yield and beneficial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties, a crucial prerequisite for the acquisition of NMR spectra with excellent resolution. 1H and 13C NMR spectra of all four marine SPE-DOM showed smooth bulk envelopes, reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap, with a few percent of visibly resolved signatures and variable abundances for all major chemical environments. The abundance of singly oxygenated aliphatics and acetate derivatives in 1H NMR spectra declined from surface to deep marine SPE-DOM, whereas C-based aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) increased in abundance. Surface SPE-DOM contained fewer methyl esters than all other samples, likely a consequence of direct exposure to sunlight. Integration of 13C NMR spectra revealed continual increase of carboxylic acids and ketones from surface to depth, reflecting a progressive oxygenation, with concomitant decline of carbohydrate-related substructures. Aliphatic branching increased with depth, whereas the fraction of oxygenated aliphatics declined for methine, methylene and methyl carbon. Lipids in the oldest SPE-DOM at 5446 m showed a larger share of ethyl groups and methylene carbon than observed in the other samples. Two-dimensional NMR spectra showed exceptional

  15. Molecular modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Sharma; Himanshu Gupta

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular mod...

  16. Molecular confirmation of the genomic constitution of Douglasdeweya (Triticeae: Poaceae): demonstration of the utility of the 5S rDNA sequence as a tool for haplome identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bernard R; Johnson, Douglas A

    2008-06-01

    A new genus Douglasdeweya containing the two species, Douglasdeweya deweyi and D. wangii was published in 2005 by Yen et al. based upon the results of cytogenetical and morphological findings. The genome constitution of Douglasdeweya-PPStSt-allowed its segregation from the genus Pseudoroegneria which contains the StSt or StStStSt genomes. Our previous work had demonstrated the utility of using 5S rDNA units, especially the non-transcribed spacer sequence variation, for the resolution of genomes (haplomes) previously established by cytology. Here, we show that sequence analysis of the 5S DNA units from these species strongly supports the proposed species relationships of Yen et al. (Can J Bot 83:413-419, 2005), i.e., the PP genome from Agropyron and the StSt genome from Pseudoroegneria. Analysis of the 5S rDNA units constitutes a powerful tool for genomic research especially in the Triticeae. PMID:18421479

  17. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro ePerdiguero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elms, especially Ulmus minor and Ulmus americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED. This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to SNPs (27,359. In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87 % of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations.

  18. Non-invasive Drosophila ECG recording by using eutectic gallium-indium alloy electrode: a feasible tool for future research on the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hung Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drosophila heart tube is a feasible model for cardiac physiological research. However, obtaining Drosophila electrocardiograms (ECGs is difficult, due to the weak signals and limited contact area to apply electrodes. This paper presents a non-invasive Gallium-Indium (GaIn based recording system for Drosophila ECG measurement, providing the heart rate and heartbeat features to be observed. This novel, high-signal-quality system prolongs the recording time of insect ECGs, and provides a feasible platform for research on the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this study, two types of electrode, tungsten needle probes and GaIn electrodes, were used respectively to noiselessly conduct invasive and noninvasive ECG recordings of Drosophila. To further analyze electrode properties, circuit models were established and simulated. By using electromagnetic shielded heart signal acquiring system, consisted of analog amplification and digital filtering, the ECG signals of three phenotypes that have different heart functions were recorded without dissection. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The ECG waveforms of different phenotypes of Drosophila recorded invasively and repeatedly with n value (n>5 performed obvious difference in heart rate. In long period ECG recordings, non-invasive method implemented by GaIn electrodes acts relatively stable in both amplitude and period. To analyze GaIn electrode, the correctness of GaIn electrode model established by this paper was validated, presenting accuracy, stability, and reliability. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive ECG recording by GaIn electrodes was presented for recording Drosophila pupae ECG signals within a limited contact area and signal strength. Thus, the observation of ECG changes in normal and SERCA-depleted Drosophila over an extended period is feasible. This method prolongs insect survival time while conserving major ECG features, and provides a platform for

  19. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  20. Standardized molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F M; Lischewski, A; Harmsen, D; Hacker, J

    1999-01-01

    Molecular typing methods are useful tools in molecular mycology. The results of these biotyping procedures may help to identify pathogenic strains in order to detect sources of nosocomial infection and for the investigation of epidemiological relationships. With respect to the facultative pathogen, Candida albicans, various methods such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), DNA fingerprinting methods and hybridization with repetitive DNA elements have been described as useful tools in molecular epidemiology. The previously described hybridization method with the Candida albicans specific CARE-2 probe and subsequent rehybridization with a molecular size marker is a standardized reproducible typing method for comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In a larger epidemiological study conducted at the University Hospital of Würzburg analysing clinical C. albicans isolates, we were able to describe relationships between sequential patient isolates. These findings demonstrate that standardized molecular typing methods are a powerful tool in molecular mycology studies. PMID:10865907

  1. Enhanced Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Bacteremia Using Antigen- and Molecular-Based Tools on Blood Specimens in Mali and Thailand: A Prospective Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moïsi, Jennifer C; Moore, Matthew; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria; Sow, Samba O; Siludjai, Duangkamon; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Tapia, Milagritos; Baggett, Henry C

    2016-02-01

    Prior antibiotic use, contamination, limited blood volume, and processing delays reduce yield of blood cultures for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We performed immunochromatographic testing (ICT) on broth from incubated blood culture bottles and real-time lytA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on broth and whole blood and compared findings to blood culture in patients with suspected bacteremia. We selected 383 patients in Mali and 586 patients in Thailand based on their blood culture results: 75 and 31 were positive for pneumococcus, 100 and 162 were positive for other pathogens, and 208 and 403 were blood culture negative, respectively. ICT and PCR of blood culture broth were at least 87% sensitive and 97% specific compared with blood culture; whole blood PCR was 75-88% sensitive and 96-100% specific. Pneumococcal yields in children 99% of additional cases detected by whole blood PCR, and from 0.07% to 5.1% in Thailand with two-thirds of additional cases identified by ICT. Compared with blood culture, ICT and lytA PCR on cultured broth were highly sensitive and specific but their ability to improve pneumococcal identification varied by site. Further studies of these tools are needed before widespread implementation. PMID:26643535

  2. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited. PMID:26956665

  3. High field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter from the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hertkorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non target high resolution organic structural spectroscopy of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM isolated on 27 November 2008 by means of solid phase extraction (SPE from four different depths in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3.1° E; −17.7° S; Angola basin provided molecular level information of complex unknowns with unprecedented coverage and resolution. The sampling was intended to represent major characteristic oceanic regimes of general significance: 5 m (FISH; near surface photic zone, 48 m (FMAX; fluorescence maximum, 200 m (upper mesopelagic zone and 5446 m (30 m above ground.

    800 MHz proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1H NMR, spectra were least affected by fast and differential transverse NMR relaxation and produced at first similar looking, rather smooth bulk NMR envelopes reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap. Visibly resolved NMR signatures were most abundant in surface DOM but contributed at most a few percent to the total 1H NMR integral and were mainly limited to unsaturated and singly oxygenated carbon chemical environments. The relative abundance and variance of resolved signatures between samples was maximal in the aromatic region; in particular, the aromatic resolved NMR signature of the deep ocean sample at 5446 m was considerably different from that of all other samples. When scaled to equal total NMR integral, 1H NMR spectra of the four marine DOM samples revealed considerable variance in abundance for all major chemical environments across the entire range of chemical shift. Abundance of singly oxygenated CH units and acetate derivatives declined from surface to depth whereas aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM derived molecules increased in abundance. Surface DOM contained a remarkably lesser abundance of methyl esters than all other marine DOM, likely a consequence of photodegradation from direct

  4. Bringing together Anthropology, Ethnology and Folklore: From Factions to Union

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Laurent Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I first focus on the foundation of the AFEA (Association Française d’Ethnologie et d’Anthropologie) and I try to find out how this new association has been managing (or not) to bring together anthropology and folklore since its foundation in 2009. Using this French example, I also try to shed light on more global discussions going on between folklorists, ethnologists and anthropologists worldwide. I present different models of possible cooperation between anthropologists and fol...

  5. Foreign Aided: Why Democratization Brings Growth When Democracy Does Not

    OpenAIRE

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    2015-01-01

    There is an unresolved puzzle in research on the economics of democracy: While there is consensus that democracy is not generally associated with higher rates of economic growth, a recent literature has found that democratization is followed by growth. Why should becoming a democracy bring growth if being one does not? This article shows that the positive growth effect of democratization is accounted for by a substantial and immediate influx of foreign aid into new democracies. The domestic r...

  6. DG-AMMOS: A New tool to generate 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villoutreix Bruno O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Results Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. Conclusion DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods.

  7. A molecular diagnostic tool for the preliminary assessment of host-parasitoid associations in biological control programmes for a new invasive pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, T D; Haye, T; Zhang, J

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of host-parasitoid associations can be tenuous using conventional methods. Molecular techniques are well placed to identify trophic links and resolve host-parasitoid associations. Establishment of the highly invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), outside Asia has prompted interest in the use of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) as biological control agents. However, little is known regarding their host ranges. To address this, a DNA barcoding approach was taken wherein general PCR primers for Scelionidae and Pentatomidae were developed to amplify and sequence >500-bp products within the DNA barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene that would permit the identification of key players in this association. Amplification of DNA from Pentatomidae and Scelionidae was consistent across a broad range of taxa within these families, and permitted the detection of Scelionidae eggs within H. halys 1 h following oviposition. In laboratory assays, amplification and sequencing of DNA from empty, parasitized eggs was successful for both host (100% success) and parasitoid (50% success). When applied to field-collected, empty egg masses, the primers permitted host identification in 50-100% of the eggs analysed, and yielded species-level identifications. Parasitoid identification success ranged from 33 to 67% among field-collected eggs, with genus-level identification for most specimens. The inability to obtain species-level identities for these individuals is due to the lack of coverage of this taxonomic group in public DNA sequence databases; this situation is likely to improve as more species are sequenced and recorded in these databases. These primers were able to detect and identify both pentatomid host and scelionid parasitoid in a hyperparasitized egg mass, thereby clarifying trophic links otherwise unresolved by conventional methodology.

  8. Evaluation and utilization as a public health tool of a national molecular epidemiological tuberculosis outbreak database within the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, F A; Gibson, A; Ruddy, M; Yates, M D

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a national model and analyze the value of a molecular epidemiological Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fingerprint-outbreak database. Incidents were investigated by the United Kingdom PHLS Mycobacterium Reference Unit (MRU) from June 1997 to December 2001, inclusive. A total of 124 incidents involving 972 tuberculosis cases, including 520 patient cultures from referred incidents and 452 patient cultures related to two population studies, were examined by using restriction fragment length polymorphism IS6110 fingerprinting and rapid epidemiological typing. Investigations were divided into the following three categories, reflecting different operational strategies: retrospective passive analysis, retrospective active analysis, and retrospective prospective analysis. The majority of incidents were in the retrospective passive analysis category, i.e., the individual submitting isolates has a suspicion they may be linked. Outbreaks were examined in schools, hospitals, farms, prisons, and public houses, and laboratory cross-contamination events and unusual clinical presentations were investigated. Retrospective active analysis involved a major outbreak centered on a high school. Contact tracing of a teenager with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis matched 14 individuals, including members of his class, and another 60 cases were identified in schools clinically and radiologically and by skin testing. Retrospective prospective analysis involved an outbreak of 94 isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis cases in London, United Kingdom, that began after cases were identified at one hospital in January 2000. Contact tracing and comparison with MRU databases indicated that the earliest matched case had occurred in 1995. Subsequently, the MRU changed to an active prospective analysis targeting linked isoniazid-monoresistant isolates for follow up. The patients were multiethnic, born mainly in the United Kingdom, and included professionals

  9. Combination of genetic screening and molecular dynamics as a useful tool for identification of disease-related mutations: ZASP PDZ domain G54S mutation case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratev, Filip; Mihaylova, Elina; Pajeva, Ilza

    2014-05-27

    Cypher/ZASP (LDB3 gene) is known to interact with a network of proteins. It binds to α-actinin and the calcium voltage channels (LTCC) via its PDZ domain. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved ZASP G54S mutation classified as a variant of unknown significance in a sample of an adult with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The initial bioinformatics calculations strongly evaluated G54S as damaging. Furthermore, we employed accelerated and classical molecular dynamics and free energy calculations to study the structural impact of this mutation on the ZASP apo form and to address the question of whether it can be linked to HCM. Seventeen independent MD runs and simulations of 2.5 μs total were performed and showed that G54S perturbs the α2 helix position via destabilization of the adjacent loop linked to the β5 sheet. This also leads to the formation of a strong H-bond between peptide target residues Leu17 and Gln66, thus restricting both the α-actinin2 and LTCC C-terminal peptides to access their natural binding site and reducing in this way their binding capacity. On the basis of these observations and the adult's clinical data, we propose that ZASP(G54S) and presumably other ZASP PDZ domain mutations can cause HCM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported ZASP PDZ domain mutation that might be linked to HCM. The integrated workflow used in this study can be applied for the identification and description of other mutations that might be related to particular diseases. PMID:24730657

  10. Reference Genes for qPCR Analysis in Resin-Tapped Adult Slash Pine As a Tool to Address the Molecular Basis of Commercial Resinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Júlio C; de Costa, Fernanda; Füller, Thanise N; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C da Silva; Kerber, Magnus R; Lima, Mariano S; Fett, Janette P; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Pine oleoresin is a major source of terpenes, consisting of turpentine (mono- and sesquiterpenes) and rosin (diterpenes) fractions. Higher oleoresin yields are of economic interest, since oleoresin derivatives make up a valuable source of materials for chemical industries. Oleoresin can be extracted from living trees, often by the bark streak method, in which bark removal is done periodically, followed by application of stimulant paste containing sulfuric acid and other chemicals on the freshly wounded exposed surface. To better understand the molecular basis of chemically-stimulated and wound induced oleoresin production, we evaluated the stability of 11 putative reference genes for the purpose of normalization in studying Pinus elliottii gene expression during oleoresinosis. Samples for RNA extraction were collected from field-grown adult trees under tapping operations using stimulant pastes with different compositions and at various time points after paste application. Statistical methods established by geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares were consistent in pointing as adequate reference genes HISTO3 and UBI. To confirm expression stability of the candidate reference genes, expression profiles of putative P. elliottii orthologs of resin biosynthesis-related genes encoding Pinus contorta β-pinene synthase [PcTPS-(-)β-pin1], P. contorta levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase (PcLAS1), Pinus taeda α-pinene synthase [PtTPS-(+)αpin], and P. taeda α-farnesene synthase (PtαFS) were examined following stimulant paste application. Increased oleoresin yields observed in stimulated treatments using phytohormone-based pastes were consistent with higher expression of pinene synthases. Overall, the expression of all genes examined matched the expected profiles of oleoresin-related transcript changes reported for previously examined conifers. PMID:27379135

  11. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. PMID:25110340

  12. The use of molecular and cytogenetic methods as a valuable tool in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in horses: a case of sex chromosome chimerism in a Spanish purebred colt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Membrillo, A; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Anaya, G; Moreno-Millán, M

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities associated to sex chromosomes are reported as a problem more common than believed to be in horses. Most of them remain undiagnosed due to the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of interest of breeders and veterinarians in this type of diagnosis. Approximately 10 years ago, the Spanish Purebred Breeders Association implemented a DNA paternity test to evaluate the pedigree of every newborn foal. All candidates who showed abnormal or uncertain results are routinely submitted to cytogenetical analysis to evaluate the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. We studied the case of a foal showing 3 and even 4 different alleles in several loci in the short tandem repeat (STR) -based DNA parentage test. To confirm these results, a filiation test was repeated using follicular hair DNA showing normal results. A complete set of conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed to determine their chromosomal complements. C-banding and FISH had shown that the foal presents a sex chimerism 64,XX/64,XY with a cellular percentage of approximately 70/30, diagnosed in blood samples. The use of a diagnostic approach combining routine parentage QF-PCR-based STR screening tested with classical or molecular cytogenetic analysis could be a powerful tool that allows early detection of foals that will have a poor or even no reproductive performance due to chromosomal abnormalities, saving time, efforts and breeders' resources.

  13. Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Legêne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antillean islands in the Caribbean. Bosma traces the development of postcolonial immigrant organizations. In interaction with government policies, these organizations moved from mere socioeconomic emancipation struggles to mere cultural identity politics. Van Leeuwen takes such cultural identity politics as the starting point for her analysis of Indo-Dutch and Dutch Indies cultural initiatives and the competing interests at stake in the Indies heritage discourse. Oostindie discusses these developments in terms of community development and change within Dutch society at large. He introduces the notion of a ‘postcolonial bonus’. In postcolonial Netherlands, this bonus was available to immigrants on the grounds of a shared colonial past. Today, this bonus is (almost spent. The review discusses the three monographs, as well as the coherence of Bringing History Home as a research programme. Legêne argues, that notwithstanding valuable research outcomes, the very category of postcolonial immigrants does not constitute a convincing category of analysis.

  14. Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works toget...

  15. Sharing tools and know-how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna

    In this position paper I address the theme of designing for sharing in self-organized urban communities by bringing forward the aspect of sharing tools and know-how. I report the lessons learned from a case in Helsinki and open questions for discussion regarding some of the identified challenges...

