Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKone, Thomas E.; Deshpande, Ashok W.
2004-06-14
In modeling complex environmental problems, we often fail to make precise statements about inputs and outcome. In this case the fuzzy logic method native to the human mind provides a useful way to get at these problems. Fuzzy logic represents a significant change in both the approach to and outcome of environmental evaluations. Risk assessment is currently based on the implicit premise that probability theory provides the necessary and sufficient tools for dealing with uncertainty and variability. The key advantage of fuzzy methods is the way they reflect the human mind in its remarkable ability to store and process information which is consistently imprecise, uncertain, and resistant to classification. Our case study illustrates the ability of fuzzy logic to integrate statistical measurements with imprecise health goals. But we submit that fuzzy logic and probability theory are complementary and not competitive. In the world of soft computing, fuzzy logic has been widely used and has often been the ''smart'' behind smart machines. But it will require more effort and case studies to establish its niche in risk assessment or other types of impact assessment. Although we often hear complaints about ''bright lines,'' could we adapt to a system that relaxes these lines to fuzzy gradations? Would decision makers and the public accept expressions of water or air quality goals in linguistic terms with computed degrees of certainty? Resistance is likely. In many regions, such as the US and European Union, it is likely that both decision makers and members of the public are more comfortable with our current system in which government agencies avoid confronting uncertainties by setting guidelines that are crisp and often fail to communicate uncertainty. But some day perhaps a more comprehensive approach that includes exposure surveys, toxicological data, epidemiological studies coupled with fuzzy modeling will go a long way in
Algorithmic Problem Complexity
Burgin, Mark
2008-01-01
People solve different problems and know that some of them are simple, some are complex and some insoluble. The main goal of this work is to develop a mathematical theory of algorithmic complexity for problems. This theory is aimed at determination of computer abilities in solving different problems and estimation of resources that computers need to do this. Here we build the part of this theory related to static measures of algorithms. At first, we consider problems for finite words and stud...
Bringing real-world problems into the classroom
Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.
2012-01-01
Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense supp
Bringing a Bayesian Perspective to Large Dimensional Problems in Geophysics
Duputel, Z.; Simons, M.; Jolivet, R.; Zaroli, C.; Rivera, L. A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Gombert, B.; Minson, S. E.
2015-12-01
The last decade has seen a substantial expansion of geophysical observations. Exploiting this wealth of data involves large ill-conditioned inverse problems requiring large numbers of uncertain parameters. A common approach in geophysics is to use some form of regularization that transforms the inversion into a well-conditioned optimization problem. While this approach is convenient and computationally inexpensive, the inherent non-uniqueness of our problems suggest that we should not simply search for a single optimal model, but rather attempt to describe the ensemble of plausible models that can fit the data and are consistent with prior information. This talk will present various applications of full Bayesian analysis techniques to large ill-posed inverse problems in geophysics. Despite significant computational cost, Bayesian sampling is a powerful tool to combine prior information, theoretical knowledge and data in order to address scientific problems probabilistically. We shall illustrate this by showing recent results for two types of problems: (1) the study of earthquakes sources and (2) imaging of the Earth interior. In particular, we will present different strategies that can be employed in order to achieve realistic uncertainty estimates.
PROBLEMS OF BRINGING OF FOREIGN CAPITAL IN THE UKRAINES BANKING SYSTEM
Rozhko, O.
2009-01-01
The problems and prospects of growth of bringing in foreign capital in the domestic banking system are examined in the article. The basic groups of risks, inherent development of the banking system in the conditions of activation of the foreign investing, are determined.
Problem Complexity Research from Energy Perspective
Feng, Pan; Jie, Qi
2013-01-01
Computational complexity is a particularly important objective. The idea of Landauer principle was extended through mapping three classic problems (sorting,ordered searching and max of N unordered numbers) into Maxwell demon thought experiment in this paper. The problems'complexity is defined on the entropy basis and the minimum energy required to solve them are rigorous deduced from the perspective of energy (entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics. Then the theoretical energy consumed by real program and basic operators of classical computer are both analyzed, the time complexity lower bounds of three problems'all possible algorithms are derived in this way. The lower bound is also deduced for the two n*n matrix multiplication problem. In the end, the reason why reversible computation is impossible and the possibility of super-linear energy consumption capacity which may be the power behind quantum computation are discussed, a conjecture is proposed which may prove NP!=P. The study will bring fresh an...
Problem Solving and Complex Systems
Guinand, Frédéric
2008-01-01
The observation and modeling of natural Complex Systems (CSs) like the human nervous system, the evolution or the weather, allows the definition of special abilities and models reusable to solve other problems. For instance, Genetic Algorithms or Ant Colony Optimizations are inspired from natural CSs to solve optimization problems. This paper proposes the use of ant-based systems to solve various problems with a non assessing approach. This means that solutions to some problem are not evaluated. They appear as resultant structures from the activity of the system. Problems are modeled with graphs and such structures are observed directly on these graphs. Problems of Multiple Sequences Alignment and Natural Language Processing are addressed with this approach.
Complex analogues of real problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esdahl-Schou, Rune
. Using geometrical interpretations we construct sets with properties similar to the sets considered in the real case. We then formulate a conjecture which can be interpreted as a complex version of Schmidt's original conjecture. Finally we construct a variant of Schmidt's game, to show a partial result......This thesis will be a mix of different problems in number theory. As such it is split into two natural parts. The rst part focuses on normal numbers and construction of numbers that are normal to a given complex base. It is written in the style of a thorough and introductory paper on that subject......, Pollington and Velani, and inspired by this An gave a different proof which provides a stronger result. The conjecture is concerned with intersections of certain sets in the plane and are as such a real problem. We will consider a slightly different setup where the real plane is replaced by the complex plane...
SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo
2015-07-01
Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.
Solving complex problems a handbook
Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin
2014-01-01
When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,
Bring Your Own Device : Analys av trenden, dess möjligheter och problem
Bohman, Emma; Murphy, Joanna
2012-01-01
Syftet med denna studie är att få en grundläggande kunskap kring begreppet bring your own device. Eftersom ämnet är väldigt nytt och att det finns en viss okunnighet kring begreppet är det intressant att ta reda på varför BYOD är en uppgående trend, hur svenska verksamheter tänker inför tillåtandet, vilka krav som ställs och vilka problem som följer. För att komma fram till dessa slutsatser har intervjuer genomförts på tre olika verksamheter. Varav en verksamhet har tagit sig an BYOD och de a...
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related to...
Twelve Problems in Proof Complexity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pudlák, Pavel
Berlin : Springer, 2008 - (Hirsch, E.; Razborov, A.; Semenov, A.; Slissenko, A.), s. 11-27 ISBN 978-3-540-79708-1. [International Computer Science Symposium in Russia, CSR 2008/3./. Moskva (RU), 07.06.2008-12.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : computational complexity * bounded arithmetic * propositional calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Complex problem solving: a case for complex cognition?
Funke, Joachim
2010-01-01
Complex problem solving (CPS) emerged in the last 30 years in Europe as a new part of the psychology of thinking and problem solving. This paper introduces into the field and provides a personal view. Also, related concepts like macrocognition or operative intelligence will be explained in this context. Two examples for the assessment of CPS, Tailorshop and MicroDYN, are presented to illustrate the concept by means of their measurement devices. Also, the relation of complex cognition and emot...
The Complexity of Rooted Phylogeny Problems
Bodirsky, Manuel
2011-01-01
Several computational problems in phylogenetic reconstruction can be formulated as restrictions of the following general problem: given a formula in conjunctive normal form where the literals are rooted triples, is there a rooted binary tree that satisfies the formula? If the formulas do not contain disjunctions, the problem becomes the famous rooted triple consistency problem, which can be solved in polynomial time by an algorithm of Aho, Sagiv, Szymanski, and Ullman. If the clauses in the formulas are restricted to disjunctions of negated triples, Ng, Steel, and Wormald showed that the problem remains NP-complete. We systematically study the computational complexity of the problem for all such restrictions of the clauses in the input formula. For certain restricted disjunctions of triples we present an algorithm that has sub-quadratic running time and is asymptotically as fast as the fastest known algorithm for the rooted triple consistency problem. We also show that any restriction of the general rooted ph...
Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doern, Sebastian
2008-02-04
This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)
Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)
Solving complex problems: Human identification and control of complex systems
Funke, Joachim
1991-01-01
Studying complex problem solving by means of computer-simulated scenarios has become one of the favorite themes of modern theorists in German-speaking countries who are concerned with the psychology of thinking. Following the pioneering work of Dietrich Doerner (University of Bamberg, FRG) in the mid-70s, many new scenarios have been developed and applied in correlational as well as in experimental studies (for a review see Funke, 1988). Instead of studying problem-solving behavior in restric...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga V. Shipulina
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The study explores how students, who had completed the AP calculus course, mathematized the optimal navigation real-life problem simulated in the Second Life Virtual Environment. The particular research interest was to investigate whether/how students’ empirical activity in VE influences the way of their mathematizing.
Gol'din, Pavel; Steeman, Mette Elstrup
2015-01-01
Miocene baleen whales were highly diverse and included tens of genera. However, their taxonomy and phylogeny, as well as relationships with living whales, are still a subject of controversy. Here, "Mesocetus" argillarius, a poorly known specimen from Denmark, is redescribed with a focus on the cranial anatomy. It was found to represent not only a new genus, Tranatocetus gen. nov., but also a new family; Tranatocetidae. The whales of this family have the rostral bones either overriding or dividing the frontals; the rostral bones are contacting the parietals and nasals dividing the maxillae on the vertex; the occipital shield is dorsoventrally bent. The tympanic bulla is particularly characteristic of this family featuring a short, narrow anterior portion with a rounded or squared anterior end and a wider and higher posterior portion that is swollen in the posteroventral area. A phylogenetic analysis including 51 taxa supports a monophyletic group comprising most Neogene and modern whales, with Tranatocetidae being possibly closer related to Balaenopteridae (rorquals) than to Cetotheriidae. Tranatocetidae exhibit a charahteristic bulla shape. In fact, all Neogene and modern mysticete families examined have a unique shape of the tympanic bulla that is diagnostic at family-level. Inclusion of problematic taxa like Tranatocetus argillarius in phylogenies brings new understanding of the distribution and diagnostic value of character traits. This underlines the need for re-examination of earlier described specimens in the light of the wealth of new information published in later years. PMID:26331471
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel Gol'din
Full Text Available Miocene baleen whales were highly diverse and included tens of genera. However, their taxonomy and phylogeny, as well as relationships with living whales, are still a subject of controversy. Here, "Mesocetus" argillarius, a poorly known specimen from Denmark, is redescribed with a focus on the cranial anatomy. It was found to represent not only a new genus, Tranatocetus gen. nov., but also a new family; Tranatocetidae. The whales of this family have the rostral bones either overriding or dividing the frontals; the rostral bones are contacting the parietals and nasals dividing the maxillae on the vertex; the occipital shield is dorsoventrally bent. The tympanic bulla is particularly characteristic of this family featuring a short, narrow anterior portion with a rounded or squared anterior end and a wider and higher posterior portion that is swollen in the posteroventral area. A phylogenetic analysis including 51 taxa supports a monophyletic group comprising most Neogene and modern whales, with Tranatocetidae being possibly closer related to Balaenopteridae (rorquals than to Cetotheriidae. Tranatocetidae exhibit a charahteristic bulla shape. In fact, all Neogene and modern mysticete families examined have a unique shape of the tympanic bulla that is diagnostic at family-level. Inclusion of problematic taxa like Tranatocetus argillarius in phylogenies brings new understanding of the distribution and diagnostic value of character traits. This underlines the need for re-examination of earlier described specimens in the light of the wealth of new information published in later years.
