Sample records for bringing medical discoveries

  1. Medical knowledge discovery and management. (United States)

    Prior, Fred


    Although the volume of medical information is growing rapidly, the ability to rapidly convert this data into "actionable insights" and new medical knowledge is lagging far behind. The first step in the knowledge discovery process is data management and integration, which logically can be accomplished through the application of data warehouse technologies. A key insight that arises from efforts in biosurveillance and the global scope of military medicine is that information must be integrated over both time (longitudinal health records) and space (spatial localization of health-related events). Once data are compiled and integrated it is essential to encode the semantics and relationships among data elements through the use of ontologies and semantic web technologies to convert data into knowledge. Medical images form a special class of health-related information. Traditionally knowledge has been extracted from images by human observation and encoded via controlled terminologies. This approach is rapidly being replaced by quantitative analyses that more reliably support knowledge extraction. The goals of knowledge discovery are the improvement of both the timeliness and accuracy of medical decision making and the identification of new procedures and therapies.

  2. Bringing the best of medical librarianship to the patient team. (United States)

    Shearer, Barbara S; Seymour, Anne; Capitani, Cheryl


    This article introduces a series of articles examining the state of the medical library profession as practiced in the clinical context. It is widely understood that many changes across the spectrum of medical librarianship practice have been brought about by both technological advances and economic realities. These changes have created strains felt by many in the profession. Discussions of evolving roles for medical librarians that have gone on for years have taken on a new sense of urgency, not just because support of library services is at stake, but also because new opportunities, which many are eager to explore, await librarians. In June 2000, an editorial appearing in a mainstream medical journal proposed a reinvention of clinical librarianship that, if designed as presented in the editorial, would have a dramatic effect on current hospital-based library practice. This series of articles was developed in an effort to provide thoughtful consideration of the "informationist" model and to present new ways to look at the core competencies that define the profession.

  3. Bringing patient centricity to diabetes medication access in Canada (United States)

    Glennie, Judith L; Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Oh, Paul


    Canada must become proactive in addressing type 2 diabetes. With the second highest rate of diabetes prevalence in the developed world, the number of Canadians living with diabetes will soon reach epidemic levels. Against international comparisons, Canada also performs poorly with respect to diabetes-related hospitalizations, mortality rates, and access to medications. Diabetes and its comorbidities pose a significant burden on people with diabetes (PWD) and their families, through out-of-pocket expenses for medications, devices, supplies, and the support needed to manage their illness. Rising direct and indirect costs of diabetes will become a drain on Canada’s economy and undermine the financial stability of our health care system. Canada’s approach to diabetes medication assessment and funding has created a patchwork of medication access across provinces. Access to treatments for those who rely on public programs is highly restricted compared to Canadians with private drug plans, as well in contrast with public payers in other countries. Each person living with diabetes has different needs, so a “patient-centric” approach ensures treatment focused on individual circumstances. Such tailoring is difficult to achieve, with the linear approach required by public payers. We may be undermining optimal care for PWD because of access policies that are not aligned with individualized approaches – and increasing overall health care costs in the process. The scope of Canada’s diabetes challenge demands holistic and proactive solutions. Canada needs to get out from “behind the eight ball” and get “ahead of the curve” when it comes to diabetes care. Improving access to medications is one of the tools for getting there. Canada’s “call to action” for diabetes starts with effective implementation of existing best practices. A personalized approach to medication access, to meet individual needs and optimize outcomes, is also a key enabler. PWD and

  4. An Antique Microscope Slide Brings the Thrill of Discovery into a Contemporary Biology Classroom (United States)

    Reiser, Frank


    The discovery of a Victorian-era microscope slide titled "Grouped Flower Seeds" began an investigation into the scientific and historical background of the antique slide to develop its usefulness as a multidisciplinary tool for PowerPoint presentations usable in contemporary biology classrooms, particularly large-enrollment sections. The resultant…

  5. To what extent did the 1858 Medical Act bring unity to the British medical profession? (United States)

    Beard, John A S


    The Medical Act of 1858 was the culmination of medical, political and social wrangling for several decades before its passage. This essay looks to place the Act in its correct historical context and will specifically consider whether it brought about unity to what was a disparate and factional profession. That it was an important piece of legislation in the history of British healthcare is unquestioned, but the extent to which it directly brought about change is more uncertain. In order to understand the background, content and repercussions of the Act, one must recognize the structure of the medical system at that time. One reason for doing this, as argued by some, is that the Medical Act, like the Apothecaries Act of 1815, was the result of changes to the profession and not the cause of them. Reformists hoped that the Medical Act would unify the profession, yet significant historical, hierarchical and political barriers stood in the way of reform.

  6. eLab: bringing together people, data and methods to enhance knowledge discovery in healthcare settings. (United States)

    Ainsworth, John; Cunningham, James; Buchan, Iain


    The discovery of knowledge from raw data is a multistage process, that typical requires collaboration between experts from disparate disciplines, and the application of a range of methods tailored to the research question. The aim of the eLab is to provide a web-based environment for health professionals and researchers to access health datasets, share knowledge and expertise and to apply methods for analysis and visualization of the results. The eLab is built around the core concept of the Research Object as the mechanism for preserving, reusing and disseminating the knowledge discovery process. The possible range of applications of the eLab is vast, and so the consideration of the trade off between specificity and generality is an important one, that is reflected in the requirements. The architecture and implementation of the eLab is described, and we report on the deployment of eLabs for applications in primary care, long-term conditions management, bariatric surgery and public health.

  7. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health (United States)

    ... 1962, NIGMS has been funding the research of scientists who make advances in our understanding of fundamental life processes. Today, NIGMS funds more than 4,000 scientists who bring discovery to life. In the course ...

  8. Model for a merger: New York-Presbyterian's use of service lines to bring two academic medical centers together. (United States)

    Corwin, Steven J; Cooper, Mary Reich; Leiman, Joan M; Stein, Dina E; Pardes, Herbert; Berman, Michael A


    NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital is the result of the 1998 merger of two large New York City academic medical centers, the former New York and Presbyterian Hospitals, and is affiliated with two independent medical schools, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Joan and Sanford J. Weill Medical College of Cornell University. At the time of the merger, the hospital faced a number of significant challenges, chief among them the clinical integration of the two medical centers. Size, separate medical schools, geography, and different histories and cultures all presented barriers to collaboration. To bring about the needed clinical alignment, the hospital turned to service lines as a way to realize the benefits of clinical integration without forcing the consolidation of departments. In this article, members of the hospital's senior management review the thinking behind the hospital's use of the service lines, their development and operation, and the significant, positive effects they have had on volume, clinical quality, clinical efficiency, best practices, and revenue management. They discuss how the service lines were used to bring together the two clinical cultures, the impact they have had on the way the hospital is operated and managed, and why service lines have worked at NewYork-Presbyterian in contrast to other hospitals that tried and abandoned them. Service lines play an increasingly central role in the hospital's clinical and business strategies, and are being extended into the NewYork-Presbyterian health care system.

  9. Bringing science to medicine: an interview with Larry Weed, inventor of the problem-oriented medical record. (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F; McGowan, Julie; Ash, Joan S; Weed, Lawrence L


    Larry Weed, MD is widely known as the father of the problem-oriented medical record and inventor of the now-ubiquitous SOAP (subjective/objective/assessment/plan) note, for developing an electronic health record system (Problem-Oriented Medical Information System, PROMIS), and for founding a company (since acquired), which developed problem-knowledge couplers. However, Dr Weed's vision for medicine goes far beyond software--over the course of his storied career, he has relentlessly sought to bring the scientific method to medical practice and, where necessary, to point out shortcomings in the system and advocate for change. In this oral history, Dr Weed describes, in his own words, the arcs of his long career and the work that remains to be done.

  10. Medical Signbank: Bringing Deaf People and Linguists Together in the Process of Language Development (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor; Napier, Jemina


    In this article we describe an Australian project in which linguists, signed language interpreters, medical and health care professionals, and members of the Deaf community use the technology of the Internet to facilitate cooperative language development. A web-based, interactive multimedia lexicon, an encyclopedic dictionary, and a database of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To know attitude for rural health service in students of different stages of medical education like undergraduate (third year MBBS students , internship doing student and post graduates students. MATERIALS & METHOD : The present cross sectional study was conducted at Governement Medical C ollege , Nagpur in month of august to November 2014 in predesigned and pretested proform. The proforma includes information about parents regarding socioeconomic status their occupation literacy status a nd also information regarding willingness to work in rural health services and different reasons for not giving health services to rural areas like political unstable area , no entertainments , no future , not having better leaving conditions , no proper educa tion for their kids etc . Informed consent was taken prior to inclusion into the study . Three different medical educating students i.e 69 % (99 third MBBS students , 54% (Interns 87 students and 47% (61 postgraduates students. RESULTS: Undergraduate stude nt and in interns female students are more than male students and they are71 (72 % and 50(57% respectively. Most of the study participants are residing in urban areas i.e. 63 (63.6% undergraduates , 58(66.7% interns and 49(80.3% students in postgraduat es are having urban is the place of residence. 54(76% female students from undergraduates and 32 (64% female students from interns and 15(68.1% female students from postgraduates are willing to serve for rural health. female undergraduates students (88. 7%accepted rural area is unstable to work when compared with male undergraduates (42.9% and this difference found to be statistically significant (p=0.001.Majority of female undergraduates(69% accepted that there is no personal safety in rural areas as compared with male undergraduates(17.9%.This difference also found to be significant (p=0.001.Isolation and remoteness of the location of health facility was accepted by most of the female

  12. Evolutionary computing for knowledge discovery in medical diagnosis. (United States)

    Tan, K C; Yu, Q; Heng, C M; Lee, T H


    One of the major challenges in medical domain is the extraction of comprehensible knowledge from medical diagnosis data. In this paper, a two-phase hybrid evolutionary classification technique is proposed to extract classification rules that can be used in clinical practice for better understanding and prevention of unwanted medical events. In the first phase, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm (EA) is utilized to confine the search space by evolving a pool of good candidate rules, e.g. genetic programming (GP) is applied to evolve nominal attributes for free structured rules and genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the numeric attributes for concise classification rules without the need of discretization. These candidate rules are then used in the second phase to optimize the order and number of rules in the evolution for forming accurate and comprehensible rule sets. The proposed evolutionary classifier (EvoC) is validated upon hepatitis and breast cancer datasets obtained from the UCI machine-learning repository. Simulation results show that the evolutionary classifier produces comprehensible rules and good classification accuracy for the medical datasets. Results obtained from t-tests further justify its robustness and invariance to random partition of datasets.

  13. Text mining for traditional Chinese medical knowledge discovery: a survey. (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Peng, Yonghong; Liu, Baoyan


    Extracting meaningful information and knowledge from free text is the subject of considerable research interest in the machine learning and data mining fields. Text data mining (or text mining) has become one of the most active research sub-fields in data mining. Significant developments in the area of biomedical text mining during the past years have demonstrated its great promise for supporting scientists in developing novel hypotheses and new knowledge from the biomedical literature. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a distinct methodology with which to view human life. It is one of the most complete and distinguished traditional medicines with a history of several thousand years of studying and practicing the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. It has been shown that the TCM knowledge obtained from clinical practice has become a significant complementary source of information for modern biomedical sciences. TCM literature obtained from the historical period and from modern clinical studies has recently been transformed into digital data in the form of relational databases or text documents, which provide an effective platform for information sharing and retrieval. This motivates and facilitates research and development into knowledge discovery approaches and to modernize TCM. In order to contribute to this still growing field, this paper presents (1) a comparative introduction to TCM and modern biomedicine, (2) a survey of the related information sources of TCM, (3) a review and discussion of the state of the art and the development of text mining techniques with applications to TCM, (4) a discussion of the research issues around TCM text mining and its future directions.

  14. Discovery, Development, and Adoption of Medications to Treat Alcohol Use Disorder: Goals for the Phases of Medications Development. (United States)

    Litten, Raye Z; Falk, Daniel E; Ryan, Megan L; Fertig, Joanne B


    For more than 25 years, advances have been made in developing medications to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD), highlighted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approval of naltrexone (oral and long-acting) and acamprosate. Despite this progress, more work remains to be done in this area because these medications, although effective for some people, do not work for everyone. A high priority for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol is to put into place a solid infrastructure to aid in the development of medications that are more effective than those currently available and with few side effects. Medication development, especially for a disorder as complex as AUD, is challenging and involves multiple phases, including discovery of "druggable" targets, preclinical studies, human clinical trials, and the adoption and implementation of the new medication into mainstream medicine. A successful medications development program requires clearly established goals for each phase to ensure that a candidate compound is not trapped in one particular phase, a condition known as "the valley of death." In this article, the phases of medication development are described as they apply to AUD, and specific goals of each phase are identified for the next decade. In addition, several important crosscutting themes are outlined for each phase, all of which are essential for advancing medications development. These include identifying and validating screening models and druggable targets, making use of precision medicine, and establishing partnerships among key stakeholders. Our goal in writing this article is to provide a guide on medications development that will aid the alcohol research community in planning, testing, and developing medications for AUD.

  15. The feasibility of using 'bring your own device' (BYOD) technology for electronic data capture in multicentre medical audit and research. (United States)

    Faulds, M C; Bauchmuller, K; Miller, D; Rosser, J H; Shuker, K; Wrench, I; Wilson, P; Mills, G H


    Large-scale audit and research projects demand robust, efficient systems for accurate data collection, handling and analysis. We utilised a multiplatform 'bring your own device' (BYOD) electronic data collection app to capture observational audit data on theatre efficiency across seven hospital Trusts in South Yorkshire in June-August 2013. None of the participating hospitals had a dedicated information governance policy for bring your own device. Data were collected by 17 investigators for 392 individual theatre lists, capturing 14,148 individual data points, 12, 852 (91%) of which were transmitted to a central database on the day of collection without any loss of data. BYOD technology enabled accurate collection of a large volume of secure data across multiple NHS organisations over a short period of time. Bring your own device technology provides a method for collecting real-time audit, research and quality improvement data within healthcare systems without compromising patient data protection.

  16. Action experience and action discovery in medicated individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery G. Bednark


    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-match controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, action discovery was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP, an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected.

  17. "What Brings Him Here Today?": Medical Problem Presentation Involving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children (United States)

    Solomon, Olga; Heritage, John; Yin, Larry; Maynard, Douglas W.; Bauman, Margaret L.


    Conversation and discourse analyses were used to examine medical problem presentation in pediatric care. Healthcare visits involving children with ASD and typically developing children were analyzed. We examined how children's communicative and epistemic capabilities, and their opportunities to be socialized into a competent patient role are…

  18. The future of preclinical animal models in pharmaceutical discovery and development: a need to bring in cerebro to the in vivo discussions. (United States)

    Everitt, Jeffrey I


    Animal models have provided an important tool to help make the decision to take potential therapies from preclinical studies to humans. In the past several years, the strong reliance of the pharmaceutical discovery and development process on the use of animal models has come under increasing scrutiny for ethical and scientific reasons. Several prominent and widely publicized articles have reported limited concordance of animal experiments with subsequent human clinical trials. Recent assessments of the quality of animal studies have suggested that this translational failure may be due in part to shortcomings in the planning, conduct, and reporting of in vivo studies. This article will emphasize methods to assure best practice rigor in animal study methods and reporting. It will introduce the so-called scientific 3Rs of relevance, robustness, and reproducibility to the in vivo study approach and will review important new trends in the animal research and pharmaceutical discovery and development communities.

  19. Bringing Relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China is mobilizing medical and epidemic prevention resources from around the country to ensure adequate levels of care for earthquake survivors"When the rescued people arrive, what we can do is to try our best to restore their health,"said Liu Xiaoguang,Deputy Principal of Peking University Third Hospital and head of Beijing’s medical rescue team for the Sichuan earthquake.As one of the first

  20. The Place of Crowdfunding in the Discovery of Scientific and Social Value of Medical Research. (United States)

    Del Savio, Lorenzo


    Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a structured and intermediate public good and explain from this perspective that funding systems as a whole, rather than any of their parts (such as expert-based reviews) ought to be considered devices for the discovery of the social and scientific value of research. If so, we should not be concerned with whether crowdfunding bypasses expert reviews, but with whether it may constitute an improvement of extant funding systems. In the second part, I speculate that crowdfunding may ameliorate, albeit limitedly, some recalcitrant failures of funding systems, such as the sponsorship of research on neglected diseases, and smooth funding adaptations for scientific transitions. If, after trial, such hypotheses turn out to be true, crowdfunding ought to be promoted.

  1. Remote Forensics May Bring the Next Sea Change in E-discovery: Are All Networked Computers Now Readily Accessible Under the Revised Federal Rules of Civil Procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AleJoseph J. Schwerha


    Full Text Available The recent amendments to Rule 26 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure created a two-tiered approach to discovery of electronically stored information (“ESI”. Responding parties must produce ESI that is relevant, not subject to privilege, and reasonably accessible. However, because some methods of storing ESI, such as on magnetic backup tapes and within enormous databases, require substantial cost to access and search their contents, the rules permit parties to designate those repositories as “not reasonably accessible” because of undue burden or cost. But even despite the difficulty in searching for ESI, the party’s duty to preserve potentially responsive evidence remains; it simply gains the option to forgo poring over the material. Further, the court might nevertheless compel production if the requesting party demonstrates good cause.Regardless of whether the responding party believes certain documents to be reasonably accessible or not, courts may still require their production.   In such cases, the court may then choose to order production, but shift the costs of doing so to the requesting party.  Throughout this process, the burden and cost of production are central themes.   Their determination is fluid, varying from case to case and even over time in the same situation.   Nowhere is this more evident than where a responding party has numerous, geographically dispersed computers under its control that may contain responsive ESI to a request for production of documents.  Traditionally, a responding party would be forced to make a decision of whether or not to send out computer forensic experts to all of these locations to make forensically sound copies of all of those computers and then analyze each.   This process is time consuming and costly.  Recently, several companies have put forth substantial solutions that facially allow a responding party to capture and analyze data

  2. Genome-Based Studies of Marine Microorganisms to Maximize the Diversity of Natural Products Discovery for Medical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qing Zhao


    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are rich source for natural products which play important roles in pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, genome-based studies of marine microorganisms have unveiled the tremendous diversity of the producers of natural products and also contributed to the efficiency of harness the strain diversity and chemical diversity, as well as the genetic diversity of marine microorganisms for the rapid discovery and generation of new natural products. In the meantime, genomic information retrieved from marine symbiotic microorganisms can also be employed for the discovery of new medical molecules from yet-unculturable microorganisms. In this paper, the recent progress in the genomic research of marine microorganisms is reviewed; new tools of genome mining as well as the advance in the activation of orphan pathways and metagenomic studies are summarized. Genome-based research of marine microorganisms will maximize the biodiscovery process and solve the problems of supply and sustainability of drug molecules for medical treatments.

  3. Medical imaging was boosted by the discovery of artificial radioactivity; L'imagerie medicale revelee par la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarthon, F.; Dupuy-Maury, F.; Donnars, O


    This article draws the history of medical imaging since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1934. The author reviews the PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technologies and presents the recent progress in neuro-sciences that have been made possible by using these 2 technologies. Brain imaging has allowed to show: - the impact of emotions on logical mental processes and on mental performances, - the management of memory in the brain of talented quick reckoners, - the degeneration of neurons, and - the link between autism and the presence of structural and functional anomalies in the brain. (A.C.)

  4. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation. (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W


    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics ( for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an opportunity to reiterate the crucial role of medicinal chemistry in conquering influenza and created an environment for cooperative

  5. Advancing regulatory science to bring novel medical devices for use in emergency care to market: the role of the Food and Drug Administration. (United States)

    Scully, Christopher G; Forrest, Shawn; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne B; Strauss, David G


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performs regulatory science to provide science-based medical product regulatory decisions. This article describes the types of scientific research the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health performs and highlights specific projects related to medical devices for emergency medicine. In addition, this article discusses how results from regulatory science are used by the FDA to support the regulatory process as well as how the results are communicated to the public. Regulatory science supports the FDA's mission to assure safe, effective, and high-quality medical products are available to patients.

  6. Discovery and Development of Synthetic and Natural Biomaterials for Protein Therapeutics and Medical Device Applications (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew J.

    Controlling nonspecific protein interactions is important for applications from medical devices to protein therapeutics. The presented work is a compilation of efforts aimed at using zwitterionic (ionic yet charge neutral) polymers to modify and stabilize the surface of sensitive biomedical and biological materials. Traditionally, when modifying the surface of a material, the stability of the underlying substrate. The materials modified in this dissertation are unique due to their unconventional amorphous characteristics which provide additional challenges. These are poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) rubber, and proteins. These materials may seem dissimilar, but both have amorphous surfaces, that do not respond well to chemical modification. PDMS is a biomaterial extensively used in medical device manufacturing, but experiences unacceptably high levels of non-specific protein fouling when used with biological samples. To reduce protein fouling, surface modification is often needed. Unfortunately conventional surface modification methods, such as Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings, do not work for PDMS due to its amorphous state. Herein, we demonstrate how a superhydrophilic zwitterionic material, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), can provide a highly stable nonfouling coating with long term stability due to the sharp the contrast in hydrophobicity between pCBMA and PDMS. Biological materials, such as proteins, also require stabilization to improve shelf life, circulation time, and bioactivity. Conjugation of proteins with PEG is often used to increase protein stability, but has a detrimental effect on bioactivity. Here we have shown that pCBMA conjugation improves stability in a similar fashion to PEG, but also retains, or even improves, binding affinity due to enhanced protein-substrate hydrophobic interactions. Recognizing that pCBMA chemically resembles the combination of lysine (K) and glutamic acid (E) amino acids, we have shown how zwitterionic

  7. The OCHIN community information network: bringing together community health centers, information technology, and data to support a patient-centered medical village. (United States)

    Devoe, Jennifer E; Sears, Abigail


    Creating integrated, comprehensive care practices requires access to data and informatics expertise. Information technology (IT) resources are not readily available to individual practices. One model of shared IT resources and learning is a "patient-centered medical village." We describe the OCHIN Community Health Information Network as an example of this model; community practices have come together collectively to form an organization that leverages shared IT expertise, resources, and data, providing members with the means to fully capitalize on new technologies that support improved care. This collaborative facilitates the identification of "problem sheds" through surveillance of network-wide data, enables shared learning regarding best practices, and provides a "community laboratory" for practice-based research. As an example of a community of solution, OCHIN uses health IT and data-sharing innovations to enhance partnerships between public health leaders, clinicians in community health centers, informatics experts, and policy makers. OCHIN community partners benefit from the shared IT resource (eg, a linked electronic health record, centralized data warehouse, informatics, and improvement expertise). This patient-centered medical village provides (1) the collective mechanism to build community-tailored IT solutions, (2) "neighbors" to share data and improvement strategies, and (3) infrastructure to support innovations based on electronic health records across communities, using experimental approaches.

  8. 国家互联网+战略对医疗卫生行业的影响%National Internet+ and Strategy brings Changes to Medical and Health In-dustry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯; 陆敏


    阐述国家互联网+行动战略对医疗卫生行业带来的变革,包括改善患者就诊体验,提高患者满意度;促进医疗卫生行业信息化的开放、融合;帮助建立健康生活和居家养老的解决方案;推进医药分开以及完善供应链和集中采购机制;开发挖掘医疗卫生机构大数据的价值。%This article demonstrates National Internet+and strategy brings changes to Medical and Health industry, includ-ing improving patients visiting experiences and increasing satisfactions, enhancing opening Medical and Health industry in-formation and fusion. It helps building healthy life and home-based care, pushing separatingmedical and pharmaceutical servicesand improving supply chain and centralizing purchasing, developing Medical and Health Institution big-data values.

  9. Bring Life to Learning. (United States)

    Graves, Donald H.


    A focus on people--whether community members, students, historical figures, or fictional characters--and their motivations brings excitement to learning. A community's experts on everything from jazz music and Chinese tapestries to building construction can help students move inside history and other subjects. (MLH)

  10. Bringing Biocuration to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhang; Weimin Zhu; Jingchu Luo


    Biocuration involves adding value to biomedical data by the processes of standardiza-tion, quality control and information transferring (also known as data annotation). It enhances data interoperability and consistency, and is critical in translating biomedical data into scientific discovery. Although China is becoming a leading scientific data producer, biocuration is still very new to the Chinese biomedical data community. In fact, there currently lacks an equivalent acknowledged word in Chinese for the word ‘‘curation”. Here we propose its Chinese translation as‘‘审编”(Pinyin:shen bian), based on its implied meanings taken by biomedical data community. The 8th International Biocuration Conference to be held in China ( next year bears the potential to raise the general awareness in China of the significant role of biocuration in scientific discovery. However, challenges are ahead in its implementation.

  11. 2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award Honors Prof.TU You-you for the Discovery of Artemisinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The 2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award honors a scientist who discovered artemisinin and its utility for treating malaria.Prof.TU You-you (China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,Beijing) transformed an ancient Chinese healing method into the most powerful antimalarial medicine currently available that has saved millions of lives across the globe,especially in the developing world.

  12. [The history of the Science of Stress: From Hans Selye to the discovery of anti-inflammatory medication]. (United States)

    Lupien, Sonia


    To make an important scientific discovery that will make history takes a lot of determination, creativity, perseverance and luck! The story behind the discovery of stress and its biological basis is a fascinating one that places Dr. Hans Selye in the forefront. Dr. Selye was a great scientist that taught at the Université de Montréal from 1945 to his death in 1982. Dr. Selye was curious and hard working. He was determined to understand how various disorders can lead to similar physical manifestations, and this interest led him to discover the role of the adrenal glands involved in the stress response and to better understand the effects of glucocorticoids on the body. Today, the science of stress is based on the foundations established by Dr. Selye. In celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal, and the special issue of the Revue Santé Mentale au Québec, this historical review summarizes the discoveries of this great scientist who worked in Quebec.

  13. Bringing science to business (United States)

    Lemetti, Paul


    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  14. China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),a delegation headed by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku and composed of a medical team from Beijing Tongren Hospital made a"China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour to Vietnam"from November 13 to 20,2009 and gave free cataract surgery to about 100 patients in Bac Giang Province.

  15. [Graduate of the S.M.Kirov Military-medical academy Fedor Levin: on the way to discovery of DNA]. (United States)

    Karpuschenko, E G; Deev, R V; Ovchinnikov, D V; Plaska, I L


    Biochemist Fedor Aronovich LeviN (1869-1940) graduated with honours from the S.M.Kirov Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg in 1891 where he had received a fundamental knowledge from A.P.Dianin and I.P.Pavlov, and then he immigrated to the US. More than three and a half decades of his successful research at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research contributed to the foundation of the doctrine of nucleic acids. Scientists, who continued to research nucleic acids, were awarded the Nobel Prize, but Levin and his contribution were forgotten. The authors of the given article didn't found any source in Russian about this prominent biochemist of the 20th century and member of the Russian scientific school. The purpose of the article is to acquaint the reader with a scientific biography of the scientist. who became, without exaggeration, one of the founders of modern genetics.

  16. 添加语义支持的医疗WEB服务发现研究%Research on Semantic Supported Medical Web Services Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆文; 李科; 曾东; 周焕来


    Web service has been widely used in heterogeneous medical system integration, telemedicine, and mobile medical in recent years. With the growing number of available web services, effective discovery of service becomes much more important. The traditional UDDI method, which uses keyword-based and simple classification searching, cannot satisfy users' need anymore. And semantic web technology provides a new way to improve precision and high recall in service discovery. This paper firstly develops a semantic support service advertisement platform, and then works on the service matching process to increase the matching degree. Finally, a simulation model in the healthcare filed was built, which provided a viable solution for the effective discovery of healthcare services.%  近年来,Web服务在异构医疗系统集成、远程医学、移动医疗等领域被广泛使用。随着可用的Web服务越来越多,对服务的有效发现就显得越发重要。在传统服务发布平台UDDI中,基于关键词和简单分类的服务发现机制已不能满足需求。语义网技术的发展为解决Web服务的发现问题提供了契机。提出开发基于语义的服务发布平台以替代UDDI,并在此平台基础上利用语义方法研究服务的匹配过程,改善服务发现的准确率。最后在区域医疗范围内构建应用仿真,测试服务发现准确率的同时提供此类应用的可行方案。

  17. Ayurvedic drug discovery. (United States)

    Balachandran, Premalatha; Govindarajan, Rajgopal


    Ayurveda is a major traditional system of Indian medicine that is still being successfully used in many countries. Recapitulation and adaptation of the older science to modern drug discovery processes can bring renewed interest to the pharmaceutical world and offer unique therapeutic solutions for a wide range of human disorders. Eventhough time-tested evidences vouch immense therapeutic benefits for ayurvedic herbs and formulations, several important issues are required to be resolved for successful implementation of ayurvedic principles to present drug discovery methodologies. Additionally, clinical examination in the extent of efficacy, safety and drug interactions of newly developed ayurvedic drugs and formulations are required to be carefully evaluated. Ayurvedic experts suggest a reverse-pharmacology approach focusing on the potential targets for which ayurvedic herbs and herbal products could bring tremendous leads to ayurvedic drug discovery. Although several novel leads and drug molecules have already been discovered from ayurvedic medicinal herbs, further scientific explorations in this arena along with customization of present technologies to ayurvedic drug manufacturing principles would greatly facilitate a standardized ayurvedic drug discovery.

  18. Guided Discoveries. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Amos


    Presented are four mathematical discoveries made by students on an arithmetical function using the Fibonacci sequence. Discussed is the nature of the role of the teacher in directing the students' discovery activities. (KR)

  19. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  20. Clustering and Symbolic Analysis of Cardiovascular Signals: Discovery and Visualization of Medically Relevant Patterns in Long-Term Data Using Limited Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zeeshan


    Full Text Available This paper describes novel fully automated techniques for analyzing large amounts of cardiovascular data. In contrast to traditional medical expert systems our techniques incorporate no a priori knowledge about disease states. This facilitates the discovery of unexpected events. We start by transforming continuous waveform signals into symbolic strings derived directly from the data. Morphological features are used to partition heart beats into clusters by maximizing the dynamic time-warped sequence-aligned separation of clusters. Each cluster is assigned a symbol, and the original signal is replaced by the corresponding sequence of symbols. The symbolization process allows us to shift from the analysis of raw signals to the analysis of sequences of symbols. This discrete representation reduces the amount of data by several orders of magnitude, making the search space for discovering interesting activity more manageable. We describe techniques that operate in this symbolic domain to discover rhythms, transient patterns, abnormal changes in entropy, and clinically significant relationships among multiple streams of physiological data. We tested our techniques on cardiologist-annotated ECG data from forty-eight patients. Our process for labeling heart beats produced results that were consistent with the cardiologist supplied labels 98.6 of the time, and often provided relevant finer-grained distinctions. Our higher level analysis techniques proved effective at identifying clinically relevant activity not only from symbolized ECG streams, but also from multimodal data obtained by symbolizing ECG and other physiological data streams. Using no prior knowledge, our analysis techniques uncovered examples of ventricular bigeminy and trigeminy, ectopic atrial rhythms with aberrant ventricular conduction, paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and pulsus paradoxus.

  1. Clustering and Symbolic Analysis of Cardiovascular Signals: Discovery and Visualization of Medically Relevant Patterns in Long-Term Data Using Limited Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Stultz


    Full Text Available This paper describes novel fully automated techniques for analyzing large amounts of cardiovascular data. In contrast to traditional medical expert systems our techniques incorporate no a priori knowledge about disease states. This facilitates the discovery of unexpected events. We start by transforming continuous waveform signals into symbolic strings derived directly from the data. Morphological features are used to partition heart beats into clusters by maximizing the dynamic time-warped sequence-aligned separation of clusters. Each cluster is assigned a symbol, and the original signal is replaced by the corresponding sequence of symbols. The symbolization process allows us to shift from the analysis of raw signals to the analysis of sequences of symbols. This discrete representation reduces the amount of data by several orders of magnitude, making the search space for discovering interesting activity more manageable. We describe techniques that operate in this symbolic domain to discover rhythms, transient patterns, abnormal changes in entropy, and clinically significant relationships among multiple streams of physiological data. We tested our techniques on cardiologist-annotated ECG data from forty-eight patients. Our process for labeling heart beats produced results that were consistent with the cardiologist supplied labels 98.6% of the time, and often provided relevant finer-grained distinctions. Our higher level analysis techniques proved effective at identifying clinically relevant activity not only from symbolized ECG streams, but also from multimodal data obtained by symbolizing ECG and other physiological data streams. Using no prior knowledge, our analysis techniques uncovered examples of ventricular bigeminy and trigeminy, ectopic atrial rhythms with aberrant ventricular conduction, paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and pulsus paradoxus.