  16. Physical tools for textile creativity and invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2010-01-01

    Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts...

  17. Bringing Next-Generation Sequencing into the Classroom through a Comparison of Molecular Biology Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany; Zimmer, Erin; Pyatt, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the development of next-generation (NextGen) sequencing technologies has revolutionized genomic research and medicine, the incorporation of these topics into the classroom is challenging, given an implied high degree of technical complexity. We developed an easy-to-implement, interactive classroom activity investigating the similarities…

  18. BRINGING CIVILIZATION: SAVAGERY AND THE TAMING OF THE SAVAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Newman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “See, the Conqu’ring Hero Comes” goes the famous chorus from Handel’s Judas Maccabeus, but how does the hero conquer? Achilles defeats his enemies through his extraordinary prowess in battle, Odysseus by using his wit, but some heroes must abandon the trappings of civilization in order to conquer. This paper examines two examples of such heroes from Germanic and Greco-Roman myth: Beowulf and Herakles. In the texts analyzed, these heroes not only set aside their civilized veneer, but must journey into the territory of the monster they wish to destroy and there use savagery to defeat the savage, in order to bring civilization.

  19. Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2009-01-01

    ) is developing in Denmark, and that FTTH is also being deployed in rural areas. A main reason for this is that consumer-owed utility companies have decided to invest heavily in the field, to a large extent with the philosophy that, since all consumers are a part of the investment, everybody should also benefit...... from it. As a result of these investments, FTTH availability and penetration has increased significantly over the last years. In the end of the paper, we highlight the importance of studying the actual impact of bringing FTTH to these areas....

  20. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  1. Bring Your Own Device in the Information Literacy Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Stonebraker, Ilana; Robertshaw, M Brooke; Kirkwood, Hal; Dugan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In the 2013 school year, a team of librarians in the Parrish Library of Management and Economics at Purdue University taught a business information literacy course to approximately 500 management students in eight 70-person sessions. Due to limitations on a set of iPads borrowed from another department, one of two concurrent classes was taught with a set of iPads, while another had a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy, where students brought their own laptops or iPads. Focus groups, observat...

  2. The Key to Stabilizing House Prices: Bring Them Down

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2008-01-01

    This report states that bringing about the rapid adjustment of house prices to trend levels is the best means of returning stability to the housing market. The paper also calls for the restriction of GSE capital in bubble-inflated markets, with the intent of forcing house prices in these areas to return to trend level. The removal of capital from bubble markets and the consequent infusion of loans into non-bubble markets would stabilize prices in these areas, thus preventing a downward price ...

  3. Bringing a Finnish Company to the Russian E-Market

    OpenAIRE

    Veselova, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the project was to enable a small business case company that is operating in the town of Lappeenranta, Finland, to reach successfully its target segment (Russian consumers) with the help of digital technology in order to increase sales both in its physical shop and in online store. In order to reach the aim of the project and bring Russian consumers and the case company together by the means of electronic marketing, a marketing plan for the promotional campaigns of th...

  4. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...

  5. TS Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Linders

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In deze aflevering van TS Tools laat promovenda Yvette Linders (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen zien hoe software voor kwalitatieve data-analyse kan worden toegepast in het onderzoek naar literatuurkritiek.

  6. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  7. Navigating Towards Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    like opposites, the term tectonics deals with creating a meaningful relationship between the two. The aim of this paper is to investigate what a digital tectonic tool could be and what relationship with technology it should represent. An understanding of this relationship can help us not only...... to understand the conflicts in architecture and the building industry but also bring us further into a discussion of how architecture can use digital tools. The investigation is carried out firstly by approaching the subject theoretically through the term tectonics and by setting up a model of the values...... a tectonic tool should encompass. Secondly the ability and validity of the model are shown by applying it to a case study of Jørn Utzon’s work on Minor Hall in Sydney Opera House - for the sake of exemplification the technical field focused on in this paper is room acoustics. Thirdly the relationship between...

  8. A Review of Bring Your Own Device on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olalere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile computing has supplanted internet computing because of the proliferation of cloud-based applications and mobile devices (such as smartphones, palmtops, and tablets. As a result of this, workers bring their mobile devices to the workplace and use them for enterprise work. The policy of allowing the employees to work with their own personal mobile devices is called Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD. In this article, we discuss BYOD’s background, prevalence, benefits, challenges, and possible security attacks. We then review contributions of academic researchers on BYOD. The Universiti Putra Malaysia online databases (such as IEEE Xplore digital library, Elsevier, Springer, ACM digital library were used to search for peer-reviewed academic publications and other relevant publications on BYOD. The Google Scholar search engine was also used. Our thorough review shows that security issues comprise the most significant challenge confronting BYOD policy and that very little has been done to tackle this security challenge. It is our hope that this review will provide a theoretical background for future research and enable researchers to identify researchable areas of BYOD.

  9. Bringing Technology into college and High School Physics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2007-04-01

    We want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to college and high school physics classrooms. We focus in particular on our outreach initiative in supporting a number of school districts with ways to improve high school physics education. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a No-Child Left Behind grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. IMPACTSEED aims at helping high school teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama course of study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of programs: a two-week long summer institute, a series of five technology workshops, and onsite year-round support. Through our hands-on approach, we have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms. A number of technology projects were assigned to the teachers so as to show their students how physics connects to the technological devices around us. IMPACTSEED aims at providing our students with a physics education that enjoys continuity and consistency from high school to college.

  10. D4M: Bringing Associative Arrays to Database Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Gadepally, Vijay; Kepner, Jeremy; Arcand, William; Bestor, David; Bergeron, Bill; Byun, Chansup; Edwards, Lauren; Hubbell, Matthew; Michaleas, Peter; Mullen, Julie; Prout, Andrew; De Rosa, Antonio; Yee, Charles; Reuther, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The ability to collect and analyze large amounts of data is a growing problem within the scientific community. The growing gap between data and users calls for innovative tools that address the challenges faced by big data volume, velocity and variety. Numerous tools exist that allow users to store, query and index these massive quantities of data. Each storage or database engine comes with the promise of dealing with complex data. Scientists and engineers who wish to use these systems often ...

  11. Computational methods for molecular imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...

  12. Molecular Tools for Investigating the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christophe

    The “microbial world within us” (Zoetendal et al., 2006) is populated by a complex society of indigenous microorganisms that feature different “ethnic” populations. Those microbial cells thriving within us are estimated to outnumber human body cells by a factor of ten to one. Insights into the relation between the intestinal microbial community and its host have been gained through gnotobiology. Indeed, the influence of the gut microbiota upon human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition has been inferred by comparing gnotoxenic and axenic murine models (Hooper et al., 1998, 2002, 2003; Hooper and Gordon, 2001).

  13. Molecular Tools for Monitoring and Validating Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenuit, Ben; Eyers, Laurent; Schuler, Luc; George, Isabelle; Agathos, Spiros N.

    Bioremediation is now in a position to take advantage of genomic-driven strategies to analyze, monitor and assess its course by considering multiple micro-organisms with various genomes, expressed transcripts and proteins. High-throughput methodologies, including microarrays, fingerprinting, real-time PCR, metagenomics and metaproteomics, show great promise in our environmental interventions against recalcitrant contaminants such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) that we have been studying for many years. The emerging genomic and metagenomic methodologies will allow us to promote or restore environmental health in impacted sites, monitor remediation activities, identify key microbial players and processes, and finally compile an intelligent database of genes for targeted use in bioremediation.

  14. Molecular biology - New tool for genome surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is the holy grail of human medicine. Many diseases are caused by a defective gene, sometimes with a mutation as subtle as a single-nucleotide variation. Before restoration of such a mutation in a patient's genome can take place, the target nucleotide sequence has to be cleaved at a sing

  15. Archaeopteryx: Bringing the Dino-Bird to Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2011-01-25

    Some 150 million years ago, a strange creature died in a tropical lagoon that today is located in Bavaria, Germany. In 1861, a single feather of this creature was discovered. Not long afterward, a complete fossil was found with the same bird-like feathers but dinosaur-like anatomical features. Darwin had just published 'On the Origin of Species'; could this be the missing link that Darwin's supporters hoped to find? Recently, two of the now eleven discovered Archaeopteryx fossils, and that first feather, were brought to SLAC, where, using the intense X-ray beam, researchers searched for the chemical remains of the original living creatures. Please join us for this lecture, which will explain how the studies attempt to bring the original dino-bird back to life.

  16. Bringing Science into Schools through Astronomy. Project ASTRO, Tucson

    CERN Document Server

    Barban, C; Barban, Caroline; Dole, Herve

    2005-01-01

    We report our experience in bringing science into US and French classrooms. We participated in the US scientific educational program Project ASTRO. It is based on a partnership between a school teacher and an astronomer. They together design and realize simple and interesting scientific activities for the children to learn and enjoy science. We present four hands-on activities we realized in a 4th-grade class (10 yr-old kids) in Tucson (USA) in 2002-2003. Among the covered topics were: the Solar System, the Sun (helioseismology) and the Galaxies. We also present a similar experience done in two classrooms in 2005, in Chatenay-Malabry (France) in partnership with an amateur astronomy association (Aphelie). This is a pleasant and rewarding activity, extremely well appreciated by the children and the school teachers. It furthermore promotes already at a young age the excitement of science, and provides concrete examples of the scientific methodology.

  17. Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D

    2006-05-01

    The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied. PMID:17152604

  18. Management Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  19. CSR – A MARKETING TOOL?

    OpenAIRE

    MIHALACHE, Silvia-Ştefania

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the idea that investing in CSR creates value not only for the company’s stakeholders, but especially for the company itself, in this article, using secondary data analysis, we try to answer the question: is CSR a sign of responsibility or just a marketing tool for promoting the business?The purpose of this paper is to bring contributions in highlighting the nature of the connection between CSR and Marketing, using the secondary data analyze of the annual reports of some companie...

  20. Bringing it all Back Home: the Practical Visual Environments of Southeast European Tells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Trick

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to further our understanding of tells in southeast Europe by considering their landscape context, where the research methodology comprises an innovative hybrid of modern landscape theory, and GIS-based visual analysis. Tell landscapes are explored through the detailed analysis of a group of case study tells located in the Romanian Plain, in southern Romania, dating to the fifth millennium BC. A visual, so-called phenomenological approach is adopted, but novel to this paradigm is the use of GIS as the prime tool with which to conduct visual research. GIS offers a convenient means to visualise and quantify visual parameters of landscape, but its formal nature also brings some rigour to phenomenological research, which has been criticised for lack of standard method. Viewshed tools are utilised in standard form, but also in enriched ‘Higuchi’ and ‘Directional’ forms. The temporal nature of tell settlements is explored through the generation of viewshed maps from different cultural levels of the mound. Results of the analysis are presented and common patterns in the dataset identified. Taking inspiration from the Heideggarian notion of dwelling, a generalised interpretive framework is forwarded. It is suggested that tells were located with respect to visual entities in the environment, and that the nature of the visibility tells us something of the lives of people dwelling on and around them. The article is derived from a lecture given at the Theoretical Archaeology Group conference, Manchester, December 2002.

  1. Molecular imaging in quality health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    currently available molecular imaging tool for human studies is positron emission tomography (PET). Many different molecular imaging probes targeting physiological processes such as glycolysis, lipid synthesis, amino acid transport, cell surface receptors, gene expression and others are available for evaluating in animal experimental studies and humans the extent of disease as well as treatment effects in vivo. With the advent of PET/CT anatomic and molecular images can be fused affording assignment of normal or abnormal molecular imaging findings to specific anatomical structures. The major vendors have invested millions of dollars into bringing together the highest quality CT with state-of-the-art PET instrumentation. As a result more than 1000 PET/CT scanners have been installed worldwide over the last four years. These technological advances come at a time of increasing health care expenditures worldwide. One must therefore carefully evaluate whether the increasing costs are met by increasing effectiveness of the technology. As an additional problem, health care systems vary substantially between countries and cultures and cost-effectiveness analyses need to be tailored towards specific health care environments. A paradigm shift from morphological to molecular imaging is occurring on every level of preclinical and clinical research and in clinical practice. Animal tumour models are being used for serial non-invasive monitoring of preclinical drug effects in vivo using molecular imaging technology. This molecular imaging application reduces the numbers of animals required for preclinical studies and might allow for some predictions of drug effectiveness in humans. Molecular imaging should be used in phase I, II and III trials to identify drug success and failure early. Applications of molecular imaging to patient stratification will define appropriate patient populations for smaller, more rapid clinical trials. Recent studies in lung cancer, lymphoma, esophageal cancer

  2. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  3. Ad Hoc Protocols Via Multi Agent Based Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bazghandi; Mehdi Bazghandi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigating behaviors of Ad Hoc protocols in Agent-based simulation environments. First we bring brief introduction about agents and Ad Hoc networks. We introduce some agent-based simulation tools like NS-2. Then we focus on two protocols, which are Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AODV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). At the end, we bring simulation results and discuss about their reasons.

  4. New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2014-03-01

    .l. within individual ribosomal DNA variation and thus the first evidence that the species is not subject to the normal effects of concerted evolution. Collectively, these data illustrate the need for diverse sampling in the development of robust molecular tools for vector identification and suggest that ribosomal DNA might be able to assist with resolving S. guianense s.l. species substructuring that C01 barcoding has hitherto failed to. PMID:24200838

  5. Bringing the fathead minnow into the genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow is a well-established ecotoxicological model organism that has been widely used for regulatory ecotoxicity testing and research for over a half century. While a large amount of molecular information has been gathered on the fathead minnow over the years, the la...

  6. Bringing Systems Thinking into Community-based Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s ‘Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program’ is developing methods and tools to assist communities in making decisions that lead to more just and environmentally sustainable outcomes. Work includes collaborative development of system...

  7. Bring Powerful Writing Strategies Into Your Classroom! Why and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve; Friedlander, Barbara; Laud, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Learning to write is critical in today's world, yet many students are not developing the writing abilities they need to use writing as a powerful tool for learning and for showing what they know. Research indicates that failure to acquire strong writing abilities restricts opportunities for both post-secondary education and employment. This…

  8. Skynet Junior Scholars: Bringing Astronomy to Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Kate; Williamson, Kathryn; Gartner, Constance; Hoette, Vivian L.; Heatherly, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    Skynet Junior Scholars (SJS), funded by the National Science Foundation, aims to engage middle school youth from diverse audiences in investigating the universe with research quality robotic telescopes. SJS project development goals include: 1) Online access to optical and radio telescopes, data analysis tools, and professional astronomers, 2) An age-appropriate web-based interface for controlling remote telescopes, 3) Inquiry-based standards-aligned instructional modules. From an accessibility perspective, the goal of the Skynet Junior Scholars project is to facilitate independent access to the project by all youth including those with blindness or low vision and those who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) students have long been an underserved population within STEM fields, including astronomy. Two main barriers include: (1) insufficient corpus of American Sign Language (ASL) for astronomy terminology, and (2) DHH education professionals who lack astronomy background. A suite of vocabulary, accessible hands-on activities, and interaction with trained professionals, are critical for enhancing the background experiences of DHH youth, as they may come to an astronomy lesson lacking the basic "incidental learning" that is often taken for granted with hearing peers (for example, from astronomy in the media).A collaboration between the Skynet Junior Scholars (SJS) project and the Wisconsin School for the Deaf is bringing astronomy to the DHH community in an accessible way for the first time. We follow a group of seven DHH youth over one semester as they interact with the SJS tools and curriculum to understand how they assimilate astronomy experiences and benefit from access to telescopes both directly (on school campus and at Yerkes Observatory) and through Skynet's robotic telescope network (optical and radio telescopes, inquiry-based modules, data analysis tools, and professional astronomers). We report on our first findings of resources and

  9. The Quake-Catcher Network: Bringing Seismology to Homes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Christensen, C. M.; Saltzman, J.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a collaborative initiative for developing the world's largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to volunteer internet-connected computers. QCN is not only a research tool, but provides an educational tool for teaching earthquake science in formal and informal environments. A central mission of the Quake-Catcher Network is to provide scientific educational software and hardware so that K-12 teachers, students, and the general public can better understand and participate in the science of earthquakes and earthquake hazards. With greater understanding, teachers, students, and interested individuals can share their new knowledge, resulting in continued participation in the project, and better preparation for earthquakes in their homes, businesses, and communities. The primary educational outreach goals are 1) to present earthquake science and earthquake hazards in a modern and exciting way, and 2) to provide teachers and educators with seismic sensors, interactive software, and educational modules to assist in earthquake education. QCNLive (our interactive educational computer software) displays recent and historic earthquake locations and 3-axis real-time acceleration measurements. This tool is useful for demonstrations and active engagement for all ages, from K-college. QCN provides subsidized sensors at 49 for the general public and 5 for K-12 teachers. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes to a broader audience. Academics are taking QCN to classrooms across the United States and around the world. The next time you visit a K-12 classroom or teach a college class on interpreting seismograms, bring a QCN sensor and QCNLive software with you! To learn how, visit http://qcn.stanford.edu.