Problem based learning - 'Bringing everything together' - A strategy for Graduate Nurse Programs.
Vittrup, Ann-Charlotte; Davey, Anna
2010-03-01
This article discusses a case study that was initiated by a Graduate Nurse Coordinator of an acute care inpatient hospital in Australia. It outlines the conceptualisation and creative implementation of a structured group problem based learning activity which was a component of a Graduate Nurse Program. The learning activity was based on the beliefs that knowledge acquisition today is an active process and should focus on the learner developing strategies to obtain, review and manage information. The learning activity implemented in this case study was valuable as it recognised the benefits that can be gained for the Graduate Nurse by ensuring the context of their teaching and learning activities is grounded in practical experiences. The learning activity aimed to prepare Graduate Nurses to cope with the multiple challenges faced as they enter the nursing profession by enhancing their skills of inquiry, problem solving and reasoning. The evaluation of this case study found that the incorporation of structured group problem based learning did promote the achievement of these educational outcomes with Graduate Nurses displaying critical thinking, clinical judgment and knowledge acquisition skills. An unexpected benefit of this activity for Graduate Nurses was the enhancement of clinical practice behaviours, such as communication and interactive skills. This case study describes the positive outcomes not only for Graduates Nurses in the application of their learning but also the wider benefits which can be gained for the organisation, patient care standards and the health care team. It is anticipated that this article will be an inspiration to others who are interested in implementing innovative teaching strategies into Graduate Nurse Programs. PMID:19501549
Nature and Validity of Complex Problem Solving
Wüstenberg, Sascha
2013-01-01
This thesis investigates the nature and validity of complex problem solving (CPS). The main focus lies on analyses of three research questions dealing with CPS’ (1) internal structure, its (2) structural stability combined with comparisons of performance differences across groups, and its (3) construct validity. In previous research, results on CPS’ (1) internal factor structure have been solely based on samples with high cognitive performance, (2) structural stability of CPS across groups ha...
Modelling problems in complex systems dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The research deals with different aspects of mathematical modelling and the analysis of complex dynamic non-linear systems as a consequence of applied problems in mechanics (in particular those for gyrosystems, for stabilization and orientation systems, control systems of movable objects, including the aviation and aerospace systems) Non-linearity, multi-connectedness and high dimensionness of dynamical problems, that occur at the initial full statement lead to the need of the problem narrowing, and of the decomposition of the full model, but with safe-keeping of main properties and of qualitative equivalence. The elaboration of regular methods for modelling problems in dynamics, the generalization of reduction principle are the main aims of the investigations. Here, uniform methodology, based on Lyapunov's methods, founded by N.G.Ohetayev, is developed. The objects of the investigations are considered with exclusive positions, as systems of singularly perturbed class, treated as ones with singular parametrical perturbations. It is the natural extension of the statements of N.G.Chetayev and P.A.Kuzmin for parametrical stability. In paper the systematical procedures for construction of correct simplified models (comparison ones) are developed, the validity conditions of the transition are determined the appraisals are received, the regular algorithms of engineering level are obtained. Applicabilitelly to the stabilization and orientation systems with the gyroscopic controlling subsystems, these methods enable to build the hierarchical sequence of admissible simplified models; to determine the conditions of their correctness
Dependability problems of complex information systems
Zamojski, Wojciech
2014-01-01
This monograph presents original research results on selected problems of dependability in contemporary Complex Information Systems (CIS). The ten chapters are concentrated around the following three aspects: methods for modelling of the system and its components, tasks ? or in more generic and more adequate interpretation, functionalities ? accomplished by the system and conditions for their correct realization in the dynamic operational environment. While the main focus is on theoretical advances and roadmaps for implementations of new technologies, a?much needed forum for sharing of the bes
Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems
Afonso, Juan Carlos
2016-04-01
Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related
The Guarding Problem - Complexity and Approximation
Reddy, T. V. Thirumala; Krishna, D. Sai; Rangan, C. Pandu
Let G = (V, E) be the given graph and G R = (V R ,E R ) and G C = (V C ,E C ) be the sub graphs of G such that V R ∩ V C = ∅ and V R ∪ V C = V. G C is referred to as the cops region and G R is called as the robber region. Initially a robber is placed at some vertex of V R and the cops are placed at some vertices of V C . The robber and cops may move from their current vertices to one of their neighbours. While a cop can move only within the cops region, the robber may move to any neighbour. The robber and cops move alternatively. A vertex v ∈ V C is said to be attacked if the current turn is the robber's turn, the robber is at vertex u where u ∈ V R , (u,v) ∈ E and no cop is present at v. The guarding problem is to find the minimum number of cops required to guard the graph G C from the robber's attack. We first prove that the decision version of this problem when G R is an arbitrary undirected graph is PSPACE-hard. We also prove that the complexity of the decision version of the guarding problem when G R is a wheel graph is NP-hard. We then present approximation algorithms if G R is a star graph, a clique and a wheel graph with approximation ratios H(n 1), 2 H(n 1) and left( H(n1) + 3/2 right) respectively, where H(n1) = 1 + 1/2 + ... + 1/n1 and n 1 = ∣ V R ∣.
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…
Complexity of valued constraint satisfaction problems
Živný, Stanislav
2012-01-01
The topic of this book is the following optimisation problem: given a set of discrete variables and a set of functions, each depending on a subset of the variables, minimise the sum of the functions over all variables. This fundamental research problem has been studied within several different contexts of discrete mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence under different names: Min-Sum problems, MAP inference in Markov random fields (MRFs) and conditional random fields (CRFs), Gibbs energy minimisation, valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSPs), and, for two-state variabl
Managing Complex Problems in Rangeland Ecosystems
Management of rangelands, and natural resources in general, has become increasingly complex. There is an atmosphere of increasing expectations for conservation efforts associated with a variety of issues from water quality to endangered species. We argue that many current issues are complex by their...
Modelling and simulation of complex geotechnical problems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Blaheta, Radim
Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2008, s. 20-24. ISBN 978-80-7372-298-2. [SNA '08 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. Liberec (CZ), 28.01.2008-01.02.2008] Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : geotechnics * challenging problems * parallel computing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Enhanced Bee Colony Algorithm for Complex Optimization Problems
S.Suriya; R. Deepalakshmi; S.Suresh kannan; Dr.S.P.SHANTHARAJAH
2012-01-01
Optimization problems are considered to be one kind of NP hard problems. Usually heuristic approaches are found to provide solutions for NP hard problems. There are a plenty of heuristic algorithmsavailable to solve optimization problems namely: Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, Bee Colony Optimization, etc. The basic Bee Colony algorithm, a population based search algorithm, is analyzed to be a novel tool for complex optimization problems. The algorithm mimics the food fo...
Automatic Algorithm Selection for Complex Simulation Problems
Ewald, Roland
2012-01-01
To select the most suitable simulation algorithm for a given task is often difficult. This is due to intricate interactions between model features, implementation details, and runtime environment, which may strongly affect the overall performance. An automated selection of simulation algorithms supports users in setting up simulation experiments without demanding expert knowledge on simulation. Roland Ewald analyzes and discusses existing approaches to solve the algorithm selection problem in the context of simulation. He introduces a framework for automatic simulation algorithm selection and
Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems
Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.
2015-05-01
We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.
SAT is a problem with exponential complexity measured by negentropy
Pan, Feng(Department of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China)
2014-01-01
In this paper the reason why entropy reduction (negentropy) can be used to measure the complexity of any computation was first elaborated both in the aspect of mathematics and informational physics. In the same time the equivalence of computation and information was clearly stated. Then the complexities of three specific problems: logical compare, sorting and SAT, were analyzed and measured. The result showed SAT was a problem with exponential complexity which naturally leads to the conclusio...
Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher
solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects......This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...
Structuring and assessing large and complex decision problems using MCDA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfod, Michael Bruhn
This paper presents an approach for the structuring and assessing of large and complex decision problems using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The MCDA problem is structured in a decision tree and assessed using the REMBRANDT technique featuring a procedure for limiting the number of pair...
Solomon, Olga; Heritage, John; Yin, Larry; Maynard, Douglas W.; Bauman, Margaret L.
2016-01-01
Conversation and discourse analyses were used to examine medical problem presentation in pediatric care. Healthcare visits involving children with ASD and typically developing children were analyzed. We examined how children's communicative and epistemic capabilities, and their opportunities to be socialized into a competent patient role are…
New complex variable meshless method for advection-diffusion problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jian-Fei; Cheng Yu-Min
2013-01-01
In this paper,an improved complex variable meshless method (ICVMM) for two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems is developed based on improved complex variable moving least-square (ICVMLS) approximation.The equivalent functional of two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems is formed,the variation method is used to obtain the equation system,and the penalty method is employed to impose the essential boundary conditions.The difference method for two-point boundary value problems is used to obtain the discrete equations.Then the corresponding formulas of the ICVMM for advection-diffusion problems are presented.Two numerical examples with different node distributions are used to validate and investigate the accuracy and efficiency of the new method in this paper.It is shown that ICVMM is very effective for advection-diffusion problems,and has a good convergent character,accuracy,and computational efficiency.
Enhanced Bee Colony Algorithm for Complex Optimization Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.Suriya
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Optimization problems are considered to be one kind of NP hard problems. Usually heuristic approaches are found to provide solutions for NP hard problems. There are a plenty of heuristic algorithmsavailable to solve optimization problems namely: Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, Bee Colony Optimization, etc. The basic Bee Colony algorithm, a population based search algorithm, is analyzed to be a novel tool for complex optimization problems. The algorithm mimics the food foraging behavior of swarmsof honey bees. This paper deals with a modified fitness function of Bee Colony algorithm. The effect of problem dimensionality on the performance of the algorithms will be investigated. This enhanced Bee Colony Optimization will be evaluated based on the well-known benchmark problems. The testing functions like Rastrigin, Rosenbrock, Ackley, Griewank and Sphere are used to evaluavate the performance of the enhanced Bee Colony algorithm. The simulation will be developed on MATLAB.