  2. 内蒙古医保精准扶贫的探索--恶性肿瘤靶向药物纳入医保支付范围%The Exploration of Medical Insurance in Precise Poverty Alleviation in Inner Mongolia---Bringing Tumor Targeting Drugs into the Payment of Medical Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Bringing tumor targeting drugs into the payment scope of medical insurance in Inner Mongolia has explored a way to eliminate poverty caused by illness and to achieve the goal of precise poverty alleviation. Before the initiation of this policy, the Health Insurance Bureau and Health Insurance Research Association have conducted a intensive and comprehensive investigation, and the results have been adopted by the policy-decision departments for its strong feasibility and sustainability, and been successfully transformed as policies, measures and achievement. After one year of executing this policy, it has prevented 609 patients with malignant tumors from being poverty, and explored a new way of policy-making based on study evidence.%内蒙古自治区将恶性肿瘤靶向用药纳入医保支付范围,为消除因病致贫、实现医保精准扶贫探索出一条路子;实施恶性肿瘤靶向用药纳入医保支付范围之前,自治区医保局、医保研究会组织了深入细致、全面的课题研究,其研究成果以很强的可行性和可持续性被政府决策部门采纳,成功转化为政策措施和防止因病致贫的实效,新政实施一年来全区609名恶性肿瘤患者没有发生因病致贫的,走出了一条以课题研究为前提的新政决策之路。

  3. Bringing Secrecy into the Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher


    This paper brings into focus the concept of organizational secrecy, defined as the ongoing formal and informal social processes of intentional concealment of information from actors by actors in organizations. It is argued that existing literature on the topic is fragmented and predominantly...

  4. Bringing reality into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.


    Technology offers ample opportunities to bring reality into the classroom. Students and teachers nowadays have many tools to work in an authentic way with real data in mathematics and science education. However, much research and development are still needed to create a consistent learning trajector

  5. Developing a web page: bringing clinics online. (United States)

    Peterson, Ronnie; Berns, Susan


    Introducing clinical staff education, along with new policies and procedures, to over 50 different clinical sites can be a challenge. As any staff educator will confess, getting people to attend an educational inservice session can be difficult. Clinical staff request training, but no one has time to attend training sessions. Putting the training along with the policies and other information into "neat" concise packages via the computer and over the company's intranet was the way to go. However, how do you bring the clinics online when some of the clinical staff may still be reluctant to turn on their computers for anything other than to gather laboratory results? Developing an easy, fun, and accessible Web page was the answer. This article outlines the development of the first training Web page at the University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, Madison, WI.

  6. BYOD: Bring your own disaster

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team


    Have you ever heard of “BYOD”? No, it is not a pop band. Try again. It is short for “Bring Your Own Device” (the French use “AVEC” -  “Apporter Votre Equipement personnel de Communication”) and describes an option long since offered at CERN: the possibility to bring along your personal laptop, smartphone or PDA, use it on CERN premises and connect it to the CERN office network. But hold on. As practical as it is, there is also a dark side.   The primary advantage, of course, is having a digital work environment tuned to your needs and preferences. It allows you to continue working at home. Similarly, you always have your music, address books and bookmarks with you. However, as valuable as this is, it is also a responsibility. Laptop theft is happening - outside CERN but also on site. In France, 30% of stolen laptops were stolen out of cars or homes, and 10% during travel. At CERN, on average one ...

  7. Bringing Industry to the Classroom (United States)

    Hoachlander, Gary


    Multiple pathways connect college-preparatory curriculums with exceptional career and technical education, motivating students to learn by helping them answer the question, Why do I need to know this? Real-world learning is organized around such industry sectors as finance and business; health science and medical technology; building and…

  8. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick


    as their central concepts and conceptualization of the entrepreneurial function. On this basis we discuss three central themes that cut across the four alternatives: process, uncertainty, and agency. These themes provide new foci for entrepreneurship research and can help to generate new research questions......In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well...

  9. Bringing principal role of medical students into full play to improve practice teaching effect of preventive medicine and pediatric dentistry%充分发挥学生主体作用改进口腔预防、儿童口腔医学实习教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶丹英; 陆海霞; 潘瑛; 冯希平


    It is important to bring the principal role of medical students into full play and to develop their learning motivation and enthusiasm in order to obtain the satisfactory teaching effect in the clinical practice of preventive medicine and pediatric dentistry.Methods of timely summing-up,self-evaluation,making assumption and pair combination should be recommended.Cultivation for medical students should focus on the idea for diagnosis and treatment,skill of clinical practice and ability of doctor-patient communication.%为了能在较短的口腔预防医学、儿童口腔医学专业的临床实习中获得良好的教学效果,通过实践总结,采用及时总结、多设假如、自我评述、两两组合的方式,充分发挥学生在临床实习中的主体作用,提高学生学习的主动性和积极性,着重培养口腔医学生形成合理诊疗思路、规范实践操作技能以及良好的医患沟通能力.

  10. Bringing-Light Tour” ——Symbol of China-Pakistan Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter


    <正>On April 26, 2012, the 1008th cataract operation conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi by the medical team of the China-Pakistan Friendship Bringing-Light Tour brought the activity to a successfully conclusion.

  11. Treatment of Noma: medical missions in Ethiopia. (United States)

    McGurk, M; Marck, R


    There is a long tradition in medicine and dentistry to support medical missions in developing countries where health care is limited. These journeys facilitate the spread of knowledge and can be voyages of self-discovery. In the past it has been customary to bring patients to developed countries for treatment. This policy has proved expensive as the medical costs incurred to treat a single patient in the UK can match the cost of sending a ten unit surgical team abroad for two weeks. 50 patients may be treated in this period of time so the pattern of practice is now for teams of healthcare workers to move to areas of need rather than the other way round.

  12. 42 CFR 430.86 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 430.86 Section 430.86 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... objection to discovery action initiated under this section. The presiding officer also has the power...

  13. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia


    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  14. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa


    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  15. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  16. Zika Infection May Bring Future Immunity (United States)

    ... page: Zika Infection May Bring Future Immunity: Study Individuals, and ... HealthDay News) -- People who've been infected with Zika face a low risk for another bout with ...

  17. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT) to Education



    In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT). Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explore...

  18. Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth (United States)


    JFQ 76, 1st Quarter 2015 Finch 15 Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth By James P. Finch T ensions in the South and East China seas have...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  19. Trends in Modern Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Eder, Jörg; Herrling, Paul L


    Drugs discovered by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 100 years have dramatically changed the practice of medicine and impacted on many aspects of our culture. For many years, drug discovery was a target- and mechanism-agnostic approach that was based on ethnobotanical knowledge often fueled by serendipity. With the advent of modern molecular biology methods and based on knowledge of the human genome, drug discovery has now largely changed into a hypothesis-driven target-based approach, a development which was paralleled by significant environmental changes in the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratories became increasingly computerized and automated, and geographically dispersed research sites are now more and more clustered into large centers to capture technological and biological synergies. Today, academia, the regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry all contribute to drug discovery, and, in order to translate the basic science into new medical treatments for unmet medical needs, pharmaceutical companies have to have a critical mass of excellent scientists working in many therapeutic fields, disciplines, and technologies. The imperative for the pharmaceutical industry to discover breakthrough medicines is matched by the increasing numbers of first-in-class drugs approved in recent years and reflects the impact of modern drug discovery approaches, technologies, and genomics.

  20. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Woodside


    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT. Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explores the technology devices, and educational implications of policies, device management, security and included components.

  1. Frontier Fields: A Cost-Effective Approach to Bringing Authentic Science to the Education Community (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Lawton, B.; Summers, F.; Ryer, H.


    For more than two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community and the public, and to engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based, curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, and professional development workshops. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. The Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community in a cost-effective way. Frontier Fields observations and results have been, and will continue to be, embedded into existing product lines and professional development offerings. We also are leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog.

  2. DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life (United States)

    Musante, Susan


    This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…

  3. Bringing Research into Educational Practice: Lessons Learned (United States)

    Hille, Katrin


    Bringing research into educational practice is necessary but does not happen automatically. The Transfercenter for Neuroscience and Learning, at the University of Ulm in Germany, is set up to transfer (neuro)scientific knowledge into educational practice. In doing so we have learned why this does not happen automatically, and have tried to make…

  4. The centenary of discovery of radium. (United States)

    Mazeron, J J; Gerbaulet, A


    Henri Becquerel presented the discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie Curie at the Paris Academy of Science on 26th December 1898. One century later, radium has been abandoned, mainly for radiation protection difficulties. It is, however, likely that modern techniques of brachytherapy have inherited to those designed for radium sources, and that radium has cured thousands and thousands patients all over the world for about eighty years. The history of discovery and medical use of radium is summarised.

  5. La Vida: Bringing Biblical Teachings to Life. (United States)

    Obenschain, Rich; Larmor, Jackie


    Adventure programs at Gordon College (Massachusetts), a small Christian liberal arts college, attempt to promote student growth through adventure, community, and solitude; help Christian students develop an experience-based understanding of Biblical teachings they grew up with; and provide opportunities for self-discovery and spiritual experience.…

  6. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  7. Virtual Waterless Port:" BRING THE PORT FORWARD"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Siyuan


    @@ To deal with the crisis,the central government of China carried out"ten major industries stimulating programme",which includes logistics and information industry.Lifting the development of logistics and information industry to a level of national strategy,it shows that the central governments is paying great attention to construct modern logistics service system,cut the costs and improve efficiency,bringing an opportunity for Chinese logistics industry.

  8. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology. (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup


    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy.

  9. Usability of Discovery Portals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.


    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals

  10. Bringing the Science of JWST to the Public (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein


    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background, particularly in the area of spectroscopy. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble., the public hub for scientific information related to JWST, is now open. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; partnering with musicians and artists to link science and art. Augmented reality apps showcase NASA’s telescopes in a format usable by anyone with a smartphone, and visuals from increasingly affordable 3D VR technologies.

  11. Using Multimedia to Bring Science News to the Public (United States)

    O'Riordan, C.; Stein, B.; Lorditch, E. M.


    Creative partnerships between scientists and journalists open new opportunities to bring the excitement of scientific discoveries to wider audiences. Research tells us that the majority of the general public now gets more science and technology news from the Internet than from TV sources (2014 NSF Science and Engineering Indicators). In order to reach these audiences news organizations must embrace multiple forms of multimedia. We will review recent research on how the new multimedia landscape is changing the way that science news is consumed and how news organizations are changing the way they deliver news. News programs like Inside Science, and other examples of new partnerships that deliver research news to journalists, teachers, students, and the general public will be examined. We will describe examples of successful collaborations including an article by a former Newsweek science reporter entitled "My 1975 'Cooling World' Story Doesn't Make Today's Climate Scientists Wrong," which got reprinted in Slate, RealClearScience, and mentioned in and USA Today.

  12. Afterschool Universe - Bringing Astronomy Down to Earth (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Anita; Eyermann, S. E.; Mitchell, S.


    Bring the universe beyond the solar system to middle-schoolers in your community! Afterschool Universe (AU) is a 12-session out-of-school-time astronomy program that explores astronomy concepts through engaging hands-on activities. It introduces participants to the tools of astronomy and takes them on a journey through the universe beyond the solar system. Afterschool programs reach a very diverse population and are offered in a variety of settings where the students go when the school day is over. The afterschool community is looking for quality science programming that will engage the children. AU offers just such an opportunity to bring science and astronomy to this under-served population. The afterschool community all over the country has received this well-tested curriculum very enthusiastically. It recently passed the rigorous NASA Product Review with flying colors. Help us disseminate it far and wide by working with afterschool program providers in your community. AU is ideally run as a partnership between astronomers or EPO professionals and local afterschool program providers. The former contribute content expertise to help train the program leaders while the latter have a deep understanding of their target audience. This program addresses several IYA themes as it works with an audience that doesn't typically get much exposure to astronomy. The adult afterschool program leaders do not usually have science backgrounds and middle school students do not normally get to explore the topics in Afterschool Universe despite their interest in this content. Bring the universe down to earth by engaging adults and children in your community through an Afterschool Universe partnership!

  13. Commercializing medical technology


    Scanlon, Kevin J.; Lieberman, Mark A.


    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical i...

  14. Penicillin: its discovery and early development. (United States)

    Ligon, B Lee


    In August 1928, Alexander Fleming returned from a vacation to his usually messy, disordered laboratory. In one of the Petri dishes that had not been touched by the Lysol, he noticed an unusual phenomenon: separate colonies of staphylococci and, near the dish's edge, a colony of mold approximately 20 mm in diameter. The finding proved to be a watershed in the history of medicine. This discovery lay dormant for some time before other researchers took up the challenge to investigate its clinical possibilities. Two investigators at Oxford, Sir Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, brought penicillin's potential for medical use to fruition and, along with Fleming, shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The discovery and development of penicillin represent one of the most important developments in the annals of medical history. This article presents a brief overview of the events that occurred in the progress from discovery to implementation as a therapeutic agent.

  15. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been......In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...

  16. Computational drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-sheng OU-YANG; Jun-yan LU; Xiang-qian KONG; Zhong-jie LIANG; Cheng LUO; Hualiang JIANG


    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process.Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information,the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow,including target identification and validation,lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests.Over the past decades,computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking,pharmacophore modeling and mapping,de novo design,molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved.In this review,we present an overview of these important computational methods,platforms and successful applications in this field.

  17. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn


    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organi......Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...... their performance....

  18. Reliable knowledge discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Honghua; Smirnov, Evgueni


    Reliable Knowledge Discovery focuses on theory, methods, and techniques for RKDD, a new sub-field of KDD. It studies the theory and methods to assure the reliability and trustworthiness of discovered knowledge and to maintain the stability and consistency of knowledge discovery processes. RKDD has a broad spectrum of applications, especially in critical domains like medicine, finance, and military. Reliable Knowledge Discovery also presents methods and techniques for designing robust knowledge-discovery processes. Approaches to assessing the reliability of the discovered knowledge are introduc

  19. Bringing Drumsticks to Funerals. Jamming as Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck, Lars


    of the improvised music itself are inseparable and interdependant. Learning to jam is argued to be situated in the social practice of jamming, thus prototypically presenting learning to be analyzed as improvised development of practice per se. A discussion of the findings' potential for developing teaching......This ethnographically inspired field study employs social practice theory in analyzing New Orleans jazz and funk musicians' jamming as learning. Through analysis of participant observation and qualitative interviews the study argues that the musicians' participation in collectively improvised...... musical practices such as jam session is characterized by the iterative discovery of new action possibilities in pursuing a collectively negotiated 'common third': the good music. The study further argues that the musicians’ perpetually changing participation in the jam practice and the development...

  20. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) (United States)

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  1. [The centenary of the discovery of radium]. (United States)

    Mazeron, J J; Gerbaulet, A


    Henri Becquerel presented the discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie Curie at the Paris Académie des Sciences on 26th December 1898. One century later, radium has been abandoned, mainly for the reason of radiation safety concerns. It is, however, likely that modern techniques of brachytherapy are the successors of those designed for radium sources, and that radium has cured thousands and thousands patients all over the word for about 80 years. The history of discovery and medical use of radium is summarised.

  2. Applying genetics in inflammatory disease drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkersen, Lasse; Biswas, Shameek; Frederiksen, Klaus Stensgaard;


    Recent groundbreaking work in genetics has identified thousands of small-effect genetic variants throughout the genome that are associated with almost all major diseases. These genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often proposed as a source of future medical breakthroughs. However......, with several notable exceptions, the journey from a small-effect genetic variant to a functional drug has proven arduous, and few examples of actual contributions to drug discovery exist. Here, we discuss novel approaches of overcoming this hurdle by using instead public genetics resources as a pragmatic guide...... alongside existing drug discovery methods. Our aim is to evaluate human genetic confidence as a rationale for drug target selection....

  3. Bringing holism into mainstream biomedical education. (United States)

    Hassed, Craig S


    Introducing holism and complementary medicine into mainstream medical education provides many scientific, philosophical, and personal challenges. The growth of new knowledge always necessitates venturing into areas, which are, by definition, unknown, hence arise potential clashes of ideology, knowledge, evidence, interpretation, language, and personality. This paper outlines some of the experience and progress made at Monash University Victoria, Australia, in teaching this material in undergraduate medical education. The Monash medical course has always been known for its commitment to an integrated curriculum, a holistic perspective, and the personal development of its students. Some of the points of integration in the core curriculum already achieved include health enhancement and mindfulness-based stress management programs right from first year, lectures and forums on complementary medicine, integration of this material into weekly case-based teaching, and health promotion and mind-body medicine. For very interested students, electives provide an opportunity to explore subjects in more depth. Experience has taught us that it is as important to learn how to deliver the message as it is to refine its content. This presents challenges that are as much personal as they are intellectual. Areas of particular importance are the academic environment, language, diplomacy, style, relevance, and evidence. In this process, building relationships, collegiality, patience, objectivity, impartiality, and humor are helpful.

  4. Higgs Discovery Movie

    CERN Multimedia


    The ATLAS & CMS Experiments Celebrate the 2nd Anniversary of the Discovery of the Higgs boson. Here, are some images of the path from LHC startup to Nobel Prize, featuring a musical composition by Roger Zare, performed by the Donald Sinta Quartet, called “LHC”. Happy Discovery Day!

  5. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery. (United States)

    Rosenman, Martin F.


    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  6. Friends' Discovery Camp (United States)

    Seymour, Seth


    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  7. Service discovery at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, Vasughi; Scholten, Hans; Jansen, Pierre; Hartel, Pieter


    Service discovery is a fairly new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between devices. This paper provides an overview and comparison of several promin

  8. Bringing Reflections into the TEFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sri Samiati Tarjana


    Full Text Available Abstract: Reflective practice is defined by John Dewey as a proactive, ongoing examination of beliefs and practices, their origins and impacts. In the reflective practice, the teacher and learners are engaged in a continuous cycle of self-observation and self-evaluation in order to understand their own actions and reactions, and thereby develop the teaching-learning process on an on-going basis. While English is regarded as compulsory in the preparation of more qualified human resources for the country, there are still complaints about the low English mastery of the majority of secondary and tertiary education graduates in Indonesia. It seems likely that bringing the reflective practice in the TEFL classrooms will help improve the teaching-learning of English in a more caring and responsive manner. It is expected that this will not only improve the English mastery, but also develop personal talents and capacities of the learners. The features of reflective practice in TEFL and their advantages for personal and professional development will be further discussed.

  9. Bringing Technology into High School Physics Classrooms (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine


    In an effort to help high school physics teachers bring technology into their classrooms, we at JSU have been offering professional development to secondary education teachers. This effort is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a No-Child Left Behind (NCLB) grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, serving high school physics teachers in Northeast Alabama. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. To achieve IMPACTSEED's goals, we have forged a functional collaboration with school districts from about ten counties. This collaboration is aimed at achieving a double aim: (a) to make physics and chemistry understandable and fun to learn within a hands-on, inquiry-based setting; (b) to overcome the fear- factor for physics and chemistry among students. Through a two-week long summer institute, a series of weekend technology workshops, and onsite support, we have been providing year-round support to the physics/chemistry teachers in this area. This outreach initiative has helped provide our students with a physics/chemistry education that enjoys a great deal of continuity and consistency from high school to college.

  10. Bringing science to the policy table

    CERN Multimedia


    “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore." So says Isaiah 2:4, as transcribed on the famous wall in Ralph Bunche park, just the other side of 1st Avenue from the UN’s New York headquarters, where we held a celebration of our 60th anniversary year on Monday 20 October. I used the quotation in my opening address, since it is such a perfect fit to the theme of 60 years of science for peace and development.   The event was organised with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC, in the framework of CERN’s observer status at the UN, and although focused on CERN, its aim was broader. Presentations used CERN as an example to bring out the vital importance of science in general to the themes of peace and development. The event was presided over by Martin Sajdik, President of ECOSOC, and we were privileged to have presentat...

  11. Poster power brings together electronics community

    CERN Multimedia


    An 'Electronics at CERN' poster session was displayed on the mezzanine in building 500 for two days from 30 November. The display consisted of 20 posters and brought together a wide range of electronic projects designed and assembled by CERN teams and other collaborators involved in the building of the LHC. This was the first time this event had been held. As its organiser John Evans (IT/DES) explained, 'the idea came from the experience of attending conferences outside CERN, where you may find projects from CERN you didn't know about. It's nice to bring them together so we can all benefit from the efforts made.' The work on show spanned different departments and experiments, ranging from microelectronics to equipment designed for giant magnets. The invited audience was equally broad and included engineers, physicists as well as the electronics community at CERN. An informal gathering of all the exhibitors also offered an opportunity to view and discuss the work over a cup of coffee. 'The poster session acts...

  12. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj


    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  13. LHC card games: bringing about retrocausality?

    CERN Document Server

    Silagadze, Z K


    The model of Nielsen and Ninomiya claims that "the SSC (Superconducting Supercollider) were stopped by the US Congress due to the backward causation from the big amounts of Higgs particles, which it would have produced, if it had been allowed to run". They also proposed to play a card game and if the "close LHC" card is drawn (with probability $\\sim 10^{-6}$), really close LHC on the eve of Higgs particle discovery to avoid more severe bad luck. Crazy? Probably. But paraphrasing Salvador Dali, if you believe that you and me are smarter in physics than Nielsen and Ninomiya, don't read this article, just go right on in your blissful idiocy. Therefore, I will try to make sense of backward causation. It turns out that not only the backward causation makes perfect sense in some models of possible reality, but that Nielsen and Ninomiya really have a chance to close LHC by a card game. The only thing they need is to be smart enough to manage to develop their theory up to the level of brilliance beginning from which ...

  14. Bringing the Unidata IDV to the Cloud (United States)

    Fisher, W. I.; Oxelson Ganter, J.


    Maintaining software compatibility across new computing environments and the associated underlying hardware is a common problem for software engineers and scientific programmers. While traditional software engineering provides a suite of tools and methodologies which may mitigate this issue, they are typically ignored by developers lacking a background in software engineering. Causing further problems, these methodologies are best applied at the start of project; trying to apply them to an existing, mature project can require an immense effort. Visualization software is particularly vulnerable to this problem, given the inherent dependency on particular graphics hardware and software API's. As a result of these issues, there exists a large body of software which is simultaneously critical to the scientists who are dependent upon it, and yet increasingly difficult to maintain.The solution to this problem was partially provided with the advent of Cloud Computing; Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations, with little-to-no re-engineering required. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily bring the same visualization software to a desktop, a netbook, a smartphone, and the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be.Unidata has been able to harness Application Streaming to provide a tablet-compatible version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  15. Integrated system brings hospital data together. (United States)

    Johnson, K F


    Healthcare industry changes during the 1980s--increased competition and alterations in the Medicare payment methodology--place new and more complex demands on a hospital's information systems, which often fall short of meeting those demands. These systems were designed for financial reporting, billing, or providing clinical data, and few of them are capable of linking with other unrelated systems. Today's hospital manager needs timely and simultaneous access to data from a variety of sources within the hospital. All the elements to accomplish this are collected somewhere in the hospital, but finding them and bringing them together is difficult. The key to the efficient management and use of data bases is in understanding the fundamental concept of relational data bases, which is the capability of linking or joining separate data files through a common data element in each file. In this way, data files may be integrated into a "related" data base. Any number of separate files, or tables, may exist within a "relational" data base as long as a series of threads links them. A strategic management information data base includes the information necessary to analyze, understand, and manage the hospital's markets, products, resources, and profitability. The major components of this information system are the case mix and cost accounting, budgeting, and modeling systems. The case mix and cost accounting factors involve managing concrete pieces of data, whereas the budgeting and modeling factors manipulate data to create a scenario. The strategic management information data base is the foundation of a hospital's decision support system, which is rapidly moving into the category of a necessary tool of the hospital manager's trade.

  16. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.


    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  17. Medical robotics. (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra


    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  18. Bringing Science out of the Lab into the Classroom (United States)


    Science is moving more rapidly than ever; one groundbreaking discovery chases the next at an incredible speed. School teachers have trouble keeping up with the pace, and many pupils call science classes "boring". Today, Europe's major research organisations launch Science in School, the first international, multidisciplinary journal for innovative science teaching, to provide a platform for communication between science teachers, practising scientists and other stakeholders in science education. ESO PR Photo 12/06 ESO PR Photo 12/06 First Issue! "Science is becoming increasingly international and interdisciplinary," says Eleanor Hayes, editor of the journal. "The most exciting development of the day may happen anywhere in any field: students may suddenly want to talk about a discovery on Mars, a medical breakthrough or a natural disaster. On such days it would be a shame not to put the textbooks aside and to capitalise on that curiosity." Published by EIROforum, a partnership between Europe's seven largest intergovernmental research organisations, Science in School will bridge the gap between the worlds of research and schools. One extremely powerful tool to achieve this is the journal's web-based discussion forum that will establish a direct dialogue between science teachers and researchers across national and subject boundaries. Science in School will appear quarterly online and in print and will feature news about the latest scientific discoveries, teaching materials, interviews with inspiring teachers and scientists, reviews of books, films and websites, suggestions for class trips, training opportunities and many other useful resources for science teachers. Contributors to the first issue include the world-renowned neurologist and author Oliver Sachs, and scientists and teachers from nine countries. "We urgently need to engage young people in science. This is why the research community and the European Commission are committed to outreach and education

  19. The art of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie J. Lee


    Full Text Available "The Art of Discovery" discusses an ambitious educational program taught by the artist which incorporated locative media, contemporary art, site specificity, and creative work as a proposal for the integration of art, technology and science.

  20. The Learning Discovery (United States)

    Prout, Joan


    The learning discovery of youngsters is a do-it-yourself teaching method for clerical, administrative, and accountant trainees at the Bankside House headquarters of the Central Electricity Generating Board's South Eastern Region, London. (Author)

  1. Leadership and Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Goethals, George R


    This book, a collection of essays from scholars across disciplines, explores leadership of discovery, probing the guided and collaborative exploration and interpretation of the experience of our inner thoughts and feelings, and of our external worlds

  2. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia


    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  3. Discovery in a World of Mashups (United States)

    King, T. A.; Ritschel, B.; Hourcle, J. A.; Moon, I. S.


    When the first digital information was stored electronically, discovery of what existed was through file names and the organization of the file system. With the advent of networks, digital information was shared on a wider scale, but discovery remained based on file and folder names. With a growing number of information sources, named based discovery quickly became ineffective. The keyword based search engine was one of the first types of a mashup in the world of Web 1.0. Embedded links from one document to another with prescribed relationships between files and the world of Web 2.0 was formed. Search engines like Google used the links to improve search results and a worldwide mashup was formed. While a vast improvement, the need for semantic (meaning rich) discovery was clear, especially for the discovery of scientific data. In response, every science discipline defined schemas to describe their type of data. Some core schemas where shared, but most schemas are custom tailored even though they share many common concepts. As with the networking of information sources, science increasingly relies on data from multiple disciplines. So there is a need to bring together multiple sources of semantically rich information. We explore how harvesting, conceptual mapping, facet based search engines, search term promotion, and style sheets can be combined to create the next generation of mashups in the emerging world of Web 3.0. We use NASA's Planetary Data System and NASA's Heliophysics Data Environment to illustrate how to create a multi-discipline mash-up.

  4. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj


    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  5. Chemoinformatics and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Hagler


    Full Text Available This article reviews current achievements in the field of chemoinformatics and their impact on modern drug discovery processes. The main data mining approaches used in cheminformatics, such as descriptor computations, structural similarity matrices, and classification algorithms, are outlined. The applications of cheminformatics in drug discovery, such as compound selection, virtual library generation, virtual high throughput screening, HTS data mining, and in silico ADMET are discussed. At the conclusion, future directions of chemoinformatics are suggested.

  6. From the Moon: Bringing Space Science to Diverse Audiences (United States)

    Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.; M3 Science; E/PO Team


    NASA's Apollo missions held a place in the mindset of many Americans - we dared to go someplace where humans had never set foot, a place unknown and beyond our imaginations. These early NASA missions and discoveries resulted in an enhanced public understanding of the Moon. Now, with the human element so far removed from space exploration, students must rely on textbooks, TV's, and computers to build their understanding of our Moon. However, NASA educational materials about the Moon are stale and out-of-date. In addition, they do not effectively address 21st Century Skills, an essential for today's classrooms. Here, we present a three-part model for developing opportunities in lunar science education professional development that is replicable and sustainable and integrates NASA mission-derived data (e.g., Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1). I) With the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better explore and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the imaging spectrometer are incorporated into the M3 Educator's Guide: Seeing the Moon in a New Light. The guide includes an array of activities and lessons to help educators and students understand how NASA is currently exploring the Moon. The guide integrates NASA maps and data into the interactive lessons, bringing the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into the classroom. II) Utilizing the M3 Educator's Guide as well as educational activities from more current NASA lunar missions, we offer two sustained professional development opportunities for educators to explore the Moon through interactive and creative strategies. 1) Geology of the Moon, an online course offered through Montana State University's National Teacher Enhancement Network, is a 3-credit graduate course. 2) Fly Me to the Moon, offered through the College of Charleston's Office of Professional Development in Education, is a two

  7. Work-Based Courses: Bringing College to the Production Line (United States)

    Kobes, Deborah; Girardi, Amy


    Work-based courses are an innovative way to bring college to the production line by using the job as a learning lab. This toolkit provides guidance to community college administrators and faculty who are interested in bringing a work-based course model to their college. It contains video content and teaching tips that introduce the six steps of…

  8. Bring out your codes! Bring out your codes! (Increasing Software Visibility and Re-use) (United States)

    Allen, A.; Berriman, B.; Brunner, R.; Burger, D.; DuPrie, K.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mann, R.; Mink, J.; Sandin, C.; Shortridge, K.; Teuben, P.


    Progress is being made in code discoverability and preservation, but as discussed at ADASS XXI, many codes still remain hidden from public view. With the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL) now indexed by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), the introduction of a new journal, Astronomy & Computing, focused on astrophysics software, and the increasing success of education efforts such as Software Carpentry and SciCoder, the community has the opportunity to set a higher standard for its science by encouraging the release of software for examination and possible reuse. We assembled representatives of the community to present issues inhibiting code release and sought suggestions for tackling these factors. The session began with brief statements by panelists; the floor was then opened for discussion and ideas. Comments covered a diverse range of related topics and points of view, with apparent support for the propositions that algorithms should be readily available, code used to produce published scientific results should be made available, and there should be discovery mechanisms to allow these to be found easily. With increased use of resources such as GitHub (for code availability), ASCL (for code discovery), and a stated strong preference from the new journal Astronomy & Computing for code release, we expect to see additional progress over the next few years.

  9. Knowledge Discovery from Biomedical Ontologies in Cross Domains. (United States)

    Shen, Feichen; Lee, Yugyung


    In recent years, there is an increasing demand for sharing and integration of medical data in biomedical research. In order to improve a health care system, it is required to support the integration of data by facilitating semantic interoperability systems and practices. Semantic interoperability is difficult to achieve in these systems as the conceptual models underlying datasets are not fully exploited. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework, called Medical Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (MedKDD), that aims to build a topic hierarchy and serve the semantic interoperability between different ontologies. For the purpose, we fully focus on the discovery of semantic patterns about the association of relations in the heterogeneous information network representing different types of objects and relationships in multiple biological ontologies and the creation of a topic hierarchy through the analysis of the discovered patterns. These patterns are used to cluster heterogeneous information networks into a set of smaller topic graphs in a hierarchical manner and then to conduct cross domain knowledge discovery from the multiple biological ontologies. Thus, patterns made a greater contribution in the knowledge discovery across multiple ontologies. We have demonstrated the cross domain knowledge discovery in the MedKDD framework using a case study with 9 primary biological ontologies from Bio2RDF and compared it with the cross domain query processing approach, namely SLAP. We have confirmed the effectiveness of the MedKDD framework in knowledge discovery from multiple medical ontologies.

  10. Knowledge Discovery from Biomedical Ontologies in Cross Domains (United States)

    Shen, Feichen; Lee, Yugyung


    In recent years, there is an increasing demand for sharing and integration of medical data in biomedical research. In order to improve a health care system, it is required to support the integration of data by facilitating semantic interoperability systems and practices. Semantic interoperability is difficult to achieve in these systems as the conceptual models underlying datasets are not fully exploited. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework, called Medical Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (MedKDD), that aims to build a topic hierarchy and serve the semantic interoperability between different ontologies. For the purpose, we fully focus on the discovery of semantic patterns about the association of relations in the heterogeneous information network representing different types of objects and relationships in multiple biological ontologies and the creation of a topic hierarchy through the analysis of the discovered patterns. These patterns are used to cluster heterogeneous information networks into a set of smaller topic graphs in a hierarchical manner and then to conduct cross domain knowledge discovery from the multiple biological ontologies. Thus, patterns made a greater contribution in the knowledge discovery across multiple ontologies. We have demonstrated the cross domain knowledge discovery in the MedKDD framework using a case study with 9 primary biological ontologies from Bio2RDF and compared it with the cross domain query processing approach, namely SLAP. We have confirmed the effectiveness of the MedKDD framework in knowledge discovery from multiple medical ontologies. PMID:27548262

  11. Beacons of discovery the worldwide science of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA)


    To discover what our world is made of and how it works at the most fundamental level is the challenge of particle physics. The tools of particle physics—experiments at particle accelerators and underground laboratories, together with observations of space—bring opportunities for discovery never before within reach. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate to design, build and use unique detectors and accelerators to explore the fundamental physics of matter, energy, space and time. Together, in a common world-wide program of discovery, they provide a deep understanding of the world around us and countless benefits to society. Beacons of Discovery presents a vision of the global science of particle physics at the dawn of a new light on the mystery and beauty of the universe.