  10. Bringing Internet-based education and intervention into mental health practice: afterdeployment.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef I. Ruzek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet-facilitated interventions may offer numerous advantages in reaching the large numbers of military service men and women exposed to traumatic events. The Internet is now a primary source of health-related information for consumers and research has shown the effectiveness of web-based interventions in addressing a range of mental health problems.Clinicians can learn how to bring Internet education and intervention into routine care, to help clients better understand mental health issues and learn skills for self-management of problems.The Afterdeployment.org (AD Internet site can be used by health care professionals serving U.S. military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, and their families. The site currently addresses 18 key domains of functioning, including post-traumatic stress, sleep, anger, alcohol and drugs, and military sexual trauma. It provides an extensive amount of client and family education that is suitable for immediate use by clients and providers, as well as the kinds of interactive workshop content and self-assessment tools that have been shown to be helpful in other treatment contexts. AD can be utilized in clinical practice in a variety of ways: as an adjunct to treatment for PTSD, to supplement existing treatments for a range of post-deployment problems, or as the primary focus of treatment for a client.AD represents a kind of service that is likely to become increasingly available in coming years and that is important for mental health providers to actively explore as a tool for extending their reach, improving their efficiency, and improving quality of care.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  11. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  12. EarthObserver: Bringing the world to your fingertips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. B.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Coplan, J.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Chan, S.; Bonczkowski, J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Morton, J. J.; McLain, K.; Weissel, R.

    2011-12-01

    EarthObserver (http://www.earth-observer.org/), developed by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, brings a wealth of geoscience data to Apple iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices. Built around an easy-to-use interface, EarthObserver allows users to explore and visualise a wide range of data sets superimposed upon a detailed base map of land elevations and ocean depths - tapping the screen will instantly return the height or depth at that point. A simple transparency function allows direct comparison of built-in content. Data sets include high-resolution coastal bathymetry of bays, sounds, estuaries, harbors and rivers; geological maps of the US states and world - tapping the screen displays the rock type, and full legends can be viewed; US Topo sheets; and, geophysical content including seafloor crustal age and sediment thickness, earthquake and volcano data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and plate boundary descriptions. The names of physiographic features are automatically displayed. NASA Visible Earth images along with ocean temperature, salinity and productivity maps and precipitation information expose data sets of interest to the atmospheric, oceanic and biological communities. Natural hazard maps, population information and political boundaries allow users to explore impacts upon society. EarthObserver, so far downloaded by more than 55,000 users, offers myriad ways for educators at all levels to bring research-quality geoscience data into the learning environment, whether for use as an in-class illustration or for extensive exploration of earth sciences data. By using cutting-edge mobile app technology, EarthObserver boosts access to relevant earth science content. The EarthObserver base map is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography digital elevation model (GMRT; http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt/), also developed at LDEO and updated regularly. It provides land elevations with horizontal resolution as high as 10m for

  13. Engineering tools

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give an overview of the results of Work Package 5 “Engineering Tools”. In this workpackage numerical tools have been developed for all relevant CHCP systems in the PolySMART demonstration projects (WP3). First, existing simulation platforms have been described and specific characteristics have been identified. Several different simulation platforms are in principle appropriate for the needs in the PolySMART project. The result is an evaluation of available simulat...

  14. Demarketing fear: Bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to explore the strategies for breaking the deadlock between the demand for resolving climate crisis and the resistance to deploying nuclear power. Since our present renewable technology is not advanced enough to replace fossil fuel power plants, nuclear power becomes the only available means that can buy us more time to explore better energy sources for coping with the dilemma of global warming and energy security. Therefore, this paper proposes an elaborated fear appeal framework that may shed light on the intervention points for mitigating fear. By examining the influence of fear appeal on the nuclear issue, three strategies for demarketing the nuclear fear of the public are recommended. The paper concludes that only when energy policy makers and the nuclear industry recognize the significance of minimizing fear and begin to work on removing the sources of fear, can we then expect to bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse. - Highlights: • Both cognition and emotion are critical in decision-making processes. • Dealing with the emotion of fear is essential for resolving the nuclear issue. • Fear should be mitigated to make rational discourses on nuclear power happen. • Fear can be mitigated by manipulating issue familiarity and response feasibility. • Using equivalency and issue framing may alter public perceptions of nuclear power

  15. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  16. Using Multimedia to Bring Science News to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, C.; Stein, B.; Lorditch, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Creative partnerships between scientists and journalists open new opportunities to bring the excitement of scientific discoveries to wider audiences. Research tells us that the majority of the general public now gets more science and technology news from the Internet than from TV sources (2014 NSF Science and Engineering Indicators). In order to reach these audiences news organizations must embrace multiple forms of multimedia. We will review recent research on how the new multimedia landscape is changing the way that science news is consumed and how news organizations are changing the way they deliver news. News programs like Inside Science, and other examples of new partnerships that deliver research news to journalists, teachers, students, and the general public will be examined. We will describe examples of successful collaborations including an article by a former Newsweek science reporter entitled "My 1975 'Cooling World' Story Doesn't Make Today's Climate Scientists Wrong," which got reprinted in Slate, RealClearScience, and mentioned in Factcheck.org and USA Today.

  17. Bringing the CMS distributed computing system into scalable operations

    CERN Document Server

    Belforte, S; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Hernández, J M; Kress, T; Letts, J; Magini, N; Miccio, V; Sciabà, A

    2010-01-01

    Establishing efficient and scalable operations of the CMS distributed computing system critically relies on the proper integration, commissioning and scale testing of the data and workload management tools, the various computing workflows and the underlying computing infrastructure, located at more than 50 computing centres worldwide and interconnected by the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Computing challenges periodically undertaken by CMS in the past years with increasing scale and complexity have revealed the need for a sustained effort on computing integration and commissioning activities. The Processing and Data Access (PADA) Task Force was established at the beginning of 2008 within the CMS Computing Program with the mandate of validating the infrastructure for organized processing and user analysis including the sites and the workload and data management tools, validating the distributed production system by performing functionality, reliability and scale tests, helping sites to commission, configure an...

  18. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  19. Conceptualising International Peace Mediation - Bring Back the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Noelle; Daly, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Mediation has been acknowledged and utilised for a number of decades as an effective method of alternative dispute resolution in a variety of areas of law, including family law, commercial law and medical law. A uniform, standardised framework exists within legal discourse which clearly identifies and categorises three main styles of mediation as facilitative, evaluative and transformative mediation. In the post-Cold War period, mediation has also emerged as an important resolution tool in ar...

  20. Tactile Sun: Bringing an Invisible Universe to the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, G. M.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    A tactile model of the Sun has been created as a strategy for communicating astronomy to the blind or visually impaired, and as a useful outreach tool for general audiences. The model design was a collaboration between an education specialist, an astronomy specialist and a sculptor. The tactile Sun has been used at astronomy outreach events in Puerto Rico to make activities more inclusive and to increase public awareness of the needs of those with disabilities.

  1. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity. PMID:20595351

  2. Equity and what secondary science teachers bring to the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Barbara Anne

    The demographics of people working in science-based careers do not match the demographics of the larger society. In particular, people who self-identify as Hispanic are underrepresented among working scientists. One reason may be the influence of formal schooling and more specifically, the behaviors of teachers in secondary science classrooms. This study looks at the practices of eight secondary science teachers at two schools at which 62% of the enrolled students declare their ethnicity as Hispanic. All of the teachers have at least three years of experience. Through interviews with the teachers, classroom observation, and interviews with other faculty, this research elucidates typical behaviors and attitudes surrounding teaching science in these settings. In spite of having a deficit view of their students, they all express interest in and concern about the students they teach. Their characterizations of teaching practices and classroom behaviors do not incorporate strategies designed to promote content learning through culturally relevant curriculum. Instead, they use mainstream-situated approaches that develop science content knowledge, vocabulary, procedures, and skills targeted toward high achievement on state and district standardized tests leading toward graduation or success in college. These approaches are consistent with a view of equity that increases the participation of underrepresented groups in science based careers in that it gives students the skills and knowledge they will need in order to successfully pursue these careers. Additionally, they behave in ways that are consistent with equitable strategies such as using inquiry based teaching, serving as role models, and providing a structured learning environment. This research informs the literature base for instructional systems designers by identifying what that teachers situated in culturally diverse classrooms bring to professional development programs targeted toward making secondary science

  3. Who's bringing you hot ideas and how are you responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Prusak, Laurence; Wilson, H James

    2003-02-01

    There's an unsung hero in your organization. It's the person who's bringing in new ideas from the outside about how to manage better. These aren't your product and service innovators--those people are celebrated loudly and often. This is the manager who, for instance, first uttered the phrase "balance scorecard" in your hallways, or "real options," or "intellectual capital." Managerial innovation is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage--especially given the speed with which product innovations are copied--but it doesn't happen automatically. It takes a certain kind of person to welcome new management ideas and usher them into an organization. The authors recently studied 100 such people to find out how they translate new ideas into action in their organizations. They discovered that they are a distinct type of practitioner; that is to say, they resemble their counterparts in other organizations more than they resemble their own colleagues, and they share a common way of working. "Idea practitioners," as the authors call them, begin by scouting for ideas. All of them are avid readers of management literature and enthusiastic participants in business conferences; many are friendly with business gurus. Once they've identified an idea that seems to hold promise, they tailor it to fit their organizations' specific needs. Next, they actively sell the idea--to senior executives, to the rank and file, to middle managers. And finally, they get the ball rolling by participating in small-scale experiments. But when those take off, they get out of the way and let others execute. In this article, the authors identify the characteristics of idea practitioners and offer strategies for managing them wisely.

  4. Windows Developer Power Tools Turbocharge Windows development with more than 170 free and open source tools

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, James

    2007-01-01

    Software developers need to work harder and harder to bring value to their development process in order to build high quality applications and remain competitive. Developers can accomplish this by improving their productivity, quickly solving problems, and writing better code. A wealth of open source and free software tools are available for developers who want to improve the way they create, build, deploy, and use software. Tools, components, and frameworks exist to help developers at every point in the development process. Windows Developer Power Tools offers an encyclopedic guide to m

  5. Future clinical trials in DIPG: bringing epigenetics to the clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres E. Morales La Madrid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of major recent advances in DIPG molecular characterization, this body of knowledge has not yet translated into better treatments.To date,more than 250 clinical trials evaluating radiotherapy along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy as well as newer biologic agents,have failed to improve the dismal outcome when compared to palliative radiation alone.The biology of DIPG remained unknown until recently when the neurosurgical expertise along with the recognition by the scientific and clinical community of the importance of tissue sampling at diagnosis;ideally in the context of a clinical trial and by trained neurosurgical teams to maximize patient safety.These pre-treatment tumor samples,and others coming from tissue obtained post-mortem,have yielded new insights into DIPG molecular biology.We now know that DIPG comprises a heterogeneous disease with variable molecular phenotypes, different from adult high grade glioma,other non-pontine pediatric high grade gliomas and even between pontine gliomas.The discovery of histone H3.3 or H3.1 mutations has been an important step forward in understanding tumor formation,maintenance and progression.Pharmacologic reversal of DIPG histone demethylation therefore offers an important potential intervention strategy for the treatment of DIPG.To date,clinical trials of newly diagnosed or progressive DIPG with epigenetic modifiers have been unsuccessful.Whether this failure represents limited activity of the agents used,their CNS penetration,redundant pathways within the tumor,or the possibility that histone mutations are necessary only to initiate DIPGs but not maintain their growth,suggest that a great deal still needs to be elucidated in both the underlying biology of these pathways,and the drugs designed to target them.In this review, we discuss the role of both epigenetic and genetic mutations within DIPG and the development of treatment strategies directed against the unique abnormalities

  6. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Parallel Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2003-04-17

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  7. Perspectives From the Field: Bringing Nurse Leaders Into the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortedahl, Charlotte K; Imhoff, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is a vital component of nurses' careers and baccalaureate nursing programs are required to include leadership competencies in undergraduate nursing education. To design learning experiences that emphasize professional identity formation, nurse leaders were invited as guest speakers in a senior-level didactic leadership course, but scheduling often interfered with participation. To inspire students and maximize nurse leaders' time, recorded video was investigated as a solution. Following videotaped interviews with nurse leaders, a 10-minute video was produced and shown to students in a nursing leadership course. The video project was evaluated for feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and usefulness as an instructional tool for empowering nursing students. PMID:27209873

  8. Prediction of Surfactants’ Properties using Multiscale Molecular Modeling Tools: A Review Prédiction de propriétés des tensioactifs à l’aide d’outils de modélisation moléculaire : une revue

    OpenAIRE

    Creton B.; Nieto-Draghi C.; Pannacci N.

    2013-01-01

    During one of the existing Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) procedures, a mixture of Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP) is injected into wells in order to move the trapped oil from the reservoir to the wellbores. The conception and/or the tuning of new ASP combinations, structures of surfactants and/or mixtures of surfactants is of primary interest to improve the efficiency of a such procedure. Molecular modeling tools can be used to understand microscopic effects, predict surfactants’ propert...

  9. Indispensable tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation has become an indispensable research tool for a growing number of scientists in a seemingly ever expanding number of disciplines. We can thank the European Synchrotron Research Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble for taking an innovative step toward achieving the educational goal of explaining the nature and benefits of synchrotron radiation to audiences ranging from the general public (including students) to government officials to scientists who may be unfamiliar with x-ray techniques and synchrotron radiation. ESRF is the driving force behind a new CD-ROM playable on both PCs and Macs titled Synchrotron light to explore matter. Published by Springer-Verlag, the CD contains both English and French versions of a comprehensive overview of the subject

  10. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications.

  11. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  12. Issues and Solutions for Bringing Heterogeneous Water Cycle Data Sets Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James; Kempler, Steven; Teng, William; Belvedere, Deborah; Liu, Zhong; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The water cycle research community has generated many regional to global scale products using data from individual NASA missions or sensors (e.g., TRMM, AMSR-E); multiple ground- and space-based data sources (e.g., Global Precipitation Climatology Project [GPCP] products); and sophisticated data assimilation systems (e.g., Land Data Assimilation Systems [LDAS]). However, it is often difficult to access, explore, merge, analyze, and inter-compare these data in a coherent manner due to issues of data resolution, format, and structure. These difficulties were substantiated at the recent Collaborative Energy and Water Cycle Information Services (CEWIS) Workshop, where members of the NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) community gave presentations, provided feedback, and developed scenarios which illustrated the difficulties and techniques for bringing together heterogeneous datasets. This presentation reports on the findings of the workshop, thus defining the problems and challenges of multi-dataset research. In addition, the CEWIS prototype shown at the workshop will be presented to illustrate new technologies that can mitigate data access roadblocks encountered in multi-dataset research, including: (1) Quick and easy search and access of selected NEWS data sets. (2) Multi-parameter data subsetting, manipulation, analysis, and display tools. (3) Access to input and derived water cycle data (data lineage). It is hoped that this presentation will encourage community discussion and feedback on heterogeneous data analysis scenarios, issues, and remedies.

  13. Advances in e-health and telemedicine: strategy to bring health service users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Giovanni Jiménez Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The e-health and telemedicine have emerged as tools to facilitate access to health services, both populations far from the centres, and those who reside near them is not easily accessible or require constant controls by their professionals health traffickers. Objective: To reflect on the uses, progress and difficulties faced by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT as a strategy to bring health services to users. Methodology: qualitative hermeneutic research; advanced in two phases. The first, theoretical review by finding relevant articles in scientific databases. The second phase, critical analysis of literature found, in order to understand the dynamics generated from the use of ICT in the health sector, its current uses and prospected, and the risk that can generate its implementation for providers and patients. Results: The e-health and telemedicine have advanced in their development process andColombiahas not been outside, but there are still drawbacks of ethical, legal and operational order, which are not static and show great variation over time, becoming challenges are not independent but are associated with the dynamic progress of ICT. Conclusion: e-health and telemedicine are valid strategies to improve access to health services to communities. But require the development of processes to prevent, mitigate and / or exceed the inconveniences that may arise from its use. 

  14. Bring Your Own Device Technology: Preliminary Results from a Mixed Methods Study to Explore Student Experience of In-Class Response Systems in Post-Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Numer; Rebecca Spencer

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the effectiveness of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) technology in a postsecondary classroom. Despite recent advances in the technological tools available to educators, there is a significant gap in the literature regarding student efficacy, engagement and contribution to learning. This paper will present the preliminary findings of the first phases of an evaluation project measuring student interaction with BYOD technology in a large group setting. Employing a mixed metho...

  15. Kaiserschnitten Wien - Let's bring the forest in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Primožič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The location is part of the Vienna River Valley, known as "Wiental", one of the most dissonant, incongruous, and contested areas of Vienna. Depending on one’s perspective, the Vienna River Valley can be viewed as a transit corridor, an unresolved urban area, an urban interface, an inter- zone, an infrastructure bundle, an ugly wound in the urban landscape, a socially charged boundary, etc. We started the project with urban pattern analyses on different scales: the scale of the city, the scale of Wiental (from Schönbrunn to Hofburg and on a minor scale, i.e. the scale of the project.The analysis showed that Wiental constitutes the main connection between the city centre and suburbia and the countryside in the background of the city. With its clear morphological importance, it could become a green axis of the city, a pleasant place for people, rather than having only an infrastructural role. Our concept is to bring new character to Wiental by making it a pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly green axis. Our initial goal was to reduce car traffic. We proposed introducing a park-and-ride system, which would become a point of transfer where car traffic is replaced by public transport and cycle traffic. Through the afforestation of Wiental, the area could become a park or recreational route, and the quality of life in the area would improve.An important aspect of the project was dealing with the Danube. We proposed to manage the flood peaks by introducing a dam, and after the point of regulation, we arranged the River into two levels: an ambient upper flow and infrastructural lower flow in the existing channel. Also, by rearranging "Naschmarkt" with the Danube uncovered, we predicted an extension of tourism from the city centre to Schönbrunn by bicycle or on foot, which could be followed by an expansion of the public programme. We wanted to show that the Danube, with an appropriate environment, could become a significant element of the city structure.