Complexity of Some Problems Concerning 2CNF Formulas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hans; Kleine; Büning
2003-01-01
In this paper we investigate the complexity of several problems concerning 2CNF formulas. At first, we show that the minimal unsatisfiability problem for 2CNF formulas can be solved in linear time. Then we prove that the problem determining if a 2CNF formula can be transformed to a minimal unsatisfiable formula is also solvable in linear time. Thirdly, we show the polynomial solvability of the satisfiability problem for symmetric monotone formulas in which all clauses has length 2 or ? n - k ( n is the ...
Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports
Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.
2011-01-01
Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.
A complex variable meshless method for fracture problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG; Yumin; LI; Jiuhong
2006-01-01
Based on the moving least-square (MLS) approximation, the complex variable moving least-square approximation (CVMLS) is discussed in this paper. The complex variable moving least-square approximation cannot form ill-conditioned equations, and has greater precision and computational efficiency. Using the analytical solution near the tip of a crack, the trial functions in the complex variable moving least-square approxi- mation are extended, and the corresponding approximation function is obtained. And from the minimum potential energy principle, a complex variable meshless method for fracture problems is presented, and the formulae of the complex variable meshless method are obtained. The complex variable meshless method in this paper has greater precision and computational efficiency than the conventional meshless method. Some examples are given.
Particle swarm as optimization tool in complex nuclear engineering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to its low computational cost, gradient-based search techniques associated to linear programming techniques are being used as optimization tools. These techniques, however, when applied to multimodal search spaces, can lead to local optima. When finding solutions for complex multimodal domains, random search techniques are being used with great efficacy. In this work we exploit the swarm optimization algorithm search power capacity as an optimization tool for the solution of complex high dimension and multimodal search spaces of nuclear problems. Due to its easy and natural representation of high dimension domains, the particle swarm optimization was applied with success for the solution of complex nuclear problems showing its efficacy in the search of solutions in high dimension and complex multimodal spaces. In one of these applications it enabled a natural and trivial solution in a way not obtained with other methods confirming the validity of its application. (author)
Information-related complexity: a problem-oriented approach
Perevalov, Eugene
2013-01-01
A general notion of information-related complexity applicable to both natural and man-made systems is proposed. The overall approach is to explicitly consider a rational agent performing a certain task with a quantifiable degree of success. The complexity is defined as the minimum (quasi-)quantity of information that's necessary to complete the task to the given extent -- measured by the corresponding loss. The complexity so defined is shown to generalize the existing notion of statistical complexity when the system in question can be described by a discrete-time stochastic process. The proposed definition also applies, in particular, to optimization and decision making problems under uncertainty in which case it gives the agent a useful measure of the problem's "susceptibility" to additional information and allows for an estimation of the potential value of the latter.
On the Complexity of the Asymmetric VPN Problem
Rothvoß, Thomas; Sanità, Laura
2009-01-01
We give the first constant factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric Virtual Private Network (VPN) problem with arbitrary concave costs. We even show the stronger result, that there is always a tree solution of cost at most 2 OPT and that a tree solution of (expected) cost at most 49.84 OPT can be determined in polynomial time. Furthermore, we answer an outstanding open question about the complexity status of the so called balanced VPN problem by proving its NP-hardn...
Particle swarm optimization for complex nonlinear optimization problems
Alexandridis, Alex; Famelis, Ioannis Th.; Tsitouras, Charalambos
2016-06-01
This work presents the application of a technique belonging to evolutionary computation, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), to complex nonlinear optimization problems. To be more specific, a PSO optimizer is setup and applied to the derivation of Runge-Kutta pairs for the numerical solution of initial value problems. The effect of critical PSO operational parameters on the performance of the proposed scheme is thoroughly investigated.
EEG activity during the performance of complex mental problems.
Jausovec, N; Jausovec, K
2000-04-01
This study investigated differences in cognitive processes related to problem complexity. It was assumed that these differences would be reflected in respondents' EEG activity--spectral power and coherence. A second issue of the study was to compare differences between the lower (alpha(1) = 7.9-10.0 Hz), and upper alpha band (alpha(2) = 10.1-12.9 Hz). In the first experiment two well-defined problems with two levels of complexity were used. Only minor differences in EEG power and coherence measures related to problem complexity were observed. In the second experiment divergent production problems resembling tasks on creativity tests were compared with dialectic problems calling for creative solutions. Differences in EEG power measures were mainly related to the form of problem presentation (figural/verbal). In contrast, coherence was related to the level of creativity needed to solve a problem. Noticeable increased intra- and interhemispheric cooperation between mainly the far distant brain regions was observed in the EEG activity of respondents while solving the dialectic problems. These results are explained by the more intense involvement of the long cortico-cortical fiber system in creative thinking. Differences between the lower and upper alpha band were significant for the power and coherence measures. In Experiment 2, fewer differences were observed in power measures in the upper alpha band than in the lower alpha band. A reverse pattern was observed for the coherence measures. These results hint to a functional independence of the two alpha bands, however, they do not allow to draw firm conclusions about their functional meanings. The study showed that it is unlikely that individuals solve well- and ill-defined problems by employing similar cognitive strategies. PMID:10700625
Complexity and Approximation of the Fuzzy K-Means Problem
Blömer, Johannes; Brauer, Sascha; Bujna, Kathrin
2015-01-01
The fuzzy $K$-means problem is a generalization of the classical $K$-means problem to soft clusterings, i.e. clusterings where each points belongs to each cluster to some degree. Although popular in practice, prior to this work the fuzzy $K$-means problem has not been studied from a complexity theoretic or algorithmic perspective. We show that optimal solutions for fuzzy $K$-means cannot, in general, be expressed by radicals over the input points. Surprisingly, this already holds for very sim...
The Parameterized Complexity of some Permutation Group Problems
Arvind, Vikraman
2013-01-01
In this paper we study the parameterized complexity of two well-known permutation group problems which are NP-complete. 1. Given a permutation group G=, subgroup of $S_n$, and a parameter $k$, find a permutation $\\pi$ in G such that $|{i\\in [n]\\mid \\pi(i)\
What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?
Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia
2015-01-01
We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…
Approximate Counting for Complex-Weighted Boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems
Yamakami, Tomoyuki
2010-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems (or CSPs) have been extensively studied in AI, database theory, graph theory, etc. From an approximation viewpoint, it has been important to approximate the total number of assignments that satisfy all given Boolean constraints. There is a trichotomy theorem for such approximate counting for (non-weighted) Boolean CSPs; namely, all such counting problems are neatly classified into three categories under polynomial-time approximation-preserving reductions [Dyer, Goldberg, and Jerrum, 2010]. We extend this result to approximate counting for complex-weighted Boolean CSPs, provided that all arity-1 constraints are freely available to use. This makes a significant progress in the quest for the approximation classification of all counting Boolean CSPs in the most general form. To deal with complex weights, we employ proof techniques along the line of solving Holant problems [Valiant, 2002, 2008]. Our result also gives an approximation version of the dichotomy theorem of the complexi...
The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success
Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.
2016-01-01
Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…
Radio interferometric gain calibration as a complex optimization problem
Smirnov, Oleg
2015-01-01
Recent developments in optimization theory have extended some traditional algorithms for least-squares optimization of real-valued functions (Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, etc.) into the domain of complex functions of a complex variable. This employs a formalism called the Wirtinger derivative, and derives a full-complex Jacobian counterpart to the conventional real Jacobian. We apply these developments to the problem of radio interferometric gain calibration, and show how the general complex Jacobian formalism, when combined with conventional optimization approaches, yields a whole new family of calibration algorithms, including those for the polarized and direction-dependent gain regime. We further extend the Wirtinger calculus to an operator-based matrix calculus for describing the polarized calibration regime. Using approximate matrix inversion results in computationally efficient implementations; we show that some recently proposed calibration algorithms such as StefCal and peeling can be understood...
Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology
Cojocaru, Radu Ionut
There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe
On the Complexity of Rearrangement Problems under the Breakpoint Distance
Kovac, Jakub
2011-01-01
Tannier et al. introduced a generalization of breakpoint distance for multichromosomal genomes. They showed that the median problem under the breakpoint distance is solvable in polynomial time in the multichromosomal circular and mixed models. This is intriguing, since in all other rearrangement models (DCJ, reversal, unichromosomal or multilinear breakpoint models), the problem is NP-hard. The complexity of the small or even the large phylogeny problem under the breakpoint distance remained an open problem. We improve the algorithm for the median problem and show that it is equivalent to the problem of finding maximum cardinality non-bipartite matching (under linear reduction). On the other hand, we prove that the more general small phylogeny problem is NP-hard. Surprisingly, we show that it is already NP-hard (or even APX-hard) for 4 species (a quartet phylogeny). In other words, while finding an ancestor for 3 species is easy, already finding two ancestors for 4 species is hard. We also show that, in the u...
Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials
Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario
2009-01-01
Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.
Measuring complex problem solving: the MicroDYN approach
Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2009-01-01
In educational large-scale assessments such as PISA only recently an increasing interest in measuring cross-curricular competencies can be observed. These are now discovered as valuable aspects of school achievement. Complex problem solving (CPS) describes an interesting construct for the diagnostics of domain-general competencies. Here, we present MicroDYN, a new approach for computer-based assessment of CPS. We introduce the new concept, describe proper software and present first results...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filip Kolář
Full Text Available Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae, a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary 'dead-ends' but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding
Parameterized Complexity of the k-anonymity Problem
Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri
2009-01-01
The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization that has been recently proposed is the $k$-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least $k$ and that all the rows in a cluster become the same tuple, after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is known to be APX-hard even when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$, and when the records have length at most 8 and $k=4$ . In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. In this paper we follow this direction of research, first showing that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the size of the solution (and the value $k$). Then we exhibit a fixed parameter algorithm, when the problem is parameterized by the size of the alphabet and the number of columns. Finally...
The Similar Structures and Control Problems of Complex Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
In this paper, the naturally evolving complex systems, such as biotic and social ones, are considered. Focusing on their structures, a feature is noteworthy, i.e., the similarity in structures. The relations between the functions and behaviors of these systems and their similar structures will be studied. Owing to the management of social systems and the course of evolution of biotic systems may be regarded as control processes, the researches will be within the scope of control problems. Moreover, since it is difficult to model for biotic and social systems, it will start with the control problems of complex systems, possessing similar structures, in engineering.The obtained results show that for either linear or nonlinear systems and for a lot of control problemssimilar structures lead to a series of simplifications. In general, the original system may be decomposed into reduced amount of subsystems with lower dimensions and simpler structures. By virtue of such subsystems, the control problems of original system can be solved more simply.At last, it turns round to observe the biotic and social systems and some analyses are given.