  12. Bring your own device (BYOD) to work trend report

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Bob


    Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to Work examines the emerging BYOD (Bring Your Own Device to work) trend in corporate IT. BYOD is the practice of employees bringing personally-owned mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets, laptops) to the workplace, and using those devices to access company resources such as email, file servers, and databases. BYOD presents unique challenges in data privacy, confidentiality, security, productivity, and acceptable use that must be met proactively by information security professionals. This report provides solid background on the practice, original res

  13. Discovery of TUG-770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian;


    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical a...

  14. The Scholarship of Discovery. (United States)

    Dobos, Jean


    Contributes to a special issue on how the reconsideration of what scholarship is affects the way in which scholarship is assessed. Examines traditional criteria for evaluating faculty research. Identifies activities pertinent to the scholarship of discovery, and the assessment practices in the field of communication as well as in general use. (SR)

  15. Discovery Education: A Definition. (United States)

    Wilson, Harold C.


    Discovery Education is based on the writings of Henry David Thoreau, an early champion of experiential learning. After 2 months of preparation, 10th-grade students spent 4 days in the wilderness reenacting a piece of history, such as the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The interdisciplinary approach always included journal-writing. Students gained…

  16. Archaeological Discoveries in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    LIAONING Province, in northeastern China, has been inhabited by many ethnic groups since ancient times. It is one of the sites of China’s earliest civilization. Since the 1950s many archaeological discoveries from periods beginning with the Paleolithic of 200,000 years ago, and through all the following historic periods, have been made in the province.

  17. Discovery through Gossip

    CERN Document Server

    Haeupler, Bernhard; Peleg, David; Rajaraman, Rajmohan; Sun, Zhifeng


    We study randomized gossip-based processes in dynamic networks that are motivated by discovery processes in large-scale distributed networks like peer-to-peer or social networks. A well-studied problem in peer-to-peer networks is the resource discovery problem. There, the goal for nodes (hosts with IP addresses) is to discover the IP addresses of all other hosts. In social networks, nodes (people) discover new nodes through exchanging contacts with their neighbors (friends). In both cases the discovery of new nodes changes the underlying network - new edges are added to the network - and the process continues in the changed network. Rigorously analyzing such dynamic (stochastic) processes with a continuously self-changing topology remains a challenging problem with obvious applications. This paper studies and analyzes two natural gossip-based discovery processes. In the push process, each node repeatedly chooses two random neighbors and puts them in contact (i.e., "pushes" their mutual information to each oth...

  18. Cannabinoids: Medical implications. (United States)

    Schrot, Richard J; Hubbard, John R


    Herbal cannabis has been used for thousands of years for medical purposes. With elucidation of the chemical structures of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and with discovery of the human endocannabinoid system, the medical usefulness of cannabinoids has been more intensively explored. While more randomized clinical trials are needed for some medical conditions, other medical disorders, like chronic cancer and neuropathic pain and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, have substantial evidence supporting cannabinoid efficacy. While herbal cannabis has not met rigorous FDA standards for medical approval, specific well-characterized cannabinoids have met those standards. Where medical cannabis is legal, patients typically see a physician who "certifies" that a benefit may result. Physicians must consider important patient selection criteria such as failure of standard medical treatment for a debilitating medical disorder. Medical cannabis patients must be informed about potential adverse effects, such as acute impairment of memory, coordination and judgment, and possible chronic effects, such as cannabis use disorder, cognitive impairment, and chronic bronchitis. In addition, social dysfunction may result at work/school, and there is increased possibility of motor vehicle accidents. Novel ways to manipulate the endocannbinoid system are being explored to maximize benefits of cannabinoid therapy and lessen possible harmful effects.

  19. Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia


    The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.

  20. Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia


    The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.

  1. What to bring to your labor and delivery (United States)

    Prenatal care - what to bring ... underwear, and basic toiletries. While it is nice to have your own clothes with you, labor and ... very messy time, so you may not want to wear your brand-new lingerie. Items you should ...

  2. Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas (United States)

    ... page: Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas ... must be monitored "in the light of ongoing climate change, especially in coastal areas most heavily affected by ...

  3. Translating Stem Cell Biology Into Drug Discovery (United States)

    Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton


    Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application.

  4. Data Warehouse Discovery Framework: The Foundation (United States)

    Apanowicz, Cas

    The cost of building an Enterprise Data Warehouse Environment runs usually in millions of dollars and takes years to complete. The cost, as big as it is, is not the primary problem for a given corporation. The risk that all money allocated for planning, design and implementation of the Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence Environment may not bring the result expected, fare out way the cost of entire effort [2,10]. The combination of the two above factors is the main reason that Data Warehouse/Business Intelligence is often single most expensive and most risky IT endeavor for companies [13]. That situation was the main author's inspiration behind founding of Infobright Corp and later on the concept of Data Warehouse Discovery Framework.

  5. Creating A Guided- discovery Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In a guided - discovery lesson, students sequentially uncover layers of mathematical information one step at a time and learn new mathematics. We have identified eight critical steps necessary in developing a successful guided- discovery lesson.

  6. Pathology in drug discovery and development. (United States)

    Jubb, Adrian M; Koeppen, Hartmut; Reis-Filho, Jorge S


    The rapid pace of drug discovery and drug development in oncology, immunology and ophthalmology brings new challenges; the efficient and effective development of new targeted drugs will require more detailed molecular classifications of histologically homogeneous diseases that show heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To this end, single companion diagnostics for specific drugs will be replaced by multiplex diagnostics for entire therapeutic areas, preserving tissue and enabling rapid molecular taxonomy. The field will move away from the development of new molecular entities as single agents, to which resistance is common. Instead, a detailed understanding of the pathological mechanisms of resistance, in patients and in preclinical models, will be key to the validation of scientifically rational and clinically effective drug combinations. To remain at the heart of disease diagnosis and appropriate management, pathologists must evolve into translational biologists and biomarker scientists. Herein, we provide examples of where this metamorphosis has already taken place, in lung cancer and melanoma, where the transformation has yet to begin, in the use of immunotherapies for ophthalmology and oncology, and where there is fertile soil for a revolution in treatment, in efforts to classify glioblastoma and personalize treatment. The challenges of disease heterogeneity, the regulatory environment and adequate tissue are ever present, but these too are being overcome in dedicated academic centres. In summary, the tools necessary to overcome the 'whens' and 'ifs' of the molecular revolution are in the hands of pathologists today; it is a matter of standardization, training and leadership to bring these into routine practice and translate science into patient benefit. This Annual Review Issue of the Journal of Pathology highlights the central role for pathology in modern drug discovery and development.

  7. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert


    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  8. Chronicles in drug discovery. (United States)

    Davies, Shelley L; Moral, Maria Angels; Bozzo, Jordi


    Chronicles in Drug Discovery features special interest reports on advances in drug discovery. This month we highlight agents that target and deplete immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, which are produced by tumor cells to hinder innate immunity against, or chemotherapies targeting, tumor-associated antigens. Antiviral treatments for respiratory syncytial virus, a severe and prevalent infection in children, are limited due to their side effect profiles and cost. New strategies currently under clinical development include monoclonal antibodies, siRNAs, vaccines and oral small molecule inhibitors. Recent therapeutic lines for Huntington's disease include gene therapies that target the mutated human huntingtin gene or deliver neuroprotective growth factors and cellular transplantation in apoptotic regions of the brain. Finally, we highlight the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties of new compounds targeting the somatostatin receptor subtype sst4, which warrant further study for their potential application as clinical analgesics.

  9. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.


    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  10. The discovery of quarks. (United States)

    Riordan, M


    Quarks are widely recognized today as being among the elementary particles of which matter is composed. The key evidence for their existence came from a series of inelastic electron-nucleon scattering experiments conducted between 1967 and 1973 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Other theoretical and experimental advances of the 1970s confirmed this discovery, leading to the present standard model of elementary particle physics.

  11. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina


    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedsid...

  12. Mathematical models in biological discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Charles


    When I was asked to help organize an American Association for the Advancement of Science symposium about how mathematical models have con­ tributed to biology, I agreed immediately. The subject is of immense importance and wide-spread interest. However, too often it is discussed in biologically sterile environments by "mutual admiration society" groups of "theoreticians", many of whom have never seen, and most of whom have never done, an original scientific experiment with the biolog­ ical materials they attempt to describe in abstract (and often prejudiced) terms. The opportunity to address the topic during an annual meeting of the AAAS was irresistable. In order to try to maintain the integrity ;,f the original intent of the symposium, it was entitled, "Contributions of Mathematical Models to Biological Discovery". This symposium was organized by Daniel Solomon and myself, held during the 141st annual meeting of the AAAS in New York during January, 1975, sponsored by sections G and N (Biological and Medic...

  13. Advances in Chance Discovery : Extended Selection from International Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Akinori


    Since year 2000, scientists on artificial and natural intelligences started to study chance discovery - methods for discovering events/situations that significantly affect decision making. Partially because the editors Ohsawa and Abe are teaching at schools of Engineering and of Literature with sharing the interest in chance discovery, this book reflects interdisciplinary aspects of progress: First, as an interdisciplinary melting pot of cognitive science, computational intelligence, data mining/visualization, collective intelligence, … etc, chance discovery came to reach new application domains e.g. health care, aircraft control, energy plant, management of technologies, product designs, innovations, marketing, finance etc. Second, basic technologies and sciences including sensor technologies, medical sciences, communication technologies etc. joined this field and interacted with cognitive/computational scientists in workshops on chance discovery, to obtain breakthroughs by stimulating each other. Third, �...

  14. Knowledge Discovery in Textual Documentation: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses. (United States)

    Loh, Stanley; De Oliveira, Jose Palazzo M.; Gastal, Fabio Leite


    Presents an application of knowledge discovery in texts (KDT) concerning medical records of a psychiatric hospital. The approach helps physicians to extract knowledge about patients and diseases that may be used for epidemiological studies, for training professionals, and to support physicians to diagnose and evaluate diseases. (Author/AEF)

  15. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery. (United States)

    Mould, R F


    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  16. Literature-related discovery techniques applied to ocular disease : a vitreous restoration example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Los, Leonoor I.


    Purpose of reviewLiterature-related discovery and innovation (LRDI) is a text mining approach for bridging unconnected disciplines to hypothesize radical discovery. Application to medical problems involves identifying key disease symptoms, and identifying causes and treatments for those symptoms fro

  17. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers (United States)

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  18. Does Satisfaction with Teaching Quality Factors Bring Conceptual Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifur Rehman Khan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore classroom teaching quality factors that determine the satisfaction level and ultimately bring conceptual change among students. This study tests the theories of customer satisfaction in educational psychology research on a sample of 972 respondents. Overwhelmingly the results point out that male students were highly dissatisfied and have little impact on conceptual change whereas female students were reported significant level of satisfaction and conceptual change. In conclusion, detailed empirical analyses promote the theory of learning-satisfaction with classroom teaching bring conceptual change.

  19. Medication-wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Ryan (Patrick); D. Madigan (David); P.E. Stang (Paul); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); G. Hripcsak (G.)


    textabstractUndiscovered side effects of drugs can have a profound effect on the health of the nation, and electronic health-care databases offer opportunities to speed up the discovery of these side effects. We applied a "medication-wide association study" approach that combined multivariate analys


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huei HUANG; Pei-Yeh CHANG; Chih-Young HUNG; Kuei-Ing WANG; King-Jen CHANG


    Many countries with health insurance systems conduct periodic payment standards reform. How to reach consensus in setting payment standards among different specialties with different agendas has become a critical issue. The purpose of this study is to construct an analytic hierarchy process (AHP)model to obtain judgments from experts about the importance of "factors related to establishing payment standards in the national health insurance program". Under this goal, the first tier contains four evaluation aspects, and the second tier contains sixteen evaluation criteria divided into four groups.The AHP model was then used to collect and combine the opinions of experts through an empirical study. The results can be directly used to formulate standard values as the basis for establishing payment standards. The results of our study strongly support that an AHP model is effective in forming a consensus among surgical specialists.

  1. Discovery Mondays - 'Eureka! Meet the inventors'

    CERN Multimedia


    Fabio Sauli, the inventor of the GEM detector. Do you imagine an invention as a spontaneous brainchild emergi from the convoluted mind of some scatterbrained and dishevelled scientist? If so, you are mistaken! Join us at Microcosm for the next Discovery Monday at which inventors will be the guests of honour. There you will meet scientists who, thanks to their creativity, have made technological progress possible. By constantly rising to new scientific and technological challenges, CERN has delivered numerous innovations, particularly in the medical field. Members of the Crystal Clear collaboration and the inventor of the GEM detector will give talks about their innovations and their applications, in particular for medical purposes. You will also be able to speak to members of the Medipix collaboration, which is working on improvements to X-ray and gamma ray imaging techniques. The event will be conducted in French. Come to Microcosm, (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 6 February from 7.30 p...

  2. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ... A The toddler months continue to bring the medical challenges of colds , scrapes and bruises, and other ...

  3. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract) (United States)

    Post, R. S.


    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  4. Causality discovery technology (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.


    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  5. Bringing Curriculum Theory and Didactics Together: A Deweyan Perspective (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi


    Using Dewey's method of resolution for resolving a dualism exemplified in "The Child and the Curriculum," this article reconciles and brings together two rival schools of thought--curriculum theory and didactics--in China. The central thesis is that the rapprochement requires a reconceptualisation of curriculum theory and didactics in…

  6. The Chemedian Brings Laughter to the Chemistry Classroom (United States)

    Weitkamp, Emma; Burnet, Frank


    "The Chemedian and the Crazy Football Match" is a comic strip developed by the authors to bring humor to aspects of the UK primary science curriculum. The comic strip was tested in six English primary school classes (years 3-5; ages 7-10); over 150 children participated in the project, together with six teachers. Children found the comic strip fun…

  7. Driven: Bringing German Auto Concepts to the Classroom (United States)

    Adney, Cara


    A world away from the red dirt of Oklahoma, David Shields and Shelly Smith felt right at home. A national grant took the Meridian Technology Center automotive teachers on a trip to Germany that car lovers only dream about. The tour to the major automakers last summer has them geared up and bringing fresh ideas to the classroom. They spent four…

  8. Bringing the LHC and ATLAS to a regional planetarium

    CERN Document Server

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard


    An outreach effort has started at Michigan State University to bring particle physics, the Large Hadron Collider, and the ATLAS experiment to a general audience at the Abrams planetarium on the MSU campus. A team of undergraduate students majoring in physics, communications arts & sciences, and journalism are putting together short clips about ATLAS and the LHC to be shown at the planetarium.

  9. Bringing internet connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthee, K.W.; Mweemba, G.; Pais, A.V.; Starn, G.V.; Rijken, M.


    This paper presents an initiative to bring connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. In particular, it focuses on a proof-of-concept Internet service that has been implemented in rural Macha located in the Southern Province of Zambia. The service operates using satellite terminals

  10. "Bring Your Own Device": Considering Potential Risks to Student Health (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.


    Background and context: Schools in Australia and internationally are increasingly adopting a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) approach to teaching and learning. The review: While discussion of a BYOD approach has taken place, there is a dearth of consideration of the potential impact of BYOD policy on student health. Implementation of a BYOD policy…

  11. Model Testing - Bringing the Ocean into the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian


    Hydrodynamic model testing, the principle of bringing the ocean into the laboratory to study the behaviour of the ocean itself and the response of man-made structures in the ocean in reduced scale, has been known for centuries. Due to an insufficient understanding of the physics involved, however...

  12. Bring Your Own Device: Parental Guidance (PG) Suggested (United States)

    Kiger, Derick; Herro, Dani


    Educators are incorporating students' mobile devices into the schooling experience via Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiatives. This is advantageous for many reasons, most notably, improving access to Internet resources and digital tools in support of teaching and learning. Obtaining parental support is key to BYOD success. Therefore, this study…

  13. On Bringing Industry English Teaching into College English Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of global economy, it’s becoming increasingly important to bring industry English into College English Course. But there are still many problems about industry English teaching in most colleges. This paper will analyze these problems and put forward effective measures to promote industry English teaching.

  14. Excelsior: Bringing the Benefits of Modularisation to Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Paine, Jocelyn


    Excel lacks features for modular design. Had it such features, as do most programming languages, they would save time, avoid unneeded programming, make mistakes less likely, make code-control easier, help organisations adopt a uniform house style, and open business opportunities in buying and selling spreadsheet modules. I present Excelsior, a system for bringing these benefits to Excel.

  15. Using Astrobiology case studies to bring science decision making into the classroom: Mars sample return, exobiology and SETI (United States)

    Race, Margaret

    As citizens and decision makers of the future, today's students need to understand the nature of science and the implications of scientific discoveries and activities in a broad societal context. Astrobiology provides an opportunity to introduce students to real world decision-making involving cutting edge, multidisciplinary research topics that involve Earth, the solar system and beyond. Although textbooks and curricular materials may take years to develop, teachers can easily bring the latest astrobiological discoveries and hypotheses into the classroom in the form of case studies to complement science classes. For example, using basic biological, geological and chemical information from Earth and other planets, students can discuss the same questions that experts consider when planning a Mars Sample Return mission. How would you recognize extraterrestrial life? What would be the impact of bringing martian life to Earth? How should martian samples be handled and tested to determine whether they pose hazards to Earth's biota and ecosystems? If truly martian life exists, what are the implications for future human missions or colonies on the planet? What are the ethical and societal implications of discovering extraterrestrial life, whether in the solar system or beyond? What difference world it make if the extraterrestrial life is microbial and simple vs. intelligent and advanced? By integrating basic science concepts, up-to-date research findings, and information about laws, societal concerns, and public decision making, students can experience first-hand the kind of questions and challenges we're likely to face in the years ahead.

  16. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar


    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  17. Denton Vacuum Discovery-550 Sputterer (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Name: Sputter 2 Similar to the existing 4-Gun Denton Discovery 22 Sputter system, with the following enhancements: Specifications / Capabilities:...

  18. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery. (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas


    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  19. Open source drug discovery--a new paradigm of collaborative research in tuberculosis drug development. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshu; Scaria, Vinod; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Chandra, Nagasuma; Banerjee, Sulagna; Raghunandanan, Muthukurussi V; Pandey, Vikas; Taneja, Bhupesh; Yadav, Jyoti; Dash, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Jaijit; Misra, Amit; Kumar, Anil; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thomas, Zakir; Brahmachari, Samir K


    It is being realized that the traditional closed-door and market driven approaches for drug discovery may not be the best suited model for the diseases of the developing world such as tuberculosis and malaria, because most patients suffering from these diseases have poor paying capacity. To ensure that new drugs are created for patients suffering from these diseases, it is necessary to formulate an alternate paradigm of drug discovery process. The current model constrained by limitations for collaboration and for sharing of resources with confidentiality hampers the opportunities for bringing expertise from diverse fields. These limitations hinder the possibilities of lowering the cost of drug discovery. The Open Source Drug Discovery project initiated by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India has adopted an open source model to power wide participation across geographical borders. Open Source Drug Discovery emphasizes integrative science through collaboration, open-sharing, taking up multi-faceted approaches and accruing benefits from advances on different fronts of new drug discovery. Because the open source model is based on community participation, it has the potential to self-sustain continuous development by generating a storehouse of alternatives towards continued pursuit for new drug discovery. Since the inventions are community generated, the new chemical entities developed by Open Source Drug Discovery will be taken up for clinical trial in a non-exclusive manner by participation of multiple companies with majority funding from Open Source Drug Discovery. This will ensure availability of drugs through a lower cost community driven drug discovery process for diseases afflicting people with poor paying capacity. Hopefully what LINUX the World Wide Web have done for the information technology, Open Source Drug Discovery will do for drug discovery.

  20. Abortion - medical (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  1. Oral Medication (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  2. The journey from discoveries in fundamental immunology to cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Miller, Jacques F A P; Sadelain, Michel


    Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy have directly built on 50 years of fundamental and technological advances that made checkpoint blockade and T cell engineering possible. In this review, we intend to show that research, not specifically designed to bring relief or cure to any particular disease, can, when creatively exploited, lead to spectacular results in the management of cancer. The discovery of thymus immune function, T cells, and immune surveillance bore the seeds for today's targeted immune interventions and chimeric antigen receptors.

  3. New Completeness Methods for Estimating Exoplanet Discoveries by Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert A


    We report new methods for evaluating realistic observing programs that search stars for planets by direct imaging, where observations are selected from an optimized star list, and where stars can be observed multiple times. We show how these methods bring critical insight into the design of the mission & its instruments. These methods provide an estimate of the outcome of the observing program: the probability distribution of discoveries (detection and/or characterization), & an estimate of the occurrence rate of planets (eta). We show that these parameters can be accurately estimated from a single mission simulation, without the need for a complete Monte Carlo mission simulation, & we prove the accuracy of this new approach. Our methods provide the tools to define a mission for a particular science goal, for example defined by the expected number of discoveries and its confidence level. We detail how an optimized star list can be built & how successive observations can be selected. Our approa...

  4. SocialScope: Enabling Information Discovery on Social Content Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Amer-Yahia, Sihem; Yu, Cong


    Recently, many content sites have started encouraging their users to engage in social activities such as adding buddies on Yahoo! Travel and sharing articles with their friends on New York Times. This has led to the emergence of {\\em social content sites}, which is being facilitated by initiatives like OpenID ( and OpenSocial ( These community standards enable the open access to users' social profiles and connections by individual content sites and are bringing content-oriented sites and social networking sites ever closer. The integration of content and social information raises new challenges for {\\em information management and discovery} over such sites. We propose a logical architecture, named \\kw{SocialScope}, consisting of three layers, for tackling the challenges. The {\\em content management} layer is responsible for integrating, maintaining and physically accessing the content and social data. The {\\em information discovery} layer takes care of analyz...

  5. Medical Virology in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaw Bing Chua


    Virology is a branch of biological science dealing with the study of viruses, and medical virology focuses on the study and control of diseases due to viruses that is of medical importance. The development of medical virology in Malaysia has its beginning in the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), following the establishment of the Division of Medical Zoology and Virus Research in the institute on 23 March 1953. The second institution in the country to establish diagnostic and research work in medical virology was Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya. This was followed by University Kebangsaan Malaysia, University Sains Malaysia and University of Sarawak Malaysia. The National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) is the latest institution to establish a laboratory in 2003 for virus isolation and services to support country surveillance and outbreak investigation of infectious diseases due to viruses. In the field of medical virology, Malaysia contributed substantially in the areas of virus diagnostic services, development and research ranging from survey and documentation on the existence and prevalence of viruses causing diseases in Malaysia, clinical presentation and epidemiological features of virus diseases, evaluation of new diagnostic tests to pathogenesis of viral diseases. Malaysia contributed to the discoveries of at least 12 new viruses in the world. ASEAN plus Three (China, Japan, Republic of Korea) Emerging Infectious Programme was established to overcome the challenges and impact of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in this region. Malaysia as the co-ordinator of the laboratory component of the programme, contributed to strengthen the regional laboratory capability, capacity, laboratory-based surveillance and networking. The future of medical virology in Malaysia in terms of integration of diagnostic, reference and research to support the country's need will be enhanced and strengthened with the on

  6. Interpretation of a discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Vladan


    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of the theory of asynchronous motors since Tesla’s discovery until the present day. The theory of steady state, as we know it today, was completed already during the first dozen of years. That was followed by a period of stagnation during a number of decades, when the theory of asynchronous motors was developed only in the framework of the general theory of electric machines, which was stimulated by the problems of the development of synchronous generators and big electric networks. It is only in our time that this simple motor, which was used for a long time just to perform crude tasks, became again the inspiration for the researchers and engineers who enabled it, with the help of power electronics and semi-conductor technology, to be used in the finest drives.

  7. Bringing RNA Interference (RNAi) into the High School Classroom (United States)

    Sengupta, Sibani


    RNA interference (abbreviated RNAi) is a relatively new discovery in the field of mechanisms that serve to regulate gene expression (a.k.a. protein synthesis). Gene expression can be regulated at the transcriptional level (mRNA production, processing, or stability) and at the translational level (protein synthesis). RNAi acts in a gene-specific…

  8. [Knowledge discovery in database and its application in clinical diagnosis]. (United States)

    Lui, Hui; Qiu, Tianshuang


    Nowadays the tremendous amount of data has far exceeded our human ability for comprehension, and this has been particularly true for the medical database. However, traditional statistical techniques are no longer adequate for analyzing this vast collection of data. Knowledge discovery in database and data mining play an important role in analyzing data and uncovering important data patterns. This paper briefly presents the concepts of knowledge discovery in database and data mining, then describes the rough set theory, and gives some examples based on rough set.

  9. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Thoennessen


    Of the about 3000 isotopes presently known, about 20% have been discovered in fission. The history of fission as it relates to the discovery of isotopes as well as the various reaction mechanisms leading to isotope discoveries involving fission are presented.

  10. Discovery Learning Strategies in English (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.


    The study substantiates that the effectiveness of Discovery Learning method in learning English Grammar for the learners at standard V. Discovery Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning a second language. It promotes peer interaction and development of the language and the learning of concepts with content. Reichert and…

  11. A Proposal for Measuring Interactivity that Brings Learning Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosh Yamamoto


    Full Text Available It is proposed in this paper that some type of way to measure and visualize interactivity in the multimedia or e-Learning contents is necessary in order to clearly identify interactivity that brings learning effectiveness. Interactivity during learning will arouse students’ intellectual curiosity and motivate them to learn further. Although the interaction in the communication between the teacher and his/her students in a regular classroom is ideal, it is not possible to maintain the equivalence in the multimedia or e-Learning contents. In order to rigorously formalize the field of measuring interactivity as a theory, theoretical constructs such as interactivity, interest, knowledge, and experience are redefined first. Then, the defined “interactivity” is broken down to subcomponents to develop an assessment tool for the interactivity which brings learning effectiveness. In the end, it is proved that the interactivity in learning can be measured.

  12. 29 CFR 2700.56 - Discovery; general. (United States)


    ...(c) or 111 of the Act has been filed. 30 U.S.C. 815(c) and 821. (e) Completion of discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery; general. 2700.56 Section 2700.56 Labor... Hearings § 2700.56 Discovery; general. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or...

  13. Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Legêne


    Full Text Available Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antillean islands in the Caribbean. Bosma traces the development of postcolonial immigrant organizations. In interaction with government policies, these organizations moved from mere socioeconomic emancipation struggles to mere cultural identity politics. Van Leeuwen takes such cultural identity politics as the starting point for her analysis of Indo-Dutch and Dutch Indies cultural initiatives and the competing interests at stake in the Indies heritage discourse. Oostindie discusses these developments in terms of community development and change within Dutch society at large. He introduces the notion of a ‘postcolonial bonus’. In postcolonial Netherlands, this bonus was available to immigrants on the grounds of a shared colonial past. Today, this bonus is (almost spent. The review discusses the three monographs, as well as the coherence of Bringing History Home as a research programme. Legêne argues, that notwithstanding valuable research outcomes, the very category of postcolonial immigrants does not constitute a convincing category of analysis.

  14. The role of industry in bringing foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) to the market. (United States)

    Leathwood, P; MacLean, W; Uauy, R


    The process of bringing new food products from innovation to implementation requires a high level of interaction between researchers, marketers, and consumers. Researchers from industry and academia have the task of developing products that are not only efficacious, but also have a high probability of consumer acceptance. For most foods, industry must provide the most leadership in finding new product concepts, determining which products will have the widest markets, and in funding research and development. To accomplish these tasks, industry has forged partnerships with academic centers and scientists who excel in research and development, and continues to search for the best ways to communicate with consumers. For some FSMPs, other considerations, such as medical and nutritional needs (e.g., products for inborn errors of metabolism), might change the pattern of industry leadership. The following article explores the ways in which industry can facilitate the development and acceptance of beneficial and marketable food products.

  15. Academic medical product development: an emerging alliance of technology transfer organizations and the CTSA. (United States)

    Rose, Lynn M; Everts, Maaike; Heller, Caren; Burke, Christine; Hafer, Nathaniel; Steele, Scott


    To bring the benefits of science more quickly to patient care, the NIH National Center Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) supports programs that enhance the development, testing, and implementation of new medical products and procedures. The NCATS clinical and translational science award (CTSA) program is central to that mission; creating an academic home for clinical and translational science and supporting those involved in the discovery and development of new health-related inventions. The technology transfer Offices (TTO) of CTSA-funded universities can be important partners in the development process; facilitating the transfer of medical research to the commercial sector for further development and ultimately, distribution to patients. The Aggregating Intellectual Property (IP) Working Group (AWG) of the CTSA public private partnerships key function committee (PPP-KFC) developed a survey to explore how CTSA-funded institutions currently interface with their respective TTOs to support medical product development. The results suggest a range of relationships across institutions; approximately half have formal collaborative programs, but only a few have well-connected programs. Models of collaborations are described and provided as examples of successful CTSA/TTO partnerships that have increased the value of health-related inventions as measured by follow-on funding and industry involvement; either as a consulting partner or licensee.

  16. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia


    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  17. Discoveries in peripartum cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Fett, James D; Markham, David W


    The past decade has seen remarkable gains for outcomes in peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in the USA and many other countries, including the high-incidence areas of Haiti and South Africa. This review article emphasizes the importance of continuing the process of increasing awareness of PPCM and presents details of this evolving picture, including important discoveries that point the way to full recovery for almost all PPCM subjects. In addition, new interventions will be highlighted, which may facilitate recovery. Numerous studies have demonstrated that when the diagnosis of PPCM is made with LVEF > 0.30, the probability is that recovery to LVEF ≥ 0.50 will occur in the overwhelming majority of subjects. PPCM patients diagnosed with severely depressed systolic function (LVEF < 0.30) and a remodeled left ventricle with greater dilatation (LVEDd ≥ 60mm) are least likely to reach the outcome recovery goals. These are the patients with the greatest need for newer interventional strategies.

  18. Moments of discovery. (United States)

    Berg, Paul


    Devoted teachers and mentors during early childhood and adolescence nurtured my ambition to become a scientist, but it was not until I actually began doing experiments in college and graduate school that I was confident about that choice and of making it a reality. During my postdoctoral experiences and thereafter, I made several significant advances, most notably the discovery of the then novel acyl- and aminoacyl adenylates: the former as intermediates in fatty acyl coenzyme A (CoA) formation and the latter as precursors to aminoacyl tRNAs. In the early 1970s, my research changed from a focus on transcription and translation in Escherichia coli to the molecular genetics of mammalian cells. To that end, my laboratory developed a method for creating recombinant DNAs that led us and others, over the next two decades, to create increasingly sophisticated ways for introducing "foreign" DNAs into cultured mammalian cells and to target modifications of specific chromosomal loci. Circumstances surrounding that work drew me into the public policy debates regarding recombinant DNA practices. As an outgrowth of my commitment to teaching, I co-authored several textbooks on molecular genetics and a biography of George Beadle. The colleagues, students, and wealth of associates with whom I interacted have made being a scientist far richer than I can have imagined.

  19. Coal Discovery Trail officially opens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinger, C. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Sparwood, BC (Canada)


    The opening of the 30-kilometre Coal Discovery Trail in August is described. The trail, through a pine, spruce, and larch forest, extends from Sparwood to Fernie and passes through Hosmer, a historic mining site. The trail, part of the Elk Valley Coal Discovery Centre, will be used for hiking, bicycling, horseback riding, and cross-country skiing. The Coal Discovery Centre will provide an interpretive centre that concentrates on history of coal mining and miners, preservation of mining artifacts and sites, and existing technology. 3 figs.

  20. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert


    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Knowledge, as intellectual capital, has become the main resource of anorganization, and the process of knowledge discovery, acquisition and storage is a very important one. Knowledge discovery can be easily realized through Data Mining, a Machine Learning technique, which allows the discovery of useful knowledge from a large amount of data, this knowledge supporting the decision process. A proper knowledge management of the discovered knowledge is able to improve the organization’s results and will lead to increasing the intellectualcapital, the result being a more efficient management.