  16. ISSLIVE! Bringing the Space Station to Every Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Severance, Mark; Blue, Regina; Khan, Ahmed; Healy, Matthew D.; Ehlinger, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    traditional education system, ISSLive! provides a single, interactive, and engaging experience to learn about the ISS and its role in space exploration, international collaboration, and science. While traditional students are using ISSLive! in the classroom, their parents, grandparents, and friends are using it at home. ISSLive! truly brings the daily operations of the ISS into the daily lives of the public from every generation.

  17. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. PMID:24387677

  18. Molecular physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  19. From the Moon: Bringing Space Science to Diverse Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.; M3 Science; E/PO Team

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Apollo missions held a place in the mindset of many Americans - we dared to go someplace where humans had never set foot, a place unknown and beyond our imaginations. These early NASA missions and discoveries resulted in an enhanced public understanding of the Moon. Now, with the human element so far removed from space exploration, students must rely on textbooks, TV's, and computers to build their understanding of our Moon. However, NASA educational materials about the Moon are stale and out-of-date. In addition, they do not effectively address 21st Century Skills, an essential for today's classrooms. Here, we present a three-part model for developing opportunities in lunar science education professional development that is replicable and sustainable and integrates NASA mission-derived data (e.g., Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1). I) With the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better explore and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the imaging spectrometer are incorporated into the M3 Educator's Guide: Seeing the Moon in a New Light. The guide includes an array of activities and lessons to help educators and students understand how NASA is currently exploring the Moon. The guide integrates NASA maps and data into the interactive lessons, bringing the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into the classroom. II) Utilizing the M3 Educator's Guide as well as educational activities from more current NASA lunar missions, we offer two sustained professional development opportunities for educators to explore the Moon through interactive and creative strategies. 1) Geology of the Moon, an online course offered through Montana State University's National Teacher Enhancement Network, is a 3-credit graduate course. 2) Fly Me to the Moon, offered through the College of Charleston's Office of Professional Development in Education, is a two

  20. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally – but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  1. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally - but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  2. Bringing patient centricity to diabetes medication access in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Judith L; Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Oh, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Canada must become proactive in addressing type 2 diabetes. With the second highest rate of diabetes prevalence in the developed world, the number of Canadians living with diabetes will soon reach epidemic levels. Against international comparisons, Canada also performs poorly with respect to diabetes-related hospitalizations, mortality rates, and access to medications. Diabetes and its comorbidities pose a significant burden on people with diabetes (PWD) and their families, through out-of-pocket expenses for medications, devices, supplies, and the support needed to manage their illness. Rising direct and indirect costs of diabetes will become a drain on Canada’s economy and undermine the financial stability of our health care system. Canada’s approach to diabetes medication assessment and funding has created a patchwork of medication access across provinces. Access to treatments for those who rely on public programs is highly restricted compared to Canadians with private drug plans, as well in contrast with public payers in other countries. Each person living with diabetes has different needs, so a “patient-centric” approach ensures treatment focused on individual circumstances. Such tailoring is difficult to achieve, with the linear approach required by public payers. We may be undermining optimal care for PWD because of access policies that are not aligned with individualized approaches – and increasing overall health care costs in the process. The scope of Canada’s diabetes challenge demands holistic and proactive solutions. Canada needs to get out from “behind the eight ball” and get “ahead of the curve” when it comes to diabetes care. Improving access to medications is one of the tools for getting there. Canada’s “call to action” for diabetes starts with effective implementation of existing best practices. A personalized approach to medication access, to meet individual needs and optimize outcomes, is also a key enabler. PWD and

  3. COMETWATCHERS: Bringing Research into the Undergraduate Astronomy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, M.

    2000-05-01

    Integrating research with education has been an evolving process for me and the "Cometwatchers", the students with whom I work. What started as a totally extracurricular activity, has become well-integrated into St. Cloud State Univerity's upper-division courses on Solar System Astronomy and Observational Astronomy. Maintaining a collaboration with six to eight students is a challenge that is made easier and more efficient when we modularize the projects, utilize each person's expertise, hold weekly meetings, require students to write guides and manuals to instruct others, and require students to write up and present their work at meetings. This also helps students to identify and evaluate their contributions to the research. Here I profile the research component in two courses at SCSU that use a student-run optical observatory equipped with a 0.4-m telescope, CCD, UBVRI photometry filters and a fiber-optic spectrograph. Results from some focused research projects are also discussed, including an optical imaging archive of Comet Hale-Bopp, derivation of dust expansion velocities from comet images, analysis of the visible light-curve of comet Hale-Bopp, spectral analysis of millimeter-wavelength ``datacubes" of HCO+ and of other carbon-bearing molecular spectra in comet Hale-Bopp.

  4. Bringing new treatments to the bedside in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Amanda L; Geddes, Duncan M

    2004-02-01

    The discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in 1989 led to a dramatic increase in the understanding of the molecular basis of CF. Increased knowledge has provided the opportunity to target drug development at correcting the basic defect either by gene therapy or pharmacological modulation of the abnormal physiological processes. Development of new medications for the CF population poses many challenges. The discovery and development of new medications is always time consuming and expensive. Since CF affects a small population worldwide, the potential for a drug company to profit from a new treatment is limited. In addition, each new therapy must have an additional and proven benefit to be attractive to clinicians and consumers, otherwise it will not be commercially viable. Demonstrating clinical benefit is problematic as a limited number of patients are available to participate in clinical trails and outcome measures, such as length of life, are hard to measure. In this review we will illustrate these challenges by discussing the development of treatments which have successfully reached the bedside and those that were unsuccessful. PMID:14730652

  5. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, D.; Cachau, R. E.; García-Remesal, M.; Maojo, V.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts.

  6. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, D; Cachau, R E; García-Remesal, M; Maojo, V

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts. PMID:24932210

  7. Bringing a Bayesian Perspective to Large Dimensional Problems in Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputel, Z.; Simons, M.; Jolivet, R.; Zaroli, C.; Rivera, L. A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Gombert, B.; Minson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has seen a substantial expansion of geophysical observations. Exploiting this wealth of data involves large ill-conditioned inverse problems requiring large numbers of uncertain parameters. A common approach in geophysics is to use some form of regularization that transforms the inversion into a well-conditioned optimization problem. While this approach is convenient and computationally inexpensive, the inherent non-uniqueness of our problems suggest that we should not simply search for a single optimal model, but rather attempt to describe the ensemble of plausible models that can fit the data and are consistent with prior information. This talk will present various applications of full Bayesian analysis techniques to large ill-posed inverse problems in geophysics. Despite significant computational cost, Bayesian sampling is a powerful tool to combine prior information, theoretical knowledge and data in order to address scientific problems probabilistically. We shall illustrate this by showing recent results for two types of problems: (1) the study of earthquakes sources and (2) imaging of the Earth interior. In particular, we will present different strategies that can be employed in order to achieve realistic uncertainty estimates.

  8. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts. (paper)

  9. THE OMC IN THE EUROPEAN EMPLOYMENT POLICY: BRINGING SOCIALISATION IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matia Vannoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues in favour of a more thorough analysis of a specific set of dynamics taking place in the Open Method of Coordination (OMC, the latter being conceived as an informal organizational framework aimed at mutual learning (de Burca and Zeitlin, 2003 and policy change (Dolowitz and Marsh, 2000; Radaelli, 2000. The aim of this paper is to uncover the missing link between these two elements, which has hitherto been black -boxed by the literature. Theoretical tools from International Relations (IR theories (i.e. constructivist institutionalism are borrowed in order to circumvent such a fallacy. The premises are the same as the ones hitherto employed by scholars studying the OMC (e.g. Jacobsson, 2004: can norms and values assume a binding character even outside the ‘territorially bounded democratic government’ (Héritier and Lehmkuhl, 2008 and thus leading to policy change? If so, how does this phenomenon take place? Nevertheless, the approach is different, in that it builds on two closely interrelated factors: the concept of socialisation with its micro-processes (Johnston, 2001; Johnston, 2008 and the institutional characteristics of social environments (Rogowski, 1999. Accordingly, this paper will address the question: is the OMC in European employment policy a social environment conducive of socialisation?

  10. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment.

  11. OMICs Technologies Tools for Food Science

    CERN Document Server

    Benkeblia, Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, food and nutrition sciences have undergone a fundamental molecular transformation. New discoveries in molecular biology, analytical chemistry, and biochemistry have led to the development of new tools that are likely to revolutionize the study of food. OMICS Technologies: Tools for Food Science explores how these tools reveal the fundamental pathways and biochemical processes that drive food and nutrition sciences. In this volume, an international panel of researchers examines the rise of these new technologies--including metabolomics, metageno

  12. 20 CFR 1002.308 - Who has legal standing to bring an action under USERRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who has legal standing to bring an action under USERRA? 1002.308 Section 1002.308 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... Rights and Benefits Against A State Or Private Employer § 1002.308 Who has legal standing to bring...

  13. 29 CFR 779.110 - Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act. 779.110 Section 779.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.110 Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under...

  14. Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-06-01

    Molecular modeling has trickled down from the realm of pharmaceutical and research laboratories into the realm of undergraduate chemistry instruction. It has opened avenues for the visualization of chemical concepts that previously were difficult or impossible to convey. I am sure that many of you have developed exercises using the various molecular modeling tools. It is the desire of this Journal to become an avenue for you to share these exercises among your colleagues. It is to this end that Ron Starkey has agreed to edit such a column and to publish not only the description of such exercises, but also the software documents they use. The WWW is the obvious medium to distribute this combination and so accepted submissions will appear online as a feature of JCE Internet. Typical molecular modeling exercise: finding conformation energies. Molecular Modeling Exercises and Experiments is the latest feature column of JCE Internet, joining Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Hal's Picks, and Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum. JCE Internet continues to seek submissions in these areas of interest and submissions of general interest. If you have developed materials and would like to submit them, please see our Guide to Submissions for more information. The Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Equipment Buyers Guide, and WWW Site Review would also like to hear about chemistry textbooks and software, equipment, and WWW sites, respectively. Please consult JCE Internet Features to learn more about these resources at JCE Online. Email Announcements Would you like to be informed by email when the latest issue of the Journal is available online? when a new JCE Software title is shipping? when a new JCE Internet article has been published or is available for Open Review? when your subscription is about to expire? A new feature of JCE Online makes this possible. Visit our Guestbook to learn how. When you submit the form on this page, which includes your email address

  15. Local Pixel Bundles: Bringing the Pixels to the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay

    2014-12-01

    The automated galaxy-based alignment software package developed for the Frontier Fields program (hst2galign, see Anderson & Ogaz 2014 and http://www.stsci.edu/hst/campaigns/frontier-fields/) produces a direct mapping from the pixels of the flt frame of each science exposure into a common master frame. We can use these mappings to extract the flt-pixels in the vicinity of a source of interest and package them into a convenient "bundle". In addition to the pixels, this data bundle can also contain "meta" information that will allow users to transform positions from the flt pixels to the reference frame and vice-versa. Since the un-resampled pixels in the flt frames are the only true constraints we have on the astronomical scene, the ability to inter-relate these pixels will enable many high-precision studies, such as: point-source-fitting and deconvolution with accurate PSFs, easy exploration of different image-combining algorithms, and accurate faint-source finding and photometry. The data products introduced in this ISR are a very early attempt to provide the flt-level pixel constraints in a package that is accessible to more than the handful of experts in HST astrometry. The hope is that users in the community might begin using them and will provide feedback as to what information they might want to see in the bundles and what general analysis packages they might find useful. For that reason, this document is somewhat informally written, since I know that it will be modified and updated as the products and tools are optimized.

  16. Software engineering methodologies and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lawrence M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the years many engineering disciplines have developed, including chemical, electronic, etc. Common to all engineering disciplines is the use of rigor, models, metrics, and predefined methodologies. Recently, a new engineering discipline has appeared on the scene, called software engineering. For over thirty years computer software has been developed and the track record has not been good. Software development projects often miss schedules, are over budget, do not give the user what is wanted, and produce defects. One estimate is there are one to three defects per 1000 lines of deployed code. More and more systems are requiring larger and more complex software for support. As this requirement grows, the software development problems grow exponentially. It is believed that software quality can be improved by applying engineering principles. Another compelling reason to bring the engineering disciplines to software development is productivity. It has been estimated that productivity of producing software has only increased one to two percent a year in the last thirty years. Ironically, the computer and its software have contributed significantly to the industry-wide productivity, but computer professionals have done a poor job of using the computer to do their job. Engineering disciplines and methodologies are now emerging supported by software tools that address the problems of software development. This paper addresses some of the current software engineering methodologies as a backdrop for the general evaluation of computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tools from actual installation of and experimentation with some specific tools.

  17. Downhole tool with replaceable tool sleeve sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, W. A.

    1985-10-29

    A downhole tool for insertion in a drill stem includes elongated cylindrical half sleeve tool sections adapted to be non-rotatably supported on an elongated cylindrical body. The tool sections are mountable on and removable from the body without disconnecting either end of the tool from a drill stem. The half sleeve tool sections are provided with tapered axially extending flanges on their opposite ends which fit in corresponding tapered recesses formed on the tool body and the tool sections are retained on the body by a locknut threadedly engaged with the body and engageable with an axially movable retaining collar. The tool sections may be drivably engaged with axial keys formed on the body or the tool sections may be formed with flat surfaces on the sleeve inner sides cooperable with complementary flat surfaces formed on a reduced diameter portion of the body around which the tool sections are mounted.

  18. Molecular imaging in quality health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    glycolysis, lipid synthesis, amino acid transport, cell surface receptors, gene expression and others are available for evaluating in animal experimental studies and humans the extent of disease as well as treatment effects in vivo. With the advent of PET/CT anatomic and molecular images can be fused affording assignment of normal or abnormal molecular imaging findings to specific anatomical structures. The major vendors have invested millions of dollars into bringing together the highest quality CT with 'state of the art' PET instrumentation. Similar technology mergers are currently happening for PET and MRI. These technological advances come at a time of increasing health care expenditures worldwide. One must therefore carefully evaluate whether the increasing costs are met by increasing effectiveness of the technology. This needs to be carefully determined within the varying health care systems and frameworks. This presentation will provide cancer statistics, introduce molecular imaging tools and will describe the concept of targeted imaging. Animal experimental studies will be used to demonstrate promising treatment approaches in vivo and how imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic effects. Further, the clinical molecular PET/CT imaging technology will be introduced and its impact on patient management and cost-effectiveness will be reviewed and discussed within the confines of different health care systems. Finally, Initial clinical trials will be presented that use molecular PET rather than anatomical CT imaging for prospectively arriving at patient management decisions. (author)

  19. Molecular transport: Catch the carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Barbara; Intemann, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the minute details of CO2 transport is key to finding new technologies that reduce the hazardous levels of CO2 in our atmosphere. Now, the observation that the transport of CO2 in molten calcium carbonate occurs faster than standard molecular diffusion brings us one step closer.

  20. Solution to service lifecycle problem - implementation of SOA Governance tool

    OpenAIRE

    Niko, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is implementation of tool which supports SOA Governance. Implementation takes place in environment of company Českej Pojistovni a.s. (ČP), where IT architecture is handled by concept of SOA. SOA architecture has its own concept of governance over standards, SOA Governance. Efficient use of this concept needs adequate tool which brings required solution to known problems. HP Systinet has been chosen to help solve problem of unmanaged service lifecycle. Main goal of ...

  1. Lubricant characterization by molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.D.; Cui, S.T.; Cummings, P.T.; Cochran, H.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    The authors have reported the calculation of the kinematic viscosity index of squalane from nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. This represents the first accurate quantitative prediction of this measure of lubricant performance by molecular simulation. Using the same general alkane potential model, this computational approach offers the possibility of predicting the performance of potential lubricants prior to synthesis. Consequently, molecular simulation is poised to become an important tool for future lubricant development.

  2. POPULAR MOLECULAR MARKERS IN BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Weilong, Liu; Lv, Li; MD. ASADUZZAMAN KHAN AND FEIZHOU ZHU

    2012-01-01

    Molecular markers are defined as the fragments of DNA sequence associated with a genome, which are used to identify a particular DNA sequence. Nowadays, with the explosive growth of genetic research and bacterial classification, molecular marker is an important tool to identify bacterial species. Taking account to its significant roles in clinic, medicine and food industry, in this review article, we summarize the traditional research and new development about molecular markers (also called g...