Complexity indices for the travelling salesman problem and data mining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragos Cvetković
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this survey paper we extend our previous work on complexity indices for the travelling salesman problem (TSP, summarized in cite{CvCK3}, using graph spectral techniques of data mining. A complexity index is an invariant of an instance $I$ by which we can predict the execution time of an exact algorithm for TSP for $I$. We consider the symmetric travelling salesman problem with instances $I$ represented by complete graphs $G$ with distances between vertices (cities as edge weights (lengths. Intuitively, the hardness of an instance $G$ depends on the distribution of short edges within $G$. Therefore we consider some short edge subgraphs of $G$ (minimal spanning tree, critical connected subgraph, and several others as non-weighted graphs and several their invariants as potential complexity indices. Here spectral invariants (e.g. spectral radius of the adjacency matrix play an important role since, in general, there are intimate relations between eigenvalues and the structure of a graph. Since hidden details of short edge subgraphs really determine the hardness of the instance, we use techniques of data mining to find them. In particular, spectral clustering algorithms are used including information obtained from the spectral gap in Laplacian spectra of short edge subgraphs.
Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Complex Groundwater Management Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As water quantity and quality problems become increasingly severe, accurate prediction and effective management of scarcer water resources will become critical. In this paper, the successful application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology is described for three types of groundwater prediction and management problems. In the first example, an ANN was trained with simulation data from a physically based numerical model to predict head (groundwater elevation) at locations of interest under variable pumping and climate conditions. The ANN achieved a high degree of predictive accuracy, and its derived state-transition equations were embedded into a multiobjective optimization formulation and solved to generate a trade-off curve depicting water supply in relation to contamination risk. In the second and third examples, ANNs were developed with real-world hydrologic and climate data for different hydrogeologic environments. For the second problem, an ANN was developed using data collected for a 5-year, 8-month period to predict heads in a multilayered surficial and limestone aquifer system under variable pumping, state, and climate conditions. Using weekly stress periods, the ANN substantially outperformed a well-calibrated numerical flow model for the 71-day validation period, and provided insights into the effects of climate and pumping on water levels. For the third problem, an ANN was developed with data collected automatically over a 6-week period to predict hourly heads in 11 high-capacity public supply wells tapping a semiconfined bedrock aquifer and subject to large well-interference effects. Using hourly stress periods, the ANN accurately predicted heads for 24-hour periods in all public supply wells. These test cases demonstrate that the ANN technology can solve a variety of complex groundwater management problems and overcome many of the problems and limitations associated with traditional physically based flow models
Complex Langevin: Etiology and Diagnostics of its Main Problem
Aarts, Gert; Seiler, Erhard; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu
2011-01-01
The complex Langevin method is a leading candidate for solving the so-called sign problem occurring in various physical situations. Its most vexing problem is that in some cases it produces `convergence to the wrong limit'. In the first part of the paper we go through the formal justification of the method, identify points at which it may fail and identify a necessary and sufficient criterion for correctness. This criterion would, however, require checking infinitely many identities, and therefore is somewhat academic. We propose instead a truncation to the check of a few identities; this still gives a necessary criterion, but a priori it is not clear whether it remains sufficient. In the second part we carry out a detailed study of two toy models: first we identify the reasons why in some cases the method fails, second we test the efficiency of the truncated criterion and find that it works perfectly at least in the toy models studied.
Complex Langevin: etiology and diagnostics of its main problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aarts, Gert; James, Frank A. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, Swansea (United Kingdom); Seiler, Erhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu [Universitaet Heidelberg and FEST, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany)
2011-10-15
The complex Langevin method is a leading candidate for solving the so-called sign problem occurring in various physical situations. Its most vexing problem is that sometimes it produces 'convergence to the wrong limit'. In this paper we carefully revisit the formal justification of the method, identifying points at which it may fail and derive a necessary and sufficient criterion for correctness. This criterion is, however, not practical, since its application requires checking an infinite tower of identities. We propose instead a practical test involving only a check of the first few of those identities; this raises the question of the 'sensitivity' of the test. This sensitivity as well as the general insights into the possible reasons of failure (the etiology) are then tested in two toy models where the correct answer is known. At least in those models the test works perfectly. (orig.)
Complexity and Approximation of a Geometric Local Robot Assignment Problem
Bonorden, Olaf; Degener, Bastian; Kempkes, Barbara; Pietrzyk, Peter
We introduce a geometric multi-robot assignment problem. Robots positioned in a Euclidean space have to be assigned to treasures in such a way that their joint strength is sufficient to unearth a treasure with a given weight. The robots have a limited range and thus can only be assigned to treasures in their proximity. The objective is to unearth as many treasures as possible. We investigate the complexity of several variants of this problem and show whether they are in {mathcal P} or are mathcal{ NP}-complete. Furthermore, we provide a distributed and local constant-factor approximation algorithm using constant-factor resource augmentation for the two-dimensional setting with {mathcal O}(log^*n) communication rounds.
Overcoming Problems in the Measurement of Biological Complexity
Cebrian, Manuel; Ortega, Alfonso
2010-01-01
In a genetic algorithm, fluctuations of the entropy of a genome over time are interpreted as fluctuations of the information that the genome's organism is storing about its environment, being this reflected in more complex organisms. The computation of this entropy presents technical problems due to the small population sizes used in practice. In this work we propose and test an alternative way of measuring the entropy variation in a population by means of algorithmic information theory, where the entropy variation between two generational steps is the Kolmogorov complexity of the first step conditioned to the second one. As an example application of this technique, we report experimental differences in entropy evolution between systems in which sexual reproduction is present or absent.
Problems of development of fuel-power complex of Russia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problems on developing the fuel-power complex (FPC) in Russia which provides for vital activities of other branches of the national economy of the country are discussed. The taxation policy of the State plays an important role in stabilization of the financial situation at the FPC enterprises. Special attention is paid to the improvement of the system for the FPC products price formation. The forecast of the FPC development in Russia for the period of 2005 to 2010 years is presented. The diagrams for the coal, natural gas and oil mining and electrical power production by two scenarios of the FPC development for 2000 up to 2010 years are also presented
2016-01-01
This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .
Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems
Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan
2013-10-01
Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.
Complex-Dynamical Approach to Cosmological Problem Solution
Kirilyuk, A P
2005-01-01
Universe structure emerges in the unreduced, complex-dynamic interaction process with the simplest initial configuration (two attracting homogeneous fields). The unreduced interaction analysis, avoiding any perturbative model, gives intrinsically creative cosmology describing the real, explicitly emerging world structure with dynamic randomness on each scale. Without imposing any postulates or additional entities, we obtain physically real, three-dimensional space, irreversibly flowing time, elementary particles with their detailed structure and intrinsic properties, causally complete and unified version of quantum and relativistic behaviour, the origin and number of naturally unified fundamental forces, classical behaviour emergence in a closed system, and true quantum chaos. Major problems of standard cosmology and astrophysics are consistently solved in this extended picture, including those of quantum cosmology and gravity, entropy growth and time arrow, "hierarchy" of elementary particles (Planckian unit...
Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.
Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W
2011-11-01
Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425
Complexity of Decision Problems for Mixed and Modal Specifications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Nyman, Ulrik Mathias; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej
We consider decision problems for modal and mixed transition systems used as specifications: the common implementation problem (whether a set of specifications has a common implementation), the consistency problem (whether a single specification has an implementation), and the thorough refinement...
Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.
2011-01-01
Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…
Making mobility-related disability better: a complex response to a complex problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rockwood Kenneth
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Mobility disability in older adults can arise from single system problems, such as discrete musculoskeletal injury. In frail older adults, however, mobility disability is part of a complex web of problems. The approach to their rehabilitation must take that complexity into account, as is reported by Fairhall et al. First, their overall health state must be assessed, which is achieved by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The assessment can show how a particular patient came to be disabled, so that an individualized care plan can be worked out. Whether this approach works in general can be evaluated by looking at group differences in mean mobility test scores. Knowing whether it has worked in the individual patient requires an individualized measure. This is because not every patient starts from the same point, and not every patient achieves success by aiming for the same goal. For one patient, walking unassisted for three metres would be a triumph; for another it would be a tragedy. Unless we understand the complexity of the needs of frail older adults, we will neither be able to treat them effectively nor evaluate our efforts sensibly. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/120
Inverse Problems in Complex Models and Applications to Earth Sciences
Bosch, M. E.