  2. Cyberinfrastructure for Atmospheric Discovery (United States)

    Wilhelmson, R.; Moore, C. W.


    Each year across the United States, floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds, lightning, hurricanes, and winter storms cause hundreds of deaths, routinely disrupt transportation and commerce, and result in billions of dollars in annual economic losses . MEAD and LEAD are two recent efforts aimed at developing the cyberinfrastructure for studying and forecasting these events through collection, integration, and analysis of observational data coupled with numerical simulation, data mining, and visualization. MEAD (Modeling Environment for Atmospheric Discovery) has been funded for two years as an NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Alliance Expedition. The goal of this expedition has been the development/adaptation of cyberinfrastructure that will enable research simulations, datamining, machine learning and visualization of hurricanes and storms utilizing the high performance computing environments including the TeraGrid. Portal grid and web infrastructure are being tested that will enable launching of hundreds of individual WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) simulations. In a similar way, multiple Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) or WRF/ROMS simulations can be carried out. Metadata and the resulting large volumes of data will then be made available for further study and for educational purposes using analysis, mining, and visualization services. Initial coupling of the ROMS and WRF codes has been completed and parallel I/O is being implemented for these models. Management of these activities (services) are being enabled through Grid workflow technologies (e.g. OGCE). LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) is a recently funded 5-year, large NSF ITR grant that involves 9 institutions who are developing a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology, particularly one that can interoperate with others being developed. LEAD is addressing the fundamental information technology (IT) research challenges needed

  3. Bring Your Own Device - Providing Reliable Model of Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stąpór Paweł


    Full Text Available The article presents a model of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD as a model network, which provides the user reliable access to network resources. BYOD is a model dynamically developing, which can be applied in many areas. Research network has been launched in order to carry out the test, in which as a service of BYOD model Work Folders service was used. This service allows the user to synchronize files between the device and the server. An access to the network is completed through the wireless communication by the 802.11n standard. Obtained results are shown and analyzed in this article.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Newman


    Full Text Available “See, the Conqu’ring Hero Comes” goes the famous chorus from Handel’s Judas Maccabeus, but how does the hero conquer? Achilles defeats his enemies through his extraordinary prowess in battle, Odysseus by using his wit, but some heroes must abandon the trappings of civilization in order to conquer. This paper examines two examples of such heroes from Germanic and Greco-Roman myth: Beowulf and Herakles. In the texts analyzed, these heroes not only set aside their civilized veneer, but must journey into the territory of the monster they wish to destroy and there use savagery to defeat the savage, in order to bring civilization.

  5. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi;


    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  6. Discovery of the Cobalt Isotopes


    Szymanski, T.; Thoennessen, M.


    Twenty-six cobalt isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, A; Heim, M; Schuh, A; Thoennessen, M


    Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Discovery – Development of Rituximab (United States)

    NCI funded the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibody cancer treatments. With the discovery of rituximab, more than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphoma now live five years past their initial diagnosis.

  9. Taxonomy Enabled Discovery (TED) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal addresses the NASA's need to enable scientific discovery and the topic's requirements for: processing large volumes of data, commonly available on the...

  10. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  11. Drug design and discovery: translational biomedical science varies among countries. (United States)

    Weaver, Ian N; Weaver, Donald F


    Drug design and discovery is an innovation process that translates the outcomes of fundamental biomedical research into therapeutics that are ultimately made available to people with medical disorders in many countries throughout the world. To identify which nations succeed, exceed, or fail at the drug design/discovery endeavor--more specifically, which countries, within the context of their national size and wealth, are "pulling their weight" when it comes to developing medications targeting the myriad of diseases that afflict humankind--we compiled and analyzed a comprehensive survey of all new drugs (small molecular entities and biologics) approved annually throughout the world over the 20-year period from 1991 to 2010. Based upon this analysis, we have devised prediction algorithms to ascertain which countries are successful (or not) in contributing to the worldwide need for effective new therapeutics.

  12. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter


    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  13. Medical Management (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  14. Medical Geology : a globally emerging discipline


    Joseph E. Bunnell; Robert B. Finkelman; Centeno, Jose A.; Selinus, O. (Olle)


    Medical Geology, the study of the impacts of geologic materials and processes on animal and human health, is a dynamic emerging discipline bringing together the geoscience, biomedical, and public health communities to solve a wide range of environmental health problems. Among the Medical Geology described in this review are examples of both deficiency and toxicity of trace element exposure. Goiter is a widespread and potentially serious health problem caused by deficiency of iodine. In many l...

  15. Computational methods in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu P. Leelananda


    Full Text Available The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery projects. Additionally, increasing knowledge of biological structures, as well as increasing computer power have made it possible to use computational methods effectively in various phases of the drug discovery and development pipeline. The importance of in silico tools is greater than ever before and has advanced pharmaceutical research. Here we present an overview of computational methods used in different facets of drug discovery and highlight some of the recent successes. In this review, both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery methods are discussed. Advances in virtual high-throughput screening, protein structure prediction methods, protein–ligand docking, pharmacophore modeling and QSAR techniques are reviewed.

  16. The importance of chronobiology to drug discovery. (United States)

    Farrow, Stuart N; Solari, Roberto; Willson, Timothy M


    Drug discovery scientists, faced with the myriad challenges involved in developing novel therapeutics as medicines, have tended to overlook the question of the most beneficial time to administer the drug. Recent developments in our understanding of circadian biology and the availability of tools to characterise the molecular clock indicate that time and duration of dosing may have profound consequences for the efficacy and safety of new and existing therapeutic agents. Progress in the field also suggests that many key physiological mechanisms are remarkably dependent on the circadian clock. It has also become clear that a number of diseases with important unmet medical need display marked circadian variation in their symptoms and severity. These discoveries now reveal opportunities for new therapeutic strategies to be developed that act by modulation of biological rhythms. These novel therapeutic approaches are likely to be facilitated by the continuing development of chemical probes and synthetic ligands targeted to an increasing number of the key proteins that regulate the molecular clock.

  17. Discovery Mondays: crystals and particles for medicine

    CERN Multimedia


    Question: what are as heavy as lead, as clear as glass, and appear as tiny specks in a doctor's scanner but large as life in a physicist's detector? Answer: the crystals you will be able to observe in all their facets on 1 September at the start of a new season of Discovery Mondays at Microcosm. Come along and meet the CERN physicists who use crystals not only in their detectors but also in the latest generation of scanners. Four workshops will be organised, each devoted to a different medical imaging technique. The first workshop will be run by a physicist from the Crystal Clear collaboration, who will present her collaboration's special breed of crystals, which emit light when they are traversed by high-energy particles, and explain to you these crystals' role in Positron Emission Tomographs. The second workshop will focus on an imaging technique known as the Compton Camera, also based on scintillating crystals. Crystals worth looking at and admiring. Come to the next Discovery Monday to find out how they ...

  18. Database systems for knowledge-based discovery. (United States)

    Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Kishan, K V Radha


    Several database systems have been developed to provide valuable information from the bench chemist to biologist, medical practitioner to pharmaceutical scientist in a structured format. The advent of information technology and computational power enhanced the ability to access large volumes of data in the form of a database where one could do compilation, searching, archiving, analysis, and finally knowledge derivation. Although, data are of variable types the tools used for database creation, searching and retrieval are similar. GVK BIO has been developing databases from publicly available scientific literature in specific areas like medicinal chemistry, clinical research, and mechanism-based toxicity so that the structured databases containing vast data could be used in several areas of research. These databases were classified as reference centric or compound centric depending on the way the database systems were designed. Integration of these databases with knowledge derivation tools would enhance the value of these systems toward better drug design and discovery.

  19. Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA


    "New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to

  20. Bringing Technology into college and High School Physics Classrooms (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine


    We want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to college and high school physics classrooms. We focus in particular on our outreach initiative in supporting a number of school districts with ways to improve high school physics education. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a No-Child Left Behind grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. IMPACTSEED aims at helping high school teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama course of study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of programs: a two-week long summer institute, a series of five technology workshops, and onsite year-round support. Through our hands-on approach, we have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms. A number of technology projects were assigned to the teachers so as to show their students how physics connects to the technological devices around us. IMPACTSEED aims at providing our students with a physics education that enjoys continuity and consistency from high school to college.

  1. A Review of Bring Your Own Device on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olalere


    Full Text Available Mobile computing has supplanted internet computing because of the proliferation of cloud-based applications and mobile devices (such as smartphones, palmtops, and tablets. As a result of this, workers bring their mobile devices to the workplace and use them for enterprise work. The policy of allowing the employees to work with their own personal mobile devices is called Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD. In this article, we discuss BYOD’s background, prevalence, benefits, challenges, and possible security attacks. We then review contributions of academic researchers on BYOD. The Universiti Putra Malaysia online databases (such as IEEE Xplore digital library, Elsevier, Springer, ACM digital library were used to search for peer-reviewed academic publications and other relevant publications on BYOD. The Google Scholar search engine was also used. Our thorough review shows that security issues comprise the most significant challenge confronting BYOD policy and that very little has been done to tackle this security challenge. It is our hope that this review will provide a theoretical background for future research and enable researchers to identify researchable areas of BYOD.

  2. [Activity of NTDs Drug-discovery Research Consortium]. (United States)

    Namatame, Ichiji


    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an extremely important issue facing global health care. To improve "access to health" where people are unable to access adequate medical care due to poverty and weak healthcare systems, we have established two consortiums: the NTD drug discovery research consortium, and the pediatric praziquantel consortium. The NTD drug discovery research consortium, which involves six institutions from industry, government, and academia, as well as an international non-profit organization, is committed to developing anti-protozoan active compounds for three NTDs (Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness). Each participating institute will contribute their efforts to accomplish the following: selection of drug targets based on information technology, and drug discovery by three different approaches (in silico drug discovery, "fragment evolution" which is a unique drug designing method of Astellas Pharma, and phenotypic screening with Astellas' compound library). The consortium has established a brand new database (Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Database; iNTRODB), and has selected target proteins for the in silico and fragment evolution drug discovery approaches. Thus far, we have identified a number of promising compounds that inhibit the target protein, and we are currently trying to improve the anti-protozoan activity of these compounds. The pediatric praziquantel consortium was founded in July 2012 to develop and register a new praziquantel pediatric formulation for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Astellas Pharma has been a core member in this consortium since its establishment, and has provided expertise and technology in the area of pediatric formulation development and clinical development.

  3. Bringing home the health humanities: narrative humility, structural competency, and engaged pedagogy. (United States)

    Tsevat, Rebecca K; Sinha, Anoushka A; Gutierrez, Kevin J; DasGupta, Sayantani


    As health humanities programs grow and thrive across the country, encouraging medical students to read, write, and become more reflective about their professional roles, educators must bring a sense of self-reflexivity to the discipline itself. In the health humanities, novels, patient histories, and pieces of reflective writing are often treated as architectural spaces or "homes" that one can enter and examine. Yet, narrative-based learning in health care settings does not always allow its participants to feel "at home"; when not taught with a critical attention to power and pedagogy, the health humanities can be unsettling and even dangerous. Educators can mitigate these risks by considering not only what they teach but also how they teach it.In this essay, the authors present three pedagogical pillars that educators can use to invite learners to engage more fully, develop critical awareness of medical narratives, and feel "at home" in the health humanities. These pedagogical pillars are narrative humility (an awareness of one's prejudices, expectations, and frames of listening), structural competency (attention to sources of power and privilege), and engaged pedagogy (the protection of students' security and well-being). Incorporating these concepts into pedagogical practices can create safe and productive classroom spaces for all, including those most vulnerable and at risk of being "unhomed" by conventional hierarchies and oppressive social structures. This model then can be translated through a parallel process from classroom to clinic, such that empowered, engaged, and cared-for learners become empowering, engaging, and caring clinicians.

  4. Once Upon a Time ... Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia


    In 1956, a year and a half after the establishment of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, the states of the "socialist bloc" signed an agreement establishing a similar international centre for the study of fundamental problems in physics: the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR. The seat of the Institute was chosen to be the town of Dubna, 120 km north of Moscow. Though the establish-ment of JINR was clearly a political response, during the Cold War, to the establishment of CERN, from the very beginning the Institute's activities were aimed solely at investigating the fundamental properties of matter and using scientific discoveries for peaceful purposes.

  5. Medication safety. (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W


    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  6. 43 CFR 4.1130 - Discovery methods. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery methods. 4.1130 Section 4.1130... Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Discovery § 4.1130 Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods— (a) Depositions upon...

  7. 37 CFR 2.120 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Procedure in Inter Partes Proceedings § 2.120 Discovery. (a... develop a disclosure and discovery plan, the scope, timing and sequence of discovery, protective orders... foreign countries. (1) The discovery deposition of a natural person residing in a foreign country who is...

  8. 14 CFR 1264.120 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.120 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1264.120 Section 1264.120..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate...

  9. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money... to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery...

  10. 38 CFR 42.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 42.21 Section... creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only...

  11. In silico pharmacology for a multidisciplinary drug discovery process. (United States)

    Ortega, Santiago Schiaffino; Cara, Luisa Carlota López; Salvador, María Kimatrai


    The process of bringing new and innovative drugs, from conception and synthesis through to approval on the market can take the pharmaceutical industry 8-15 years and cost approximately $1.8 billion. Two key technologies are improving the hit-to-drug timeline: high-throughput screening (HTS) and rational drug design. In the latter case, starting from some known ligand-based or target-based information, a lead structure will be rationally designed to be tested in vitro or in vivo. Computational methods are part of many drug discovery programs, including the assessment of ADME (absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion) and toxicity (ADMET) properties of compounds at the early stages of discovery/development with impressive results. The aim of this paper is to review, in a simple way, some of the most popular strategies used by modelers and some successful applications on computational chemistry to raise awareness of its importance and potential for an actual multidisciplinary drug discovery process.

  12. High throughput screening for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug discovery. (United States)

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Rodríguez, Ana


    The discovery of new therapeutic options against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, stands as a fundamental need. Currently, there are only two drugs available to treat this neglected disease, which represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Both available therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant toxic side effects and their efficacy against the life-threatening symptomatic chronic stage of the disease is variable. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, improved anti-T. cruzi drugs. With the objective to reliably accelerate the drug discovery process against Chagas disease, several advances have been made in the last few years. Availability of engineered reporter gene expressing parasites triggered the development of phenotypic in vitro assays suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) as well as the establishment of new in vivo protocols that allow faster experimental outcomes. Recently, automated high content microscopy approaches have also been used to identify new parasitic inhibitors. These in vitro and in vivo early drug discovery approaches, which hopefully will contribute to bring better anti-T. cruzi drug entities in the near future, are reviewed here.

  13. High throughput screening for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Padilla


    Full Text Available The discovery of new therapeutic options against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, stands as a fundamental need. Currently, there are only two drugs available to treat this neglected disease, which represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Both available therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant toxic side effects and their efficacy against the life-threatening symptomatic chronic stage of the disease is variable. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, improved anti-T. cruzi drugs. With the objective to reliably accelerate the drug discovery process against Chagas disease, several advances have been made in the last few years. Availability of engineered reporter gene expressing parasites triggered the development of phenotypic in vitro assays suitable for high throughput screening (HTS as well as the establishment of new in vivo protocols that allow faster experimental outcomes. Recently, automated high content microscopy approaches have also been used to identify new parasitic inhibitors. These in vitro and in vivo early drug discovery approaches, which hopefully will contribute to bring better anti-T. cruzi drug entities in the near future, are reviewed here.

  14. The role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders I: Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Campos, Helineide Cristina; da Rocha, Miguel Divino; Viegas, Flávia Pereira Dias; Nicastro, Patrícia Carolina; Fossaluzza, Poliana Calve; Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Viegas, Claudio


    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are currently incurable pathologies with huge social and economic impacts closely related to the increasing of life expectancy in modern times. Although the clinical and neuropathological aspects of these debilitating disorders are distinct, they share a pattern of neurodegeneration in anatomically or functionally related regions. For each disease, presently available treatments only address symptoms and do not alter the course or progression of the underlying diseases. In this context, the search for new effective chemical entities, capable of acting on diverse biochemical targets, with new mechanisms of action and low toxicity are genuine challenges to research groups and the pharmaceutical industry. This medical need has led to the reemerging of modern natural products chemistry that has yielded sophisticated and complex new lead molecules for drug discovery and development. In this review we discuss some of the main contributions of the natural products chemistry that covers multiple and varied plant species. Advances in the discovery of active constituents of plants, herbs, and extracts prescribed by traditional medicine practices for the treatment of senile neurodegenerative disorders, especially for PD, in the period after the 2000s is reviewed. The most important contributions from the 1990s are also discussed. The review also focuses on the pharmacological mechanisms of action that might underlie the purported beneficial improvements in memory and cognition, neurovascular function, and in neuroprotection. It is concluded that natural product chemistry brings tremendous diversity and historical precedent to a huge area of unmet medical need.

  15. Marie Curie's contribution to Medical Physics. (United States)

    Jean-Claude, Rosenwald; Nüsslin, Fridtjof


    On occasion of its 50th anniversary, the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) from now on is going to celebrate annually an International Day of Medical Physics for which the 7th November, the birthday of Marie Sklodowska Curie, a most exceptional character in science at all and a pioneer of medical physics, has been chosen. This article briefly outlines her outstanding personality, sketches her fundamental discovery of radioactivity and emphasizes the impact of her various achievements on the development of medical physics at large.

  16. Medical waste: a minimal hazard. (United States)

    Keene, J H


    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Mathematical models in biology bringing mathematics to life

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Maria; Guarracino, Mario


    This book presents an exciting collection of contributions based on the workshop “Bringing Maths to Life” held October 27-29, 2014 in Naples, Italy.  The state-of-the art research in biology and the statistical and analytical challenges facing huge masses of data collection are treated in this Work. Specific topics explored in depth surround the sessions and special invited sessions of the workshop and include genetic variability via differential expression, molecular dynamics and modeling, complex biological systems viewed from quantitative models, and microscopy images processing, to name several. In depth discussions of the mathematical analysis required to extract insights from complex bodies of biological datasets, to aid development in the field novel algorithms, methods and software tools for genetic variability, molecular dynamics, and complex biological systems are presented in this book. Researchers and graduate students in biology, life science, and mathematics/statistics will find the content...

  18. Research and Service Support: Bringing Users to Data (United States)

    Delgado Blasco, Jose Manuel; Sabatino, Giovanni; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo; Marchetti, Pier Giorgio


    The ESA Research and Service Support (RSS) service has the mission to support the Earth Observation (EO) data exploitation, by an operational pilot of the new paradigm "bring users to data" [1]. This approach fits well the challenges posed by larger data availability, from more missions, more frequently. It dramatically lowers the barriers to perform research activities, to develop algorithms and downstream services reducing the effort and resources needed by the EO users. This objective is achieved by (i) offering tools and services to the EO community granting a fast and easy data access (i.e. without the need to transfer the data into the scientist "own" infrastructure) and real (offered by RSS) scalable processing resources , and (ii) by supporting the researchers in developing new algorithms, enabling results visualization, verification, validation and sharing.

  19. The Supernova Club: Bringing Space Science to Urban Youths (United States)

    Sakimoto, P. J.; Pettit, R.; Balsara, D.; Garnavich, P.


    The Supernova Club is an experiment aimed at bringing space science to youths, almost all African Americans, from the most severely disadvantaged areas of the South Bend, Indiana, region. It leverages the National Youth Sports Program (NYSP) that, in Summer 2007, brought 100 children, ages 10-16 and living at or below the poverty level, to the Notre Dame campus for a 4-week non-residential summer program. Six contact hours of space science instruction were added to the core curriculum of nutrition, physical fitness, and academic study. At summer's end, 13 high interest/high potential youths were selected to form ``The Supernova Club''-a year-round, after-school, weekly follow-up program.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2008年超音速离开之后,西雅图便没有了NBA球队,不过这座城市并没有就此放弃这个念头,他们一直在努力将一支NBA球队重新引入这座城市。作为西雅图人,快艇球员贾马尔·克劳福德饱含深情地发表了一篇名为《带超音速回来》(Bring Back The Sonics)的文章。他知道自己的家乡是一座非常热爱篮球的城市,西雅图球迷都希望在不远的将来看到一支新的超音速队。

  1. Archaeopteryx: Bringing the Dino-Bird to Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe


    Some 150 million years ago, a strange creature died in a tropical lagoon that today is located in Bavaria, Germany. In 1861, a single feather of this creature was discovered. Not long afterward, a complete fossil was found with the same bird-like feathers but dinosaur-like anatomical features. Darwin had just published 'On the Origin of Species'; could this be the missing link that Darwin's supporters hoped to find? Recently, two of the now eleven discovered Archaeopteryx fossils, and that first feather, were brought to SLAC, where, using the intense X-ray beam, researchers searched for the chemical remains of the original living creatures. Please join us for this lecture, which will explain how the studies attempt to bring the original dino-bird back to life.

  2. Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology. (United States)

    Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D


    The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied.

  3. A Mars Exploration Discovery Program (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Paige, D. A.


    The Mars Exploration Program should consider following the Discovery Program model. In the Discovery Program a team of scientists led by a PI develop the science goals of their mission, decide what payload achieves the necessary measurements most effectively, and then choose a spacecraft with the capabilities needed to carry the payload to the desired target body. The primary constraints associated with the Discovery missions are time and money. The proposer must convince reviewers that their mission has scientific merit and is feasible. Every Announcement of Opportunity has resulted in a collection of creative ideas that fit within advertised constraints. Following this model, a "Mars Discovery Program" would issue an Announcement of Opportunity for each launch opportunity with schedule constraints dictated by the launch window and fiscal constraints in accord with the program budget. All else would be left to the proposer to choose, based on the science the team wants to accomplish, consistent with the program theme of "Life, Climate and Resources". A proposer could propose a lander, an orbiter, a fleet of SCOUT vehicles or penetrators, an airplane, a balloon mission, a large rover, a small rover, etc. depending on what made the most sense for the science investigation and payload. As in the Discovery program, overall feasibility relative to cost, schedule and technology readiness would be evaluated and be part of the selection process.

  4. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others


    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  5. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics. (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D


    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided.

  6. Supporting knowledge discovery in medicine. (United States)

    Girardi, Dominic; Arthofer, Klaus


    Our ontology-based benchmarking infrastructure for hospitals, we presented on the eHealth 2012, has meanwhile proven useful. Besides, we gathered manifold experience in supporting knowledge discovery in medicine. This also led to further functions and plans with our software. We could confirm and extent our experience by a literature review on the knowledge discovery process in medicine, visual analytics and data mining and drafted an according approach for extending our software. We validated our approach by exemplarily implementing a parallel-coordinate data visualization into our software and plan to integrate further algorithms for visual analytics and machine learning to support knowledge discovery in medicine in diverse ways. This is very promising but can also fail due to technical or organizational details.

  7. Discovery of the higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vivek


    The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.

  8. Discovery of the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vivek


    The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.

  9. Towards structural web services discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiang-feng


    A syntactic and structural matching mechanism for service discovery was put forward, which tries to exploit the underlying semantics of web services to enhance the traditional syntactic service discovery. We commit WSDL (Web Service Description Language) as service description language. The syntactic matching mechanism is based on the textual similarity among WSDL documents using VSM (Vector Space Model). The structural information is extracted from WSDL document tree or the invocation sequence of a series of services which can be viewed as the problem of graph isomorphism. Then we combine the syntactic and structural similarity linearly to calculate the service similarity. Finally we provide a novel web services discovery framework named SG* to find the exact services meeting the users' goals based on service similarity.

  10. The Wellness Mobile: Bringing Preventative Health Services to Rural Communities. (United States)

    Nilson, Ralph; And Others


    The Wellness Mobile transports medical supplies, equipment, informational materials, and staff to rural Saskatchewan communities to assist them in developing wellness programs that stress disease prevention. Staff from the Wellness Mobile offer health-risk screening and appraisal to community members and work with local practitioners and schools…

  11. A Feasibility Study of Implementing a Bring-Your-Own-Computing-Device Policy (United States)


    14. SUBJECT TERMS: Bring-your-own device ( BYOD ), hardware and software procurement plans, cost analysis, cloud...Full BYOC/ BYOD Policy for the GSBPP ....44 viii c. COA 3—Partial Secession of the Smart Classroom Construct...ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AE academic edition BYOC bring your own computer BYOD bring your own device CA cost analysis CAL client access license

  12. Moral fictions and medical ethics. (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W


    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of these two practices is based on a series of moral fictions - motivated false beliefs that erroneously characterize withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in order to bring accepted end-of-life practices in line with the prevailing moral norm that doctors must never kill patients. When these moral fictions are exposed, it becomes apparent that conventional medical ethics relating to end-of-life decisions is radically mistaken.

  13. Press conference bring excitement of geophysical research to the public (United States)

    Leifert, Harvey

    “A Flare to Remember.” “Starbucks for Starfish.” “Earth's Rotation Slows for El Niño.” What do these catchy headlines have in common? They all resulted from presentations at AGU's Spring Meeting in Boston, Mass. Yes, geophysical science can be big news when presented in a way that is interesting to general audiences.Proof? Well, the “Flare to Remember” headline (in the Dallas Morning News) reported the discovery, via the SOHO spacecraft, that a solar flare had produced, deep inside the Sun, seismic disturbances of a magnitude never experienced on Earth. Researchers Valentina Zharkova of Glasgow University and Alexander Kosovichev of Stanford gave media representatives a preview of their session, supported by visual aids, in the AGU press briefing room.

  14. The making of a portrait--bringing it into focus. (United States)

    Zeng, X


    The data generated by DNA arrays are often described as the molecular "portrait" of a particular physiological/pathological sample. Although the emotional reactions could range from revulsion to adoration when viewing those portraits, as it might be when viewing some contemporary art, array technology has fundamentally changed the way researchers approach many biomedical questions. With its ability to monitor the expression level of tens of thousands genes simultaneously, microarray technology has been able to identify "markers" for complex diseases such as cancer. While massive amounts of work lie ahead to validate those marker genes, many researchers are turning their attentions to the low-density, focused arrays. When incorporated with current knowledge on specific biological pathways, these specially tailored macroarrays may be better fitted for purposes such as diagnosis, drug discovery and validation, and prognostic assessment of clinical treatments.

  15. Knowledge discovery from legal databases

    CERN Document Server

    Stranieri, Andrew; Schauer, Frederick


    Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases is the first text to describe data mining techniques as they apply to law. Law students, legal academics and applied information technology specialists are guided thorough all phases of the knowledge discovery from databases process with clear explanations of numerous data mining algorithms including rule induction, neural networks and association rules. Throughout the text, assumptions that make data mining in law quite different to mining other data are made explicit.  Issues such as the selection of commonplace cases, the use of discretion as a form

  16. Medical Scientists (United States)

    ... Projected Employment, 2024 Change, 2014-24 Employment by Industry Percent Numeric SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Medical scientists, except epidemiologists 19- ...

  17. Commercializing medical technology. (United States)

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A


    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  18. Knowledge Discovery/A Collaborative Approach, an Innovative Solution (United States)

    Fitts, Mary A.


    Collaboration between Medical Informatics and Healthcare Systems (MIHCS) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Texas Medical Center (TMC) Library was established to investigate technologies for facilitating knowledge discovery across multiple life sciences research disciplines in multiple repositories. After reviewing 14 potential Enterprise Search System (ESS) solutions, Collexis was determined to best meet the expressed needs. A three month pilot evaluation of Collexis produced positive reports from multiple scientists across 12 research disciplines. The joint venture and a pilot-phased approach achieved the desired results without the high cost of purchasing software, hardware or additional resources to conduct the task. Medical research is highly compartmentalized by discipline, e.g. cardiology, immunology, neurology. The medical research community at large, as well as at JSC, recognizes the need for cross-referencing relevant information to generate best evidence. Cross-discipline collaboration at JSC is specifically required to close knowledge gaps affecting space exploration. To facilitate knowledge discovery across these communities, MIHCS combined expertise with the TMC library and found Collexis to best fit the needs of our researchers including:

  19. Origins of the Quinolone Class of Antibacterials: An Expanded "Discovery Story". (United States)

    Bisacchi, Gregory S


    Published descriptions of the specific lines of research leading to the discovery of therapeutically important medicines, especially major new class medicines, have long provided value to the biopharmaceutical community as models of success, often influencing the strategies and methods of subsequent drug research. Quinolone antibacterials represent one of medicine's most important classes of anti-infective agents; yet in contrast to many other classes of anti-infectives, astonishingly few details concerning the origin of the class or the rationale leading to the selection of the first clinical agent, nalidixic acid, were ever published by the discoverers. Moreover, earlier disclosures of an independent discovery of the quinolone class of antibacterials have been almost entirely overlooked by the scientific literature. This review brings together all the available information from primary literature sources relating to both discoveries and provides for the first time a much fuller, if still partially speculative, story of the earliest years of this important class of drugs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Fanzi; Qiu Zhengding; Li Dongsheng; Yue Jianhai


    Pattern discovery from time series is of fundamental importance. Most of the algorithms of pattern discovery in time series capture the values of time series based on some kinds of similarity measures. Affected by the scale and baseline, value-based methods bring about problem when the objective is to capture the shape. Thus, a similarity measure based on shape, Sh measure, is originally proposed, andthe properties of this similarity and corresponding proofs are given. Then a time series shape pattern discovery algorithm based on Sh measure is put forward. The proposed algorithm is terminated in finite iteration with given computational and storage complexity. Finally the experiments on synthetic datasets and sunspot datasets demonstrate that the time series shape pattern algorithm is valid.

  1. Democratization of medical knowledge and technology: brief commentary on implications for medical education. (United States)

    Colt, Henri; Quadrelli, Silvia


    Today's movement towards the democratization of knowledge and dissemination of technology creates an opportunity for health care providers to reform medical education, bridge disciplines, and contribute to the correction of social inequalities. The question is whether this generation of physicians will have the courage to bring down the barriers that have deprived the majority of humanity from the medical knowledge, technology, and healthcare that rightfully belongs to all.

  2. EarthObserver: Bringing the world to your fingertips (United States)

    Ryan, W. B.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Coplan, J.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Chan, S.; Bonczkowski, J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Morton, J. J.; McLain, K.; Weissel, R.


    EarthObserver (, developed by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, brings a wealth of geoscience data to Apple iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices. Built around an easy-to-use interface, EarthObserver allows users to explore and visualise a wide range of data sets superimposed upon a detailed base map of land elevations and ocean depths - tapping the screen will instantly return the height or depth at that point. A simple transparency function allows direct comparison of built-in content. Data sets include high-resolution coastal bathymetry of bays, sounds, estuaries, harbors and rivers; geological maps of the US states and world - tapping the screen displays the rock type, and full legends can be viewed; US Topo sheets; and, geophysical content including seafloor crustal age and sediment thickness, earthquake and volcano data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and plate boundary descriptions. The names of physiographic features are automatically displayed. NASA Visible Earth images along with ocean temperature, salinity and productivity maps and precipitation information expose data sets of interest to the atmospheric, oceanic and biological communities. Natural hazard maps, population information and political boundaries allow users to explore impacts upon society. EarthObserver, so far downloaded by more than 55,000 users, offers myriad ways for educators at all levels to bring research-quality geoscience data into the learning environment, whether for use as an in-class illustration or for extensive exploration of earth sciences data. By using cutting-edge mobile app technology, EarthObserver boosts access to relevant earth science content. The EarthObserver base map is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography digital elevation model (GMRT;, also developed at LDEO and updated regularly. It provides land elevations with horizontal resolution as high as 10m for

  3. Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.


    Individual, departmental and community efforts have all played a major role in developing a thriving research effort addressing thinking and learning in the geosciences. Community efforts have been effective in elevating the importance of the field, defining a research agenda, fostering collaborations with cognitive science and education communities, building capacity within the geosciences, and developing reviewer awareness of the importance and opportunities within geoscience education research. Important community efforts include a call for geoscience education research in the 1997 NSF report Geoscience Education: A Recommended Strategy and in the subsequent 2000 NSF report ‘Bridges: Connecting Research and Education in the Earth System Sciences’. A research agenda and supporting recommendations for collaboration and capacity building were jointly developed by geoscience educators, cognitive scientists and education researchers at the 2002 NSF/Johnson Foundation funded workshop Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences. This research agenda emphasized studies of geoscience expertise, learning pathways (and their challenges) that are critical to the development of that expertise, and materials and environments that support this learning, with a focus on learning in the field and from large data sets, complex systems and deep time, spatial skills, and the synthesis of understanding from multiple sources of incomplete data. Collaboration and capacity building have been further supported by the NAGT sponsored professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” with workshops bringing together cognitive scientists, educators and geoscientists on topics including developing on-line learning resources, teaching with visualizations, the role of the affective domain in geoscience learning, teaching metacognition, and teaching with data. 40 successful educational research proposals are attributed to participation in On the Cutting Edge. An NSF funded

  4. Medical Journalism and Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari


    Full Text Available Nowadays, many researches in the field of medicine are conducting all around the world and medical journalism is a way to share the results. In fact, dissemination of the related manuscripts can prevent the repetitive research or may even lead to conducting a better survey. Therefore high quality medical journals are considered as up-to-date resources for further investigations. Medical journals are propagating their papers in various media including television programs, newspapers, internet websites and different social media. So they can influence the government policy makers, health-care professionals and even public. Moreover, most researchers hear about medical discoveries for the first time through medical journals and their related social media. So as well a high quality journal can help to improve medical science, a journal of poor quality can be damaging and distorting. Indeed, popular journals have the power of inventing a “communication storm” to draw attention to a certain topic. Thus they have to respect the accepted international principles to prevent spreading inaccurate and misleading data. This paper aims to review the previous and current situation of medical journalism by focus on field of emergency medicine.