  3. Bringing Society to a Changing Polar Ocean: Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic and Antarctic appear to be accelerating and scientists are trying to understand both the patterns and the impacts of change. These changes will have profound impact on humanity and create a need for public education about these critical habitats. We have focused on a two-pronged strategy to increase public awareness as well as enable educators to discuss comfortably the implications of climate change. Our first focus is on entraining public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has been released in May 2015 and has garnered interest in movie theatres and on social media stores (NetFlix, ITunes). This broad outreach is coupled with our group's interest assisting educators formally. The majority of current polar education is focused on direct educator engagement through personal research experiences that have impact on the participating educators' classrooms. Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) proposes to improve educator and student engagement in polar sciences through exposure to scientists and polar data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, Polar ICE will reduce the logistical costs of bringing polar science to students in grades 6-16. We will provide opportunities to: 1) build capacity of polar scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with polar scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia; and 3) evaluate the outcomes of Polar ICE and contribute to our understanding of science education practices. We will use a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. This combined multi-pronged approach

  4. Bringing Science out of the Lab into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Science is moving more rapidly than ever; one groundbreaking discovery chases the next at an incredible speed. School teachers have trouble keeping up with the pace, and many pupils call science classes "boring". Today, Europe's major research organisations launch Science in School, the first international, multidisciplinary journal for innovative science teaching, to provide a platform for communication between science teachers, practising scientists and other stakeholders in science education. ESO PR Photo 12/06 ESO PR Photo 12/06 First Issue! "Science is becoming increasingly international and interdisciplinary," says Eleanor Hayes, editor of the journal. "The most exciting development of the day may happen anywhere in any field: students may suddenly want to talk about a discovery on Mars, a medical breakthrough or a natural disaster. On such days it would be a shame not to put the textbooks aside and to capitalise on that curiosity." Published by EIROforum, a partnership between Europe's seven largest intergovernmental research organisations, Science in School will bridge the gap between the worlds of research and schools. One extremely powerful tool to achieve this is the journal's web-based discussion forum that will establish a direct dialogue between science teachers and researchers across national and subject boundaries. Science in School will appear quarterly online and in print and will feature news about the latest scientific discoveries, teaching materials, interviews with inspiring teachers and scientists, reviews of books, films and websites, suggestions for class trips, training opportunities and many other useful resources for science teachers. Contributors to the first issue include the world-renowned neurologist and author Oliver Sachs, and scientists and teachers from nine countries. "We urgently need to engage young people in science. This is why the research community and the European Commission are committed to outreach and education

  5. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the

  6. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    National Research Council of Canada. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of Japan by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. ALMA Transporter ALMA Antenna Transporter Arrives in Chile CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NAOJ/NRAO Click on image for high-resolution file (808 KB) While scores of people are working at the ALMA site in Chile, more are in laboratories, test facilities, and factories around the world developing and producing equipment destined for ALMA. Antennas are coming from Europe, North America, and Japan. The giant transporter machines that will allow the antennas to be moved into multiple configurations have arrived in Chile from Germany. The prototype antennas and the prototype electronic equipment for ALMA have been tested at the site of the Very Large Array radio telescope in New Mexico. In Chile, buildings, roads and the complex infrastructure required to support ALMA operations all are coming together. Groundbreaking for ALMA was held in 2003, and the project is scheduled for completion in 2012. Astronomers expect ALMA to make extremely important contributions in a a variety of scientific specialties. The new telescope system will be a premier tool for studying the first stars and galaxies that emerged from the cosmic "dark ages" billions of years ago. These objects now are seen at great cosmic distances, with most of their light stretched out to millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths by the expansion of the Universe. In the more nearby Universe, ALMA will provide an unprecedented ability to study the processes of star and planet formation. Unimpeded by the dust that obscures visible-light observations, ALMA will be able to reveal the details of young, still-forming stars, and is expected to show young planets still in the process of developing. In addition, ALMA will allow scientists to learn

  7. CoC GIS Tools (GIS Tool)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool provides a no-cost downloadable software tool that allows users to interact with professional quality GIS maps. Users access pre-compiled projects through...

  8. Combined normal-phase and reversed-phase liquid chromatography/ESI-MS as a tool to determine the molecular diversity of A-type procyanidins in peanut skins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Vincken, J.P.; Sanders, M.B.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Peanut skins, a byproduct of the peanut butter industry, are a rich source of proanthocyanidins, which might be used in food supplements. Data on the molecular diversity of proanthocyanidins in peanut skins is limited and conflicting with respect to the ratio of double- (A-type) versus single-linked

  9. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  10. Monitoring an Online Course with the GISMO Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Riccardo; Botturi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    This article presents GISMO, a novel, open source, graphic student-tracking tool integrated into Moodle. GISMO represents a further step in information visualization applied to education, and also a novelty in the field of learning management systems applications. The visualizations of the tool, its uses and the benefits it can bring are…

  11. Value Innovation in Learner-Centered Design. How to Develop Valuable Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Henning; Schwarz, Heinrich; Feller, Kristina; Matsumoto, Mitsuji

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how to address technological, cultural and social transformations with empirically grounded innovation. Areas in transition such as higher education and learning techniques today bring about new needs and opportunities for innovative tools and services. But how do we find these tools? The paper argues for using a strategy of…

  12. Depth-resolved rhodopsin molecular contrast imaging for functional assessment of photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tan; Wen, Rong; Lam, Byron L.; Puliafito, Carmen A.; Jiao, Shuliang

    2015-09-01

    Rhodopsin, the light-sensing molecule in the outer segments of rod photoreceptors, is responsible for converting light into neuronal signals in a process known as phototransduction. Rhodopsin is thus a functional biomarker for rod photoreceptors. Here we report a novel technology based on visible-light optical coherence tomography (VIS-OCT) for in vivo molecular imaging of rhodopsin. The depth resolution of OCT allows the visualization of the location where the change of optical absorption occurs and provides a potentially accurate assessment of rhodopsin content by segmentation of the image at the location. Rhodopsin OCT can be used to quantitatively image rhodopsin distribution and thus assess the distribution of functional rod photoreceptors in the retina. Rhodopsin OCT can bring significant impact into ophthalmic clinics by providing a tool for the diagnosis and severity assessment of a variety of retinal conditions.

  13. Diagnostic tools assessing airway remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, L; Reche, M; Padial, M A; Valbuena, T; Pascual, C

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by the presence of airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness and alterations on the normal structure of the airways, known as remodelling. Remodelling is characterised by the presence of metaplasia of mucous glands, thickening of the lamina reticularis, increased angiogenesis, subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Several techniques are being optimised at present to achieve a suitable diagnosis for remodelling. Diagnostic tools could be divided into two groups, namely invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive techniques bring us information about bronchial structural alterations, obtaining this information directly from pathological tissue, and permit measure histological modification placed in bronchi layers as well as inflammatory and fibrotic cell infiltration. Non-invasive techniques were developed to reduce invasive methods disadvantages and measure airway remodelling-related markers such as cytokines, inflammatory mediators and others. An exhaustive review of diagnostic tools used to analyse airway remodelling in asthma, including the most useful and usually employed methods, as well as the principal advantages and disadvantages of each of them, bring us concrete and summarised information about all techniques used to evaluate alterations on the structure of the airways. A deep knowledge of these diagnostic tools will make an early diagnosis of airway remodelling possible and, probably, early diagnosis will play an important role in the near future of asthma. PMID:22236733

  14. Molecular Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular electronics describes the field in which molecules are utilized as the active (switching, sensing, etc.) or passive (current rectifiers, surface passivants) elements in electronic devices. This review focuses on experimental aspects of molecular electronics that researchers have elucidated over the past decade or so and that relate to the fabrication of molecular electronic devices in which the molecular components are readily distinguished within the electronic properties of the de...

  15. Bringing Terra Science to the People: 10 years of education and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Yuen, K.; Herring, D.

    2009-12-01

    The default image on Apple's iPhone is a blue, white, green and tan globe: the Blue Marble. The iconic image was produced using Terra data as part of the mission's education and public outreach efforts. As far-reaching and innovative as Terra science has been over the past decade, Terra education and public outreach efforts have been equally successful. This talk will provide an overview of Terra's crosscutting education and public outreach projects, which have reached into educational facilities—classrooms, museums, and science centers, across the Internet, and into everyday life. The Earth Observatory web site was the first web site designed for the public that told the unified story of what we can learn about our planet from all space-based platforms. Initially conceived as part of Terra mission outreach in 1999, the web site has won five Webby awards, the highest recognition a web site can receive. The Visible Earth image gallery is a catalogue of NASA Earth imagery that receives more than one million page views per month. The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web site and WMS (web mapping service) tool serves global data sets to museums and science centers across the world. Terra educational products, including the My NASA Data web service and the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project, bring Terra data into the classroom. Both projects target multiple grade levels, ranging from elementary school to graduate school. S'COOL uses student observations of clouds to help validate Terra data. Students and their parents have puzzled over weekly "Where on Earth" geography quizzes published on line. Perhaps the most difficult group to reach is the large segment of the public that does not seek out science information online or in a science museum or classroom. To reach these people, EarthSky produced a series of podcasts and radio broadcasts that brought Terra science to more than 30 million people in 2009. Terra imagery, including the Blue Marble, have

  16. Bringing Legacy Visualization Software to Modern Computing Devices via Application Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2014-05-01

    Planning software compatibility across forthcoming generations of computing platforms is a problem commonly encountered in software engineering and development. While this problem can affect any class of software, data analysis and visualization programs are particularly vulnerable. This is due in part to their inherent dependency on specialized hardware and computing environments. A number of strategies and tools have been designed to aid software engineers with this task. While generally embraced by developers at 'traditional' software companies, these methodologies are often dismissed by the scientific software community as unwieldy, inefficient and unnecessary. As a result, many important and storied scientific software packages can struggle to adapt to a new computing environment; for example, one in which much work is carried out on sub-laptop devices (such as tablets and smartphones). Rewriting these packages for a new platform often requires significant investment in terms of development time and developer expertise. In many cases, porting older software to modern devices is neither practical nor possible. As a result, replacement software must be developed from scratch, wasting resources better spent on other projects. Enabled largely by the rapid rise and adoption of cloud computing platforms, 'Application Streaming' technologies allow legacy visualization and analysis software to be operated wholly from a client device (be it laptop, tablet or smartphone) while retaining full functionality and interactivity. It mitigates much of the developer effort required by other more traditional methods while simultaneously reducing the time it takes to bring the software to a new platform. This work will provide an overview of Application Streaming and how it compares against other technologies which allow scientific visualization software to be executed from a remote computer. We will discuss the functionality and limitations of existing application streaming

  17. Molecular Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Willets, Katherine A.

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  18. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  19. Data Redistribution through MY NASA DATA: Striving to bring authentic NASA data into education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P. M.; Oostra, D.; Oots, P.; Chambers, L. H.; Moore, S.; Crecelius, S.; Taylor, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and Earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA or MND) project was launched in 2004 to bring authentic data into K-12 education. The MND website features a Live Access Server (LAS), an open source tool which allows users to customize data sets to suit their individual needs, choosing from among 200 global Level 3 data sets. Approximately 120 lesson plans that utilize the available parameters are offered to help teachers and students get started with data exploration. Grade appropriate data documentation is also provided (with continual efforts to improve it to better meet the needs of this target audience). Through inquiry and lesson utilization, educators have several connection points to the data. As classrooms shift to problem-based and inquiry learning, the need for a data visualizer/server increases. Through numerous and growing connections to NASA satellite missions, and with access to data as a built-in feature, MND effectively fills this niche to provide a first level of data re-use that is friendly to the K-12 community. Offering a wide variety of data sets allows MND to support many science topics within the K-12 curriculum while extending the use of scientific data from NASA Earth science satellites. Lessons, created by educators across the country, allow MND to connect with the classroom teacher and to meet their data needs. As technology continues to evolve, a second level of data re-use becomes both interesting and possible. Thus, the MND team is now exploring new web and mobile platforms that can be built and distributed on an accelerated time cycle to keep up with information technology developments. With implementation of these new platforms come challenges in promoting new items to the education community, the public, and other potential users. Included in the list of challenges are: ever-evolving technology, prediction of the market, web/mobile platforms, and time-to-market for

  20. The Engaged Microbiologist: Bringing the Microbiological Sciences to the K–12 Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Westenberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposing K–12 students to cutting edge science that impacts their daily lives can bring classroom lessons to life. Citizen-science projects are an excellent way to bring high-level science to the classroom and help satisfy one of the cornerstone concepts of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, “engaging in practices that scientists and engineers actually use.” This can be a daunting task for teachers who may lack the background or resources to integrate these projects into the classroom. This is where scientific societies such as the American Society for Microbiology (ASM can play a critical role. ASM encourages its members to engage with the K–12 community by providing networking opportunities and resources for ASM members and K–12 teachers to work together to bring microbiology into the classroom.

  1. Frontier Fields: A Cost-Effective Approach to Bringing Authentic Science to the Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Lawton, B.; Summers, F.; Ryer, H.

    2015-11-01

    For more than two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community and the public, and to engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based, curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, and professional development workshops. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. The Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community in a cost-effective way. Frontier Fields observations and results have been, and will continue to be, embedded into existing product lines and professional development offerings. We also are leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog.

  2. New Tool Creates a Big Stir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A new self-adjusting, retractable pin tool for friction stir welding is now used in the manufacturing of components for NASA Space Shuttles. Friction stir welding is a process that makes straight-line welds without bringing the parent material to a liquid state. This is accomplished through high-speed rotation, which generates frictional heat between the welding tool and the piece being welded. This heat causes the material to soften to the point of plasticity without allowing it to melt. The plasticized material is then transferred from the front edge of the welding tool to the trail edge, where it joins the pieces being welded. However, a major flaw of this method is its reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The weld is left unfinished and a hole remains where the pin was inserted. The hole must be covered with a rivet in order to preserve the integrity of the weld. The NASA-developed pin tool, however, eliminates the need for this finishing step, as its retraction allows continuous rewelding at lesser depths, until the hole is completely closed. With this NASA technology, welding of higher strength alloys, as well as non-planer and variable thickness structures can be achieved.

  3. [Knowledgebases in postgenomic molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsa, A V; Shilov, B V; Evdokimov, P A; Gusev, S A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledgebases can become an effective tool essentially raising quality of information retrieval in molecular biology, promoting the development of new methods of education and forecasting of the biomedical R&D. Knowledge-based technologies should induce "paradigm shift" in the life science due to integrative focusing of research groups towards the challenges of postgenomic era. This paper debates concept of the knowledgebase, which exploits web usage mining to personalize the access of molecular biologist to the Internet resources. PMID:21328913

  4. Molecular Gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Roisin; This, Herve; Kelly, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular gastronomy may be defined as the scientific discipline that explores the phenomena occurring during culinary transformations. In contrast with traditional approaches of food science and technology, which considered mostly the chemistry, physics, or biology of food ingredients and industrial transformations, the focus is on phenomena occurring during the preparation of dishes. Applications building on the principles of molecular gastronomy, such as ‘Molecular Cooking’ and ‘Note-by-No...

  5. Molecular Magnetocapacitance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-ning; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Capacitance of a nanoscale system is usually thought of having two contributions, a classical electrostatic contribution and a quantum contribution dependent on the density of states and/or molecular orbitals close to the Fermi energy. In this letter we demonstrate that in molecular nano-magnets and other magnetic nanoscale systems, the quantum part of the capacitance becomes spin-dependent, and is tunable by an external magnetic field. This molecular magnetocapacitance can be realized using ...

  6. Molecular Spintronics

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Masashi; Ikoma, Tadaaki

    2011-01-01

    Molecular spintronics is recognized to as an attractive new research direction in a field of spintronics, following to metallic spintronics and inorganic semiconductor spintronics, and attracts many people in recent decades. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the history of molecular spintronics by introducing important achievements and to show the current status of this field. In addition, the authors briefly introduce several theories for implementing studies in molecular spintro...

  7. Molecular pharmacognosy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the background and significance of molecular pharmacognosy,including the molecular identification of medicinal raw materials,phylogenetic evolution of medicinal plants and animals,evaluation and preservation of germplasm resources for medicinal plants and animals,etiology of endangerment and protection of endangered medicinal plants and animals,biosynthesis and bioregulation of active components in medicinal plants,and characteristics and the molecular bases of top-geoherbs.