2015-12-01
The inference of the subsurface earth structure and properties requires the integration of different types of data, information and knowledge, by combined processes of analysis and synthesis. To support the process of integrating information, the regular concept of data inversion is evolving to expand its application to models with multiple inner components (properties, scales, structural parameters) that explain multiple data (geophysical survey data, well-logs, core data). The probabilistic inference methods provide the natural framework for the formulation of these problems, considering a posterior probability density function (PDF) that combines the information from a prior information PDF and the new sets of observations. To formulate the posterior PDF in the context of multiple datasets, the data likelihood functions are factorized assuming independence of uncertainties for data originating across different surveys. A realistic description of the earth medium requires modeling several properties and structural parameters, which relate to each other according to dependency and independency notions. Thus, conditional probabilities across model components also factorize. A common setting proceeds by structuring the model parameter space in hierarchical layers. A primary layer (e.g. lithology) conditions a secondary layer (e.g. physical medium properties), which conditions a third layer (e.g. geophysical data). In general, less structured relations within model components and data emerge from the analysis of other inverse problems. They can be described with flexibility via direct acyclic graphs, which are graphs that map dependency relations between the model components. Examples of inverse problems in complex models can be shown at various scales. At local scale, for example, the distribution of gas saturation is inferred from pre-stack seismic data and a calibrated rock-physics model. At regional scale, joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data is applied
Abele, John
2011-01-01
Boston Scientific founder John Abele has been party to his share of groundbreaking innovations over the years. But the revolutionary advances in medical science that these breakthroughs brought about were not the efforts of one firm alone, let alone one inventor. Abele tells two fascinating stories of collaboration--one about Jack Whitehead's upending of hospitals' blood and urine testing procedures and the other about Andreas Gruentzig's success in bringing balloon catheterization into the cardiology mainstream. Both Whitehead and Gruentzig spearheaded the emergence of entirely new fields, bringing together scientist-customers to voluntarily develop standards, training programs, new business models, and even a specialized language to describe their new field. The process of collaboration, Abete says, is fraught with contradictions and subtlety. It takes consummate leadership skills to persuade others to spend countless hours solving important problems in partnership with people they don't necessarily like. Moreover, managing egos so that each person's commitment, energy, and creativity is unleashed in a way that doesn't disadvantage others requires an impresario personality. Finally, true authenticity--something that few people can project--is critical for earning customers' trust and convincing them that their valuable contributions won't be used for anything other than moving the technology forward. PMID:21800473
An analytical approach to managing complex process problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramstad, Kari; Andersen, Espen; Rohde, Hans Christian; Tydal, Trine
2006-03-15
The oil companies are continuously investing time and money to ensure optimum regularity on their production facilities. High regularity increases profitability, reduces workload on the offshore organisation and most important; - reduces discharge to air and sea. There are a number of mechanisms and tools available in order to achieve high regularity. Most of these are related to maintenance, system integrity, well operations and process conditions. However, for all of these tools, they will only be effective if quick and proper analysis of fluids and deposits are carried out. In fact, analytical backup is a powerful tool used to maintain optimised oil production, and should as such be given high priority. The present Operator (Hydro Oil and Energy) and the Chemical Supplier (MI Production Chemicals) have developed a cooperation to ensure that analytical backup is provided efficiently to the offshore installations. The Operator's Research and Development (R and D) departments and the Chemical Supplier have complementary specialties in both personnel and equipment, and this is utilized to give the best possible service when required from production technologists or operations. In order for the Operator's Research departments, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) departments and Operations to approve analytical work performed by the Chemical Supplier, a number of analytical tests are carried out following procedures agreed by both companies. In the present paper, three field case examples of analytical cooperation for managing process problems will be presented. 1) Deposition in a Complex Platform Processing System. 2) Contaminated Production Chemicals. 3) Improved Monitoring of Scale Inhibitor, Suspended Solids and Ions. In each case the Research Centre, Operations and the Chemical Supplier have worked closely together to achieve fast solutions and Best Practice. (author) (tk)
Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems
Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert
2012-01-01
This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…
Electromagnetic waves in complex systems selected theoretical and applied problems
Velychko, Lyudmyla
2016-01-01
This book gives guidance to solve problems in electromagnetics, providing both examples of solving serious research problems as well as the original results to encourage further investigations. The book contains seven chapters on various aspects of resonant wave scattering, each solving one original problem. All of them are unified by the authors’ desire to show advantages of rigorous approaches at all stages, from the formulation of a problem and the selection of a method to the interpretation of results. The book reveals a range of problems associated with wave propagation and scattering in natural and artificial environments or with the design of antennas elements. The authors invoke both theoretical (analytical and numerical) and experimental techniques for handling the problems. Attention is given to mathematical simulations, computational efficiency, and physical interpretation of the experimental results. The book is written for students, graduate students and young researchers. .
Control problem organization in the U-70 complex control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The technological subsystem (TS) may be considered from the viewpoint of the U-70 control system (CS) as a set of interrelated control and measurement sections. According the CS problem on servicing the technological subsystem is reduced to separate control and measurement problems, composed in form of three types of the basic problems combinations. The basic problem of each type realizes one of the functions: data measurement, data review and data control. Presently the control and measurement problems of all TS of the U-70 CS organized according to the rules, described in the report. The CS dialogue menu contains 4068 items. In spite of the great volume the work with the above menu does not cause difficulties by the users, because it adequately reflects the TS structure and the rules of its structural scheme are logical and correspond to the needs both of operational control of the accelerating facilities, and research problems, solved by means of the CS
A note on the Dirichlet problem for model complex partial differential equations
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Karaca, Bahriye
2016-08-01
Complex model partial differential equations of arbitrary order are considered. The uniqueness of the Dirichlet problem is studied. It is proved that the Dirichlet problem for higher order of complex partial differential equations with one complex variable has infinitely many solutions.
The Interfacial Interaction Problem in Complex Multiple Porosity Fractured Reservoirs
Suarez-Arriaga, Mario-Cesar
2003-04-01
Many productive reservoirs (oil, gas, water, geothermal) are associated to natural fracturing. Fault zones and fractures act as open networks for fluid and energy flow from depth. Their petrophysical parameters are heterogeneous and randomly distributed, conforming extremely complex natural systems. Here, the simultaneous heat and mass flows are coupled to the deformation of thermoporoelastic rocks. The system's volume is divided into N interacting continua, each one occupying a region of space Vn wrapped by a surface Sn (n=1,N). The mass flow is represented by: ∂/∂t ∫ Vn ρf φdV + ∫ Sn F⃗M ṡ n⃗dS = ∫ Vn qMdV (3) Taking into account a non-isothermal process the coupled equation of energy is: ∂/∂t ∫ Vn [φρf hf + (1 - φ)ρrhr]dV + ∫ Sn F⃗E ṡ n⃗dS = ∫ Vn qEdV (4) Where t means time, φ is porosity, ρf, ρr are fluid and rock densities, F⃗M and F⃗E are total mass and energy flows, qM and qE are volumetric mass and energy extracted or injected into Vn, hf and hr are specific enthalpies for fluid and rock respectively. Rock deformation is coupled through the equation: ∇⃗ ṡ (ρf/μK ṡ ∇⃗pφ)Vn = φ (Dtρf + ρf/VφdVφ/dt)Vn (5) K is the absolute permeability tensor, μ means dynamic fluid viscosity, Dt is a total derivative, pφ is pore pressure and Vφ is the volume of pores in Vn. The N media interact with each other, every one has its own parameters and its own interporosity flow. Modelling these coupled phenomena requires to average highly contrasting physical properties, independently of the method used in the solution of equations. A lot of attention has been devoted to develop realistic numerical models to describe flows in reservoirs under exploitation. But to the best of our knowledge very little attention has been focused on the problem of interfacial interaction and averaging petrophysical parameters in multiple porosity reservoirs.
Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem
Cavallo, Alessandro
2016-04-01
Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM
Substantiation of Resource Territories Development: Complex «Meso-Level» Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriy Anatolievich Kryukov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to the analysis and evaluation of integrated investment projects, which consist of infrastructure facilities and industrial clusters, allocated in poorly developed areas rich with natural resources. It shows the feasibility of a public-private partnership during the construction of infrastructure facilities in order to minimize the risks and maximize the benefits. The conceptual framework of developed approach is associated with the ideas and principles of the «impact investing» («creating shared values» and inclusive economic development. These are increasingly used in the world, especially to accelerate the socio-economic development of the backward countries and territories. The article describes an international experience and justifies the relevance of the application of these concepts to the Russian context. We revealed methodical problems associated with the applying of traditional methods to evaluate economic effects of the project investment in conditions of high uncertainty. It is necessary to use models and methods (real options analysis, fuzzy cognitive models, which allow directly to take into account uncertainty and project risks. The novelty of the article consists in methodical tools for evaluating the socio-economic efficiency of the complex projects for infrastructure development and resources development. The elaborated approach has been applied for substantiation of the road construction project in the Berezovsky district of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. It is shown that there are opportunities to generate a complex of institutional, organizational and financial conditions, under which the implementation of the project will be attractive for investors and for the state and will bring socio-economic benefits to the territory. The proposed approach and tools can be used in the socio-economic strategic planning under the justification of infrastructure projects in the new development areas of
Some open problems in real and complex dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theory of dynamical systems may be split into two parts. The larger one, dealing with multidimensional systems: flows in dim 3 and higher, diffeomorphisms in dim 2 and higher, may be called the realm of chaos. The smaller one, dealing with planar differential equations, may be called the realm of order. The problems below deal with both parts. (open problem)
An adaptive finite element strategy for complex flow problems
Oden, J. T.; Strouboulis, T.; Devloo, PH.; Spradley, L. W.; Price, J.
1987-01-01
Adaptive finite element methods for steady and unsteady flow problems in two-dimensional domains are described. Details of a data management scheme are given that provide for the rapid implementation of various CFD algorithms on changing unstructured meshes. The results of several numerical experiments on subsonic and supersonic flow problems are discussed.
de Leeuw, L.
Sixty-four fifth and sixth-grade pupils were taught number series extrapolation by either an algorithm, fully prescribed problem-solving method or a heuristic, less prescribed method. The trained problems were within categories of two degrees of complexity. There were 16 subjects in each cell of the 2 by 2 design used. Aptitude Treatment…
The Fallacy of Univariate Solutions to Complex Systems Problems.
Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Rubin, Joshua B; Schlaggar, Bradley L
2016-01-01
Complex biological systems, by definition, are composed of multiple components that interact non-linearly. The human brain constitutes, arguably, the most complex biological system known. Yet most investigation of the brain and its function is carried out using assumptions appropriate for simple systems-univariate design and linear statistical approaches. This heuristic must change before we can hope to discover and test interventions to improve the lives of individuals with complex disorders of brain development and function. Indeed, a movement away from simplistic models of biological systems will benefit essentially all domains of biology and medicine. The present brief essay lays the foundation for this argument. PMID:27375425
Variational Problem with Complex Coefficient of a Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nigar Yildirim Aksoy; Bunyamin Yildiz; Hakan Yetiskin
2012-08-01
An optimal control problem governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with complex coefficient is investigated. The paper studies existence, uniqueness and optimality conditions for the control problem.
Problems of empathy. Difficulties of emotive understanding and social complexity.
Maurizio Fabbri
2007-01-01
The Author analyses certain problems concerning the transformation of styles in educational experience. Refering also to neuroscientific studies, more radical model of empaty, that enable the interpretation of historical change, are proposed.
Problems of empathy. Difficulties of emotive understanding and social complexity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maurizio Fabbri
2007-07-01
Full Text Available The Author analyses certain problems concerning the transformation of styles in educational experience. Refering also to neuroscientific studies, more radical model of empaty, that enable the interpretation of historical change, are proposed.
The bees algorithm: Modelling nature to solve complex optimisation problems
Pham, Duc; Le-Thi, Hoai; Castellani, Marco
2013-01-01
The Bees Algorithm models the foraging behaviour of honey bees in order to solve optimisation problems. The algorithm performs a kind of exploitative neighbourhood search combined with random explorative search. This paper describes the Bees Algorithm and presents two application examples: the training of neural networks to predict the energy efficiency of buildings, and the solution of the protein folding problem. The Bees Algorithm proved its effectiveness and speed, and obtained very compe...
On the complexity of some quadratic Euclidean 2-clustering problems
Kel'manov, A. V.; Pyatkin, A. V.
2016-03-01
Some problems of partitioning a finite set of points of Euclidean space into two clusters are considered. In these problems, the following criteria are minimized: (1) the sum over both clusters of the sums of squared pairwise distances between the elements of the cluster and (2) the sum of the (multiplied by the cardinalities of the clusters) sums of squared distances from the elements of the cluster to its geometric center, where the geometric center (or centroid) of a cluster is defined as the mean value of the elements in that cluster. Additionally, another problem close to (2) is considered, where the desired center of one of the clusters is given as input, while the center of the other cluster is unknown (is the variable to be optimized) as in problem (2). Two variants of the problems are analyzed, in which the cardinalities of the clusters are (1) parts of the input or (2) optimization variables. It is proved that all the considered problems are strongly NP-hard and that, in general, there is no fully polynomial-time approximation scheme for them (unless P = NP).