  5. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng


    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  6. Macchines per scoprire - Discovery Machines

    CERN Multimedia

    Auditorium, Rome


    During the FCC week 2016 a public event entitled “Discovery Machines: The Higgs Boson and the Search for New Physics took place on 14 April at the Auditorium in Rome. The event, brought together physicists and experts from economics to discuss intriguing questions on the origin and evolution of the Universe and the societal impact of large-scale research projects.

  7. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery (United States)

    Polyak, Steven


    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…


    Payne, Philip R O; Huang, Kun; Shah, Nigam H; Tenenbaum, Jessica


    The modern healthcare and life sciences ecosystem is moving towards an increasingly open and data-centric approach to discovery science. This evolving paradigm is predicated on a complex set of information needs related to our collective ability to share, discover, reuse, integrate, and analyze open biological, clinical, and population level data resources of varying composition, granularity, and syntactic or semantic consistency. Such an evolution is further impacted by a concomitant growth in the size of data sets that can and should be employed for both hypothesis discovery and testing. When such open data can be accessed and employed for discovery purposes, a broad spectrum of high impact end-points is made possible. These span the spectrum from identification of de novo biomarker complexes that can inform precision medicine, to the repositioning or repurposing of extant agents for new and cost-effective therapies, to the assessment of population level influences on disease and wellness. Of note, these types of uses of open data can be either primary, wherein open data is the substantive basis for inquiry, or secondary, wherein open data is used to augment or enrich project-specific or proprietary data that is not open in and of itself. This workshop is concerned with the key challenges, opportunities, and methodological best practices whereby open data can be used to drive the advancement of discovery science in all of the aforementioned capacities.

  9. Public medical shows. (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier


    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  10. Spin-off from Research Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia


    The purpose of fundamental research in physics is to discover the laws of Nature. The results of this research become available to all mankind, allowing breakthroughs in high technology and in the development of human civilization. Modern physics makes a decisive contribution to such highly important areas as cancer treatment, medical applications of nuclear detectors, computer tomography, World Wide Web, safe nuclear power, and many others.

  11. Research for the soldier: bringing science fiction medicine to life. (United States)

    Lam, David M; Curley, Kenneth C


    Through means of a science fiction vignette, this paper presents and discusses many of the current research projects ongoing to enable the U.S. military medical services to provide an outstanding level of care in future conflicts. The research capabilities and programs of the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) are discussed, as are the partnerships between the TATRC and its collaborating researchers.

  12. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion. (United States)

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João


    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical.

  13. Bringing the Universe into the Community: Afterschool Astronomy and You (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Anita; Mitchell, S.; Reynolds, C. S.; Lochner, J.


    We present a successful afterschool program that astronomers can adopt and implement within their local communities with minimal effort. Our program targets middle school students in out-of-school-time settings and introduces basic astronomy concepts through hands-on activities, with a focus on the Universe beyond the solar system. It provides an opportunity for astronomers to work within their communities to introduce students to topics which hold significant interest but are not typically studied in school. The program is ideally run as a partnership between astronomers and local afterschool program providers - astronomers contribute the content expertise, and program leaders bring it to the audience. This program was successfully pilot tested with several hundred participants in 2006 and 2007 as the Beyond Einstein Explorers’ Program (BEEP). A comprehensive manual provides detailed recipes for running the program sessions, background information, materials lists, and extension activities and resources. Activity topics include the scale and structure of the Universe, the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy, telescopes, stellar evolution, galaxies, black holes, and more. A flexible structure allows the program to be run in a variety of settings, including astronomy days, summer camps, or year-long afterschool programming. Astronomers who are interested in deeper involvement can partner with us to run training sessions and also add new modules to the program.

  14. Using Augmented Reality to Bring interactivity to Metabolism Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galembeck E.


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A glycolysis paper puzzle designed to introduce students to theprinciples of metabolic pathways have being used for several years, and it seems to helpstudents to learn the topic. We noticed that both the number of instructors and the timethey spend with the students, plays a major role in the success of the activity. Aninsufficient number of instructors do not permit adequate contact with all the students,which frustrate and discourage them. OBJECTIVES: In order to bring this activity to largeraudiences with a few instructors, we added a technological tool called augmented reality tothe paper puzzle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The app was developed using Unity, and3D molecules obtained from Protein Data Bank. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Using thisapp the students were able to check their achievements as they progress through theactivity. The augmented reality also allowed the addition of more information to the cardslike answers to frequently asked questions and information via flashcards. The virtualflashcards displayed on the tablet screens show information such as the molecular 3Dstructure, and clues for assembling the puzzle. CONCLUSIONS: The above-mentionedtechnological improvement has enabled its use in larger classrooms with fewer instructorssince the students are able to have access to clues and discuss with the peers. Thus, thepaper puzzle is still the way students interact with each other, but the technological supportgives them more autonomy to solve the proposed exercises.

  15. Bringing solar light to the bottom of the pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, S. [SGA Energy Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This presentation described the efforts in bringing solar light to areas of Rwanda, Uganda and the Congo that are currently unserved by electricity. In particular, it highlighted the contributions made by Light Up the World Foundation (LUTW) and the International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP) to improve the quality of life in periphery villages by introducing solar LED lighting in 6 pilot villages. Efficient, long-lasting white LED lamps combined with solar can provide a low cost alternative to the current light source, which is kerosene, diesel and candles. It was noted that the technology exists, but the challenge lies in reaching the market and making a sustainable intervention. The operating parameters of solar panels, LED lamps and batteries were listed with reference to output power, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and capacity. The service life of these devices was also listed along with estimates of their operating costs. The project needs were also identified. It was emphasized that financial support of IGCP and LUTW is needed to support private sector development and market expansion to other areas of Africa. figs.

  16. Bringing Superconductor Digital Technology to the Market Place (United States)

    Nisenoff, Martin

    The unique properties of superconductivity can be exploited to provide the ultimate in electronic technology for systems such as ultra-precise analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue converters, precise DC and AC voltage standards, ultra high speed logic circuits and systems (both digital and hybrid analogue-digital systems), and very high throughput network routers and supercomputers which would have superior electrical performance at lower overall electrical power consumption compared to systems with comparable performance which are fabricated using conventional room temperature technologies. This potential for high performance electronics with reduced power consumption would have a positive impact on slowing the increase in the demand for electrical utility power by the information technology community on the overall electrical power grid. However, before this technology can be successfully brought to the commercial market place, there must be an aggressive investment of resources and funding to develop the required infrastructure needed to yield these high performance superconductor systems, which will be reliable and available at low cost. The author proposes that it will require a concerted effort by the superconductor and cryogenic communities to bring this technology to the commercial market place or make it available for widespread use in scientific instrumentation.

  17. Disulfide Bridges: Bringing Together Frustrated Structure in a Bioactive Peptide. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin; Bansal, Paramjit S; Wilson, David; Daly, Norelle L


    Disulfide bridges are commonly found covalent bonds that are usually believed to maintain structural stability of proteins. Here, we investigate the influence of disulfide bridges on protein dynamics through molecular dynamics simulations on the cysteine-rich trypsin inhibitor MCoTI-II with three disulfide bridges. Correlation analysis of the reduced cyclic peptide shows that two of the three disulfide distances (Cys(11)-Cys(23) and Cys(17)-Cys(29)) are anticorrelated within ∼1 μs of bridge formation or dissolution: when the peptide is in nativelike structures and one of the distances shortens to allow bond formation, the other tends to lengthen. Simulations over longer timescales, when the denatured state is less structured, do not show the anticorrelation. We propose that the native state contains structural elements that frustrate one another's folding, and that the two bridges are critical for snapping the frustrated native structure into place. In contrast, the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge is predicted to form together with either of the other two bridges. Indeed, experimental chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance data show that an engineered peptide with the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge deleted can still fold into its near-native structure even in its noncyclic form, confirming the lesser role of the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge. The results highlight the importance of disulfide bridges in a small bioactive peptide to bring together frustrated structure in addition to maintaining protein structural stability.

  18. Future Directions in Medical Physics (United States)

    Jeraj, Robert

    Medical Physics is a highly interdisciplinary field at the intersection between physics and medicine and biology. Medical Physics is aiming at development of novel applications of physical processes and techniques in various areas of medicine and biology. Medical Physics had and continues to have profound impact by developing improved imaging and treatment technologies, and helping to advance our understanding of the complexity of the disease. The general trend in medicine towards personalized therapy, and emphasis on accelerated translational research is having a profound impact on medical physics as well. In the traditional stronghold for medical physicists - radiation therapy - the new reality is shaping in the form of biologically conformal and combination therapies, as well as advanced particle therapy approaches, such as proton and ion therapies. Rapid increase in faster and more informative multi-modality medical imaging is bringing a wealth of information that is being complemented with data obtained from genomic profiling and other biomarkers. Novel data analysis and data mining approaches are proving grounds for employment of various artificial intelligence methods that will help further improving clinical decision making for optimization of various therapies as well as better understanding of the disease properties and disease evolution, ultimately leading to improved clinical outcomes.

  19. The Process Chain for Peptidomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schrader


    Full Text Available Over the last few years the interest in diagnostic markers for specific diseases has increased continuously. It is expected that they not only improve a patient's medical treatment but also contribute to accelerating the process of drug development. This demand for new biomarkers is caused by a lack of specific and sensitive diagnosis in many diseases. Moreover, diseases usually occur in different types or stages which may need different diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Their differentiation has to be considered in clinical studies as well. Therefore, it is important to translate a macroscopic pathological or physiological finding into a microscopic view of molecular processes and vice versa, though it is a difficult and tedious task. Peptides play a central role in many physiological processes and are of importance in several areas of drug research. Exploration of endogenous peptides in biologically relevant sources may directly lead to new drug substances, serve as key information on a new target and can as well result in relevant biomarker candidates. A comprehensive analysis of peptides and small proteins of a biological system corresponding to the respective genomic information (peptidomics®methods was a missing link in proteomics. A new peptidomic technology platform addressing peptides was recently presented, developed by adaptation of the striving proteomic technologies. Here, concepts of using peptidomics technologies for biomarker discovery are presented and illustrated with examples. It is discussed how the biological hypothesis and sample quality determine the result of the study. A detailed study design, appropriate choice and application of technology as well as thorough data interpretation can lead to significant results which have to be interpreted in the context of the underlying disease. The identified biomarker candidates will be characterised in validation studies before use. This approach for discovery of peptide

  20. Integrative systems biology for data-driven knowledge discovery. (United States)

    Greene, Casey S; Troyanskaya, Olga G


    Integrative systems biology is an approach that brings together diverse high-throughput experiments and databases to gain new insights into biological processes or systems at molecular through physiological levels. These approaches rely on diverse high-throughput experimental techniques that generate heterogeneous data by assaying varying aspects of complex biological processes. Computational approaches are necessary to provide an integrative view of these experimental results and enable data-driven knowledge discovery. Hypotheses generated from these approaches can direct definitive molecular experiments in a cost-effective manner. By using integrative systems biology approaches, we can leverage existing biological knowledge and large-scale data to improve our understanding of as yet unknown components of a system of interest and how its malfunction leads to disease.

  1. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research (United States)

    de la Iglesia, D; Cachau, R E; García-Remesal, M; Maojo, V


    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts. PMID:24932210

  2. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research (United States)

    de la Iglesia, D.; Cachau, R. E.; García-Remesal, M.; Maojo, V.


    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts.

  3. Discovery of charmed particles : Sam Ting

    CERN Multimedia


    The great physics event of the year was the discovery of charmed particles in the USA. One of the co-discoverers, Sam Ting, was at CERN involved in an ISR experiment and described the discovery to a packed auditorium.

  4. 5 CFR 185.122 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... § 185.122 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... document or of the truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 27.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For the purpose...

  6. 22 CFR 224.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ....21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... document or the truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For...

  7. 15 CFR 25.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For the purpose...


    Toxicogenomics, drug discovery, and pathologist.The field of toxicogenomics, which currently focuses on the application of large-scale differential gene expression (DGE) data to toxicology, is starting to influence drug discovery and development in the pharmaceutical indu...

  9. Medical Malpractice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica


    MM first came to the attention of policy makers primarily in the USA where, from the 1970s, healthcare providers denounced problems in getting insurance for medical liability, pointing out to a crisis in the MM insurance market (Sage WM (2003) Understanding the first malpractice crisis of the 21th...... in the last decades also among European countries (Hospitals of the European Union (HOPE) (2004) Insurance and malpractice, final report. Brussels,; OECD (2006) Medical malpractice, insurance and coverage options, policy issues in insurance n.11; EC (European Commission, D.G. Sanco) (2006) Special...... eurobarometer medical errors)...

  10. Innovations in higher medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the innovations in the higher medical education. Particular attention in this sphere is paid to the detailed analysis of the subject as a mechanism of cognition and psycho-emotional aspect. It should be noticed that the development of the university education demands the integration of functional systems to study the general medicine and the art of healing. In conclusion it has been found out that the new methodological approach is necessary to bring the teacher closer to the subject particularly to integrate the relation of the opposites.

  11. Developing and understanding a hospital-based proton facility: bringing physics into medicine. (United States)

    Slater, James M


    From October 18 to 20, 2006, a symposium, Developing and Understanding a Hospital-based Proton Facility: Bringing Physics Into Medicine, was held at the Renaissance Esmeralda Resort and Spa, Indian Wells, California. The event was offered by the Department of Radiation Medicine at Loma Linda University (LLU), supported by the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) and the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). The meeting was intended to discuss factors involved in planning, developing, and operating a hospital-based proton treatment center. It brought together some of the most distinguished physicists, radiation biologists, and radiation oncologists in the world, and more than 100 individuals participated in the three-day educational offering. This overview reports on the event and introduces several papers written by many of the speakers from their presentations, for publication in this issue of Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment. Both the symposium and the papers are appropriate for this journal: exploitation of technology was one of the underlying themes of the symposium.

  12. Equity and what secondary science teachers bring to the classroom (United States)

    Austin, Barbara Anne

    The demographics of people working in science-based careers do not match the demographics of the larger society. In particular, people who self-identify as Hispanic are underrepresented among working scientists. One reason may be the influence of formal schooling and more specifically, the behaviors of teachers in secondary science classrooms. This study looks at the practices of eight secondary science teachers at two schools at which 62% of the enrolled students declare their ethnicity as Hispanic. All of the teachers have at least three years of experience. Through interviews with the teachers, classroom observation, and interviews with other faculty, this research elucidates typical behaviors and attitudes surrounding teaching science in these settings. In spite of having a deficit view of their students, they all express interest in and concern about the students they teach. Their characterizations of teaching practices and classroom behaviors do not incorporate strategies designed to promote content learning through culturally relevant curriculum. Instead, they use mainstream-situated approaches that develop science content knowledge, vocabulary, procedures, and skills targeted toward high achievement on state and district standardized tests leading toward graduation or success in college. These approaches are consistent with a view of equity that increases the participation of underrepresented groups in science based careers in that it gives students the skills and knowledge they will need in order to successfully pursue these careers. Additionally, they behave in ways that are consistent with equitable strategies such as using inquiry based teaching, serving as role models, and providing a structured learning environment. This research informs the literature base for instructional systems designers by identifying what that teachers situated in culturally diverse classrooms bring to professional development programs targeted toward making secondary science

  13. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus. (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon


    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  14. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief. (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G


    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation.

  15. Medical Image Analysis Facility (United States)


    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  16. 29 CFR 18.13 - Discovery methods. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery methods. 18.13 Section 18.13 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.13 Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: Depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written...

  17. 29 CFR 1955.32 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1955.32 Section 1955.32 Labor Regulations...) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.32 Discovery... the remainder. An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as the reason...

  18. Improving on daily measures of price discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    We formulate a continuous-time price discovery model in which the price discovery measure varies (stochastically) at daily frequency. We estimate daily measures of price discovery using a kernel-based OLS estimator instead of running separate daily VECM regressions as standard in the literature. ...

  19. Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning? (United States)

    Alfieri, Louis; Brooks, Patricia J.; Aldrich, Naomi J.; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.


    Discovery learning approaches to education have recently come under scrutiny (Tobias & Duffy, 2009), with many studies indicating limitations to discovery learning practices. Therefore, 2 meta-analyses were conducted using a sample of 164 studies: The 1st examined the effects of unassisted discovery learning versus explicit instruction, and the…

  20. 28 CFR 71.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 71.21 Section 71.21...

  1. 22 CFR 521.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discovery. 521.21 Section 521.21 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 521.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents...

  2. 43 CFR 4.826 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Procedures § 4.826 Discovery. (a) Methods. Parties may obtain discovery as provided in these rules by depositions, written interrogatories... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 4.826 Section 4.826...

  3. 7 CFR 1.322 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.322 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production, inspection and photocopying of documents; (2... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1.322 Section 1.322 Agriculture Office...

  4. 29 CFR 1905.25 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Hearings § 1905.25 Discovery. (a) Depositions. (1) For reasons of... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1905.25 Section 1905.25 Labor Regulations... discovery. Whenever appropriate to a just disposition of any issue in a hearing, the presiding...

  5. 20 CFR 355.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 355.21 Section 355.21...

  6. Discovery in Science and in Teaching Science (United States)

    Kipnis, Nahum


    A proper presentation of scientific discoveries may allow science teachers to eliminate certain myths about the nature of science, which originate from an uncertainty among scholars about what constitutes a discovery. It is shown that a disagreement on this matter originates from a confusion of the act of discovery with response to it. It is…

  7. 42 CFR 405.1037 - Discovery. (United States)


    .... (1) Discovery is permissible only when CMS or its contractor elects to participate in an ALJ hearing... authorizes discovery or disclosure of a matter for which an objection based on privilege, or other protection..., the MAC may review that portion of the discovery or disclosure ruling immediately. (i) Where...

  8. Cardiac Medications (United States)

    ... for Medication For the treatment of heart failure Beta Blockers (Also known as Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents) Commonly ... have had a heart attack. Combined alpha and beta-blockers Combined alpha and beta-blockers are used as ...

  9. Medical Illustration (United States)

    ... Accredited programs prepare students for a career in academic or research health science centers, industry, or consulting. As members of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  10. Medical education. (United States)

    Krishnan, P


    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  11. Glycoscience aids in biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenus Hua1,2 & Hyun Joo An1,2,*


    Full Text Available The glycome consists of all glycans (or carbohydrates within abiological system, and modulates a wide range of important biologicalactivities, from protein folding to cellular communications.The mining of the glycome for disease markers representsa new paradigm for biomarker discovery; however, this effortis severely complicated by the vast complexity and structuraldiversity of glycans. This review summarizes recent developmentsin analytical technology and methodology as applied tothe fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometricstrategies for glycan compositional profiling are described, as arepotential refinements which allow structure-specific profiling.Analytical methods that can discern protein glycosylation at aspecific site of modification are also discussed in detail.Biomarker discovery applications are shown at each level ofanalysis, highlighting the key role that glycoscience can play inhelping scientists understand disease biology.

  12. Materials discovery via CALYPSO methodology (United States)

    Wang, Yanchao; Lv, Jian; Zhu, Li; Lu, Shaohua; Yin, Ketao; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming


    The structure prediction at the atomic level is emerging as a state-of-the-art approach to accelerate the functionality-driven discovery of materials. By combining the global swarm optimization algorithm with first-principles thermodynamic calculations, it exploits the power of current supercomputer architectures to robustly predict the ground state and metastable structures of materials with only the given knowledge of chemical composition. In this Review, we provide an overview of the basic theory and main features of our as-developed CALYPSO structure prediction method, as well as its versatile applications to design of a broad range of materials including those of three-dimensional bulks, two-dimensional reconstructed surfaces and layers, and isolated clusters/nanoparticles or molecules with a variety of functional properties. The current challenges faced by structure prediction for materials discovery and future developments of CALYPSO to overcome them are also discussed.

  13. Enhancing OPAC Records for Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Griffis


    Full Text Available This article proposes adding keywords and descriptors to the catalog records of electronic databases and media items to enhance their discovery. The authors contend that subject liaisons can add value to OPAC records and enhance discovery of electronic databases and media items by providing searchable keywords and resource descriptions. The authors provide an examination of OPAC records at their own library, which illustrates the disparity of useful keywords and descriptions within the notes field for media item records versus electronic database records. The authors outline methods for identifying useful keywords for indexing OPAC records of electronic databases. Also included is an analysis of the advantages of using Encore’s Community Tag and Community Review features to allow subject liaisons to work directly in the catalog instead of collaborating with cataloging staff

  14. Class Discovery in Galaxy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bazell, D; Bazell, David; Miller, David J.


    In recent years, automated, supervised classification techniques have been fruitfully applied to labeling and organizing large astronomical databases. These methods require off-line classifier training, based on labeled examples from each of the (known) object classes. In practice, only a small batch of labeled examples, hand-labeled by a human expert, may be available for training. Moreover, there may be no labeled examples for some classes present in the data, i.e. the database may contain several unknown classes. Unknown classes may be present due to 1) uncertainty in or lack of knowledge of the measurement process, 2) an inability to adequately ``survey'' a massive database to assess its content (classes), and/or 3) an incomplete scientific hypothesis. In recent work, new class discovery in mixed labeled/unlabeled data was formally posed, with a proposed solution based on mixture models. In this work we investigate this approach, propose a competing technique suitable for class discovery in neural network...

  15. Drug Discovery, Design and Delivery (United States)


    et a I., Immunization by application of DNA vaccine onto a skin area wherein the hair follicles have been induced into anagen-onset stage. Mol Ther...broad project-wide aims are as follows: Demonstrate potential novel compounds to effectively target and treat intracellular pathogens - Novel...the discovery of antibiotics and nanoparticle-based approaches for targeting and neutralizing the pathogenic growth of Bartonella bacteria. We thus

  16. Future clinical trials in DIPG: bringing epigenetics to the clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres E. Morales La Madrid


    Full Text Available In spite of major recent advances in DIPG molecular characterization, this body of knowledge has not yet translated into better treatments.To date,more than 250 clinical trials evaluating radiotherapy along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy as well as newer biologic agents,have failed to improve the dismal outcome when compared to palliative radiation alone.The biology of DIPG remained unknown until recently when the neurosurgical expertise along with the recognition by the scientific and clinical community of the importance of tissue sampling at diagnosis;ideally in the context of a clinical trial and by trained neurosurgical teams to maximize patient safety.These pre-treatment tumor samples,and others coming from tissue obtained post-mortem,have yielded new insights into DIPG molecular biology.We now know that DIPG comprises a heterogeneous disease with variable molecular phenotypes, different from adult high grade glioma,other non-pontine pediatric high grade gliomas and even between pontine gliomas.The discovery of histone H3.3 or H3.1 mutations has been an important step forward in understanding tumor formation,maintenance and progression.Pharmacologic reversal of DIPG histone demethylation therefore offers an important potential intervention strategy for the treatment of DIPG.To date,clinical trials of newly diagnosed or progressive DIPG with epigenetic modifiers have been unsuccessful.Whether this failure represents limited activity of the agents used,their CNS penetration,redundant pathways within the tumor,or the possibility that histone mutations are necessary only to initiate DIPGs but not maintain their growth,suggest that a great deal still needs to be elucidated in both the underlying biology of these pathways,and the drugs designed to target them.In this review, we discuss the role of both epigenetic and genetic mutations within DIPG and the development of treatment strategies directed against the unique abnormalities

  17. A New Universe of Discoveries (United States)

    Córdova, France A.


    The convergence of emerging advances in astronomical instruments, computational capabilities and talented practitioners (both professional and civilian) is creating an extraordinary new environment for making numerous fundamental discoveries in astronomy, ranging from the nature of exoplanets to understanding the evolution of solar systems and galaxies. The National Science Foundation is playing a critical role in supporting, stimulating, and shaping these advances. NSF is more than an agency of government or a funding mechanism for the infrastructure of science. The work of NSF is a sacred trust that every generation of Americans makes to those of the next generation, that we will build on the body of knowledge we inherit and continue to push forward the frontiers of science. We never lose sight of NSF's obligation to "explore the unexplored" and inspire all of humanity with the wonders of discovery. As the only Federal agency dedicated to the support of basic research and education in all fields of science and engineering, NSF has empowered discoveries across a broad spectrum of scientific inquiry for more than six decades. The result is fundamental scientific research that has had a profound impact on our nation's innovation ecosystem and kept our nation at the very forefront of the world's science-and-engineering enterprise.

  18. Prediction of breast cancer survival through knowledge discovery in databases. (United States)

    Lotfnezhad Afshar, Hadi; Ahmadi, Maryam; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz


    The collection of large volumes of medical data has offered an opportunity to develop prediction models for survival by the medical research community. Medical researchers who seek to discover and extract hidden patterns and relationships among large number of variables use knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) to predict the outcome of a disease. The study was conducted to develop predictive models and discover relationships between certain predictor variables and survival in the context of breast cancer. This study is Cross sectional. After data preparation, data of 22,763 female patients, mean age 59.4 years, stored in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) breast cancer dataset were analyzed anonymously. IBM SPSS Statistics 16, Access 2003 and Excel 2003 were used in the data preparation and IBM SPSS Modeler 14.2 was used in the model design. Support Vector Machine (SVM) model outperformed other models in the prediction of breast cancer survival. Analysis showed SVM model detected ten important predictor variables contributing mostly to prediction of breast cancer survival. Among important variables, behavior of tumor as the most important variable and stage of malignancy as the least important variable were identified. In current study, applying of the knowledge discovery method in the breast cancer dataset predicted the survival condition of breast cancer patients with high confidence and identified the most important variables participating in breast cancer survival.

  19. Kaiserschnitten Wien - Let's bring the forest in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Primožič


    Full Text Available The location is part of the Vienna River Valley, known as "Wiental", one of the most dissonant, incongruous, and contested areas of Vienna. Depending on one’s perspective, the Vienna River Valley can be viewed as a transit corridor, an unresolved urban area, an urban interface, an inter- zone, an infrastructure bundle, an ugly wound in the urban landscape, a socially charged boundary, etc. We started the project with urban pattern analyses on different scales: the scale of the city, the scale of Wiental (from Schönbrunn to Hofburg and on a minor scale, i.e. the scale of the project.The analysis showed that Wiental constitutes the main connection between the city centre and suburbia and the countryside in the background of the city. With its clear morphological importance, it could become a green axis of the city, a pleasant place for people, rather than having only an infrastructural role. Our concept is to bring new character to Wiental by making it a pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly green axis. Our initial goal was to reduce car traffic. We proposed introducing a park-and-ride system, which would become a point of transfer where car traffic is replaced by public transport and cycle traffic. Through the afforestation of Wiental, the area could become a park or recreational route, and the quality of life in the area would improve.An important aspect of the project was dealing with the Danube. We proposed to manage the flood peaks by introducing a dam, and after the point of regulation, we arranged the River into two levels: an ambient upper flow and infrastructural lower flow in the existing channel. Also, by rearranging "Naschmarkt" with the Danube uncovered, we predicted an extension of tourism from the city centre to Schönbrunn by bicycle or on foot, which could be followed by an expansion of the public programme. We wanted to show that the Danube, with an appropriate environment, could become a significant element of the city structure.

  20. [Medical ethics in residency training]. (United States)

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun


    Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed.

  1. Method and Application of Comprehensive Knowledge Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Zongyao; BIAN Fuling


    This paper proposes the principle of comprehensive knowledge discovery. Unlike most of the current knowledge discovery methods, the comprehensive knowledge discovery considers both the spatial relations and attributes of spatial entities or objects. We introduce the theory of spatial knowledge expression system and some concepts including comprehensive knowledge discovery and spatial union information table(SUIT). In theory, SUIT records all information contained in the studied objects, but in reality, because of the complexity and varieties of spatial relations,only those factors of interest to us are selected. In order to find out the comprehensive knowledge from spatial databases, an efficient comprehensive knowledge discovery algorithm called recycled algorithm (RAR) is suggested.

  2. Replication, Communication, and the Population Dynamics of Scientific Discovery. (United States)

    McElreath, Richard; Smaldino, Paul E


    Many published research results are false (Ioannidis, 2005), and controversy continues over the roles of replication and publication policy in improving the reliability of research. Addressing these problems is frustrated by the lack of a formal framework that jointly represents hypothesis formation, replication, publication bias, and variation in research quality. We develop a mathematical model of scientific discovery that combines all of these elements. This model provides both a dynamic model of research as well as a formal framework for reasoning about the normative structure of science. We show that replication may serve as a ratchet that gradually separates true hypotheses from false, but the same factors that make initial findings unreliable also make replications unreliable. The most important factors in improving the reliability of research are the rate of false positives and the base rate of true hypotheses, and we offer suggestions for addressing each. Our results also bring clarity to verbal debates about the communication of research. Surprisingly, publication bias is not always an obstacle, but instead may have positive impacts-suppression of negative novel findings is often beneficial. We also find that communication of negative replications may aid true discovery even when attempts to replicate have diminished power. The model speaks constructively to ongoing debates about the design and conduct of science, focusing analysis and discussion on precise, internally consistent models, as well as highlighting the importance of population dynamics.

  3. Replication, Communication, and the Population Dynamics of Scientific Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McElreath

    Full Text Available Many published research results are false (Ioannidis, 2005, and controversy continues over the roles of replication and publication policy in improving the reliability of research. Addressing these problems is frustrated by the lack of a formal framework that jointly represents hypothesis formation, replication, publication bias, and variation in research quality. We develop a mathematical model of scientific discovery that combines all of these elements. This model provides both a dynamic model of research as well as a formal framework for reasoning about the normative structure of science. We show that replication may serve as a ratchet that gradually separates true hypotheses from false, but the same factors that make initial findings unreliable also make replications unreliable. The most important factors in improving the reliability of research are the rate of false positives and the base rate of true hypotheses, and we offer suggestions for addressing each. Our results also bring clarity to verbal debates about the communication of research. Surprisingly, publication bias is not always an obstacle, but instead may have positive impacts-suppression of negative novel findings is often beneficial. We also find that communication of negative replications may aid true discovery even when attempts to replicate have diminished power. The model speaks constructively to ongoing debates about the design and conduct of science, focusing analysis and discussion on precise, internally consistent models, as well as highlighting the importance of population dynamics.

  4. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery (United States)

    Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Di; Trynka, Gosia; Raj, Towfique; Terao, Chikashi; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Akari; Yoshida, Shinji; Graham, Robert R.; Manoharan, Arun; Ortmann, Ward; Bhangale, Tushar; Denny, Joshua C.; Carroll, Robert J.; Eyler, Anne E.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Kremer, Joel M.; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Ye, Lingying; Su, Ding-Feng; Yang, Jian; Xie, Gang; Keystone, Ed; Westra, Harm-Jan; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zhou, Xuezhong; Gupta, Namrata; Mirel, Daniel; Stahl, Eli A.; Diogo, Dorothée; Cui, Jing; Liao, Katherine; Guo, Michael H.; Myouzen, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Coenen, Marieke J.H.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Dieudé, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bridges, S. Louis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Toes, Rene E.M.; Tak, Paul P.; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Choi, Hyon K.; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Galan, Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne; de Vries, Niek; Moreland, Larry W.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamada, Ryo; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Jun S.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Franke, Lude; Visscher, Peter M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Xu, Huji; Behrens, Timothy W.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Momohara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Plenge, Robert M.


    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological datasets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)1. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ~10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 1012–4. We devised an in-silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation5, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL)6, and pathway analyses7–9 – as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency (PID), hematological cancer somatic mutations and knock-out mouse phenotypes – to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery. PMID:24390342


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    新产品 国际家居品牌石家庄勒泰中心店盛大开幕近日,国际时尚家饰家用品牌HOLA特力和乐石家庄首店盛大开幕,正式入驻位于中山路核心商圈的勒泰购物中心。HOLA将以优质精品家居和贴心的服务,

  6. Medical Renaissance. (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H


    The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology.