  8. Photo fragmentation dynamics of small argon clusters and biological molecular: new tools by trapping and vectorial correlation; Dynamique de photofragmentation de petits agregats d'argon et de molecules biologiques: nouvel outil par piegeage et correlation vectorielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepere, V

    2006-09-15

    The present work concerns the building up of a complex set-up whose aim being the investigation of the photo fragmentation of ionised clusters and biological molecules. This new tool is based on the association of several techniques. Two ion sources are available: clusters produced in a supersonic beam are ionised by 70 eV electrons while ions of biological interest are produced in an 'electro-spray'. Ro-vibrational cooling is achieved in a 'Zajfman' electrostatic ion trap. The lifetime of ions can also be measured using the trap. Two types of lasers are used to excite the ionised species: the femtosecond laser available at the ELYSE facilities and a nanosecond laser. Both lasers have a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The neutral and ionised fragments are detected in coincidence using a sophisticated detection system allowing time and localisation of the various fragments to be determined. With such a tool, I was able to investigate in details the fragmentation dynamics of ionised clusters and bio-molecules. The first experiments deal with the measurement of the lifetime of the Ar{sup 2+} dimer II(1/2)u metastable state. The relative population of this state was also determined. The Ar{sup 2+} and Ar{sup 3+} photo-fragmentation was then studied and electronic transitions responsible for their dissociation identified. The detailed analysis of our data allowed to distinguish the various fragmentation mechanisms. Finally, a preliminary investigation of the protonated tryptamine fragmentation is presented. (author)

  9. Bring Your Own Device Technology: Preliminary Results from a Mixed Methods Study to Explore Student Experience of In-Class Response Systems in Post-Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Numer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the effectiveness of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD technology in a postsecondary classroom. Despite recent advances in the technological tools available to educators, there is a significant gap in the literature regarding student efficacy, engagement and contribution to learning. This paper will present the preliminary findings of the first phases of an evaluation project measuring student interaction with BYOD technology in a large group setting. Employing a mixed methods design, the findings from two focus groups and two online surveys will be discussed. This project involved students in the Winter and Fall 2014 semesters of a fourth year Human Sexuality course which has enrolment of approximately 400 per semester. The findings suggest that BYOD technology contributes to student engagement and participation in the classroom setting. Further, the findings suggest that students are comfortable in using this tool, and perceived the experience as enjoyable.

  10. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  11. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  12. Pragmatising the Curriculum: Bringing Knowledge Back into the Curriculum Conversation, but via Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the role of knowledge in the curriculum through a discussion of John Dewey's transactional theory of knowing. I do so against the background of recent calls to bring knowledge back into the discussion about the curriculum in which pragmatism has been depicted as a problematic form of relativism that should have no…

  13. Moving Forward: Strengthening Your State's Capacity to Bring Innovation to Scale. Policy Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, M. Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based innovations developed locally can have a powerful and broad impact on a state's student success agenda, but only when a system is in place for accelerating the diffusion of innovation across institutional lines. State leadership is key to bringing effective practices to scale. That is what is happening in North Carolina, Texas, and…

  14. Five Ways to Hack and Cheat with Bring-Your-Own-Device Electronic Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Bring-your-own-device electronic examinations (BYOD e-exams) are a relatively new type of assessment where students sit an in-person exam under invigilated conditions with their own laptop. Special software restricts student access to prohibited computer functions and files, and provides access to any resources or software the examiner approves.…

  15. Bring-Your-Own-Device: Turning Cell Phones into Forces for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, classroom response systems (or "clickers") have become increasingly common. Although most systems require students to use a standalone handheld device, bring-your-own-device (BYOD) systems allow students to use devices they already own (e.g., a cell phone, tablet or laptop) to submit responses via text message or…

  16. How Do Virtual World Experiences Bring about Learning? A Critical Review of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Swee-Kin

    2015-01-01

    While students do learn real-world knowledge and skills in virtual worlds, educators have yet to adequately theorise how students' virtual world experiences bring about this learning. This paper critically reviewed theories currently used to underpin empirical work in virtual worlds for education. In particular, it evaluated how applicable these…

  17. Bringing Work Home: Take-Home Pesticide Exposure Among Farm Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curwin, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis take-home pesticide exposure among farm families, with an emphasis on herbicides, was investigated. Take-home exposure occurs when a worker unwittingly brings home a substance on his or her clothing or shoes, thereby potentially exposing his or her family. The pesticides investigated

  18. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom. Part I: Teaching Mechanics and Thermodynamics with Antiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of bringing technology into the classroom has been the subject of many recent presentations at conferences and papers in physics teaching journals. The use of devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, and clickers is rising in today's classrooms and laboratories. PhET simulations have been available online for over a decade. A…

  19. Bring Back "Das Kapital" Punishment! Credit Crunch and the Fall of the "Knowledge Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Ian; Clarke, John

    2010-01-01

    This article contrasts the collapse of the twin political certainties of the 20th century--"scientific socialism" (1989) and "scientific capitalism" (2008). Such a collapse restores Uncertainty to her throne, and brings back the need to radically rethink political possibilities for the future. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. STUDY ON THE COMPULSORY BRINGING OF PERSONS IN FRONT OF THE JUDICIAL AUTHORITIES IN CRIMINAL MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu - Florin GEAMĂNU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study will try to perform an in-depth analysis of the measure of compulsory bringing, assessing both the national legislation and the legislation of some European countries, namely: Austria, Bulgaria, Poland and the Netherlands. Due attention will be granted to the provisions of the current Criminal Procedure Code, which entered into force on the 1st of February 2014, as this piece of legislation brings some important changes regarding the compulsory bringing, some of them being the consequence of the convictions of Romania in front of the Strasbourg Court. Also, the paper will focus on case-law established by the European Court of Human Rights regarding articles 3 and 5 relating to the compulsory bringing. To close with, the study will give some conclusions regarding the conformity of the current Criminal Procedure Code of Romania with the standards imposed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and by the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights.

  1. Bringing Vision to Practice: Planning and Provisioning the New Library Resource Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The most critical factor in creating a successful school library is the development of a clear vision of the mission and functionality of this integral learning space. However, the process of bringing a vision to realization involves harsh realities and sensible planning. The budget will determine many purchasing decisions and therefore it is…

  2. Civic driven change: a narrative to bring politics back into civil society discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Fowler (Alan); K. Biekart (Kees)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPolitics is central to development discourse, yet remains peripheral. And, over some twenty years, a civil society narrative has not fulfilled its potential to ‘bring politics back in’. Reasons can be found in conceptual confusion, in selectivity in donor thinking and policies towards c

  3. The Wild-Card Character of "Bring Your Own:" A Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. Gardner; Fitch, Megan; German, Robert F., Jr.; Hulvey, Dale; McIntosh, Keith; McPherson, Michael R.; O'Keefe, John

    2013-01-01

    Panelists on the front lines of higher education information technology share their thoughts on Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) and what it could mean for colleges and universities. Five questions were asked of each panelist. These were: (1) How strategically important to higher education is the BYOD phenomenon? Is it simply a passing fad? (2) Should…

  4. Practitioner in the Classroom: Bringing Local Government Experience into the Public Administration Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Donna M.

    2003-01-01

    A local government administrator used her work experiences to create simulation exercises for public administration students. Advantages that such practitioners bring to the classroom include "inside" information, organizational management skills, budget knowledge, and the ability to provide networking opportunities for students. (JOW)

  5. Bringing up condom use and using condoms with new sexual partners : Intentional or habitual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Siero, FW; Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study of 94 Dutch adults who have casual sexual partners examined whether two important aspects of safe sex. namely bringing up condom use (BCU) and actual condom use (ACU) are intentional or habitual. For each of these aspects, a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Aj

  6. Diversity at the Head Table : Bringing Complementary Skills and Experiences to the Board

    OpenAIRE

    Argüden, Yılmaz

    2010-01-01

    A well-functioning board of directors needs diversity of experience and perspectives. If everybody thinks the same, then there is no need for a board; one individual would suffice! Diversity for its own sake, however, is not an improvement in governance; what matters is the combination of complementary skills and experiences that members bring to the table to better address the challenges ...

  7. Ready for Robotics: Bringing Together the T and E of STEM in Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Marina Umaschi; Seddighin, Safoura; Sullivan, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Prior work has shown that early childhood educators demonstrate a lack of knowledge and understanding about technology and engineering, and about developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches to bring those disciplines into the classrooms. This paper reports a study in which 32 early childhood educators participated in an intensive three-day…

  8. Molecular electronic-structure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helgaker, Trygve; Olsen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Ab initio quantum chemistry has emerged as an important tool in chemical research and is appliced to a wide variety of problems in chemistry and molecular physics. Recent developments of computational methods have enabled previously intractable chemical problems to be solved using rigorous quantum-mechanical methods. This is the first comprehensive, up-to-date and technical work to cover all the important aspects of modern molecular electronic-structure theory. Topics covered in the book include: * Second quantization with spin adaptation * Gaussian basis sets and molecular-integral evaluati

  9. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  10. Metallic, magnetic and molecular nanocontacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requist, Ryan; Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Smogunov, Alexander; Fabrizio, Michele; Modesti, Silvio; Tosatti, Erio

    2016-06-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy and break-junction experiments realize metallic and molecular nanocontacts that act as ideal one-dimensional channels between macroscopic electrodes. Emergent nanoscale phenomena typical of these systems encompass structural, mechanical, electronic, transport, and magnetic properties. This Review focuses on the theoretical explanation of some of these properties obtained with the help of first-principles methods. By tracing parallel theoretical and experimental developments from the discovery of nanowire formation and conductance quantization in gold nanowires to recent observations of emergent magnetism and Kondo correlations, we exemplify the main concepts and ingredients needed to bring together ab initio calculations and physical observations. It can be anticipated that diode, sensor, spin-valve and spin-filter functionalities relevant for spintronics and molecular electronics applications will benefit from the physical understanding thus obtained.

  11. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jie (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Intelligent Medical Research Center

    2013-07-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  12. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  13. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    OpenAIRE

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retro...

  14. Pro Tools HD

    CERN Document Server

    Camou, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide for using Pro Tools HD 11 effectively.This book is ideal for anyone who already uses ProTools and wants to learn more, or is new to Pro Tools HD and wants to use it effectively in their own audio workstations.

  15. Software engineering tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1994-01-01

    We have looked at general descriptions and illustrations of several software development tools, such as tools for prototyping, developing DFDs, testing, and maintenance. Many others are available, and new ones are being developed. However, you have at least seen some examples of powerful CASE tools for systems development.

  16. The World Climate Project: Bringing the UN Climate Negotiations to Classrooms, Boardrooms, and Living Rooms Near You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, K.; Rooney-varga, J. N.; Jones, A.; Johnston, E.; Sterman, J.

    2015-12-01

    As a simulation-based role-playing exercise, World Climate provides an opportunity for participants to have an immersive experience in which they learn first-hand about both the social dynamics of climate change decision-making, through role-play, and the geophysical dynamics of the climate system, through an interactive computer simulation. In June 2015, we launched the World Climate Project with the intent of bringing this powerful tool to students, citizens, and decision-makers across government, NGO, and private sectors around the world. Within a period of six weeks from the launch date, 440 educators from 36 states and 56 countries have enrolled in the initiative, offering the potential to reach tens of thousands of participants around the world. While this project is clearly in its infancy, we see several characteristics that may be contributing to widespread interest in it. These factors include the ease-of-use, real-world relevance, and scientific rigor of the decision-support simulation, C-ROADS, that frames the World Climate Exercise. Other characteristics of World Climate include its potential to evoke an emotional response that is arousing and inspirational and its use of positive framing and a call to action. Similarly, the World Climate Project takes a collaborative approach, enabling educators to be innovators and valued contributors and regularly communicating with people who join the initiative through webinars, social media, and resources.

  17. NASA's past, current and potential future support in bringing climate projection information to the decision support level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is common that we use global climate models or Earth system models to perform climate projection into the future. Because of the long integration time and the tremendous computing resources required for such a projection, the model resolution is typically not at a spatial scale fine enough for climate assessment or decision support purposes. A number of "downscaling technologies" have been developed over the years to bring the climate projection information to the local level for management and policy decision support purposes. In the past couple of years, NASA supported a number of regional to local climate projection activities: NASA Climate Adaption Science Investigators focused on climate resilience at NASA center level, National Climate Assessment (NCA) Capacity Building focused on data sets and tools to support NCA, NCA Indicators focused on creating simple indicators specifically designed for decision support, Assessing the Fidelity of Dynamical Downscaling with the NASA Unifies-WRF Model focused on understanding the credibility of dynamical downscaling technique using a regional climate model. All of these projects have a component in creating or using downscaled climate information. With the consequence of climate change beginning to emerge, there is a continuous need to better quantify the quality of downscaled climate projections. In this talk I will give an overview on NASA's efforts to understand the various techniques, the limitations including the risks of using these techniques, and finally, I will provide a view on possible future researches in this area.

  18. Recognizing student misconceptions through Ed's Tools and the Biology Concept Inventory.

    OpenAIRE

    Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Kathy Garvin-Doxas

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing student misconceptions is critical for effective teaching. Tools that reveal student thinking indicate that misunderstanding randomness interferes with learning of molecular dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  19. Medulloblastoma: molecular pathways and histopathological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Anna; Jóźwiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death among pediatric patients, and medulloblastoma constitutes 20% of them. Currently, the treatment is risk-adapted. Maximum surgical resection is recommended, always followed by chemotherapy and neuroaxis radiotherapy. In spite of the improving survival rate, survivors succumb to treatment-induced side effects. To reduce toxic effects, molecular-targeted treatment is proposed. Medulloblastoma research is very robust, and new articles on the subject are published daily. In the current review we have tried to bring together molecular pathophysiology of the neoplasm and current pathological classification, thus making an effort to relate tumor biology and the histological picture. PMID:27279861

  20. Pickering tool management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tools were being deployed in the station with no process in effect to ensure that they are maintained in good repair so as to effectively support the performance of Maintenance activities. Today's legal requirements require that all employers have a process in place to ensure that tools are maintained in a safe condition. This is specified in the Ontario Health and Safety Act. The Pickering Tool Management System has been chosen as the process at Pickering N.D to manage tools. Tools are identified by number etching and bar codes. The system is a Windows application installed on several file servers

  1. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  2. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  3. Molecular detection technologies for arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) cause significant livestock and economic losses to world agriculture. This paper discusses the current and potential impact of these viruses, as well as the current and developing molecular diagnostic tools for these emerging and re-emerging insect transm...

  4. Campaign effects and self-analysis Internet tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brange, Birgitte [Danish Electricity Saving Trust (Denmark); Fjordbak Larsen, Troels [IT Energy ApS (Denmark); Wilke, Goeran [Danish Electricity Saving Trust (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    In October 2006, the Danish Electricity Saving Trust launched a large TV campaign targeting domestic electricity consumption. The campaign was based on the central message '1000 kWh/year per person is enough'. The campaign was accompanied by a new internet portal with updated information about numerous household appliances, and by analysis tools for bringing down electricity consumption to 1000 kWh/year per person. The effects of the campaign are monitored through repeated surveys and analysed in relation to usage of internet tools.

  5. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  6. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  7. Molecular farming

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J M

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the possible benefits and disadvantages to a great extent. Discussions about Molecular Farming are often about technical and economic aspects, but other aspects like safety and ethical and societal aspects...

  8. Molecular Nanoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillaume, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Molecular electronics is envisioned as a promising candidate for the nanoelectronics of the future. More than a possible answer to ultimate miniaturization problem in nanoelectronics, molecular electronics is foreseen as a possible way to assemble a large numbers of nanoscale objects (molecules, nanoparticules, nanotubes and nanowires) to form new devices and circuit architectures. It is also an interesting approach to significantly reduce the fabrication costs, as well as the energetical cos...

  9. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of molecular biology, genetic engineering, and polymer chemistry provide various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. In this paper, recent achievements in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune, and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques are introduced

  10. Molecular Models: Construction of Models with Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinovčić P.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular models are indispensable tools in teaching chemistry. Beside their high price, commercially available models are generally too small for classroom demonstration. This paper suggests how to make space-filling (callote) models from Styrofoam with magnetic balls as connectors and disc magnets for showing molecular polarity

  11. FORT Molecular Ecology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Stevens, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Fort Collins Science Center Molecular Ecology Laboratory is to use the tools and concepts of molecular genetics to address a variety of complex management questions and conservation issues facing the management of the Nation's fish and wildlife resources. Together with our partners, we design and implement studies to document genetic diversity and the distribution of genetic variation among individuals, populations, and species. Information from these studies is used to support wildlife-management planning and conservation actions. Current and past studies have provided information to assess taxonomic boundaries, inform listing decisions made under the Endangered Species Act, identify unique or genetically depauperate populations, estimate population size or survival rates, develop management or recovery plans, breed wildlife in captivity, relocate wildlife from one location to another, and assess the effects of environmental change.

  12. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  13. Special Advanced Course for Core Sciences to Bring Up Project Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kenji; Tabata, Nobuhisa; Gofuku, Akio; Harada, Isao; Takada, Jun

    Special Advanced Course for Core Sciences has been introduced recently to Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, to bring up a project leader. The following points are key education goals in this program : (1) knowledge of core sciences, (2) communication ability by using English, and (3) wide viewpoints for researches. In order to accomplish these goals, several lectures for core sciences, patent systems and engineering ethics as well as long term internships by the collaboration with some regional companies have been put in practice. In this paper, we describe the outline of the program, educational effects, and our experiences. Then, we discuss how effective the program is for bringing up an engineer or a scientist who can lead sciences and technologies of their domains. This paper also describes current activities of the program.

  14. Neutron Scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with inelastic neutron scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets and focuses on their magnetic properties at low temperature and low energies. Several molecular magnets (Mn12, V15, Ni12, Mn4, etc.) are reviewed. Inelastic neutron scattering is shown to be a perfectly suited spectroscopy tool to -a) probe magnetic energy levels in such systems and -b) provide key information to understand the quantum tunnel effect of the magnetization in molecular spin clusters. (author)

  15. Bringing inorganic chemistry to life with inspiration from R. J. P. Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, H. Allen O.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Our appreciation of the scholarly ideas and thinking of Bob Williams is illustrated here by a few of the areas in which he inspired us. His journey to bring inorganic chemistry to life began with an early interest in analytical chemistry, rationalising the relative stabilities of metal coordination complexes (The Irving-Williams Series), and elucidating the organometallic redox chemistry of vitamin B12. He (and Vallee) recognised that metal ions are in energised (entatic) states in proteins a...