Noise problems in coal mining complex- a case discussion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noise monitoring study was conducted at Moonidih mining complex of Jharia coal-field. The study included monitoring and analysis of ambient as well as workplace noise levels. An attempt has been made to critically analyse the noise situation through octave band analysis, thereby identifying alarming noise frequencies for each noise generating equipment having Leq level more than 90 dBA. A noise model has also been developed to draw noise contours of the entire mining complex. Based on these studies, suitable control measures have been suggested. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs
Client-Centered Problem-Solving Networks in Complex Organizations.
Tucker, Charles; Hanna, Michael
Employees in different kinds of organizations were surveyed for their perceptions of their companies' client and operational problem-solving networks. The individuals came from a manufacturing firm, a community college, a telephone company, a farmers' cooperative, and a hospital. Interviews were conducted with those people reporting numerous…
Reduced-Complexity Semidefinite Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansson, Anders; Vandenberghe, Lieven
2014-01-01
We propose a new method for generating semidefinite relaxations of optimal power flow problems. The method is based on chordal conversion techniques: by dropping some equality constraints in the conversion, we obtain semidefinite relaxations that are computationally cheaper, but potentially weake...
Complexity of Data Dependence problems for Program Schemas with Concurrency
Danicic, Sebastian; Laurence, Michael R
2010-01-01
The problem of deciding whether one point in a program is data dependent upon another is fundamental to program analysis and has been widely studied. In this paper we consider this problem at the abstraction level of program schemas, in which computations occur in the Herbrand domain of terms and predicate symbols, which represent arbitrary predicate functions, are allowed. Given a vertex l in the flowchart of a schema S having only equality assignments and variables v,w, we show that it is PSPACE-hard to decide whether there exists an execution of a program defined by S in which v holds the initial value of w at at least one occurrence of l on the path of execution, with membership in PSPACE holding provided there is a constant upper bound on the arity of any predicate in S. We also consider the `dual' problem in which v is required to hold the initial value of w at every occurrence of l, for which the analogous results hold. Additionally, the former problem for programs with non-deterministic branching (in ...
Problem-solving with multiple interdependent criteria: better solution to complex problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider multiple objective programming (MOP) problems with additive interdependencies, this is when the states of some chosen objective are attained through supportive or inhibitory feed-backs from several other objectives. MOP problems with independent objectives (when the cause-effect relations between the decision variables and the objectives are completely known) will be treated as special cases of the MOP in which we have interdependent objectives. We illustrate our ideas by a simple three-objective real-life problem
Solomon, Olga; Heritage, John; Yin, Larry; Maynard, Douglas W; Bauman, Margaret L
2016-02-01
Conversation and discourse analyses were used to examine medical problem presentation in pediatric care.Healthcare visits involving children with ASD and typically developing children were analyzed. We examined how children’s communicative and epistemic capabilities, and their opportunities to be socialized into a competent patient role are interactionally achieved. We found that medical problem presentation is designed to contain a ‘pre-visit’ account of the interactional and epistemic work that children and caregivers carry out at home to identify the child’s health problems; and that the intersubjective accessibility of children’s experiences that becomes disrupted by ASD presents a dilemma to all participants in the visit. The article examines interactional roots of unmet healthcare needs and foregone medical care of people with ASD. PMID:26463739
The Bright Side of Being Blue: Depression as an Adaptation for Analyzing Complex Problems
Andrews, Paul W.; Thomson, J. Anderson, Jr.
2009-01-01
Depression is the primary emotional condition for which help is sought. Depressed people often report persistent rumination, which involves analysis, and complex social problems in their lives. Analysis is often a useful approach for solving complex problems, but it requires slow, sustained processing, so disruption would interfere with problem…
The problem of creating a full scale computer simulation code complex for NPPs with RBMK reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The presented paper reviews the problem of choice and justification of digital solution algorithms of spatial model and its realization on computers, as well as research technical problems which deal with the creation of the full scale modelling complex and special dialog system of communication with this complex system that will be applicable to NPP reactors of the channel type. 2 figs
Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems
Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard
2016-01-01
There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610
Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.
Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard
2016-03-01
There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610
Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Burnett
2015-09-01
Full Text Available There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article.
The problems of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolova Ruselina
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The investigation of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian is a multifactor analysis, which has to take into account the following issues: a the lexical meaning of the main predicate, which determines the meaning of the complement in general; b the grammatical meanings of the main predicate - person (a special role plays the opposition between the speaker and the other participants in communication, number, tense, mood, evidentiality affirmativity or negation; c the functions of the linking words - complementizers, particles, interrogatives, relatives; d the meaning of the complement and its related presuppositions or implications (if any, its modality, its illocutionary force, its formal structure, its syntactic position in the complex sentence; e the combinatorial potential of the matrix sentence and the complement in both aspects - semantic and formal.
On the Complexity of the Asymmetric VPN Problem
Rothvoß, Thomas; Sanità, Laura
We give the first constant factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric Virtual Private Network (textsc{Vpn}) problem with arbitrary concave costs. We even show the stronger result, that there is always a tree solution of cost at most 2·OPT and that a tree solution of (expected) cost at most 49.84·OPT can be determined in polynomial time.
Sequence Annotation with HMMs: New Problems and Their Complexity
Nánási, Michal; Vinař, Tomáš; Brejová, Broňa
2012-01-01
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and their variants were successfully used for several sequence annotation tasks. Traditionally, inference with HMMs is done using the Viterbi and posterior decoding algorithms. However, recently a variety of different optimization criteria and associated computational problems were proposed. In this paper, we consider three HMM decoding criteria and prove their NP hardness. These criteria consider the set of states used to generate a certain sequence, but abstract ...
Presenilins and the γ-secretase: still a complex problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Small David H
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract The presenilins form part of a complex of membrane proteins that are involved in the proteolytic cleavage of cell-surface molecules. This article reviews the history of the discovery of the presenilins, their role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and in the metabolism of the amyloid-β precursor protein. Unanswered questions about their biochemical mechanism of action and their effects on Ca2+ homeostasis are examined.
Complex Datasets and Inverse Problems. Tomography, Networks and Beyond
Liu, Regina; Strawderman, William; Zhang, Cun-Hui
2007-01-01
This book is a collection of papers dedicated to the memory of Yehuda Vardi. Yehuda was the chair of the Department of Statistics of Rutgers University when he passed away unexpectedly on January 13, 2005. On October 21--22, 2005, some 150 leading scholars from many different fields, including statistics, telecommunications, biomedical engineering, bioinformatics, biostatistics and epidemiology, gathered at Rutgers in a conference in his honor. This conference was on ``Complex Datasets and In...
The problems of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian
Nicolova Ruselina
2008-01-01
The investigation of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian is a multifactor analysis, which has to take into account the following issues: a) the lexical meaning of the main predicate, which determines the meaning of the complement in general; b) the grammatical meanings of the main predicate - person (a special role plays the opposition between the speaker and the other participants in communication), number, tense, mood, evidentiality affirmativity or negation; c) the function...
Complexity of the FIFO Stack-Up Problem
Gurski, Frank; Rethmann, Jochen; Wanke, Egon
2013-01-01
We study the combinatorial FIFO stack-up problem. In delivery industry, bins have to be stacked-up from conveyor belts onto pallets with respect to customer orders. Given k sequences q_1, ..., q_k of labeled bins and a positive integer p, the aim is to stack-up the bins by iteratively removing the first bin of one of the k sequences and put it onto an initially empty pallet of unbounded capacity located at one of p stack-up places. Bins with different pallet labels have to be placed on differ...
Acid rain legislation's complex problem - Fair and efficient emissions limitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The writers of this article take a gloomier view of the potential of an emissions reduction compliance market. It cannot be relied upon to even out disparities in the costs which different utility systems will have to incur, they say - i.e., promote fairness - and it will have the added disadvantage that it will work against the entry of nonutility electricity generators into this field. The monopolistic and noncompetitive nature of the electric utility industry is seen as a major problem by these writers - one which will preclude operation of an emissions market
Developing a computer-based assessment of complex problem solving in Chemistry
Scherer, Ronny; Meßinger-Koppelt, Jenny; Tiemann, Rüdiger
2014-01-01
Background Complex problem-solving competence is regarded as a key construct in science education. But due to the necessity of using interactive and intransparent assessment procedures, appropriate measures of the construct are rare. This paper consequently presents the development and validation of a computer-based problem-solving environment, which can be used to assess students' performance on complex problems in Chemistry. The test consists of four scales, namely, under...
Various complexity results for computational mass spectrometry problems
Böcker, Francois Nicolas Sebastian
2011-01-01
Define Minimum \\pbsul{} (MinSU) as the following optimization problem: given a $k$-tuple $(X_1, X_2,..., X_k)$ of finite integer sets, find a $k$-tuple $(t_1, t_2,..., t_k)$ of integers that minimizes the cardinality of $(X_1 + t_1) \\cup (X_2 + t_2) \\cup...\\cup (X_n + t_k)$. We show that MinSU is NP-complete, APX-hard, and polynomial for fixed $k$. MinSU appears naturally in the context of protein shotgun sequencing: Here, the protein is cleaved into short and overlapping peptides, which are then analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. To improve the quality of such spectra, one then asks for the mass of the unknown prefix (the shift) of the spectrum, such that the resulting shifted spectra show a maximum agreement. For real-world data the problem is even more complicated than our definition of MinSU; but our intractability results clearly indicate that it is unlikely to find a polynomial time algorithm for shotgun protein sequencing.
Resolving the Complexity of Some Data Privacy Problems
Blocki, Jeremiah
2010-01-01
We formally study two methods for data sanitation that have been used extensively in the database community: k-anonymity and l-diversity. We settle several open problems concerning the difficulty of applying these methods optimally, proving both positive and negative results: 1. 2-anonymity is in P. 2. The problem of partitioning the edges of a triangle-free graph into 4-stars (degree-three vertices) is NP-hard. This yields an alternative proof that 3-anonymity is NP-hard even when the database attributes are all binary. 3. 3-anonymity with only 27 attributes per record is MAX SNP-hard. 4. For databases with n rows, k-anonymity is in O(4^n poly(n)) time for all k > 1. 5. For databases with n rows and l <= log_{2c+2} log n attributes over an alphabet of cardinality c = O(1), k-anonymity is in P. Assuming c, l = O(1), k-anonymity is in O(n). 6. 3-diversity with binary attributes is NP-hard, with one sensitive attribute. 7. 2-diversity with binary attributes is NP-hard, with three sensitive attributes.