  7. Discovery Mondays: 'The Grid: a universal computer'

    CERN Multimedia


    How can one store and analyse the 15 million billion pieces of data that the LHC will produce each year with a computer that isn't the size of a sky-scraper? The IT experts have found the answer: the Grid, which will harness the power of tens of thousands of computers in the world by putting them together on one network and making them work like a single computer achieving a power that has not yet been matched. The Grid, inspired from the Web, already exists - in fact, several of them exist in the field of science. The European EGEE project, led by CERN, contributes not only to the study of particle physics but to medical research as well, notably in the study of malaria and avian flu. The next Discovery Monday invites you to explore this futuristic computing technology. The 'Grid Masters' of CERN have prepared lively animations to help you understand how the Grid works. Children can practice saving the planet on the Grid video game. You will also discover other applications such as UNOSAT, a United Nations...

  8. Medical entomology--back to the future? (United States)

    Reisen, William K


    Some of problems and challenges facing Medical/Veterinary Entomology are presented from my perspective, focusing on the current millennium. Topics include anthropogenic environmental changes created by population growth, administrative problems hindering science's response to these changes, and some of the scientific discoveries potentially providing solutions. As the title implies, many recent research discoveries have yet to be translated into major changes in control approaches for the major vectorborne public health problems, thereby providing an interesting mix of modern surveillance technology used to track problems and direct historical intervention solutions.

  9. Postcards from the Field: Using the Web to Bring Near-Real Time Field Work to the Public (United States)

    Genyuk, J.; Johnson, R. M.; Gardiner, L.; Russell, R.; Bergman, J.; Lagrave, M.; Hatheway, B.; Foster, S.; Araujo-Pradere, E. A.


    Field work is one of the aspects of a career in the geosciences that can make it so attractive to students and the public. The chance to go to exciting places, and to see amazing things, while making new discoveries is almost too good to be true. The "Postcards from the Field" capability, developed and implemented in the Windows to the Universe website project in 2006, is now providing a new ability to bring this excitement to a large and global audience online. Windows to the Universe is an extremely popular interdisciplinary Earth and space science educational website, with over 20 million visitors per year, including a large following of students and educators. The website is composed of over 7000 interlinked web pages spanning the geosciences, at three levels of sophistication, in English and Spanish. Our Postcards from the Field capability, which was originally developed in support of a major field campaign in Mexico City in 2006 (the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations campaign - MILAGRO), has now been generalized to support submissions from researchers engaged in multiple field campaigns. To date, in addition to postcards submitted during the MILAGRO campaign, we have hosted postcards from researchers and educators studying the life cycle of Adelie penguins in the Antarctic, the East Pacific Rise as a component of the RIDGE2000 program, and storm formation in Europe as a component of the Convective and Orographically- induced Precipitation Study (COPS). We are now expanding our postcard lines to include submissions from researchers engaged in the IPY and educators engaged with the ANDRILL (ANtarctic Geologic DRILLing) Research Immersion for Science Educators program. This presentation will present this new capability, its ease of use, and our vision for how it can be used to bring the excitement of field research to the public, students, and educators online.

  10. Medical emplotment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels Sune

    ’. Theoretically the project departs from Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design and is informed by Medical Informatics, Design Research and Science and Technology Studies. Methodically the project is founded on collaborative prototyping, ethnographic studies, and design interventions...... philosophy and building on theory on narrative reasoning, the dissertation offers the notions of emplotment and re-emplotment to describe how physicians marshal information from various sources, including the medical record, the patient and coSummary to form a narrative, when making sense of patients...

  11. Medical leasing. (United States)

    Holden, Elizabeth A


    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements.

  12. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C


    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  13. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter


    is the study of the sociocultural paragons that conceptually underlie the phenomenology of physician’s coming to take themselves as autonomous social agents. The paper relies on Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit and investigates dilemmas pertaining to first objectivist versus subjectivist views and second...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...

  14. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction. (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike


    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications.

  15. Discovery of Interstellar Heavy Water


    Butner, H. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Rodgers, S.D.; Pardo Carrión, Juan Ramón; Parise, B.; Cernicharo, José; Davis, G. R.


    We report the discovery of doubly deuterated water (D2O, heavy water) in the interstellar medium. Using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10 m telescope, we detected the 1_10–1_01 transition of para-D2O at 316.7998 GHz in both absorption and emission toward the protostellar binary system IRAS 16293-2422. Assuming that the D2O exists primarily in the warm regions where water ices have been evaporated (i.e., in a "hot corino" environment), we determi...

  16. False discovery rates: a new deal (United States)


    Summary We introduce a new Empirical Bayes approach for large-scale hypothesis testing, including estimating false discovery rates (FDRs), and effect sizes. This approach has two key differences from existing approaches to FDR analysis. First, it assumes that the distribution of the actual (unobserved) effects is unimodal, with a mode at 0. This “unimodal assumption” (UA), although natural in many contexts, is not usually incorporated into standard FDR analysis, and we demonstrate how incorporating it brings many benefits. Specifically, the UA facilitates efficient and robust computation—estimating the unimodal distribution involves solving a simple convex optimization problem—and enables more accurate inferences provided that it holds. Second, the method takes as its input two numbers for each test (an effect size estimate and corresponding standard error), rather than the one number usually used (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$p$\\end{document} value or \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$z$\\end{document} score). When available, using two numbers instead of one helps account for variation in measurement precision across tests. It also facilitates estimation of effects, and unlike standard FDR methods, our approach provides interval estimates (credible regions) for each effect in addition to measures of significance. To provide a bridge between interval estimates and significance measures, we introduce the term “local false sign rate” to refer to the probability of getting the sign of an effect wrong and argue that it is a superior

  17. Glaucoma medications. (United States)

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi


    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates.

  18. Medic Bleep. (United States)


    Medic Bleep is a secure instant messaging app that enables clinicians to discuss patient care quickly, securely and legally. It looks and feels like WhatsApp, but has been designed for the healthcare market to enable staff to communicate with each other, and to help speed up conversations between clinicians to increase efficiency.

  19. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  20. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation: Evolving Our Global System to Sustainably and Safely Bring New Medicines to Patients in Need. (United States)

    Hirsch, G; Trusheim, M; Cobbs, E; Bala, M; Garner, S; Hartman, D; Isaacs, K; Lumpkin, M; Lim, R; Oye, K; Pezalla, E; Saltonstall, P; Selker, H


    The current system of biomedical innovation is unable to keep pace with scientific advancements. We propose to address this gap by reengineering innovation processes to accelerate reliable delivery of products that address unmet medical needs. Adaptive biomedical innovation (ABI) provides an integrative, strategic approach for process innovation. Although the term "ABI" is new, it encompasses fragmented "tools" that have been developed across the global pharmaceutical industry, and could accelerate the evolution of the system through more coordinated application. ABI involves bringing stakeholders together to set shared objectives, foster trust, structure decision-making, and manage expectations through rapid-cycle feedback loops that maximize product knowledge and reduce uncertainty in a continuous, adaptive, and sustainable learning healthcare system. Adaptive decision-making, a core element of ABI, provides a framework for structuring decision-making designed to manage two types of uncertainty - the maturity of scientific and clinical knowledge, and the behaviors of other critical stakeholders.

  1. Privacy, confidentiality, and electronic medical records. (United States)

    Barrows, R C; Clayton, P D


    The enhanced availability of health information in an electronic format is strategic for industry-wide efforts to improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care, yet it brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among health care participants. The authors review the conflicting goals of accessibility and security for electronic medical records and discuss nontechnical and technical aspects that constitute a reasonable security solution. It is argued that with guiding policy and current technology, an electronic medical record may offer better security than a traditional paper record. PMID:8653450

  2. [Medical education: between science and Bildungsroman]. (United States)

    Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich


    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it.

  3. Medication Errors - A Review


    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B


    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  4. Object Discovery via Cohesion Measurement. (United States)

    Guo, Guanjun; Wang, Hanzi; Zhao, Wan-Lei; Yan, Yan; Li, Xuelong


    Color and intensity are two important components in an image. Usually, groups of image pixels, which are similar in color or intensity, are an informative representation for an object. They are therefore particularly suitable for computer vision tasks, such as saliency detection and object proposal generation. However, image pixels, which share a similar real-world color, may be quite different since colors are often distorted by intensity. In this paper, we reinvestigate the affinity matrices originally used in image segmentation methods based on spectral clustering. A new affinity matrix, which is robust to color distortions, is formulated for object discovery. Moreover, a cohesion measurement (CM) for object regions is also derived based on the formulated affinity matrix. Based on the new CM, a novel object discovery method is proposed to discover objects latent in an image by utilizing the eigenvectors of the affinity matrix. Then we apply the proposed method to both saliency detection and object proposal generation. Experimental results on several evaluation benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed CM-based method has achieved promising performance for these two tasks.

  5. Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization. (United States)

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo


    Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.

  6. Van Allen Discovery Most Important (United States)

    Jastrow, R.


    The first step toward the exploration of space occurred approximately 22 months ago as a part of the International Geophysical Year. In the short interval since October, 1957, the new tools of research, the satellite and the space rocket, have produced two unexpected results of fundamental scientific importance. First, instruments placed in the Explorer satellites by James A. Van Allen have revealed the existence of layers of energetic particles in the outer atmosphere. This discovery constitutes the most significant research achievement of the IGY satellite program. The layers may provide the explanation for the aurora and other geophysical phenomena, and they will also influence the design of vehicles for manned space flight, whose occupants must be shielded against their harmful biological effects. Second, the shape of the earth has been determined very accurately with the aid of data from the first Vanguard. As a result of this investigation, we have found that our planet tends toward the shape of a pear, with its stem at the North Pole. This discovery may produce major changes in our ideas on the interior structure of the earth.

  7. Metadata-Centric Discovery Service (United States)

    Huang, T.; Chung, N. T.; Gangl, M. E.; Armstrong, E. M.


    It is data about data. It is the information describing a picture without looking at the picture. Through the years, the Earth Science community seeks better methods to describe science artifacts to improve the quality and efficiency in information exchange. One the purposes are to provide information to the users to guide them into identifies the science artifacts of their interest. The NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) are the building blocks of a data centric federation, designed for processing and archiving from NASA's Earth Observation missions and their distribution as well as provision of specialized services to users. The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, archives and distributes science artifacts pertain to the physical state of the ocean. As part of its high-performance operational Data Management and Archive System (DMAS) is a fast data discovery RESTful web service called the Oceanographic Common Search Interface (OCSI). The web service searches and delivers metadata on all data holdings within PO.DAAC. Currently OCSI supports metadata standards such as ISO-19115, OpenSearch, GCMD, and FGDC, with new metadata standards still being added. While we continue to seek the silver bullet in metadata standard, the Earth Science community is in fact consists of various standards due to the specific needs of its users and systems. This presentation focuses on the architecture behind OCSI as a reference implementation on building a metadata-centric discovery service.

  8. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Alex H; Grundy, Will M; Noll, Keith S


    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC April 27, 2015 at 7.80$\\pm$0.04 magnitudes fainter than Makemake. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days, and must have a semi-major axis $\\gtrsim$21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake's moon suggest that the majority ...

  9. Tools for GPCR drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru ZHANG; Xin XIE


    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many important physiological functions and are considered as one of the most successful therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases.The design and implementation of high-throughput GPCR assays that allow the cost-effective screening of large compound libraries to identify novel drug candidates are critical in early drug discovery.Early functional GPCR assays depend primarily on the measurement of G-protein-mediated 2nd messenger generation.Taking advantage of the continuously deepening understanding of GPCR signal transduction,many G-protein-independent pathways are utilized to detect the activity of GPCRs,and may provide additional information on functional selectivity of candidate compounds.With the combination of automated imaging systems and label-free detection systems,such assays are now suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS).In this review,we summarize the most widely used GPCR assays and recent advances in HTS technologies for GPCR drug discovery.

  10. Modern medical research ethics - bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez Abanto J. E.


    Full Text Available For today, the medical association came to common opinion, that a doctor-scientist cannot be higher than the universal values. At a decision-making, equally with the scientific interests, which, undoubtedly, will bring to development of the theoretical and practical medicine, a doctor must take into account moral values. The doctrine of the informed consent of patient that is examined as a necessary condition of any medical interference became ethic basis of experiment with participation of human. An observance of confidentiality of the results of the studies is also very important. The present development of the biomedical knowledge supposes realization of human research in a good cause, after the conducted tests on the animals and the other models. A clinical test on human must take place only then, when the risk does not exceed the benefit. Carrying out of the biomedical studies is considered as illegal, unconscionable, amoral and even criminal action. If the regulations and the norms of the law are not observed, it entails penal offence. This article provides the basic foundations of medical activities rather moral standards of medical and research activity, which in the different periods underwent the changes dictated by moral requirements of an era and society are analyzed.

  11. The Medical Council of India and its revolutionary, way of allowing Indian medical graduates from foreign universities to practice in India. (United States)

    Raju, C


    This paper attempts to sensitize the participants to understand the benefits of looking at the regulations of accreditation for medical courses in the neighbouring nearby countries. Deregulation of Medical Education like what they have done will bring enormous revenue benefits for the existing assets like the airports, hospitals, hotels resorts and the communication infrastructure of Malaysia.

  12. Two Kinds of Discovery: An Ontological Account


    Gilead, Amihud


    What can we discover? As the discussion in this paper is limited to ontological considerations, it does not deal with the discovery of new concepts. It raises the following question: What are the entities or existents that we can discover? There are two kinds of such entities: (1) actual entities, and (2) possible entities, which are pure possibilities. The paper explains why the first kind of discovery depends primarily on the second kind. The paper illustrates the discoveries of individual ...

  13. How do we identify and foster talent in medical schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Cristiancho, Sayra; Jensen, Rune Dall


    Background: Talent is highly regarded in high performance sports as a key feature for athletes to succeed. In medicine, talent is not a commonly held conversation, even though, medical students are usually identified as high achieving, internally motivated individuals. We suggest that bringing...... talent into the conversation of medical education research, will help us enrich how medical schools design selection processes. In this workshop we will bring awareness into the notion of talent from sports science research and invite discussion around how to embrace talent identification and development...... in medicine. The participants in this workshop will gain a better understanding of the notion of talent across different professional contexts. Furthermore, the workshop will encourage participants to share their personal experiences and practices in identifying and selecting talented medical students...

  14. Medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, David W


    Since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology almost 25 years ago, non-invasive imaging has become firmly established as an essential tool in the diagnosis of disease. Fully three-dimensional imaging of internal organs is now possible, b and for studies which explore the functional status of the body. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function are available, and scanners which combine anatomical and functional imaging in a single device are under development. Such techniques have been made possible through r ecent technological and mathematical advances. This series of lectures will review both the physical basis of medical imaging techniques using X-rays, gamma and positron emitting radiosiotopes, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the mathematical methods used to reconstruct three-dimentional distributions from projection data. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simple radiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo biochemistry. They ...

  15. Proteomics and Its Application in Biomarker Discovery and Drug Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qing-Yu; Chiu Jen-Fu


    Proteomics is a research field aiming to characterize molecular and cellular dynamics in protein expression and function on a global level. The introduction of proteomics has been greatly broadening our view and accelerating our path in various medical researches. The most significant advantage of proteomics is its ability to examine a whole proteome or sub-proteome in a single experiment so that the protein alterations corresponding to a pathological or biochemical condition at a given time can be considered in an integrated way. Proteomic technology has been extensively used to tackle a wide variety of medical subjects including biomarker discovery and drug development. By complement with other new technique advance in genomics and bioinformatics,proteomics has a great potential to make considerable contribution to biomarker identification and revolutionize drug development process. A brief overview of the proteomic technologies will be provided and the application of proteomics in biomarker discovery and drug development will be discussed using our current research projects as examples.

  16. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Open Discovery Space webinar in Europe

    CERN Multimedia


    Open Discovery Space (ODS) is a socially-powered and multilingual open learning infrastructure to boost the adoption of eLearning resources. ODS brings millions of educational resources directly into school classrooms. A key part of planning engaging lessons is access to high-quality, trustworthy teaching content. The platform empowers teachers by helping them build their schools` digital libraries, join lively communities of peers to share best practices, and connect their schools virtually with the world`s best research centres, museums and libraries.

  17. Gravity's ghost and big dog scientific discovery and social analysis in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry


    Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog brings to life science's efforts to detect cosmic gravitational waves. These ripples in space-time are predicted by general relativity, and their discovery will not only demonstrate the truth of Einstein's theories but also transform astronomy. Although no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected, the previous five years have been an especially exciting period in the field. Here sociologist Harry Collins offers readers an unprecedented view of gravitational wave research and explains what it means for an analyst to do work of this kind.

  18. How can scientists bring research to use: the HENVINET experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartonova Alena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health concerns have driven the European environmental policies of the last 25 years, with issues becoming more complex. Addressing these concerns requires an approach that is both interdisciplinary and engages scientists with society. In response to this requirement, the FP6 coordination action “Health and Environment Network” HENVINET was set up to create a permanent inter-disciplinary network of professionals in the field of health and environment tasked to bridge the communication gap between science and society. In this paper we describe how HENVINET delivered on this task. Methods The HENVINET project approached the issue of inter-disciplinary collaboration in four ways. (1 The Drivers-Pressures-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework was used to structure information gathering, collaboration and communication between scientists in the field of health and the environment. (2 Interactive web-based tools were developed to enhance methods for knowledge evaluation, and use these methods to formulate policy advice. (3 Quantification methods were adapted to measure scientific agreement. And (4 Open architecture web technology was used to develop an information repository and a web portal to facilitate collaboration and communication among scientists. Results Twenty-five organizations from Europe and five from outside Europe participated in the Health and Environment Network HENVINET, which lasted for 3.5 years. The consortium included partners in environmental research, public health and veterinary medicine; included medical practitioners and representatives of local administrations; and had access to national policy making and EEA and WHO expertise. Dedicated web-based tools for visualisation of environmental health issues and knowledge evaluation allowed remote expert elicitation, and were used as a basis for developing policy advice in five health areas (asthma and allergies; cancer; neurodevelopmental disorders

  19. Scientific discovery using genetic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzer, Maarten


    programming paradigm. The induction of mathematical expressions based on data is called symbolic regression. In this work, genetic programming is extended to not just fit the data i.e., get the numbers right, but also to get the dimensions right. For this units of measurement are used. The main contribution...... in this work can be summarized as: The symbolic expressions produced by genetic programming can be made suitable for analysis and interpretation by using units of measurements to guide or restrict the search. To achieve this, the following has been accomplished: A standard genetic programming system...... that are numerically stable and correct. A case study using four real-world problems in the induction of dimensionally correct empirical equations on data using the two different methods is presented to illustrate to use and limitations of these methods in a framework of scientific discovery....

  20. Empirical Adequacy and Scientific Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simon


    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that Bas van Fraassen’s constructive empiricism, such as it is expounded in The Scientific Image, ends up in considerable difficulties in the philosophy of science. The main problem would be the exclusion of mathematics from the conception of science, given its clear absence of empirical adequacy, which is the most important requirement of his formulation. In this sense, it is suggested a more inclusive formulation of scientific theory, aroused from the notion of Da Costa’s (1999 simple structure, considering the notion of scientific discovery in a strict sense, and the validity limit of a theory and the formalism used in a temporal context.

  1. Drug discovery from marine microbes. (United States)

    Gerwick, William H; Fenner, Amanda M


    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or as molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow-water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of "associated" or symbiotic microorganisms and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts.

  2. Data Driven Discovery in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, Giuseppe; Djorgovski, George S; Cavuoti, Stefano; Donalek, Ciro


    We review some aspects of the current state of data-intensive astronomy, its methods, and some outstanding data analysis challenges. Astronomy is at the forefront of "big data" science, with exponentially growing data volumes and data rates, and an ever-increasing complexity, now entering the Petascale regime. Telescopes and observatories from both ground and space, covering a full range of wavelengths, feed the data via processing pipelines into dedicated archives, where they can be accessed for scientific analysis. Most of the large archives are connected through the Virtual Observatory framework, that provides interoperability standards and services, and effectively constitutes a global data grid of astronomy. Making discoveries in this overabundance of data requires applications of novel, machine learning tools. We describe some of the recent examples of such applications.

  3. Automating Spreadsheet Discovery & Risk Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Eric


    There have been many articles and mishaps published about the risks of uncontrolled spreadsheets in today's business environment, including non-compliance, operational risk, errors, and fraud all leading to significant loss events. Spreadsheets fall into the realm of end user developed applications and are often absent the proper safeguards and controls an IT organization would enforce for enterprise applications. There is also an overall lack of software programming discipline enforced in how spreadsheets are developed. However, before an organization can apply proper controls and discipline to critical spreadsheets, an accurate and living inventory of spreadsheets across the enterprise must be created, and all critical spreadsheets must be identified. As such, this paper proposes an automated approach to the initial stages of the spreadsheet management lifecycle - discovery, inventory and risk assessment. Without the use of technology, these phases are often treated as a one-off project. By leveraging techn...

  4. Computational approaches for drug discovery. (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Chi-Chun


    Cellular proteins are the mediators of multiple organism functions being involved in physiological mechanisms and disease. By discovering lead compounds that affect the function of target proteins, the target diseases or physiological mechanisms can be modulated. Based on knowledge of the ligand-receptor interaction, the chemical structures of leads can be modified to improve efficacy, selectivity and reduce side effects. One rational drug design technology, which enables drug discovery based on knowledge of target structures, functional properties and mechanisms, is computer-aided drug design (CADD). The application of CADD can be cost-effective using experiments to compare predicted and actual drug activity, the results from which can used iteratively to improve compound properties. The two major CADD-based approaches are structure-based drug design, where protein structures are required, and ligand-based drug design, where ligand and ligand activities can be used to design compounds interacting with the protein structure. Approaches in structure-based drug design include docking, de novo design, fragment-based drug discovery and structure-based pharmacophore modeling. Approaches in ligand-based drug design include quantitative structure-affinity relationship and pharmacophore modeling based on ligand properties. Based on whether the structure of the receptor and its interaction with the ligand are known, different design strategies can be seed. After lead compounds are generated, the rule of five can be used to assess whether these have drug-like properties. Several quality validation methods, such as cost function analysis, Fisher's cross-validation analysis and goodness of hit test, can be used to estimate the metrics of different drug design strategies. To further improve CADD performance, multi-computers and graphics processing units may be applied to reduce costs.

  5. A Tale of Two Discoveries: Comparing the Usability of Summon and EBSCO Discovery Service (United States)

    Foster, Anita K.; MacDonald, Jean B.


    Web-scale discovery systems are gaining momentum among academic libraries as libraries seek a means to provide their users with a one-stop searching experience. Illinois State University's Milner Library found itself in the unique position of having access to two distinct discovery products, EBSCO Discovery Service and Serials Solutions' Summon.…

  6. Medical revolution in Argentina. (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A


    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  7. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators (United States)

    Brain, David; Schneider, N.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Afsharahmadi, F.


    We present two new features of an ongoing effort to bring recent newsworthy advances in planetary science to undergraduate lecture halls. The effort, called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', summarizes selected recently announced discoveries that are 'too new for textbooks' in the form of 3-slide PowerPoint presentations. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts at a level appropriate for students of 'Astronomy 101', and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at for download by undergraduate instructors or any interested party. Several new slide sets have just been released, and we summarize the topics covered. The slide sets are also being translated into languages other than English (including Spanish and Farsi), and we will provide an overview of the translation strategy and process. Finally, we will present web statistics on how many people are using the slide sets, as well as individual feedback from educators.

  8. Medical History: Compiling Your Medical Family Tree (United States)

    ... family medical history, sometimes called a medical family tree, is a record of illnesses and medical conditions ... to consult family documents, such as existing family trees, baby books, old letters, obituaries or records from ...

  9. [Clinical cases and historical-medical didactics]. (United States)

    Berti, Giuseppina Bock


    The discovery of remarkable documents dating back to the thirties and coming from the Policlinico Surgical Clinic of Milan, offers the possibility to be read in a historical clue too and to compare the constant discordances with the clinical contemporary practice. The aim is to point out the relationship between yesterday knowledges and critical today interpretations. The analysis can be suggested because certainly instructive and formative, also within the historical-medical didactics students of the courses of degree in Medicine and Nursing since the first match with the Medical Faculty.

  10. Research and academic education in medical sexology. (United States)

    Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A


    Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakumenko, V.V.


    Full Text Available The article considers the different concepts of discovery of evidence, which exist under different legal jurisdictions, with their theoretical analysis to determine the feasibility and rationality of the application of the discovery mechanisms in the frameworks of international commercial arbitration and its fundamental principles.

  12. Time Series Rule Discovery: Tough, not Meaningless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struzik, Z.R.


    `Model free' rule discovery from data has recently been subject to considerable criticism, which has cast a shadow over the emerging discipline of time series data mining. However, other than in data mining, rule discovery has long been the subject of research in statistical physics of complex pheno

  13. Accounting for discovery bias in genomic prediction (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate an approach to mitigating discovery bias in genomic prediction. Accuracy may be improved by placing greater emphasis on regions of the genome expected to be more influential on a trait. Methods emphasizing regions result in a phenomenon known as “discovery bias” if info...

  14. Effective Online Group Discovery in Trajectory Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohui; Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.;


    GPS-enabled devices are pervasive nowadays. Finding movement patterns in trajectory data stream is gaining in importance. We propose a group discovery framework that aims to efficiently support the online discovery of moving objects that travel together. The framework adopts a sampling...

  15. Service discovery in heterogeneous wireless networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blangé, M.J.; Karkowski, I.P.; Vermeulen, B.C.B.


    In this paper we describe a possible solution to the problem of service discovery in heterogeneous wireless networks. This solution involves introduction of a network independent service discovery layer, with as main goal the improved robustness of applications running on top of it. A possible imple

  16. 12 CFR 1780.26 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... Constitution, any applicable act of Congress, or the principles of common law. (e) Time limits. All discovery... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1780.26 Section 1780.26 Banks and... OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prehearing Proceedings § 1780.26...

  17. 2015 Update of the Discoveries of Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Thoennessen, M


    The 2015 update of the discovery of nuclide project is presented. Twenty new nuclides were observed for the first time in 2015. An overall review of all previous assignments was made in order to apply the discovery criteria consistently to all elements. In addition, a list of isotopes published so far only in conference proceedings or internal reports is included.

  18. Discovery of inhibitors of bacterial histidine kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, N.R.


    Discovery of Inhibitors of Bacterial Histidine Kinases


    The thesis is on novel antibacterial drug discovery ( Using structure-based and fragment-based dru

  19. Smoking cessation medications (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  20. Medical Physics


    Voto Bernales, Juan; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    Medical Physics is to study the physical phenomena that occur in the body and exert action on the agents. It also addresses the manner taught natural agents in the study and exploration of the human body and in the way in the same agents for use in the treatment of disease can be used. La Física Médica tiene por objeto estudiar los fenómenos físicos que se realizan en el organismo y la acción que sobre el ejercen los agentes. Se ocupa, además, de enseñar la manera cómo pueden utilizarse lo...

  1. Medical robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne


    In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and

  2. Sampling: Making Electronic Discovery More Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma


    Full Text Available With the huge volumes of electronic data subject to discovery in virtually every instance of litigation, time and costs of conducting discovery have become exceedingly important when litigants plan their discovery strategies.  Rather than incurring the costs of having lawyers review every document produced in response to a discovery request in search of relevant evidence, a cost effective strategy for document review planning is to use statistical sampling of the database of documents to determine the likelihood of finding relevant evidence by reviewing additional documents.  This paper reviews and discusses how sampling can be used to make document review more cost effective by considering issues such as an appropriate sample size, how to develop a sampling strategy, and taking into account the potential value of the litigation in relation to the costs of additional discovery efforts. 

  3. Discovery Mechanisms for the Sensor Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Stasch


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the discovery of sensors within the OGC Sensor Web Enablement framework. Whereas services like the OGC Web Map Service or Web Coverage Service are already well supported through catalogue services, the field of sensor networks and the according discovery mechanisms is still a challenge. The focus within this article will be on the use of existing OGC Sensor Web components for realizing a discovery solution. After discussing the requirements for a Sensor Web discovery mechanism, an approach will be presented that was developed within the EU funded project “OSIRIS”. This solution offers mechanisms to search for sensors, exploit basic semantic relationships, harvest sensor metadata and integrate sensor discovery into already existing catalogues.

  4. Human brain evolution: from gene discovery to phenotype discovery. (United States)

    Preuss, Todd M


    The rise of comparative genomics and related technologies has added important new dimensions to the study of human evolution. Our knowledge of the genes that underwent expression changes or were targets of positive selection in human evolution is rapidly increasing, as is our knowledge of gene duplications, translocations, and deletions. It is now clear that the genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees are far more extensive than previously thought; their genomes are not 98% or 99% identical. Despite the rapid growth in our understanding of the evolution of the human genome, our understanding of the relationship between genetic changes and phenotypic changes is tenuous. This is true even for the most intensively studied gene, FOXP2, which underwent positive selection in the human terminal lineage and is thought to have played an important role in the evolution of human speech and language. In part, the difficulty of connecting genes to phenotypes reflects our generally poor knowledge of human phenotypic specializations, as well as the difficulty of interpreting the consequences of genetic changes in species that are not amenable to invasive research. On the positive side, investigations of FOXP2, along with genomewide surveys of gene-expression changes and selection-driven sequence changes, offer the opportunity for "phenotype discovery," providing clues to human phenotypic specializations that were previously unsuspected. What is more, at least some of the specializations that have been proposed are amenable to testing with noninvasive experimental techniques appropriate for the study of humans and apes.

  5. The discovery of the periodic table as a case of simultaneous discovery. (United States)

    Scerri, Eric


    The article examines the question of priority and simultaneous discovery in the context of the discovery of the periodic system. It is argued that rather than being anomalous, simultaneous discovery is the rule. Moreover, I argue that the discovery of the periodic system by at least six authors in over a period of 7 years represents one of the best examples of a multiple discovery. This notion is supported by a new view of the evolutionary development of science through a mechanism that is dubbed Sci-Gaia by analogy with Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis.

  6. Assessment of composite motif discovery methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Jostein


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational discovery of regulatory elements is an important area of bioinformatics research and more than a hundred motif discovery methods have been published. Traditionally, most of these methods have addressed the problem of single motif discovery – discovering binding motifs for individual transcription factors. In higher organisms, however, transcription factors usually act in combination with nearby bound factors to induce specific regulatory behaviours. Hence, recent focus has shifted from single motifs to the discovery of sets of motifs bound by multiple cooperating transcription factors, so called composite motifs or cis-regulatory modules. Given the large number and diversity of methods available, independent assessment of methods becomes important. Although there have been several benchmark studies of single motif discovery, no similar studies have previously been conducted concerning composite motif discovery. Results We have developed a benchmarking framework for composite motif discovery and used it to evaluate the performance of eight published module discovery tools. Benchmark datasets were constructed based on real genomic sequences containing experimentally verified regulatory modules, and the module discovery programs were asked to predict both the locations of these modules and to specify the single motifs involved. To aid the programs in their search, we provided position weight matrices corresponding to the binding motifs of the transcription factors involved. In addition, selections of decoy matrices were mixed with the genuine matrices on one dataset to test the response of programs to varying levels of noise. Conclusion Although some of the methods tested tended to score somewhat better than others overall, there were still large variations between individual datasets and no single method performed consistently better than the rest in all situations. The variation in performance on individual

  7. 78 FR 18611 - Summit on Color in Medical Imaging; Cosponsored Public Workshop; Request for Comments (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Summit on Color in Medical Imaging; Cosponsored Public... International Color Consortium (ICC) are announcing the following public workshop entitled ``Summit on Color in... Approaches for Dealing with Color in Medical Images.'' The purpose of the workshop is to bring together...

  8. He who pays the piper: foundations, the medical profession, and medical education reform. (United States)

    Brown, E R


    The development of modern medical education was shaped by the medical profession's own reform strategies and by material and ideological support from the corporate class. This article examines how the Rockefeller medical philanthropies, the largest single source of funds for medical education reform from 1910 through the 1930s, forced the adoption of a specific reform--full-time clinical faculty--to make medicine serve the needs of capitalist society rather than the interests of the medical profession. Memorandums and letters from archival files demonstrate that foundation leaders believed the full-time plan would separate medical schools from the grip of practitioner-dominated medical societies, bringing all medical faculty under the control of foundations and university boards of trustees. This policy was to be a first step in rationalizing medical care and distributing the technical benefits and social-control functions of medicine to all segments of the population. The author traces the development of the full-time plan, its adoption as foundation policy, and the struggle over its implementation.