  16. Bring Your Own Devices Classroom: Issues of Digital Divides in Teaching and Learning Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Janak; Mathrani, Anuradha; Parsons, David

    2016-01-01

    Technology mediated learning provide potentially valuable resources for learners' academic and social development. However, according to recent researches, as the adoption stages of ICTs advance there arise further levels of digital divides in terms of equity of information literacy and learning outcomes. For the last three years we have been working with the first secondary school in New Zealand to introduce a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy. Our research has included a number of methods...

  17. Healthy birth practice #3: bring a loved one, friend, or doula for continuous support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeanne; Hotelling, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    All women should be allowed and encouraged to bring a loved one, friend, or doula to their birth without financial or cultural barriers. Continuous labor support offers benefits to mothers and their babies with no known harm. This article is an updated evidence-based review of the "Lamaze International Care Practices that Promote Normal Birth, Care Practice #3: Continuous Labor Support," published in The Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(3), 2007.

  18. Healthy Birth Practice #3: Bring a Loved One, Friend, or Doula for Continuous Support

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jeanne; Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    All women should be allowed and encouraged to bring a loved one, friend, or doula to their birth without financial or cultural barriers. Continuous labor support offers benefits to mothers and their babies with no known harm. This article is an updated evidence-based review of the “Lamaze International Care Practices that Promote Normal Birth, Care Practice #3: Continuous Labor Support,” published in The Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(3), 2007.

  19. How to bring school closer to students, how to tailor school to them

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the issue of how to bring school closer to students and how to tailor education to them so that they are able to present themselves to the world when they finish school, and communicate with it. The purpose of this study was to find the applicable reformist methods of teaching biology - methods that will make biology lessons look like creative workshops. For this purpose, nine semi-structured interviews with experienced teachers of biology were conducted. UNESCO's Conferen...

  20. Bringing Islamic Banking into the Mainstream is not an Alternative to Conventional Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Karwowski, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The latest economic crisis shook the previously firm belief in the prosperity-bringing financial sector around the globe. For many months after the catalytic bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, the economy was in apparent freefall. News about plunging equity, housing, and commodity markets, dried out inter-bank lending, nose-diving industrial production and trade, and rising unemployment have characterized our daily routine. But between all this doom and gloom some parts of the deeply shaken finan...

  1. The Opportunities and Challenges of Bringing New Metrology Equipment to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, David S.

    2005-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the economic and technological factors which are driving the demand for new metrology and inspection equipment, the challenges and opportunities facing new companies in bringing such equipment to market, and the funding environment in which new companies must raise capital to finance their efforts. Seven metrology companies and one inspection equipment company that have received first-time venture backing since 2000 are used to illustrate how these specialized businesses are launched and funded.

  2. Lunar hand tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  3. Open Health Tools: Tooling for Interoperable Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skip McGaughey

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Open Health Tools initiative is creating an ecosystem focused on the production of software tooling that promotes the exchange of medical information across political, geographic, cultural, product, and technology lines. At its core, OHT believes that the availability of high-quality tooling that interoperates will propel the industry forward, enabling organizations and vendors to build products and systems that effectively work together. This will ?raise the interoperability bar? as a result of having tools that just work. To achieve these lofty goals, careful consideration must be made to the constituencies that will be most affected by an OHT-influenced world. This document outlines a vision of OHT?s impact to these stakeholders. It does not explain the OHT process itself or how the OHT community operates. Instead, we place emphasis on the impact of that process within the health industry. The catchphrase ?code is king? underpins this document, meaning that the manifestation of any open source community lies in the products and technology it produces.

  4. Inspection tools : tool selection and execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aelst, A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Parker, C. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lussier, S.; Gates, J.; Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 8 discussed oil and gas pipeline integrity issues with particular reference to inspection tools and techniques used by the upstream and downstream pipeline industries. The group addressed other options besides in-line inspection (ILI) for integrity assessments and presented emerging concerns with non-piggable piping. Inspection techniques such as hydrotesting, direct assessment, cameras, and X-ray imaging were reviewed. The actions taken in response to recommendations from past workshops were also presented, including measures to improve standardization of reporting practices. It was noted that tools currently available have limitations that vary with the environment in which they are used, the depth to which the pipeline is buried, and the size and orientation of the pipeline. It was determined that economics plays a key role in the selection of pipeline inspection techniques, and that failure modes should be considered when choosing inspection techniques. Given that environmental consequences are different for natural gas and liquid pipelines, this may influence the choice of inspection needed in environmentally sensitive areas. It was determined that new technologies have yet to gain the confidence of industry and that while some existing technologies (such as cameras) can provide data, they are not suitable as the only tool used in an integrity assessment. The accuracy of inspections was found to depend on the tools, methods and personnel, with variation in accuracy depending primarily on personnel. It was concluded that research and development of new inspection techniques should continue. tabs., figs.

  5. The Matecat Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Federico, Marcello; Bertoldi, Nicola; Cettolo, Mauro; Negri, Matteo; TURCHI Marco; Trombetti, Marco; Cattelan, Alessandro; Farina, Antonio; Lupinetti, Domenico; Martines, Andrea; Massidda, Alberto; Schwenk, Holger; Barrault, Loïc; Blain, Frédéric; Koehn, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    We present a new web-based CAT tool providing translators with a professional work environment, integrating translation memories, terminology bases, concordancers, and machine translation. The tool is completely developed as open source software and has been already successfully deployed for business, research and education. The MateCat Tool represents today probably the best available open source platform for investigating, integrating, and evaluating under realistic conditions the impact of...

  6. Useful design tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2005-01-01

    Tools for design management are on the agenda in building projects in order to set targets, to choose and prioritise between alternative environmental solutions, to involve stakeholders and to document, evaluate and benchmark. Different types of tools are available, but what can we learn from...... the use or lack of use of current tools in the development of future design tools for sustainable buildings? Why are some used while others are not? Who is using them? The paper deals with design management, with special focus on sustainable building in Denmark, and the challenge of turning the generally...

  7. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  8. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...

  9. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  10. Java Power Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2008-01-01

    All true craftsmen need the best tools to do their finest work, and programmers are no different. Java Power Tools delivers 30 open source tools designed to improve the development practices of Java developers in any size team or organization. Each chapter includes a series of short articles about one particular tool -- whether it's for build systems, version control, or other aspects of the development process -- giving you the equivalent of 30 short reference books in one package. No matter which development method your team chooses, whether it's Agile, RUP, XP, SCRUM, or one of many other

  11. Numerical tools for atomistic simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H. (Mississippi State University); Gullett, Philip Michael; Slepoy, Alexander (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University); Baskes, Michael I. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Wagner, Gregory John; Li, Mo (Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA)

    2004-01-01

    The final report for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project entitled 'Parallel Atomistic Computing for Failure Analysis of Micromachines' is presented. In this project, atomistic algorithms for parallel computers were developed to assist in quantification of microstructure-property relations related to weapon micro-components. With these and other serial computing tools, we are performing atomistic simulations of various sizes, geometries, materials, and boundary conditions. These tools provide the capability to handle the different size-scale effects required to predict failure. Nonlocal continuum models have been proposed to address this problem; however, they are phenomenological in nature and are difficult to validate for micro-scale components. Our goal is to separately quantify damage nucleation, growth, and coalescence mechanisms to provide a basis for macro-scale continuum models that will be used for micromachine design. Because micro-component experiments are difficult, a systematic computational study that employs Monte Carlo methods, molecular statics, and molecular dynamics (EAM and MEAM) simulations to compute continuum quantities will provide mechanism-property relations associated with the following parameters: specimen size, number of grains, crystal orientation, strain rates, temperature, defect nearest neighbor distance, void/crack size, chemical state, and stress state. This study will quantify sizescale effects from nanometers to microns in terms of damage progression and thus potentially allow for optimized micro-machine designs that are more reliable and have higher fidelity in terms of strength. In order to accomplish this task, several atomistic methods needed to be developed and evaluated to cover the range of defects, strain rates, temperatures, and sizes that a material may see in micro-machines. Therefore we are providing a complete set of tools for large scale atomistic simulations that include pre

  12. 36 CFR 1280.8 - May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal? 1280.8 Section 1280.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... dog or other assistance animal? Yes, persons with disabilities may bring guide dogs or other...

  13. Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639......Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639...

  14. Tools for characterizing biomembranes : final LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Stevens, Mark; Holland, Gregory P.; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2007-10-01

    A suite of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy tools were developed to investigate lipid structure and dynamics in model membrane systems. By utilizing both multinuclear and multidimensional NMR experiments a range of different intra- and inter-molecular contacts were probed within the membranes. Examples on pure single component lipid membranes and on the canonical raft forming mixture of DOPC/SM/Chol are presented. A unique gel phase pretransition in SM was also identified and characterized using these NMR techniques. In addition molecular dynamics into the hydrogen bonding network unique to sphingomyelin containing membranes were evaluated as a function of temperature, and are discussed.

  15. The rebirth of the morphogenetic field as an explanatory tool in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss two uses of the concept of the morphogenetic field, a tool of the 19th century biology motivated by particular ontological views of the time, which has been re-emerging and increasingly relevant in explaining microbiological phenomena. I also consider the relation of these uses to the Central Dogma of modern biology as well as Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics. An induced morphogenetic field is determined by a physical (e.g., gravitational field, or it acquires a physical (e.g., visco-elastic field’s characteristics. Such a morphogenetic field presents only a weak challenge to the Central Dogma of Modern Synthesis by indirectly, albeit severely, constraining variability at the molecular level. I discuss explanations that introduce structural inheritance in ciliate protozoa, as well as the experimental evidence on which these arguments are based. The global cellular morphogenetic field is a unit of such inheritance. I discuss relevant cases of structural inheritance in ciliates that bring about internal cellular as well as functional changes and point out that DNA is absent in the cortex and that RNA controls neither intermediary nor the global level of the field. I go on to argue that utilizing knowledge of known physical fields may advance explanations and understanding of the morphogenetic field in ciliates as the unit of both development and inheritance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dynamic Systems in nature and society: Philosophical and empirical aspects

  16. Molecular physics

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The richly illustrated book comprehensively explains the important principles of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and their spectra in two separate, distinct parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical aspects of molecular physics, such as the vibration, rotation, electronic states, potential curves, and spectra of molecules. The different methods of approximation for the calculation of electronic wave functions and their energy are also covered. The introduction of basics terms used in group theory and their meaning in molecular physics enables an elegant description of polyatomic

  17. Molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection of...... fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  18. Quantum logic with molecular ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Fabian; Heip, Jan C; Gebert, Florian; Shi, Chunyan; Schmidt, Piet O

    2015-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions is a powerful tool for fundamental physics, including the determination of fundamental constants, the laboratory test for their possible variation, and the search for a possible electric dipole moment of the electron. Optical clocks based on molecular ions sensitive to some of these effects are expected to achieve uncertainties approaching the $10^{-18}$ level. While the complexity of molecular structure facilitates these applications, the absence of cycling transitions poses a challenge for direct laser cooling, quantum state control, and detection. Previously employed state detection techniques based on photo-dissociation or chemical reactions are destructive and therefore inefficient. Here we experimentally demonstrate non-destructive state detection of a single trapped molecular ion through its strong Coulomb coupling to a well-controlled co-trapped atomic ion. An algorithm based on a state-dependent optical dipole force(ODF) changes the internal state...

  19. Maailma suurim tool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    AS Tartu näitused, Tartu Kunstikool ja ajakiri 'Diivan' korraldavad 9.-11. III Tartu messikeskuse I paviljonis näituse 'Tool 2000'. Eksponeeritakse 2000 tooli, mille hulgast valitakse TOP 12. Messikeskuse territooriumile on kavas püstitada maailma suurim tool. Samal ajal II paviljonis kaksikmess 'Sisustus 2000' ja 'Büroo 2000'.

  20. Study of Tools Interoperability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavičius, T.

    2007-01-01

    Interoperability of tools usually refers to a combination of methods and techniques that address the problem of making a collection of tools to work together. In this study we survey different notions that are used in this context: interoperability, interaction and integration. We point out relation

  1. WATERS Expert Query Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Expert Query Tool is a web-based reporting tool using the EPA’s WATERS database.There are just three steps to using Expert Query:1. View Selection – Choose what...

  2. UniProt Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, Sangya; Martin, Maria J; O'Donovan, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) is a comprehensive resource for protein sequence and annotation data (UniProt Consortium, 2015). The UniProt Web site receives ∼400,000 unique visitors per month and is the primary means to access UniProt. Along with various datasets that you can search, UniProt provides three main tools. These are the 'BLAST' tool for sequence similarity searching, the 'Align' tool for multiple sequence alignment, and the 'Retrieve/ID Mapping' tool for using a list of identifiers to retrieve UniProtKB proteins and to convert database identifiers from UniProt to external databases or vice versa. This unit provides three basic protocols, three alternate protocols, and two support protocols for using UniProt tools. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27010333

  3. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  4. Predicting tool operator capacity to react against torque within acceptable handle deflection limits in automotive assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish; Fronczak, Frank J; Subedi, Yashpal; Howery, Robert; Yen, Thomas Y; Sesto, Mary E; Irwin, Curtis B

    2016-05-01

    The proportion of tool operators capable of maintaining published psychophysically derived threaded fastener tool handle deflection limits were predicted using a biodynamic tool operator model, interacting with the tool, task and workstation. Tool parameters, including geometry, speed and torque were obtained from the specifications for 35 tools used in an auto assembly plant. Tool mass moments of inertia were measured for these tools using a novel device that engages the tool in a rotating system of known inertia. Task parameters, including fastener target torque and joint properties (soft, medium or hard), were ascertained from the vehicle design specifications. Workstation parameters, including vertical and horizontal distances from the operator were measured using a laser rangefinder for 69 tool installations in the plant. These parameters were entered into the model and tool handle deflection was predicted for each job. While handle deflection for most jobs did not exceed the capacity of 75% females and 99% males, six jobs exceeded the deflection criterion. Those tool installations were examined and modifications in tool speed and operator position improved those jobs within the deflection limits, as predicted by the model. We conclude that biodynamic tool operator models may be useful for identifying stressful tool installations and interventions that bring them within the capacity of most operators. PMID:26851480

  5. CSR as a Marketing Tool : a Case Study of Fast Food Restaurant in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razak, Armiza

    2014-01-01

    The use of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as being an efficient marketing tool would be matter that is being researched, especially with the increasing awareness of consumers about the importance of commercial organizations doing business in ways that do not harm the consumers or the environment. The aim of the research will be to obtain data from qualitative data in order to determine whether using CSR as being a marketing tool would bring a higher level of efficiency in the marketing...

  6. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  7. Molecular gastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, cooks have been applying recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish, is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Here, one of the founders of the discipline discusses its aims and importance.

  8. Molecular photobiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikkels, Arjen; Pierard, Claudine; Pierard, Gérald

    2005-01-01

    Photochemical reactions are numerous in the skin. They generate reactive oxygen species and other biochemical alterations as well. According to their nature, the molecular components of the skin which have been altered by these mechanisms can be repaired with various degrees of efficacy. Peer reviewed

  9. Molecular photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jacques E.; Bonnôte, Pierre; Grätzel, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Photoinduced charge transfer processes involving molecules adsorbed at interfaces are a fascinating topic which is presently attracting wide attention. Our investigations have focused on the identification of the factors that control the dynamics of such processes. The goal is to design molecular electronic devices that achieve efficient light-induced charge separation. Applications of similar systems in photochromic and electrochromic devices also appear feasible.

  10. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  11. Thinking Tools in Computer-Based Assessment: Technology Enhancements in Assessments for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest concerns in schools today is how teachers can bring together assessment and learning in a way that is meaningful for students' thinking skills, while focusing on content standards. Better understanding of how different types of technology based thinking tools can be used for improving classroom teaching and learning,…

  12. Alexander Meets Michotte: A Simulation Tool Based on Pattern Programming and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basawapatna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Simulation and modeling activities, a key point of computational thinking, are currently not being integrated into the science classroom. This paper describes a new visual programming tool entitled the Simulation Creation Toolkit. The Simulation Creation Toolkit is a high level pattern-based phenomenological approach to bringing rapid simulation…

  13. Characterizing Molecular Structure by Combining Experimental Measurements with Density Functional Theory Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Encarnacion, Juan M.

    2016-06-01

    In this talk, the power and synergy of combining experimental measurements with density functional theory computations as a single tool to unambiguously characterize the molecular structure of complex atomic systems is shown. Here, we bring three beautiful cases where the interaction between the experiment and theory is in very good agreement for both finite and extended systems: 1) Characterizing Metal Coordination Environments in Porous Organic Polymers: A Joint Density Functional Theory and Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy Study 2) Characterization of Rhenium Compounds Obtained by Electrochemical Synthesis After Aging Process and 3) Infrared Study of H(D)2 + Co4+ Chemical Reaction: Characterizing Molecular Structures. J.M. López-Encarnación, K.K. Tanabe, M.J.A. Johnson, J. Jellinek, Chemistry-A European Journal 19 (41), 13646-13651 A. Vargas-Uscategui, E. Mosquera, J.M. López-Encarnación, B. Chornik, R. S. Katiyar, L. Cifuentes, Journal of Solid State Chemistry 220, 17-21

  14. Directory of Online Cataloging Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamed Mu'awwad

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A directory of online cataloging tools, it collects more than 200 resources of essential tools used in libraries, the resources divided into 4 categories; individual tools classified according to type of activity, like: cataloging, classification, standard format; collective tools, non-collective tools, and free general tools available on the internet.