Simulation Gaming as a Social Development Instrument: Dealing with Complex Problems
Klievink, B.; Janssen, M.
Improving public service delivery is a very complex domain and the complexity is difficult to grasp by stakeholders having various degree of knowledge and involvement. An emergent and promising method for dealing with complex problems is simulation gaming, which can be used to capitalize the intrins
The update complexity of selection and related problems
Gupta, Manoj; Sen, Sandeep
2011-01-01
We present a framework for computing with input data specified by intervals, representing uncertainty in the values of the input parameters. To compute a solution, the algorithm can query the input parameters that yield more refined estimates in form of sub-intervals and the objective is to minimize the number of queries. The previous approaches address the scenario where every query returns an exact value. Our framework is more general as it can deal with a wider variety of inputs and query responses and we establish interesting relationships between them that have not been investigated previously. Although some of the approaches of the previous restricted models can be adapted to the more general model, we require more sophisticated techniques for the analysis and we also obtain improved algorithms for the previous model. We address selection problems in the generalized model and show that there exist 2-update competitive algorithms that do not depend on the lengths or distribution of the sub-intervals and ...
Nuclear processing - a simple cost equation or a complex problem?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BNFL has extensive experience of nuclear processing plant from concept through to decommissioning, at all stages of the fuel cycle. Nexia Solutions (formerly BNFL's R and D Division) has always supported BNFL in development of concept plant, including the development of costed plant designs for the purpose of economic evaluation and technology selection. Having undertaken such studies over a number of years, this has enabled Nexia Solutions to develop a portfolio of costed plant designs for a broad range of nuclear processes, throughputs and technologies. This work has led to an extensive understanding of the relationship of the cost of nuclear processing plant, and how this can be impacted by scale of process, and the selection of design philosophy. The relationship has been seen to be non linear and so simplistic equations do not apply, the relationship is complex due to the variety of contributory factors. This is particularly evident when considering the scale of a process, for example how step changes in design occurs with increasing scale, how the applicability of technology options can vary with scale etc... This paper will explore the contributory factor of scale to nuclear processing plant costs. (authors)
Markov Renewal Methods in Restart Problems in Complex Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, Søren; Lipsky, Lester; Thompson, Stephen
general alternating Markov renewal model is proposed and an asymptotic exponential form P(X > x) ∼ Ce−γx identified for the case of a deterministic task time L ≡ `. The rate γ is given by equating the spectral radius of a certain matrix to 1, and the asymptotic form of γ = γ(`) as ` → ∞ is derived......A task with ideal execution time L such as the execution of a computer program or the transmission of a file on a data link may fail, and the task then needs to be restarted. The task is handled by a complex system with features similar to the ones in classical reliability: failures may be......, leading to the asymptotics of P(X > x) for random task times L. A main finding is that X is always heavy-tailed if L has unbounded support. The case where the Markov renewal model is derived by lumping in a continuous-time finite Markov process with exponential holding times is given special attention...
Nonlinear problems of complex natural systems: Sun and climate dynamics
Bershadskii, A
2012-01-01
Universal role of the nonlinear one-third subharmonic resonance mechanism in generation of the strong fluctuations in such complex natural dynamical systems as global climate and global solar activity is discussed using wavelet regression detrended data. Role of the oceanic Rossby waves in the year-scale global temperature fluctuations and the nonlinear resonance contribution to the El Nino phenomenon have been discussed in detail. The large fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature on the millennial time-scales (Antarctic ice cores data for the past 400,000 years) are also shown to be dominated by the one-third subharmonic resonance, presumably related to Earth precession effect on the energy that the intertropical regions receive from the Sun. Effects of Galactic turbulence on the temperature fluctuations are discussed in this content. It is also shown that the one-third subharmonic resonance can be considered as a background for the 11-years solar cycle, and again the global (solar) rotation and chaoti...
Bactrocera dorsalis complex and its problem in control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eight species of fifty-two in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are serious pests in the Asia-Pacific region. Of these, all except one are attracted to methyl eugenol. Four of these pests B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. papayae and B. philippinesis are polyphagous species and infest 75, 117, 195 and 18 fruit host species respectively. Common names for B. carambalae and B. papayae (sympatric species) have caused confusion. Both species can interbreed and produce viable offspring; and their natural hybrids have been collected. Bactrocera dorsalis and B. papayae can interbreed readily and produce viable offspring in the laboratory as males produce identical booster sex and aggregation pheromonal components after consuming methyl eugenol. The DNA sequences of one of their respective allelic introns of the actin gene are also identical which suggests that they are not distinct genetic species. Protein bait application and male annihilation techniques have been successful in the management of fruit flies in many cases but they have to compete with natural sources of lures. SIT is amenable for non-methyl engenol species; but for methyl eugenol sensitive species, sterile makes should be allowed to consume methyl eugenol before release to have an equal mating competitiveness with wild males. (author)
Bringing focus to entrepreneurship
T. Skelton (Tim); J.J.P. Jansen (Justin)
2013-01-01
textabstractFostering entrepreneurship has long been a core part of the RSM ethos. But a new centre bringing together some key players promises to take this philosophy to a new and even more successful level.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper deals with boundary value problems for linear uniformly elliptic systems. First the general linear uniformly elliptic system of the first order equations is reduced to complex form, and then the compound boundary value problem for the complex equations of the first order is discussed. The approximate solutions of the boundary value problem are found by the variation-difference method, and the error estimates for the approximate solutions are derived.Finally the approximate method of the oblique derivative problem for linear uniformly elliptic equations of the second or der is introduced.
Vorozheikin, A.; Gonchar, T.; Panfilov, I.; Sopov, E.; Sopov, S.
2009-01-01
A new algorithm for the solution of complex constrained optimization problems based on the probabilistic genetic algorithm with optimal solution prediction is proposed. The efficiency investigation results in comparison with standard genetic algorithm are presented.
Nasini, Stefano
2015-01-01
The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...
Metapsi: a Web-based metacomputing problem-solving environment for buiding complex applications
Baraglia, Ranieri; Laforenza, Domenico
2001-01-01
The increasing complexity of large distributed scientific applications raises the problem of the coordination of diverse computational resources (computers, data bases, etc.). Multi-disciplinary applications often make use of coupled computational resources that cannot be replicated at a single site. There is the need for smart and user-friendly Problem-Solving Environments (PSE) that free scientists from concerns related to the location and complexity of the computing platform being used.
The information-based complexity of approximation problem by adaptive Monte Carlo methods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In this paper, we study the complexity of information of approximation problem on the multivariate Sobolev space with bounded mixed derivative MWpr,α(Td), 1 < p < ∞, in the norm of Lq(Td), 1 < q < ∞, by adaptive Monte Carlo methods. Applying the discretization technique and some properties of pseudo-s-scale, we determine the exact asymptotic orders of this problem.
Upper estimates of complexity of algorithms for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey Novikov
2007-06-01
Full Text Available There are proved upper explicit estimates of complexity of lgorithms: for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the limited number of disks, for Reve's puzzle and for $5$-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the free number of disks.
The one-way communication complexity of the Boolean Hidden Matching Problem
Kerenidis, I; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Raz, Ran
2006-01-01
We give a tight lower bound of Omega(\\sqrt{n}) for the randomized one-way communication complexity of the Boolean Hidden Matching Problem [BJK04]. Since there is a quantum one-way communication complexity protocol of O(\\log n) qubits for this problem, we obtain an exponential separation of quantum and classical one-way communication complexity for partial functions. A similar result was independently obtained by Gavinsky, Kempe, de Wolf [GKdW06]. Our lower bound is obtained by Fourier analysis, using the Fourier coefficients inequality of Kahn Kalai and Linial [KKL88].
Nuclear three-body problem in the complex energy plane: Complex-Scaling-Slater method
Kruppa, A T; Nazarewicz, W; Michel, N
2013-01-01
The physics of open quantum systems is an interdisciplinary area of research. The nuclear "openness" manifests itself through the presence of the many-body continuum representing various decay, scattering, and reaction channels. As the radioactive nuclear beam experimentation extends the known nuclear landscape towards the particle drip lines, the coupling to the continuum space becomes exceedingly more important. Of particular interest are weakly bound and unbound nuclear states appearing around particle thresholds. Theories of such nuclei must take into account their open quantum nature. To describe open quantum systems, we introduce a Complex Scaling (CS) approach in the Slater basis. We benchmark it with the complex-energy Gamow Shell Model (GSM) by studying energies and wave functions of the bound and unbound states of the two-neutron halo nucleus 6He viewed as an $\\alpha$+ n + n cluster system. In the CS approach, we use the Slater basis, which exhibits the correct asymptotic behavior at large distances...
The Streaming Complexity of Cycle Counting, Sorting by Reversals, and Other Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Verbin, Elad; Yu, Wei
2011-01-01
-way. By designing reductions from BHH, we prove lower bounds for the streaming complexity of approximating the sorting by reversal distance, of approximately counting the number of cycles in a 2-regular graph, and of other problems. For example, here is one lower bound that we prove, for a cycle-counting problem......In this paper we introduce a new technique for proving streaming lower bounds (and one-way communication lower bounds), by reductions from a problem called the Boolean Hidden Hypermatching problem (BHH). BHH is a gener- alization of the well-known Boolean Hidden Matching problem, which was used...... two-way communication, but it requires pn communication if Alice is only allowed to send messages to Bob, and not vice-versa. This one-wayness allows us to prove lower bounds, via reductions, for streaming problems and related communication problems whose hardness is also inherently one...
Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee
2006-07-01
A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as
A new complex variable meshless method for transient heat conduction problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, based on the improved complex variable moving least-square (ICVMLS) approximation, a new complex variable meshless method (CVMM) for two-dimensional (2D) transient heat conduction problems is presented. The variational method is employed to obtain the discrete equations, and the essential boundary conditions are imposed by the penalty method. As the transient heat conduction problems are related to time, the Crank-Nicolson difference scheme for two-point boundary value problems is selected for the time discretization. Then the corresponding formulae of the CVMM for 2D heat conduction problems are obtained. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, numerical examples are given to show the high convergence rate, good accuracy, and high efficiency of the CVMM presented in this paper. (general)
A new complex variable meshless method for transient heat conduction problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jian-Fei; Cheng Yu-Min
2012-01-01
In this paper,based on the improved complex variable moving least-square (ICVMLS) approximation,a new complex variable meshless method (CVMM) for two-dimensional (2D) transient heat conduction problems is presented.The variational method is employed to obtain the discrete equations,and the essential boundary conditions are imposed by the penalty method.As the transient heat conduction problems are related to time,the Crank-Nicolson difference scheme for two-point boundary value problems is selected for the time discretization.Then the corresponding formulae of the CVMM for 2D heat conduction problems are obtained.In order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method,numerical examples are given to show the high convergence rate,good accuracy,and high efficiency of the CVMM presented in this paper.