  9. A Vehicle for Science and Exploration: Bringing Offshore Industry Advances and Experience to the Oceanographic Community (United States)


    A Vehicle for Science and Exploration: Bringing Offshore Industry Advances and Experience to the Oceanographic Community Brent Evers...DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Vehicle for Science and Exploration: Bringing Offshore Industry Advances and...fiber, and thus the umbilical connecting the ROV to the ship. While the .680” electro-optical cable employed in the NOAA ROV system incorporates three

  10. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery (United States)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website ( These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  11. 3D in vitro technology for drug discovery. (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein


    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro systems that can mimic organ and tissue structure and function in vivo, will be of great benefit for a variety of biological applications from basic biology to toxicity testing and drug discovery. There have been several attempts to generate 3D tissue models but most of these models require costly equipment, and the most serious disadvantage in them is that they are too far from the mature human organs in vivo. Because of these problems, research and development in drug discovery, toxicity testing and biotech industries are highly expensive, and involve sacrifice of countless animals and it takes several years to bring a single drug/product to the market or to find the toxicity or otherwise of chemical entities. Our group has been actively working on several alternative models by merging biomaterials science, nanotechnology and biological principles to generate 3D in vitro living organs, to be called "Human Organs-on-Chip", to mimic natural organ/tissues, in order to reduce animal testing and clinical trials. We have fabricated a novel type of mechanically and biologically bio-mimicking collagen-based hydrogel that would provide for interconnected mini-wells in which 3D cell/organ culture of human samples in a manner similar to human organs with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules would be possible. These products mimic the physical, chemical, and biological properties of natural organs and tissues at different scales. This paper will review the outcome of our several experiments so far in this direction and the future perspectives.

  12. Medical applications of virtual reality. (United States)

    Satava, R M


    Medical applications for virtual reality (VR) are just beginning to emerge. These include VR surgical simulators, telepresence surgery, complex medical database visualization, and rehabilitation. These applications are mediated through the computer interface and as such are the embodiment of VR as an integral part of the paradigm shift in the field of medicine. The Green Telepresence Surgery System consists of two components, the surgical workstation and remote worksite. At the remote site there is a 3-D camera system and responsive manipulators with sensory input. At the workstation there is a 3-D monitor and dexterous handles with force feedback. The VR surgical simulator is a stylized recreation of the human abdomen with several essential organs. Using a helmet mounted display and DataGlove, a person can learn anatomy from a new perspective by 'flying' inside and around the organs, or can practice surgical procedures with a scalpel and clamps. Database visualization creates 3-D images of complex medical data for new perspectives in analysis. Rehabilitation medicine permits impaired individuals to explore worlds not otherwise available to them, allows accurate assessment and therapy for their disabilities, and helps architects understand their critical needs in public or personal space. And to support these advanced technologies, the operating room and hospital of the future will be first designed and tested in virtual reality, bringing together the full power of the digital physician.

  13. Medication/Drug Allergy (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  14. Genetic algorithms for route discovery. (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy


    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making.

  15. Discovery of Grooves on Gaspra (United States)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Simonelli, D.; Belton, M.J.S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Neukum, G.


    We report the discovery of grooves in Galileo high-resolution images of Gaspra. These features, previously seen only on Mars' satellite Phobos, are most likely related to severe impacts. Grooves on Gaspra occur as linear and pitted depressions, typically 100-200 m wide, 0.8 to 2.5 km long, and 10-20 m deep. Most occur in two major groups, one of which trends approximately parallel to the asteroid's long axis, but is offset by some 15??; the other is approximately perpendicular to this trend. The first of these directions falls along a family of planes which parallel three extensive flat facets identified by Thomas et al., Icarus 107. The occurrence of grooves on Gaspra is consistent with other indications (irregular shape, cratering record) that this asteroid has evolved through a violent collisional history. The bodywide congruence of major groove directions and other structural elements suggests that present-day Gaspra is a globally coherent body. ?? 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge Discovery from Vibration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Deng


    Full Text Available The framework as well as the particular algorithms of pattern recognition process is widely adopted in structural health monitoring (SHM. However, as a part of the overall process of knowledge discovery from data bases (KDD, the results of pattern recognition are only changes and patterns of changes of data features. In this paper, based on the similarity between KDD and SHM and considering the particularity of SHM problems, a four-step framework of SHM is proposed which extends the final goal of SHM from detecting damages to extracting knowledge to facilitate decision making. The purposes and proper methods of each step of this framework are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed SHM framework, a specific SHM method which is composed by the second order structural parameter identification, statistical control chart analysis, and system reliability analysis is then presented. To examine the performance of this SHM method, real sensor data measured from a lab size steel bridge model structure are used. The developed four-step framework of SHM has the potential to clarify the process of SHM to facilitate the further development of SHM techniques.

  17. Knowledge discovery from vibration measurements. (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Li, Jian; Wang, Daoyao


    The framework as well as the particular algorithms of pattern recognition process is widely adopted in structural health monitoring (SHM). However, as a part of the overall process of knowledge discovery from data bases (KDD), the results of pattern recognition are only changes and patterns of changes of data features. In this paper, based on the similarity between KDD and SHM and considering the particularity of SHM problems, a four-step framework of SHM is proposed which extends the final goal of SHM from detecting damages to extracting knowledge to facilitate decision making. The purposes and proper methods of each step of this framework are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed SHM framework, a specific SHM method which is composed by the second order structural parameter identification, statistical control chart analysis, and system reliability analysis is then presented. To examine the performance of this SHM method, real sensor data measured from a lab size steel bridge model structure are used. The developed four-step framework of SHM has the potential to clarify the process of SHM to facilitate the further development of SHM techniques.

  18. Discovery Mondays: Zoom on materials

    CERN Multimedia


    Following the success of the first Discovery Monday, which had over 100 visitors, the series of evening events in Microcosm continues. On Monday 2nd June, discover the world of materials. Find out how CERN scientists examine, manufacture and study different materials, at different scales. Did you know for example that using electrons you can observe a hair at a scale equivalent to looking at a boat with the naked eye? Also, that using ultrasound, you can measure the thickness of an object that is completely inaccessible? Find out more about these techniques, and also the high-tech machining and soldering that is carried out in CERN's central workshop. Plus, see how engineers can detect tiny leaks through solder points - essential for maintaining the vacuum in the LHC. The evening is open to all, without reservation, suggested age 12 and above. Rendez-vous in Microcosm on Monday 2nd June From 19.30 - 21.00 Free entry For more information : Using a scanning microscope, the head o...

  19. The Discovery of Dabigatran Etexilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne evan Ryn


    Full Text Available Thromboembolic disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world and is caused by an excessive stimulation of coagulation. Thrombin is a key serine protease in the coagulation cascade and numerous efforts have been made to develop safe and effective orally active direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs. Current anticoagulant therapy includes the use of indirect thrombin inhibitors (e.g. heparins, low-molecular-weight-heparins [LMWHs] and vitamin K antagonists (VKA such as warfarin. However there are several caveats in the clinical use of these agents including narrow therapeutic window, parenteral delivery, and food- and drug-drug interactions. Dabigatran is a synthetic, reversible DTI with high affinity and specificity for its target binding both free and clot-bound thrombin, and offers a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Large randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that dabigatran provides comparable or superior thromboprophylaxis in multiple thromboembolic disease indications compared to standard of care. This minireview will highlight the discovery and development of dabigatran, the first in a class of new oral anticoagulant (NOAC agents to be licensed worldwide for the prevention of thromboembolism in the setting of orthopedic surgery and stroke prevent in atrial fibrillation.

  20. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  1. Event Discovery in Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Dan; Brodley, Carla


    The discovery of events in time series can have important implications, such as identifying microlensing events in astronomical surveys, or changes in a patient's electrocardiogram. Current methods for identifying events require a sliding window of a fixed size, which is not ideal for all applications and could overlook important events. In this work, we develop probability models for calculating the significance of an arbitrary-sized sliding window and use these probabilities to find areas of significance. Because a brute force search of all sliding windows and all window sizes would be computationally intractable, we introduce a method for quickly approximating the results. We apply our method to over 100,000 astronomical time series from the MACHO survey, in which 56 different sections of the sky are considered, each with one or more known events. Our method was able to recover 100% of these events in the top 1% of the results, essentially pruning 99% of the data. Interestingly, our method was able to iden...

  2. Method for dense packing discovery. (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon


    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ϕ=128/219≈0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing.

  3. Serendipity in anticancer drug discovery. (United States)

    Hargrave-Thomas, Emily; Yu, Bo; Reynisson, Jóhannes


    It was found that the discovery of 5.8% (84/1437) of all drugs on the market involved serendipity. Of these drugs, 31 (2.2%) were discovered following an incident in the laboratory and 53 (3.7%) were discovered in a clinical setting. In addition, 263 (18.3%) of the pharmaceuticals in clinical use today are chemical derivatives of the drugs discovered with the aid of serendipity. Therefore, in total, 24.1% (347/1437) of marketed drugs can be directly traced to serendipitous events confirming the importance of this elusive phenomenon. In the case of anticancer drugs, 35.2% (31/88) can be attributed to a serendipitous event, which is somewhat larger than for all drugs. The therapeutic field that has benefited the most from serendipity are central nervous system active drugs reflecting the difficulty in designing compounds to pass the blood-brain-barrier and the lack of laboratory-based assays for many of the diseases of the mind.

  4. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim


    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  5. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Huntington, Channing; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto


    For almost 20 years a team of astronomers, theorists and experimentalists have investigated the creation of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds, using a combination of astronomical observations, astrophysical simulations, and recently, scaled laboratory experiments. Eagle Nebula, one of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science programs, has completed four NIF shots to study the dense `shadowing' model of pillar formation, and been awarded more shots to study the `cometary' model. These experiments require a long-duration drive, 30 ns or longer, to generate deeply nonlinear ablative hydrodynamics. A novel x-ray source featuring multiple UV-driven hohlraums driven is used. The source directionally illuminates a science package, mimicking a cluster of stars. The first four NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and suggested that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at millimeter observatories, and indicate cometary growth is key to matching observations. Supported in part by a Grant from the DOE OFES HEDLP program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. [MEDICAL CANNABIS]. (United States)

    Naftali, Timna


    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  7. Medical telesensors (United States)

    Ferrell, Trinidad L.; Crilly, P. B.; Smith, S. F.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Britton, Charles L., Jr.; Morrison, Gilbert W.; Ericson, M. N.; Hedden, D.; Bouldin, Donald W.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Wig, A. G.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice


    Medical telesensors are self-contained integrated circuits for measuring and transmitting vital signs over a distance of approximately 1-2 meters. The circuits are unhoused and contain a sensor, signal processing and modulation electronics, a spread-spectrum transmitter, an antenna and a thin-film battery. We report on a body-temperature telesensor, which is sufficiently small to be placed on a tympanic membrane in a child's ear. We also report on a pulse-oximeter telesensor and a micropack receiver/long- range transmitter unit, which receives form a telesensor array and analyzes and re-transmits the vital signs over a longer range. Signal analytics are presented for the pulse oximeter, which is currently in the form of a finger ring. A multichip module is presented as the basic signal-analysis component. The module contains a microprocessor, a field=programmable gate array, memory elements and other components necessary for determining trauma and reporting signals.

  8. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery (United States)


    In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the

  9. Discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As discussed in this document, there are 108 discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf which so far have not been approved for development. The oil and gas resources of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are mostly found in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Eighty-one of the discoveries which are not approved for development are located in the North Sea and more than 60% of the discoveries in this province contain less than 5 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. In the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea there are 27 discoveries which are not approved for development and whose total resources are estimated at 500 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. About 60% of the oil resources is expected to be comprised by development plans in 1997 or 1998. Another 20% is in new discoveries currently being evaluated or in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Production forecasts indicate substantial vacant oil processing capacity after 2000. Vacant gas processing capacity will mainly arise after 2005. 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Note from the CERN Medical Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    FLU VACCINATION People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2004. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  11. Note from the CERN Medical Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    FLU VACCINATION People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have the flu vaccination.  Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious illness or after major surgery . The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their usual family doctor. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  12. History of standards, certification, and licensure in medical health physics. (United States)

    Bushong, S C


    Immediately following the discovery of x rays they were applied to medical diagnosis and therapy. These early medical applications were soon shown to be accompanied by rather severe biologic responses and injuries. This resulted in the development of standards. Radiation standards were developed to properly control the application of x rays in medicine by controlling equipment and how it was used. Control of personnel occurred later with first certification and then licensure.

  13. Drug Discovery in Academia- the third way? (United States)

    Frearson, Julie; Wyatt, Paul


    As the pharmaceutical industry continues to re-strategise and focus on low-risk, relatively short term gains for the sake of survival, we need to re-invigorate the early stages of drug discovery and rebalance efforts towards novel modes of action therapeutics and neglected genetic and tropical diseases. Academic drug discovery is one model which offers the promise of new approaches and an alternative organisational culture for drug discovery as it attempts to apply academic innovation and thought processes to the challenge of discovering drugs to address real unmet need. PMID:20922062

  14. Literature mining in support of drug discovery. (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Searls, David B


    The drug discovery enterprise provides strong drivers for data integration. While attention in this arena has tended to focus on integration of primary data from omics and other large platform technologies contributing to drug discovery and development, the scientific literature remains a major source of information valuable to pharmaceutical enterprises, and therefore tools for mining such data and integrating it with other sources are of vital interest and economic impact. This review provides a brief overview of approaches to literature mining as they relate to drug discovery, and offers an illustrative case study of a 'lightweight' approach we have implemented within an industrial context.

  15. Two Kinds of Discovery: An Ontological Account

    CERN Document Server

    Gilead, Amihud


    What can we discover? As the discussion in this paper is limited to ontological considerations, it does not deal with the discovery of new concepts. It raises the following question: What are the entities or existents that we can discover? There are two kinds of such entities: (1) actual entities, and (2) possible entities, which are pure possibilities. The paper explains why the first kind of discovery depends primarily on the second kind. The paper illustrates the discoveries of individual pure possibilities by presenting examples such as the Higgs particle, Dirac's positron, and Pauli-Fermi's neutrino.

  16. Open PHACTS: semantic interoperability for drug discovery. (United States)

    Williams, Antony J; Harland, Lee; Groth, Paul; Pettifer, Stephen; Chichester, Christine; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Blomberg, Niklas; Ecker, Gerhard; Goble, Carole; Mons, Barend


    Open PHACTS is a public-private partnership between academia, publishers, small and medium sized enterprises and pharmaceutical companies. The goal of the project is to deliver and sustain an 'open pharmacological space' using and enhancing state-of-the-art semantic web standards and technologies. It is focused on practical and robust applications to solve specific questions in drug discovery research. OPS is intended to facilitate improvements in drug discovery in academia and industry and to support open innovation and in-house non-public drug discovery research. This paper lays out the challenges and how the Open PHACTS project is hoping to address these challenges technically and socially.

  17. Essential Medical Capabilities and Medical Readiness (United States)


    15-001098 Copy Essential Medical Capabilities and Medical Readiness John E. Whitley Joseph F. Adams Joseph J. Angello Jennifer T. Brooks Sarah K...other national challenges. Essential Medical Capabilities and Medical Readiness John E. Whitley Joseph F. Adams Joseph J. Angello Jennifer T. Brooks...noted that the ability of the Military Health System to provide operational healthcare is measured by the readiness of its medical personnel and

  18. Note from the CERN Medical Service: FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2001. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  19. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  20. Note from the CERN Medical Service: FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia


    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2003. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  1. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia


    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2003. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  2. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylvain Weisz


    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2002. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  3. Note from the CERN Medical Service. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.


    CERN Multimedia


    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  5. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  6. [Use of GWAS for drug discovery and development]. (United States)

    Liou, Shyh-Yuh


    The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003. A catalog of common genetic variants in humans was built at the International HapMap Project. These variants, known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), occur in human DNA and distributed among populations in different parts of the world. By using the Linkage Disequilibrium and mapping blocks are able to define quantitative characters of inherited diseases. Currently 50 K-5.0 M microarray are available commercially, which based on the results of following the ENCODE & 1000 genome projects. Therefore the genome wide association study (GWAS) has become a key tool for discovering variants that contribute to human diseases and provide maximum coverage of the genome, in contrast to the traditional approach in which only a few candidates genes was targeted. The available public GWAS databases provided valuable biological insights and new discovery for many common diseases, due to the availability of low cost microarray. The GWAS has the potential to provide a solution for the lack of new drug targets and reducing drug failure due to adverse drug reactions either. These are critical issues for pharmaceutical companies. Here, the Japan PGx Data Science Consortium (JPDSC), which was established on February 20, 2009 by six leading pharmaceutical companies in Japan, was introduced. We believe that the efforts of stakeholders including the regulatory authorities, health providers, and pharmaceutical companies to understand the potential and ethical risk of using genetic information including GWAS will bring benefits to patients in the future.

  7. Discovery of Two New Pulsars in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhichen; Li, Di; Ridolfi, Alessandro; Wang, Pei; Freire, Paulo


    We report the discovery of two new millisecond pulsars (PSRs J0024$-$7204aa and J0024$-$7204ab) in the globular cluster 47\\,Tucanae (NGC 104). Our results bring the total number of pulsars in 47\\,Tucanae to 25. These pulsars were discovered by reprocessing archival observations from the Parkes radio telescope. We reprocessed the data using a standard search procedure based on the PRESTO software package as well as using a new method in which we incoherently added the power spectra corresponding to $\\sim$1100\\,hr of observations. The newly discovered PSR~J0024$-$7204aa, has a pulse frequency of $\\rm \\sim$541\\,Hz (corresponding to a $\\rm \\sim$1.84 ms period), which is higher than any other pulsars currently known in the cluster and ranks 12$^{\\rm{th}}$ amongst all the currently known pulsars. The dispersion measure of this pulsar, 24.941(7)\\,cm$^{-3}$ pc, is the highest in the cluster. The second discovered pulsar, PSR~J0024$-$7204ab, is an isolated pulsar with a pulse frequency of $\\rm \\sim$270\\,Hz (correspond...

  8. Celebrating 20 years of the discovery of the top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Azzi, P


    An historical recount of the events leading to the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and DO experiments at the Tevatron. 1 Introduction This presentation brings us back to the early nineties. It is interesting to picture ourselves without iphone and laptops, working on DEC VAX and having to stay in the office to work because there was no internet at home. The programming language was Fortran and plots were made with PAW. Detectors were becoming bigger and more complex, but no Silicon detector had been tried in a hadron collider yet. To put things in perspective for the LHC physicist of today: the MonteCarlo programs of the time did not differentiate between heavy and light quarks (VECBOS), there were no b-tagging algorithms, it was not clear that a Silicon detector could survive the radiation environement of an hadron collider such as the Tevatron and collecting data took a long time (one year for 20 pb-1). Nonetheless, working at the most powerful accelerator of the time was as exciting as it tod...

  9. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory: Three Years of Discovery (United States)

    McLaughlin, Maura; Heatherly, S.; Rosen, R.


    The Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) is a joint partnership between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU) to improve the quality of science education in West Virginia high schools. The ultimate goal of the PSC is to engage students in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM), and related fields by using information technology to conduct current scientific research, specifically searching for new pulsars. We expect to discover roughly 30 new pulsars in the PSC data. The PSC has had several scientific and educational successes. To date, the PSC students have made two astronomical discoveries: a 4.8-s pulsar and bright radio burst of astrophysical origin, most likely from a sporadic neutron star. We have 21 new high schools this year, bringing the number of PSC schools to 43. Ten of these schools are part of PSC West, a trial scale-up of our original PSC program. Of the 33 schools in the original PSC program, 13 come from rural school districts; one third of these are from schools where over 50% participate in the Free/Reduced School Lunch program. We are reaching first generation college-goers. For students, the program succeeds in building confidence in students, rapport with the scientists involved in the project, and team-work ability. We see additional gains in girls, who see themselves as scientists after participating in the PSC program. This is an important predictor of success in STEM fields.

  10. Medical decisions under uncertainty. (United States)

    Carmi, A


    The court applies the criteria of the reasonable doctor and common practice in order to consider the behaviour of a defendant physician. The meaning of our demand that the doctor expects that his or her acts or omissions will bring about certain implications is that, according to the present circumstances and subject to the limited knowledge of the common practice, the course of certain events or situations in the future may be assumed in spite of the fog of uncertainty which surrounds us. The miracles and wonders of creation are concealed from us, and we are not aware of the way and the nature of our bodily functioning. Therefore, there seems to be no way to avoid mistakes, because in several cases the correct diagnosis cannot be determined even with the most advanced application of all information available. Doctors find it difficult to admit that they grope in the dark. They wish to form clear and accurate diagnoses for their patients. The fact that their profession is faced with innumerable and unavoidable risks and mistakes is hard to swallow, and many of them claim that in their everyday work this does not happen. They should not content themselves by changing their style. A radical metamorphosis is needed. They should not be tempted to formulate their diagnoses in 'neutral' statements in order to be on the safe side. Uncertainty should be accepted and acknowledged by the profession and by the public at large as a human phenomenon, as an integral part of any human decision, and as a clear characteristic of any legal or medical diagnosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  12. Association Rule Discovery and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Data mining, i.e. , mining knowledge from large amounts of data, is a demanding field since huge amounts of data have been collected in various applications. The collected data far exceed peoples ability to analyze it. Thus, some new and efficient methods are needed to discover knowledge from large database. Association rule discovery is an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining.The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent item sets and then forming conditional implication rule among them. In this paper, we describe and summarize recent work on association rule discovery, offer a new method to association rule mining and point out that association rule discovery can be applied in spatial data mining. It is useful to discover knowledge from remote sensing and geographical information system.``

  13. Combinatorial Discovery and Optimization of New Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Chen; Zhang Xinyi; Yan Dongsheng


    The concept of the combinatorial discovery and optimization of new materials, and its background,importance, and application, as well as its current status in the world, are briefly reviewed in this paper.

  14. DNA Coding Based Knowledge Discovery Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-yun; GENG Zhao-feng; SHAO Shi-huang


    A novel DNA coding based knowledge discovery algorithm was proposed, an example which verified its validity was given. It is proved that this algorithm can discover new simplified rules from the original rule set efficiently.

  15. Indexer Based Dynamic Web Services Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Bashir, Saba; Javed, M Younus; Khan, Aihab; Khiyal, Malik Sikandar Hayat


    Recent advancement in web services plays an important role in business to business and business to consumer interaction. Discovery mechanism is not only used to find a suitable service but also provides collaboration between service providers and consumers by using standard protocols. A static web service discovery mechanism is not only time consuming but requires continuous human interaction. This paper proposed an efficient dynamic web services discovery mechanism that can locate relevant and updated web services from service registries and repositories with timestamp based on indexing value and categorization for faster and efficient discovery of service. The proposed prototype focuses on quality of service issues and introduces concept of local cache, categorization of services, indexing mechanism, CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problem) solver, aging and usage of translator. Performance of proposed framework is evaluated by implementing the algorithm and correctness of our method is shown. The results of p...

  16. Queen's discovery lauded by top scientific journal

    CERN Multimedia

    McGrady, S


    A scientific breakthrough at Queen's University's Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has received major international recognition. The journal Science ranked the discovery that cracked the "neutrino problem" second, in the journal's top 10 scientific achievements of 2002 (1/2 page).

  17. 6 CFR 13.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ...) In general. (1) The following types of discovery are authorized: (i) Requests for production of... Document or of the truth of any relevant fact; (iii) Written interrogatories; and (iv) Depositions....

  18. 34 CFR 33.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying. (2) Requests for admissions of the authenticity of any relevant document or of the truth of...

  19. 22 CFR 35.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ...) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For the purpose...

  20. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    .... (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... or of the truth of any revelant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b) For...

  1. 12 CFR 308.520 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.520 Discovery. (a) The following types of... for admission of the authenticity of any relevant document or of the truth of any relevant fact;...

  2. 10 CFR 1013.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests for admissions of the authenticity of any relevant document or of the truth of...

  3. Quasicrystal discovery bags 2011 chemistry Nobel (United States)

    Banks, Michael


    The 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry has been awarded to Daniel Shechtman from Technion - Israel institute of Technology for his discovery of quasicrystals, which are materials that have ordered but not periodic structures.

  4. Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery (United States)

    ... Matters NIH Research Matters January 13, 2014 Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery An international research team ... may play a role in triggering the disease. Genetic factors are also thought to play a role. ...

  5. 29 CFR 1603.210 - Discovery. (United States)



  6. Discovery announced of four new elements (United States)

    Banks, Michael


    The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) have announced the discovery of four new elements: 113, 115, 117 and 118 - completing the periodic table's seventh row.

  7. Medical muddle. (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette


    Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ½ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis.

  8. Group Evolution Discovery in Social Networks


    Bródka, Piotr; Saganowski, Stanisław; Kazienko, Przemysław


    Group extraction and their evolution are among the topics which arouse the greatest interest in the domain of social network analysis. However, while the grouping methods in social networks are developed very dynamically, the methods of group evolution discovery and analysis are still uncharted territory on the social network analysis map. Therefore the new method for the group evolution discovery called GED is proposed in this paper. Additionally, the results of the first experiments on the ...

  9. PTF SN discovery report, April 2012 (United States)

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, I.; Ben-Ami, S.; Yaron, O.; Nugent, P.; Levitam, D.; Simonian, G.; Sesar, B.; Cao, Y.; Horesh, A.; Bellm, E.; Silverman, J.; Miller, A.; Cenko, S. B.; Clubb, K. I.; Filippenko, A. V.; Shivvers, I.; Kasliwal, M.; Parrent, J.; Maguire, K.; Pan, Y.-C.


    The PTF (ATEL #1964, #3253;; Law et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1395; Rau et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1334) reports the discovery of 19 new supernovae. PTF discoveries are made by autonomous PTF software (Bloom et al. 2011, ), as well as by the Galaxy Zoo Supernova Project (Smith et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 1309; ).

  10. PTF SN discovery report, August 2012 (United States)

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, A.; Ben-Ami, S.; Yaron, O.; Horesh, P. Nugent A.; Cao, Y.; Bellm, E.; Fynbo, J.; Wiis, J.; Olesen, J.; Engedal, L.; Larsen, A.; Kasliwal, M.; Pan, Y.-C.; Graham, M.; Parrent, J.; Quimby, R.; PTF Team


    The PTF (ATEL #1964, #3253;; Law et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1395; Rau et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1334) reports the discovery of 12 new supernovae. PTF discoveries are made by autonomous PTF software (Bloom et al. 2011, ), as well as by the Galaxy Zoo Supernova Project (Smith et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 1309; ).

  11. PTF SN discovery report, September 8, 2012 (United States)

    Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P.; Walker, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Fox, O.


    The PTF (ATEL #1964, #3253; ; Law et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1395; Rau et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1334) reports the discovery of 8 new supernovae. PTF discoveries are made by autonomous PTF software (Bloom et al. 2011, ), as well as by the Galaxy Zoo Supernova Project (Smith et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 1309; ).

  12. PTF SN discovery report, July 2012 (United States)

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Arcavi, I.; Yaron, O.; Nugent, Peter; Sesar, B.; Cao, Y.; Silverman, J.; Clubb, K.; Filippenko, A. V.; Cenko, S. B.; Parrent, J.; Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.


    The PTF (ATEL #1964, #3253; ; Law et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1395; Rau et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1334) reports the discovery of 14 new supernovae. PTF discoveries are made by autonomous PTF software (Bloom et al. 2011, ), as well as by the Galaxy Zoo Supernova Project (Smith et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 1309; ).

  13. PTF SN discovery report, March 2012 (United States)

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, I.; Ben-Ami, S.; Yaron, O.; Nugent, P.; Levitam, D.; Simonian, G.; Sesar, B.; Cao, Y.; Horesh, A.; Bellm, E.; Silverman, J.; Miller, A.; Cenko, S. B.; Clubb, K. I.; Filippenko, A. V.; Shivvers, I.; Kasliwal, M.; Parrent, J.; Maguire, K.; Pan, Y.-C.


    The PTF (ATEL #1964, #3253;; Law et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1395; Rau et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1334) reports the discovery of 26 new supernovae. PTF discoveries are made by autonomous PTF software (Bloom et al. 2011, ), as well as by the Galaxy Zoo Supernova Project (Smith et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 1309; ).

  14. PTF SN discovery report, October 9, 2012 (United States)

    Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P.; Cao, Y.; Levitan, D.; Hallinan, G.; Kyne, G.; Silverman, J.; Clubb, K.; Miller, A.; Fox, O.; Suzuki, N.; Quimby, R.


    The PTF (ATEL #1964, #3253;; Law et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1395; Rau et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 1334) reports the discovery of 9 new supernovae. PTF discoveries are made by autonomous PTF software (Bloom et al. 2011, ), as well as by the Galaxy Zoo Supernova Project (Smith et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 1309; ).

  15. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian


    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints...... in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at

  16. The discovery of the structure of DNA (United States)

    Squires, G. L.


    On 25 April 1953, Nature published a letter by Francis Crick and James Watson, at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, proposing a structure for DNA. This letter marked the beginning of a revolution in biology. Besides Crick and Watson, two other scientists, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, played key roles in the discovery. After sketching the early careers of the four scientists, the present article gives an account of the physics and chemistry involved in the discovery, and the events leading up to it.

  17. The Medical Geology revolution——The evolution of an IUGS initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olle Selinus; Robert B.Finkelman; Jose A.Centeno


    @@ Introduction In December 2003 Episodes published an article entitled"Medical Geology:New Relevance in the Earth Sciences"by Bowman,Bobrowski,and Selinus.This paper was iust one early example of the interest and excitement sparked by this emerging field of medical geology-the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health.Medical geology attempts to bring together geoscientists and biomedical/public health researchers to address a range of environmental health problems.

  18. Xerostomy prevalence related to medication on patients assisted by the dentistry area of the UNIVILLE


    Juliano Henrique PEROTTO; Andrades, Kesly Mary Ribeiro; Aleysson Olimpio PAZA; Lúcia Ferreira de Castro ÁVILA


    The aim of this research was to know the xerostomy prevalence onpatients who have been assisted by the Dentistry Area of the Univilleand its relation with some drugs for the following treatments: arterial hypertension disease, seizure, depression and other diseases which require medication.The methodology consists of bringing aquestionnaire referent to patients’ health conditions, xerostomysymptoms and medications use. Patients were separated and analyzeddepending on the medication drug used ...

  19. Self-regulated learning: why is it important compared to traditional learning in medical education? (United States)

    Siddaiah-Subramanya, Manjunath; Nyandowe, Masimba; Zubair, Omar


    Self-regulated learning has played an increasingly significant role in medical education over the last one to two decades. Medical educators have endeavored to ensure that the students are equipped to face the challenges of continued growth of medical knowledge. Here we enquire and reflect on various aspects of self-regulated learning including its strengths and weaknesses. We investigate how it could be incorporated with traditional teaching to bring the best out of the students and what students think about it.

  20. The Methodological Unboundedness of Limited Discovery Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benjamin Cassel


    Full Text Available Though designers must understand systems, designers work differently than scientists in studying systems.  Design engagements do not discover whole systems, but take calculated risks between discovery and intervention. For this reason, design practices must cope with open systems, and unpacking the tacit guidelines behind these practices is instructive to systems methodology. This paper shows that design practice yields a methodology which applies across forms of design.  Design practice teaches us to generate ideas and gather data longer, but stop when the return on design has diminished past its cost.  Fortunately, we can reason about the unknown by understanding the character of the unbounded.  We suppose that there might as well be an infinite number of factors, but we can reason about their concentration without knowing all of them.  We demonstrate this concept on stakeholder systems, showing how design discovery informs systems methodology. Using this result, we can apply the methods of parametric design when the parameters are not yet known by establishing the concentration of every kind of factor, entailing a discovery rate of diminishing returns over discovery activities, allowing the analysis of discovery-based trade-offs.  Here, we extend a framework for providing metrics to parametric design, allowing it to express the importance of discovery.

  1. A cloud solution for medical image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirarab,


    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the use of Electronic Health Records across the globe along with the rich mix of multimedia held within an EHR combined with the increasing level of detail due to advances in diagnostic medical imaging means increasing amounts of data can be stored for each patient. Also lack of image processing and analysis tools for handling the large image datasets has compromised researchers and practitioner‟s outcome. Migrating medical imaging applications and data to the Cloud can allow healthcare organizations to realize significant cost savings relating to hardware, software, buildings, power and staff, in addition to greater scalability, higher performance and resilience. This paper reviews medical image processing and its challenges, states cloud computing and cloud computing benefits due to medical image processing. Also, this paper introduces tools and methods for medical images processing using the cloud. Finally a method is provided for medical images processing based on Eucalyptus cloud infrastructure with image processing software “ImageJ” and using improved genetic algorithm for the allocation and distribution of resources. Based on conducted simulations and experimental results, the proposed method brings high scalability, simplicity, flexibility and fully customizability in addition to 40% cost reduction and twice increase in speed.