  15. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Guelis, Artem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  16. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging: concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, S.M. van; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grull, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of molecu

  17. Prediction of Surfactants’ Properties using Multiscale Molecular Modeling Tools: A Review Prédiction de propriétés des tensioactifs à l’aide d’outils de modélisation moléculaire : une revue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creton B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During one of the existing Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR procedures, a mixture of Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP is injected into wells in order to move the trapped oil from the reservoir to the wellbores. The conception and/or the tuning of new ASP combinations, structures of surfactants and/or mixtures of surfactants is of primary interest to improve the efficiency of a such procedure. Molecular modeling tools can be used to understand microscopic effects, predict surfactants’ properties and finally to optimize structures and mixtures of surfactants. We propose in this article a review of the literature on the ability of molecular simulation techniques such as Molecular Dynamics (MD, Monte Carlo (MC simulations, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD and upper scale modeling methods such as Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR approaches to predict thermo-physical and structural properties of surfactants. Une des voies possibles de récupération assistée du pétrole, l’EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery, consiste en l’injection d’un fluide ASP (Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer dans le réservoir dans le but de déplacer le pétrole piégé vers le puits de production. La conception et/ou l’optimisation de mélanges ASP, de tensioactifs ou de mélanges de tensioactifs est donc d’un intérêt premier pour améliorer l’efficacité d’un tel procédé. Les codes de simulation moléculaire développés et largement validés durant ces dernières décennies apparaissent comme des outils incontournables pour la compréhension des effets microscopiques, la prédiction de propriétés de tensioactifs complexes ou encore l’optimisation des structures voire de la composition de mélanges de tensioactifs. Dans cet article, nous présentons une revue des travaux de la littérature sur le potentiel de diverses techniques de simulation moléculaire pour la prédiction de propriétés structurales ou thermophysiques des tensioactifs. Les

  18. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eBickle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this paper is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past sixty years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of higher cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics (and DREADDs. The two key metascientific concepts I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of Tool Development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions.

  19. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  20. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  1. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  2. Bringing New Ph.D.s Together for Interdisciplinary Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Liam; Jones, Holly; Marlon, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is complex and thus requires interdisciplinary research, and new scholars are rising to that challenge. The Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research (DISCCRS (pronounced "discourse"); see http://www.disccrs.org) brings together select groups of recent PhD graduates to encourage interdisciplinary work on climate change. The DISCCRS Symposium VII held just outside of Colorado Springs, Colo., brought together 33 graduates from fields as diverse as climatology, ecology, anthropology, and political science for an intensive week of cross-disciplinary engagement in activities like facilitation and leadership training, collaborative research development, peer networking, communication training, and analysis of working group processes.

  3. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts. PMID:26024722

  4. Old Books Bring New Life to the Brick and Mortar Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosken, S.

    2012-08-01

    If all the library books and journals can be viewed on your desk top, why come to the physical library? The USNO Library tried to bring the patrons inside the library. One method was to rotate rare book displays each month. As the library holds a fabulous collection of ancient astronomy books, including Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton, we have abundant resources. The presentation will highlight the varied displays and offer a Rare Books 101 explanation of paper, printing, binding and a behind-the-scenes look at how old books are maintained and preserved.

  5. Copyfight: Creative Commons, Open Licensing, Bringing Information to the People (and letting them use it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Hare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at some of the current issues regarding copyright laws and open licensing. The "copyfight" is a response to the increasingly strict copyright laws instituted in North America and internationally, and includes such projects as Creative Commons copyright labelling to promote the sharing and remixing of creative works. More political efforts are also undertaken to bring free information to those who need it, such as citizens of the developing world who could benefit from knowledge held under copyright in developed countries.

  6. Book review: Presence: bringing your boldest self to your biggest challenges by Amy Cuddy

    OpenAIRE

    Koob, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever wished for a second chance at a job interview, performance or difficult conversation? Drawing upon her popular TED talk, in Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Biggest Challenges, Harvard Business School Professor Amy Cuddy encourages readers to see transformative power in small ‘nudges’ in behaviour, body language and mind-set that can generate a better sense of ‘presence’ in our everyday lives. Marion Koob finds much in the way of useful advice within the book but won...

  7. Bringing Student Learning to Life: A Faculty/Librarian Partnership Through the Human Library

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel, Nancy; Becker, Yvonne; Blizzard, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Bringing Student Learning to Life: A Faculty/Librarian Partnership Through the Human Library Librarians endeavor to engage students and faculty with the library. The hike can be frustrating and sometimes feels like it is all uphill, but the oxygen-deprivation and tired muscles are a worthy investment for the views along the way. The augustana human library takes students on their own journey by providing them with a unique way to explore a research topic through real-life narratives. This pre...

  8. Vision implants: An electrical device will bring light to the blind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cochlear implant has been successfully applied in clinic. Recent research indicates vision implants may be the potential way to restore sight for the blind. Here, principle and common structure of vision implants are introduced. Main vision approaches of retinal, optic nerve, and cortical prosthesis are reviewed. In our progress, electrical response at visual cortex is recorded, when penetrating electrodes stimulate rabbit optic nerve, vision implants based on optic nerve stimulator chip (ONSC) and Chipcon radio frequency (RF) chip are under developing. Despite several obstacles to overcome, promising results in animal and human experiments give scientists confidence that artificial vision implants will bring light to the blind in the near future.

  9. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Building Parallel Programming Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J M; Gyllenhaal, J

    2002-12-09

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  10. Adapting JMARS for Earth: Blogging brings a new user community from the CAP LTER urban ecology research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, J.; Prashad, L. C.; Dickenshied, S.; Guha, A.; Burgess, E.; Metson, G.; Christensen, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    J-Earth is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) application used for viewing and processing satellite and airborne remote sensing data and includes NASA imagery such as ASTER, Landsat, MODIS, TIMS, as well as other geological, ecological, and social datasets. The J-Earth team is working with the National Science Foundation-funded Central Arizona-Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER) to incorporate its data and develop functionality for J-Earth. J-Earth was developed by the Arizona State University Mars Space Flight Facility as part of the JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) suite of open-source tools. J-Earth has been enhanced to support the needs of CAP LTER users with the use of web tutorials, social networking, user surveys and interviews. CAP LTER consists of an interdisciplinary urban ecology research group with different needs in the area of socio-ecological systems. Adapting J-Earth for the CAP LTER community has provided a test of J-Earth’s functionality for interdisciplinary datasets and has shown the potential for expanding J-Earth to include future users within the entire LTER network. This project could potentially be expanded to bring data from the other twenty-six LTER sites into J-Earth. J-Earth utilizes the analytical tools of JMARS and makes them available to a broad range of users. J-Earth utilizes a layered system to view data from different sources that can be exported, scaled, colored and superimposed for quick comparisons. The functionality of JMARS is focused on the planetary geology community, while J-Earth has the potential to be used by geologists, geographers, sociologists, and ecologists as well as policy makers. This presentation will provide an overview of information and feedback gathered from users of J-Earth, especially those of the CAP LTER. Collecting additional feedback in the form of social networking, interviews, trainings, and tutorials will help make J-Earth more functional and

  11. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  12. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...... is approximately half the voltage required to see a peak in the dI/dV curve. Information about the molecular level position can thus be obtained at relatively low voltages. In this work we show that the molecular level position can be determined at even lower voltages, Vmin(α), by finding the minimum of ln...

  13. Electroactive bacteria--molecular mechanisms and genetic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydow, Anne; Krieg, Thomas; Mayer, Florian; Schrader, Jens; Holtmann, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    In nature, different bacteria have evolved strategies to transfer electrons far beyond the cell surface. This electron transfer enables the use of these bacteria in bioelectrochemical systems (BES), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrosynthesis (MES). The main feature of electroactive bacteria (EAB) in these applications is the ability to transfer electrons from the microbial cell to an electrode or vice versa instead of the natural redox partner. In general, the application of electroactive organisms in BES offers the opportunity to develop efficient and sustainable processes for the production of energy as well as bulk and fine chemicals, respectively. This review describes and compares key microbiological features of different EAB. Furthermore, it focuses on achievements and future prospects of genetic manipulation for efficient strain development.

  14. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. Expression of two viral ...

  15. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungi - Molecular tools to study species and functional diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Landeweert, R.

    2003-01-01

    The extramatrical mycelium of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi represents a significant component of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbiosis, as the mycelium is primarily involved in the uptake of water and nutrients from the soil. The extramatrical mycelium may also actively mobilize nutrients from organic and mineral sources through excretion of enzymes and organic acids respectively. An observation of tunnel-like structures in weatherable mineral grains gave rise to the hypothesis that these were for...

  17. Bacterial protein toxins : tools to study mammalian molecular cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wüthrich, I.W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial protein toxins are genetically encoded proteinaceous macromolecules that upon exposure causes perturbation of cellular metabolism in a susceptible host. A bacterial toxin can work at a distance from the site of infection, and has direct and quantifiable actions. Bacterial protein toxins ca

  18. Molecular screening tools to study Arabidopsis transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eWehner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, more than 2000 genes are estimated to encode transcription factors (TFs, which clearly emphasizes the importance of transcriptional control. Although genomic approaches have generated large TF Open Reading Frame (ORF collections, only a limited number of these genes is functionally characterized, yet. This review evaluates strategies and methods to identify TF functions. In particular, we focus on two recently developed TF screening platforms, which make use of publi-cally available GATEWAY® compatible ORF collections. (1 The Arabidopsis thaliana TF ORF over-Expression (AtTORF-Ex library provides pooled collections of transgenic lines over-expressing HA-tagged TF genes, which are suited for screening approaches to define TF functions in stress defense and development. (2 A high-throughput microtiter plate based Protoplast Trans Activation (PTA system has been established to screen for TFs which are regulating a given promoter:Luciferase construct in planta.

  19. Culture-Independent Molecular Tools for Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Peer M.; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Vivian A. Rincon-Florez

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of methods for studying the structure, diversity, and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses of the rhizosphere have given new insights into the role of microbial communities in plant nutrition and plant protection against diseases. In this review, we present the most commonly used tradit...

  20. Chromatic alteration on marble surfaces analysed by molecular biology tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Palla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The patina represents a superficial natural alteration of the constituting matter of the work of art. It emerges from the natural and usual stabilization process that the materials of the surface undergo because of the interaction with outdoor agents characterizing the surrounding environment. Besides, it is not linked to an obvious phenomenon of degradation that can be noticed through the change in the original colour of the matter. This is what we intend when we talk about biological patina usually generated by macro and/or micro-organic colonization (fungi, bacteria, alga which contributes to surface bio-deterioration and thus lead to the formation of orange, red or even brown and dark pigmented areas. The presence of chromatic alterations (rose-coloured areas, as a consequence of bacterial colonization, was most particularly pointed out in different sites, such as in the marble slabs on the facades of both the Cathedral of Siena (Duomo di Siena and the Certosa of Pavia. The present study shows an example of chromatic alteration of the surface of marble works due to bacterial colonization.

  1. Molecular Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Guvench, Olgun; Alexander D MacKerell

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Mechanics (MM) force fields are the methods of choice for protein simulations, which are essential in the study of conformational flexibility. Given the importance of protein flexibility in drug binding, MM is involved in most if not all Computational Structure-Based Drug Discovery (CSBDD) projects. This section introduces the reader to the fundamentals of MM, with a special emphasis on how the target data used in the parametrization of force fields determine their strengths and wea...

  2. Molecular Quarkonium

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    I discuss topics related to four-quark states of the `molecular quarkonium' type, i.e. resonances that could be considered as (dominantly) made from a heavy meson and antimeson. Of the so far observed resonances such picture is very likely applicable to the state X(3872), and I also discuss its possible relevance to the peak near the $D^* {\\bar D}^*$ threshold in $e^+e^-$ annihilation.

  3. Molecular Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental problem in biology is the reconstruction of the relatedness of all (extant) species. Traditionally, systematists employ visually recognizable characters of organisms for classification and evolutionary analysis. Recent developments in molecular and computational biology, however, lead to a whole different perspective on how to address the problem of inferring relatedness. The discovery of molecules, carrying genetic information, and the comparison of their primary structure h...

  4. Molecular Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, David I.

    1987-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology, one of the major controversial areas of biological research in the late 1970s, is now rapidly providing new avenues for diagnosis and treatment. With the early recognition that extensive DNA variation exists in human populations, molecular genetic diagnosis of a variety of common hereditary diseases has become a reality. Recent identification of the location of the gene (or genes) for cystic fibrosis and adult polycystic kidney disease, and characterization of the ...

  5. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  6. NWRS Survey Prioritization Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A SMART Tool and User's Guide for aiding NWRS Station staff when prioritizing their surveys for an Inventory and Monitoring Plan. This guide describes a process and...

  7. Game development tool essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Berinstein, Paula; Ardolino, Alessandro; Franco, Simon; Herubel, Adrien; McCutchan, John; Nedelcu, Nicusor; Nitschke, Benjamin; Olmstead, Don; Robinet, Fabrice; Ronchi, Christian; Turkowski, Rita; Walter, Robert; Samour, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Offers game developers new techniques for streamlining the critical game tools pipeline. Inspires game developers to share their secrets and improve the productivity of the entire industry. Helps game industry practitioners compete in a hyper-competitive environment.

  8. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  9. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  10. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  11. THOR: Metrics and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Dasler, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the work of the THOR Project to develop a dashboard to monitor interoperability of persistent identifiers. The dashboard is an essential step towards a suite of tools to measure the impact of the project.

  12. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  13. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  14. Neighborhood Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...

  15. Cash Reconciliation Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CART is a cash reconciliation tool that allows users to reconcile Agency cash disbursements with Treasury fund balances; track open unreconciled items; and create...

  16. Autism Teaching Tool

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN pattern recognition technologies transferred to Austistic children learning tool. The state of the art of pattern recognition technology developed at CERN for High Energy Physics are transferred to Computer Vision domain and are used to develop a new

  17. Molecular Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Sharma; Himanshu Gupta

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provi...

  18. Fuel cells for vehicle applications in cars - bringing the future closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panik, Ferdinand

    Among all alternative drive systems, the fuel cell electric propulsion system has the highest potential to compete with the internal combustion engine. For this reason, Daimler-Benz AG has entered into a co-operative alliance with Ballard Power Systems, with the objectives of bringing fuel cell vehicles to the market. Apart from the fuel cell itself, fuel cell vehicles require comprehensive system technology to provide fuel and air supply, cooling, energy management, electric and electronic functions. The system technology determines to a large extent the cost, weight, efficiency, performance and overall customer benefit of fuel cell vehicles. Hence, Daimler-Benz and Ballard are pooling their expertise in fuel cell system technology in a joint company, with the aim of bringing their fuel cell vehicular systems to the stage of maturity required for market entry as early as possible. Hydrogen-fuelled zero-emission fuel cell transit `buses' will be the first market segment addressed, with an emphasis on the North American and European markets. The first buses are already scheduled for delivery to customers in late 1997. Since a liquid fuel like methanol is easier to handle in passenger cars, fuel reforming technologies are developed and will shortly be demonstrated in a prototype, as well. The presentation will cover concepts of fuel cell vehicles with an emphasis on system technology, the related testing procedures and results as well as an outline of market entry strategies.

  19. Possible room temperature superconductivity in conductors obtained by bringing alkanes into contact with a graphite surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kawashima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistances of conductors obtained by bringing alkanes into contact with a graphite surface have been investigated at room temperatures. Ring current in a ring-shaped container into which n-octane-soaked thin graphite flakes were compressed did not decay for 50 days at room temperature. After two HOPG plates were immersed into n-heptane and n-octane at room temperature, changes in resistances of the two samples were measured by four terminal technique. The measurement showed that the resistances of these samples decrease to less than the smallest resistance that can be measured with a high resolution digital voltmeter (0.1μV. The observation of persistent currents in the ring-shaped container suggests that the HOPG plates immersed in n-heptane and n-octane really entered zero-resistance state at room temperature. These results suggest that room temperature superconductor may be obtained by bringing alkanes into contact with a graphite surface.

  20. Where has the public gone and will communications technology bring them back?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the decreasing number of persons interested and participating in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or open-quotes Superfundclose quotes process. It also looks at communications technology to bring people back into participation in the Superfund process. The material studied and the technologies evaluated involve the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The conclusions are probably valid for most DOE Superfund activities. Where has the public gone? The public has taken an interest in issues that they perceive have greater impact on their quality of life and that have an adverse impact on the environment, such as the shipment and storage of spent nuclear fuel. Will communications technology bring them back? Technology can do many things: it can reduce cost; it can allow quicker access to and from the public; it can offer more information; and it can increase interest because of its novelty for short periods of time, but it will not, in and of its own, create public involvement