  2. Knowledge based cluster ensemble for cancer discovery from biomolecular data. (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Wongb, Hau-San; You, Jane; Yang, Qinmin; Liao, Hongying


    The adoption of microarray techniques in biological and medical research provides a new way for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In order to perform successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer, discovering and classifying cancer types correctly is essential. Class discovery is one of the most important tasks in cancer classification using biomolecular data. Most of the existing works adopt single clustering algorithms to perform class discovery from biomolecular data. However, single clustering algorithms have limitations, which include a lack of robustness, stability, and accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new cluster ensemble approach called knowledge based cluster ensemble (KCE) which incorporates the prior knowledge of the data sets into the cluster ensemble framework. Specifically, KCE represents the prior knowledge of a data set in the form of pairwise constraints. Then, the spectral clustering algorithm (SC) is adopted to generate a set of clustering solutions. Next, KCE transforms pairwise constraints into confidence factors for these clustering solutions. After that, a consensus matrix is constructed by considering all the clustering solutions and their corresponding confidence factors. The final clustering result is obtained by partitioning the consensus matrix. Comparison with single clustering algorithms and conventional cluster ensemble approaches, knowledge based cluster ensemble approaches are more robust, stable and accurate. The experiments on cancer data sets show that: 1) KCE works well on these data sets; 2) KCE not only outperforms most of the state-of-the-art single clustering algorithms, but also outperforms most of the state-of-the-art cluster ensemble approaches.

  3. Duplicated leptin receptors in two species of eel bring new insights into the evolution of the leptin system in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Morini

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in mammals as a key-hormone in reproduction and metabolism, leptin has been identified in an increasing number of tetrapods and teleosts. Tetrapods possess only one leptin gene, while most teleosts possess two leptin genes, as a result of the teleost third whole genome duplication event (3R. Leptin acts through a specific receptor (LEPR. In the European and Japanese eels, we identified two leptin genes, and for the first time in vertebrates, two LEPR genes. Synteny analyses indicated that eel LEPRa and LEPRb result from teleost 3R. LEPRb seems to have been lost in the teleost lineage shortly after the elopomorph divergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed a wide distribution of leptins and LEPRs in the European eel, including tissues involved in metabolism and reproduction. Noticeably, leptin1 was expressed in fat tissue, while leptin2 in the liver, reflecting subfunctionalization. Four-month fasting had no impact on the expression of leptins and LEPRs in control European eels. This might be related to the remarkable adaptation of silver eel metabolism to long-term fasting throughout the reproductive oceanic migration. In contrast, sexual maturation induced differential increases in the expression of leptins and LEPRs in the BPG-liver axis. Leptin2 was strikingly upregulated in the liver, the central organ of the reproductive metabolic challenge in teleosts. LEPRs were differentially regulated during sexual maturation, which may have contributed to the conservation of the duplicated LEPRs in this species. This suggests an ancient and positive role of the leptin system in the vertebrate reproductive function. This study brings new insights on the evolutionary history of the leptin system in vertebrates. Among extant vertebrates, the eel represents a unique case of duplicated leptins and leptin receptors as a result of 3R.

  4. Duplicated leptin receptors in two species of eel bring new insights into the evolution of the leptin system in vertebrates. (United States)

    Morini, Marina; Pasquier, Jérémy; Dirks, Ron; van den Thillart, Guido; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Rousseau, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle


    Since its discovery in mammals as a key-hormone in reproduction and metabolism, leptin has been identified in an increasing number of tetrapods and teleosts. Tetrapods possess only one leptin gene, while most teleosts possess two leptin genes, as a result of the teleost third whole genome duplication event (3R). Leptin acts through a specific receptor (LEPR). In the European and Japanese eels, we identified two leptin genes, and for the first time in vertebrates, two LEPR genes. Synteny analyses indicated that eel LEPRa and LEPRb result from teleost 3R. LEPRb seems to have been lost in the teleost lineage shortly after the elopomorph divergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed a wide distribution of leptins and LEPRs in the European eel, including tissues involved in metabolism and reproduction. Noticeably, leptin1 was expressed in fat tissue, while leptin2 in the liver, reflecting subfunctionalization. Four-month fasting had no impact on the expression of leptins and LEPRs in control European eels. This might be related to the remarkable adaptation of silver eel metabolism to long-term fasting throughout the reproductive oceanic migration. In contrast, sexual maturation induced differential increases in the expression of leptins and LEPRs in the BPG-liver axis. Leptin2 was strikingly upregulated in the liver, the central organ of the reproductive metabolic challenge in teleosts. LEPRs were differentially regulated during sexual maturation, which may have contributed to the conservation of the duplicated LEPRs in this species. This suggests an ancient and positive role of the leptin system in the vertebrate reproductive function. This study brings new insights on the evolutionary history of the leptin system in vertebrates. Among extant vertebrates, the eel represents a unique case of duplicated leptins and leptin receptors as a result of 3R.

  5. Discovery Radiomics for Multi-Parametric MRI Prostate Cancer Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Audrey G; Kumar, Devinder; Khalvati, Farzad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander


    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed form of cancer in Canadian men, and is the third leading cause of cancer death. Despite these statistics, prognosis is relatively good with a sufficiently early diagnosis, making fast and reliable prostate cancer detection crucial. As imaging-based prostate cancer screening, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires an experienced medical professional to extensively review the data and perform a diagnosis, radiomics-driven methods help streamline the process and has the potential to significantly improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency, and thus improving patient survival rates. These radiomics-driven methods currently rely on hand-crafted sets of quantitative imaging-based features, which are selected manually and can limit their ability to fully characterize unique prostate cancer tumour phenotype. In this study, we propose a novel \\textit{discovery radiomics} framework for generating custom radiomic sequences tailored for prostate cancer detection. Discover...

  6. Toward an Understanding of "Genetic Sociology" and Its Relationships to Medical Sociology and Medical Genetics in the Educational Enterprise (United States)

    Fredericks, Marcel; Odiet, Jeff A.; Miller, Steven I.; Fredericks, Janet


    In this research, we have demonstrated that a new subdiscipline in the field of Medical Sociology is urgently needed to integrate, interpret, and synthesize the interrelationships and implications of genetic discoveries, treatments, and prognoses upon societal behavior. That subdiscipline in our view is "Genetic Sociology."We applied the…

  7. Integration of Proteomics, Bioinformatics and Systems biology in Brain Injury Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy eGuingab-Cagmat


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major medical crisis without any FDA-approved pharmacological therapies that have been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes. It has been argued that discovery of disease-relevant biomarkers might help to guide successful clinical trials for TBI. Major advances in mass spectrometry (MS have revolutionized the field of proteomic biomarker discovery and facilitated the identification of several candidate markers that are being further evaluated for their efficacy as TBI biomarkers. However, several hurdles have to be overcome even during the discovery phase which is only the first step in the long process of biomarker development. The high throughput nature of MS-based proteomic experiments generates a massive amount of mass spectral data presenting great challenges in downstream interpretation. Currently, different bioinformatics platforms are available for functional analysis and data mining of MS-generated proteomic data. These tools provide a way to convert data sets to biologically interpretable results and functional outcomes. A strategy that has promise in advancing biomarker development involves the triad of proteomics, bioinformatics and systems biology. In this review, a brief overview of how bioinformatics and systems biology tools analyze, transform and interpret complex MS datasets into biologically relevant results is discussed. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics, bioinformatics and systems biology in TBI biomarker discovery are presented. A brief survey of researches that utilized these three overlapping disciplines in TBI biomarker discovery is also presented. Finally, examples of TBI biomarkers and their applications are discussed.

  8. [The response to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery in Berlin]. (United States)

    Schüttmann, W


    In early January 1896 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen sent offprints to several colleagues of his to make them acquainted with his discovery of the X-rays. From January 5, 1896 newspapers started reporting on that discovery worldwide from Vienna. In several cities the news immediately set off corresponding scientific activities among specialists. This paper looks into such activities carried out in Berlin to show how promptly Röntgen's discovery was taken up, with a number of priorities having been set in the capital of the German Reich. The X-ray photographs which Röntgen had forwarded together with his offprints were displayed and discussed at a meeting of the Berlin Physical Society as early as on January 4, 1896, making his discovery known to the public for the first time. On January 6, 1896 the discovery and photographs were presented at a session of the Berlin Association of Internal Medicine and its diagnostic application was discussed in the medical community for the first time. A few days after that, the first photographs shot by other authors after Röntgen, and their diagnostic use, were demonstrated in Berlin. Finally, Röntgen's early visit to Emperor William II on January 12, 1896, which led to the speedy introduction of the X-day technique into German military medicine, is discussed in detail.

  9. Turkish Medical Information System and Medical Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huriye Çolaklar


    Full Text Available In Turkey, medical information is supported at state level according to national policies. However, although the history of medical libraries in Turkey goes back to the 13th century in Anatolia, modern medical library applications adopted since the 1950s have not received much state support. In the past thirteen years a few medical libraries joined forces under ÜNAK (the Association of University and Research Librarians to contribute to the organization and development of Turkish Medical Information through the establishment of a "Medical Working Group" in 2000.

  10. The Discovery, Use and Impact of Platinum Salts as Chemotherapy Agents for Cancer, vol. 30.



    Proposed by Dr Mark Walport (Wellcome Trust) this Seminar examined the discovery, use and impact of platinum salts as chemotherapy agents for cancer. Organized with the assistance of Professor Paul Andrews (St George’s Hospital Medical School) and Dr Tony Woods (Wellcome Trust) and chaired by Professor Sir Kenneth Calman (Durham) the Seminar discussed the serendipitous emergence of platinum salts as widely used anticancer agents from a chance observation in a microbiology laboratory; through ...

  11. The Engaged Microbiologist: Bringing the Microbiological Sciences to the K–12 Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Westenberg


    Full Text Available Exposing K–12 students to cutting edge science that impacts their daily lives can bring classroom lessons to life. Citizen-science projects are an excellent way to bring high-level science to the classroom and help satisfy one of the cornerstone concepts of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, “engaging in practices that scientists and engineers actually use.” This can be a daunting task for teachers who may lack the background or resources to integrate these projects into the classroom. This is where scientific societies such as the American Society for Microbiology (ASM can play a critical role. ASM encourages its members to engage with the K–12 community by providing networking opportunities and resources for ASM members and K–12 teachers to work together to bring microbiology into the classroom.

  12. [Centenary of Becquerel. The main stages of discovery and use of radionuclides (1896-1996)]. (United States)

    Cohen, Y


    The french scientists Henri Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie, Frédéric and Irène Joliot-Curie contributed decisively to the discovery and use of radionuclides. Besides them, Antoine Lacassagne, Robert Courrier, Pierre Süe developed the research in Chemistry and Biology. After 1945, medical applications were initiated by Charlie Fisher, Maurice Tubiana, Henri Jammet, in France. Marcel Guillot, student and assistant of Marie Curie, pharmacist himself, inserted pharmacists in research, development, control and teaching of medical radionuclides. Marcel Guillot defined the first pharmaceutical regulations and worked out the first monographs in french and european pharmacopoeias.

  13. The Chilander Medical Codex: its importance for the medieval Serbian pharmacy. (United States)

    Dusanka, P; Dragan, S


    Early Serbian writings on pharmacotherapy such as those of medieval collections were based on Greek and Roman sources. With the discovery of the Chilandar Medical Codex, relevant information on Serbian medieval pharmacy and medicine were gathered. According to the Chilander Medical Codex, drugs were prepared using the most sophisticated techniques and the latest knowledge of that time.

  14. Bring Me Men: Intertextual Identity Formation at the US Air Force Academy (United States)


    number of things from Contrails and are tested on their knowledge at the end of the week. With the Agenda for Change, the Class of 2007’s for women under "Bring Me Men..." even as role models; the Cadet Field House where each semester every cadet must pass the Physical Fitness Test is...hidden under the stairs. 53 CHAPTER 4 WORDS MATTER Bring me men to match my rivers Continent cleavers , flowing free, Drawn by the eternal madness To

  15. Practical design control implementation for medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Justiniano, Jose


    Bringing together the concepts of design control and reliability engineering, this book is a must for medical device manufacturers. It helps them meet the challenge of designing and developing products that meet or exceed customer expectations and also meet regulatory requirements. Part One covers motivation for design control and validation, design control requirements, process validation and design transfer, quality system for design control, and measuring design control program effectiveness. Part Two discusses risk analysis and FMEA, designing-in reliability, reliability and design verific

  16. IYA2009 and Beyond - Update On "Music and Astronomy Under the Stars” To Bring Telescopes To Where the People Are! (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.


    This NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars outreach program brings telescopes and astronomy information (via a video display and outdoor exhibit) to community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family films attended by 500 to 50,000 people. This program will permit the entire community to participate with telescope observations and will enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. The telescopes will be accessible to those with physical disabilities. This program combines music, telescope observations, and astronomy information and targets people who may not attend star parties, planetariums, or science museums. I update this program and discus the lessons learned such as the importance of coordination with local governments, community park districts, and amateur astronomer clubs. This program can be expanded and modified for the local communities. I have expanded this program to large and small venues from New York Philharmonic concert at Heckscher State Park, the boardwalk and a "tail-gate” star party by at pop-music concerts at Jones Beach State Park, and at the Tanglewood Music Festival in Lenox, MA, summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra ( This program is expandable to include outdoor dance or theatre programs, festivals in parks or beaches or amusement parks. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond IYA-2009 beaches. Special events such as a Super Bowl Star Party and Halloween Stars will be presented as will the results form NASA-funded hands-on astronomy activities to children and their families receiving medical treatment at the Children's Medical Center at Winthrop University Hospital (Mineola, NY) and the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY).

  17. Medical alert bracelet (image) (United States)

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will be able to find. Medical identification products can help ensure proper treatment in an ...

  18. Implantable Medical Devices (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Implantable Medical Devices Updated:Sep 16,2016 For Rhythm Control ... a Heart Attack Introduction Medications Surgical Procedures Implantable Medical Devices • Life After a Heart Attack • Heart Attack ...

  19. When Medication Is Prescribed (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression When Medication Is Prescribed Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... you have about the medicine. —NIMH Types of Medications There are several types of medications used to ...

  20. Medication Use during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Medication Use During Pregnancy Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... are taking only medications that are necessary. What Medications Can Cause Birth Defects? We know that taking ...

  1. What Does Galileo's Discovery of Jupiter's Moons Tell Us about the Process of Scientific Discovery? (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.


    Given that hypothetico-deductive reasoning has played a role in other important scientific discoveries, asks the question whether it plays a role in all important scientific discoveries. Explores and rejects as viable alternatives possible alternative scientific methods such as Baconian induction and combinatorial analysis. Discusses the…

  2. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkegren Johan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  3. Using C. elegans for antimicrobial drug discovery (United States)

    Desalermos, Athanasios; Muhammed, Maged; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Mylonakis, Eleftherios


    Introduction The number of microorganism strains with resistance to known antimicrobials is increasing. Therefore, there is a high demand for new, non-toxic and efficient antimicrobial agents. Research with the microscopic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can address this high demand for the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. In particular, C. elegans can be used as a model host for in vivo drug discovery through high-throughput screens of chemical libraries. Areas covered This review introduces the use of substitute model hosts and especially C. elegans in the study of microbial pathogenesis. The authors also highlight recently published literature on the role of C. elegans in drug discovery and outline its use as a promising host with unique advantages in the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. Expert opinion C. elegans can be used, as a model host, to research many diseases, including fungal infections and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, high-throughput techniques, for screening chemical libraries, can also be facilitated. Nevertheless, C. elegans and mammals have significant differences that both limit the use of the nematode in research and the degree by which results can be interpreted. That being said, the use of C. elegans in drug discovery still holds promise and the field continues to grow, with attempts to improve the methodology already underway. PMID:21686092

  4. Facilitating Service Discovery with Semantic Overlay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jin; Hao Wu; Xiao-Min Ning


    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing share many common characteristics.It is believed that the combination of the two emerging techniques is a very promising method in promoting the web services (WS). Because the service discovery plays a key role in the integration, here a P2P-based framework to manage the knowledge of service and locating services is proposed. In this paper, the details of the principle, constructing and maintaining of service semantic overlay architecture have been described, and the way how the semantic overlay facilitates discovery of service resources is illustrated. To enable the semantic web service superiority, Service Ontology, which is considered as the service semantic model, is employed to depict service. The service discovery includes two phases: searching on the service semantic overlay; and local discovery in peer's service repository. Various solutions have been proposed to realize those two phases.Furthermore, tests are carried out to evaluate service discovery on the architecture.

  5. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S


    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  6. How Do Virtual World Experiences Bring about Learning? A Critical Review of Theories (United States)

    Loke, Swee-Kin


    While students do learn real-world knowledge and skills in virtual worlds, educators have yet to adequately theorise how students' virtual world experiences bring about this learning. This paper critically reviewed theories currently used to underpin empirical work in virtual worlds for education. In particular, it evaluated how applicable these…

  7. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom. Part I: Teaching Mechanics and Thermodynamics with Antiques (United States)

    Jewett, John W., Jr.


    The notion of bringing technology into the classroom has been the subject of many recent presentations at conferences and papers in physics teaching journals. The use of devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, and clickers is rising in today's classrooms and laboratories. PhET simulations have been available online for over a decade. A…

  8. Echoes of the Past: Jackdaws and Historical Fiction Bring History to Life. (United States)

    Dodd, Elizabeth L.


    Discusses the use of jackdaws, collections of artifacts generating a visual representation of a time period, and historical fiction in the classroom to bring history alive for students. Reports on the success of jackdaws in an early-childhood classroom and in a university setting with preservice teachers. Includes jackdaws and related historical…

  9. Bring Back "Das Kapital" Punishment! Credit Crunch and the Fall of the "Knowledge Economy" (United States)

    Stronach, Ian; Clarke, John


    This article contrasts the collapse of the twin political certainties of the 20th century--"scientific socialism" (1989) and "scientific capitalism" (2008). Such a collapse restores Uncertainty to her throne, and brings back the need to radically rethink political possibilities for the future. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. A Mobile Farmers' Market Brings Nutrition Education to Low-Income Students (United States)

    Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…

  11. Bring Back Our Girls, Social Mobilization: Implications for Cross-Cultural Research (United States)

    Olutokunbo, Adekalu Samuel; Suandi, Turiman; Cephas, Oluwaseyitan Rotimi; Abu-Samah, Irza Hanie


    Social mobilization is a proactive measure for community development that salvages the society from destruction and disaster. From sociological perspective, this paper discusses the concept of social mobilization and its implications for cross-cultural research. To do this, the study uses the "Bring Back Our Girls" Global Campaign, as…

  12. The Bring Your Own Technology Initiative: An Examination of Teachers' Adoption (United States)

    Cardoza, Yanet; Tunks, Jeanne


    This case study explored teachers' concerns, use, and actual practices in their adoption of the Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT) initiative. Participants were 12 secondary teachers in a private school setting. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model tools provided data: Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ), Levels of Use interview, and the…

  13. Ready for Robotics: Bringing Together the T and E of STEM in Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Bers, Marina Umaschi; Seddighin, Safoura; Sullivan, Amanda


    Prior work has shown that early childhood educators demonstrate a lack of knowledge and understanding about technology and engineering, and about developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches to bring those disciplines into the classrooms. This paper reports a study in which 32 early childhood educators participated in an intensive three-day…

  14. Bringing Adam Smith's Pin Factory to Life: Field Trips and Discussions as Forms of Experiential Learning (United States)

    Galizzi, Monica


    Educators are often aware of the need to implement a variety of teaching techniques to reach out to students with different learning styles. I describe an attempt to target multimodal learners by bringing classical economic texts and concepts to life through discussions, field visits and role playing exercises. In my Labor Economics class I…

  15. Learning a Third Language: What Learner Strategies Do Bilingual Students Bring? (United States)

    Grenfell, Michael; Harris, Vee


    This article seeks to develop the research agenda of multilingualism and multicompetence by bringing together three research fields and their related methodologies: bilingualism, third language acquisition and language learner strategies. After a brief introduction to each area, it describes a study to explore whether bilingual adolescent students…

  16. Five Ways to Hack and Cheat with Bring-Your-Own-Device Electronic Examinations (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip


    Bring-your-own-device electronic examinations (BYOD e-exams) are a relatively new type of assessment where students sit an in-person exam under invigilated conditions with their own laptop. Special software restricts student access to prohibited computer functions and files, and provides access to any resources or software the examiner approves.…

  17. An Empirical Study towards Understanding User Acceptance of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in Higher Education (United States)

    Cheng, Gary; Guan, Yuanyuan; Chau, Juliana


    This paper discusses the findings of a research study investigating user acceptance of bring your own device (BYOD) practice to support teaching and learning in a Hong Kong university. Forty-four undergraduate students and two teachers participated in the study. To collect their ratings of agreement with respect to several BYOD-related issues,…

  18. Bring Your Own Device to Secondary School: The Perceptions of Teachers, Students and Parents (United States)

    Parsons, David; Adhikar, Janak


    This paper reports on the first two years of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiative in a New Zealand secondary school, using data derived from a series of surveys of teachers, parents and students, who are the main stakeholders in the transformation to a BYOD school. In this paper we analyse data gathered from these surveys, which consists…

  19. Bring-Your-Own-Device: Turning Cell Phones into Forces for Good (United States)

    Imazeki, Jennifer


    Over the last few years, classroom response systems (or "clickers") have become increasingly common. Although most systems require students to use a standalone handheld device, bring-your-own-device (BYOD) systems allow students to use devices they already own (e.g., a cell phone, tablet or laptop) to submit responses via text message or…

  20. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Programs in the Classroom: Teacher Use, Equity, and Learning Tools (United States)

    Fincher, Derrel


    This study explores teacher perceptions of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs in the classroom, with a focus on teacher use, student equity of access, and student ability to use their devices as learning tools. While one-to-one laptop programs (students assigned identical school-owned laptop or tablet) has an extensive body of literature behind…

  1. Bringing the Tools of Big Science to Bear on Local Environmental Challenges (United States)

    Bronson, Scott; Jones, Keith W.; Brown, Maria


    We describe an interactive collaborative environmental education project that makes advanced laboratory facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory accessible for one-year or multi-year science projects for the high school level. Cyber-enabled Environmental Science (CEES) utilizes web conferencing software to bring multi-disciplinary,…

  2. The Wild-Card Character of "Bring Your Own:" A Panel Discussion (United States)

    Campbell, W. Gardner; Fitch, Megan; German, Robert F., Jr.; Hulvey, Dale; McIntosh, Keith; McPherson, Michael R.; O'Keefe, John


    Panelists on the front lines of higher education information technology share their thoughts on Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) and what it could mean for colleges and universities. Five questions were asked of each panelist. These were: (1) How strategically important to higher education is the BYOD phenomenon? Is it simply a passing fad? (2) Should…

  3. Bringing up condom use and using condoms with new sexual partners : Intentional or habitual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Siero, FW; Buunk, BP


    A prospective study of 94 Dutch adults who have casual sexual partners examined whether two important aspects of safe sex. namely bringing up condom use (BCU) and actual condom use (ACU) are intentional or habitual. For each of these aspects, a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Aj

  4. Our Grandparents' Civil Rights Era: Family Letters Bring History to Life (United States)

    McCormick, Willow


    This article describes second graders in a predominantly white suburban school who were assigned to ask their grandparents to write about their experiences during the Civil Rights Movement. The letters bring surprising wisdom--and some thought-provoking issues--to the classroom. The author found that the power of the primary source documents…

  5. Practitioner in the Classroom: Bringing Local Government Experience into the Public Administration Curriculum. (United States)

    Milam, Donna M.


    A local government administrator used her work experiences to create simulation exercises for public administration students. Advantages that such practitioners bring to the classroom include "inside" information, organizational management skills, budget knowledge, and the ability to provide networking opportunities for students. (JOW)

  6. Bringing Work Home: Take-Home Pesticide Exposure Among Farm Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curwin, B.D.


    In this thesis take-home pesticide exposure among farm families, with an emphasis on herbicides, was investigated. Take-home exposure occurs when a worker unwittingly brings home a substance on his or her clothing or shoes, thereby potentially exposing his or her family. The pesticides investigated

  7. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anthony J. Lembo, MD, Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. Last modified on February 23, ...

  8. Stress and mental health among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backović Dušan V.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth­year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio­demographic data, self­reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ­12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one­half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ­12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078

  9. Discovery, Characterization, and Dynamics of Transiting Exoplanets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Eylen, Vincent


    Are we alone in the Universe? So far, the question remains unanswered, but a significant leap forward was achieved two decades ago, with the discovery of the first planets orbiting stars other than our Sun. Almost 2000 exoplanets have now been detected. They are diverse in radius, mass and orbital......, in this thesis I make use of the transit method, which is based on the observed brightness drop of a star as a planet crosses in front of it. This thesis consists of two parts. The first part focuses on the discovery of new planets and the understanding of exoplanet properties. I report the discovery...... results of this study, constraining the masses and bulk compositions of three planets. The second part of this thesis focuses on dynamics of exoplanets. All the solar system planets orbit in nearly the same plane, and that plane is also aligned with the equatorial plane of the Sun. That is not true...

  10. Enabling the Discovery of Gravitational Radiation (United States)

    Isaacson, Richard


    The discovery of gravitational radiation was announced with the publication of the results of a physics experiment involving over a thousand participants. This was preceded by a century of theoretical work, involving a similarly large group of physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists. This huge effort was enabled by a substantial commitment of resources, both public and private, to develop the different strands of this complex research enterprise, and to build a community of scientists to carry it out. In the excitement following the discovery, the role of key enablers of this success has not always been adequately recognized in popular accounts. In this talk, I will try to call attention to a few of the key ingredients that proved crucial to enabling the successful discovery of gravitational waves, and the opening of a new field of science.

  11. Protein chemical synthesis in drug discovery. (United States)

    Liu, Fa; Mayer, John P


    The discovery of novel therapeutics to combat human disease has traditionally been among the most important goals of research chemists. After a century of innovation, state-of-the-art chemical protein synthesis is now capable of efficiently assembling proteins of up to several hundred residues in length from individual amino acids. By virtue of its unique ability to incorporate non-native structural elements, chemical protein synthesis has been seminal in the recent development of several novel drug discovery technologies. In this chapter, we review the key advances in peptide and protein chemistry which have enabled our current synthetic capabilities. We also discuss the synthesis of D-proteins and their applications in mirror image phage-display and racemic protein crystallography, the synthesis of enzymes for structure-based drug discovery, and the direct synthesis of homogenous protein pharmaceuticals.

  12. Virtual drug discovery: beyond computational chemistry? (United States)

    Gilardoni, Francois; Arvanites, Anthony C


    This editorial looks at how a fully integrated structure that performs all aspects in the drug discovery process, under one company, is slowly disappearing. The steps in the drug discovery paradigm have been slowly increasing toward virtuality or outsourcing at various phases of product development in a company's candidate pipeline. Each step in the process, such as target identification and validation and medicinal chemistry, can be managed by scientific teams within a 'virtual' company. Pharmaceutical companies to biotechnology start-ups have been quick in adopting this new research and development business strategy in order to gain flexibility, access the best technologies and technical expertise, and decrease product developmental costs. In today's financial climate, the term virtual drug discovery has an organizational meaning. It represents the next evolutionary step in outsourcing drug development.

  13. Bringing kinases into focus: efficient drug design through the use of chemogenomic toolkits. (United States)

    Birault, Veronique; Harris, C John; Le, Joelle; Lipkin, Mike; Nerella, Ravi; Stevens, Adrian


    The study of protein target families, as opposed to single targets, has become a very powerful tool in chemogenomics-led drug discovery. By integrating comprehensive chemoinformatics and bioinformatics databases with customised analytical tools, a 'Toolkit' approach for the target family is possible, thus allowing predictions of the ligand class, affinity, selectivity and likely off-target issues to be made for the guidance of the medicinal chemist. In this review, we highlight the development and application of the Toolkit approach to the protein kinase superfamily, drawing on examples from lead optimisation studies and the design of focused libraries for lead discovery.

  14. The role of nanobiotechnology in drug discovery. (United States)

    Jain, Kewal K


    The potential applications of nanotechnology in life sciences, particularly nanobiotechnology, include those for drug discovery. This chapter shows how several of the nanotechnologies including nanoparticles and various nanodevices such as nanobiosensors and nanobiochips are being used to improve drug discovery. Nanoscale assays using nanoliter volumes contribute to cost saving. Some nanosubstances such as fullerenes are drug candidates. There are some safety concerns about the in vivo use of nanoparticles that are being investigated. However, future prospects for applications in healthcare of drugs discovered through nanotechnology and their role in the development of personalized medicine appear to be excellent.

  15. An environment for knowledge discovery in biology. (United States)

    Barrera, Junior; Cesar, Roberto M; Ferreira, João E; Gubitoso, Marco D


    This paper describes a data mining environment for knowledge discovery in bioinformatics applications. The system has a generic kernel that implements the mining functions to be applied to input primary databases, with a warehouse architecture, of biomedical information. Both supervised and unsupervised classification can be implemented within the kernel and applied to data extracted from the primary database, with the results being suitably stored in a complex object database for knowledge discovery. The kernel also includes a specific high-performance library that allows designing and applying the mining functions in parallel machines. The experimental results obtained by the application of the kernel functions are reported.

  16. Stable Feature Selection for Biomarker Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zengyou


    Feature selection techniques have been used as the workhorse in biomarker discovery applications for a long time. Surprisingly, the stability of feature selection with respect to sampling variations has long been under-considered. It is only until recently that this issue has received more and more attention. In this article, we review existing stable feature selection methods for biomarker discovery using a generic hierarchal framework. We have two objectives: (1) providing an overview on this new yet fast growing topic for a convenient reference; (2) categorizing existing methods under an expandable framework for future research and development.

  17. Net present value approaches for drug discovery. (United States)

    Svennebring, Andreas M; Wikberg, Jarl Es


    Three dedicated approaches to the calculation of the risk-adjusted net present value (rNPV) in drug discovery projects under different assumptions are suggested. The probability of finding a candidate drug suitable for clinical development and the time to the initiation of the clinical development is assumed to be flexible in contrast to the previously used models. The rNPV of the post-discovery cash flows is calculated as the probability weighted average of the rNPV at each potential time of initiation of clinical development. Practical considerations how to set probability rates, in particular during the initiation and termination of a project is discussed.

  18. Discovery stories in the science classroom (United States)

    Arya, Diana Jaleh

    School science has been criticized for its lack of emphasis on the tentative, dynamic nature of science as a process of learning more about our world. This criticism is the guiding force for this present body of work, which focuses on the question: what are the educational benefits for middle school students of reading texts that highlight the process of science in the form of a discovery narrative? This dissertation traces my journey through a review of theoretical perspectives of narrative, an analysis of first-hand accounts of scientific discovery, the complex process of developing age-appropriate, cohesive and engaging science texts for middle school students, and a comparison study (N=209) that seeks to determine the unique benefits of the scientific discovery narrative for the interest in and retained understanding of conceptual information presented in middle school science texts. A total of 209 middle school participants in nine different classrooms from two different schools participated in the experimental study. Each subject read two science texts that differed in topic (the qualities of and uses for radioactive elements and the use of telescopic technology to see planets in space) and genre (the discovery narrative and the "conceptually known exposition" comparison text). The differences between the SDN and CKE versions for each topic were equivalent in all possible ways (initial introduction, overall conceptual accuracy, elements of human interest, coherence and readability level), save for the unique components of the discovery narrative (i.e., love for their work, acknowledgement of the known, identification of the unknown and the explorative or experimental process to discovery). Participants generally chose the discovery narrative version as the more interesting of the two texts. Additional findings from the experimental study suggest that science texts in the form of SDNs elicit greater long-term retention of key conceptual information, especially

  19. The discovery of elements 113 to 118 (United States)

    Utyonkov, Vladimir; Oganessian, Yuri; Dmitriev, Sergey; Itkis, Mikhail; Moody, Kenton; Stoyer, Mark; Shaughnessy, Dawn; Roberto, James; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof; Hamilton, Joseph


    Discovery and investigation of the "Island of stability" of superheavy nuclei at the separator DGFRS in the 238U-249Cf+ 48Ca reactions is reviewed. The results are compared with the data obtained in chemistry experiments and at the separators SHIP, BGS, TASCA, and GARIS. The synthesis of the heaviest nuclei, their decay properties, and methods of identification are discussed and compared with the criteria that must be satisfied for claiming the discovery of a new chemical element. The role of shell effects in the stability of superheavy nuclei is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental results with empirical systematics and theoretical data.

  20. Note from the CERN Medical Service

    CERN Multimedia


    FLU VACCINATION People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2005. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have the flu vaccination. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious illness or after major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their usual family doctor.