Complex variable method for plane elasticity of icosahedral quasicrystals and elliptic notch problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The complex variable method for the plane elasticity theory of icosahedral quasicrystals is developed. Based on the general solution obtained previously, complex representations of stress and displacement components of phonon and phason fields in the quasicrystals are given. With the help of conformal transformation, an analytic solution for the elliptic notch problem of the material is presented. The solution of the Griffith crack problem can be observed as a special case of the results. The stress intensity factor and energy release rate of the crack are also obtained.
A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend
2007-01-01
The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for...... evaluating the performance of a ventilation system in the design proces by treating quantifiable and non-quantifiable datasets together. The method is based on general morphological analysis and applies cross-consistency assessment for reducing the problem complex, thus treating the multi-dimensionality, the...
Complexity Indicators applied to the Job Shop Scheduling Problem to discriminate the best Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the application of discriminant analysis to select appropriately the algorithm that better solves an instance of the Job Shop Scheduling Problem. The discriminant analysis was used as a method of machine learning to find the relation between the characteristics of the problem (complexity indicators and the performance of algorithms. The prediction of the classification obtained of the discriminant analysis was 60%.
Kostas Tolidis; Efi Dimopoulou
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the issue of land use planning and land policy making for mountain regions, considered as regions with specific characteristics (natural, cultural, etc.), but also development constraints. Spatial decision making in such regions is characterized by complexity (semi-structured spatial decision problems) and multiplicity of problems. These indicate the need for qualitative information in support of the decision-making process, in order to improve effectiveness in decision m...
Defining Urban Complex Problems with Fuzzy Analysis: The Case of Söke Settlement in Turkey
Kozaman, Senem; Sengezer, Betul; Altinok, Emrah
2011-01-01
This article aims to follow the application of fuzzy approach in the analysis of urban complex problems; classifying urban problems according to different criteria. It proposes a methodology to combine different dimensions of quality of life, with the economic (income, employment), social (education) physical (health and infrastructure) indicators into Quality of Life Index (QLI) by applying Totally Fuzzy Analysis (TFA). The objective of the present work is to identify, based on survey data o...
A new ant colony optimization model for complex graph-based problems
González-Pardo, Antonio
2014-01-01
Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Escuela Politécnica Superior, Departamento de Ingeniería Informática. Fecha de lectura: julio de 2014 Nowadays, there is a huge number of problems that due to their complexity have employed heuristic-based algorithms to search for near-to-optimal (or even optimal) solutions. These problems are usually NP-complete, so classical algorithms are not the best candidates to address these problems because they need a larg...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qu Chiwen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The standard cuckoo search algorithm is of low accuracy and easy to fall into local optimal value in the later evolution. In this paper, an improved cuckoo algorithm is proposed. Dynamic change of parameter of probability is introduced to improve the convergence speed. Complex method is quoted to improve the capabilities of local search algorithm. A non-fixed multi-segment mapping penalty function is adopted to realize constraint processing algorithms. The results of the optimization problem constrained by standard test functions and two engineering design show that this algorithm is effective for solving constrained optimization problems and suitable for engineering design and other constrained optimization problems.
Stability of Complex-Rotation Method on a Simple Resonant Scattering Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Li; WANG Lei; LIU Xiao-Jun; SHI Ting-Yun; LIU Hong-Ping
2008-01-01
@@ The stability of the complex-rotation method in B-spline basis for a simple atomic resonant scattering problem in free field is investigated. The numerical calculation shows that this method has a feature that the solution will not change in a wide range of rotation angle θ. Our determined scattering resonant energies and widths exactly coincide with the popularly accepted values. A new resonance is identified numerically although it is very broad.The norm of the complex eigenvalue, [E], is proposed to investigate and to evaluate the stability of the obtained complex eigenvalues.
Bringing "indigenous" ownership back
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragelund, Peter
2012-01-01
policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to...
On the Critical Behaviour, Crossover Point and Complexity of the Exact Cover Problem
Morris, Robin D.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shumow, Daniel; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
Research into quantum algorithms for NP-complete problems has rekindled interest in the detailed study a broad class of combinatorial problems. A recent paper applied the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm to the Exact Cover problem for 3-sets (EC3), and provided an empirical evidence that the algorithm was polynomial. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the characteristics of the exact cover problem. We present the annealing approximation applied to EC3, which gives an over-estimate of the phase transition point. We also identify empirically the phase transition point. We also study the complexity of two classical algorithms on this problem: Davis-Putnam and Simulated Annealing. For these algorithms, EC3 is significantly easier than 3-SAT.
Mathematical optimization model of avionics complexation problem on early stage of designing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Vorobyov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The article is the sequel of another one of this digest of authors “Approximate optimization solution by Pareto of discrete extremal problem of complexation of new generation avionics” and its development in the direction of creating optimization model and organization under synthesis of avionics structure.
Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem
The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...
Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal
Witteveen, L.M.; Put, M.; Leeuwis, C.
2010-01-01
This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversi
Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal
Witteveen, Loes; Put, Marcel; Leeuwis, Cees
2010-01-01
This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversity of instruction strategies to accommodate the…
Small-Group Problem-Based Learning as a Complex Adaptive System
Mennin, Stewart
2007-01-01
Small-group problem-based learning (PBL) is widely embraced as a method of study in health professions schools and at many different levels of education. Complexity science provides a different lens with which to view and understand the application of this method. It presents new concepts and vocabulary that may be unfamiliar to practitioners of…
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
2016-01-01
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis
Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha
2014-01-01
Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…
An Iterative Layered Tabu Search Algorithm for Complex Job Shop Scheduling Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIUMin; DONGMingyu; WUCheng
2005-01-01
In this paper, aiming at the complex characteristics that there exist two interrelated decision processes: job-assignment decision and job-sequencing decision in the complex job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and technical constraints, we propose an Iterative layered tabu search algorithm (ILTSA), which combines the iterative and layered mechanism with tabu search algorithm. In ILTSA, we define the notation of the optimization layer including the job-assignment optimization layer and the job-sequencing optimization layer which correspond to the above two interrelated decision processes respectively. On the basis, we use the corresponding tabu search algorithms in different optimization layers and switch iteratively the above two tabu search algorithms between the two optimization layers to improve the performance of the scheduling algorithm effectively. In the above two TS algorithms, the measuring functions are the objective of the whole scheduling problem. At last, we make numerical computations for different scale scheduling problems of minimizing the makespan and minimizing the total number of tardy jobs respectively, and numerical computational results show that ILTSA is very efficient and suitable for solving larger scale job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and technical constraints. Also, we apply successfully ILTSA to a practical complex job shop scheduling problem with parallel machines and technical constraints in one of the largest cotton colored weaving enterprises in China.
A new complex variable element-free Galerkin method for two-dimensional potential problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Yu-Min; Wang Jian-Fei; Bai Fu-Nong
2012-01-01
In this paper,based on the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method and the improved complex variable moving least-square (ICVMLS) approximation,a new meshless method,which is the improved complex variable element-free Galerkin (ICVEFG) method for two-dimensional potential problems,is presented. In the method,the integral weak form of control equations is employed,and the Lagrange multiplier is used to apply the essential boundary conditions.Then the corresponding formulas of the ICVEFG method for two-dimensional potential problems are obtained.Compared with the complex variable moving least-square (CVMLS) approximation proposed by Cheng,the functional in the ICVMLS approximation has an explicit physical meaning.Furthermore,the ICVEFG method has greater computational precision and efficiency.Three numerical examples are given to show the validity of the proposed method.
Muñoz, Rodrigo; Adami, Fovad
2012-01-01
Detta examensarbete har genomförts i samarbete med Sourcecom Svenska AB. Sourcecom Svenska AB arbetar med kommunikationslösningar inom IT-kommunikation, IT-säkerhet och telefoni. Examensarbetet går ut på att undersöka konceptet Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) och föreslå olika lösningar beroende på företagets informationssäkerhetskrav. För att förstå konceptet BYOD behövs först en inblick i hur ett policybaserat system fungerar. Rapporten undersöker och förklarar tre olika Network Access Control...
Computational complexity of classical problems for hereditary clique-helly graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flavia Bonomo
2004-12-01
Full Text Available A graph is clique-Helly when its cliques satisfy the Helly property. A graph is hereditary clique-Helly when every induced subgraph of it is clique-Helly. The decision problems associated to the stability, chromatic, clique and clique-covering numbers are NP-complete for clique-Helly graphs. In this note, we analyze the complexity of these problems for hereditary clique-Helly graphs. Some of them can be deduced easily by known results. We prove that the clique-covering problem remains NP-complete for hereditary clique-Helly graphs. Furthermore, the decision problems associated to the clique-transversal and the clique-independence numbers are analyzed too. We prove that they remain NP-complete for a smaller class: hereditary clique-Helly split graphs.
The Subset Sum Problem: Reducing Time Complexity of NP-Completeness with Quantum Search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Moon
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The Subset Sum Problem is a member of the NP-complete class, so no known polynomial time algorithm exists for it. Although there are polynomial time approximations and heuristics, these are not always acceptable, yet exact-solution algorithms are unfeasible for large input. Quantum computation offers new insights for not only the Subset Sum Problem but also the entire NP-complete class; most notably, Grover's quantum algorithm for an unstructured database search can be tailored to identify solutions to problems within mathematics and computer science. This paper discusses the physical and conceptual feasibility of quantum computation and demonstrates the utility of quantum search by analyzing the time complexities of the classical dynamic programming algorithm and Grover's algorithm in solving the Subset Sum Problem, evincing the implications this has on the NP-complete class in general.
The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm
2002-01-01
The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov...... models. We show that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models...
Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?
Henderson, Emily F.
2014-01-01
The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…
A study of "Theory U" and its application to a complex Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force problem
Yamauchi, Yusuke
2014-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The more an organization develops complex systems to perform increasingly complex tasks, the more challenging problems become and increasingly difficult to solve. This thesis recommends to the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) a better framework to solve these complex, multisystem problems through systems thinking and a new approach to this way of thinking, called Theory U. This thesis describes the types of problems that requi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Hanson, Steen Grüner;
2014-01-01
We propose an optical correlation algorithm illustrating a new general method for reconstructing the phase skeleton of complex optical fields from the measured two-dimensional intensity distribution. The core of the algorithm consists in locating the saddle points of the intensity distribution and...... connecting such points into nets by the lines of intensity gradient that are closely associated with the equi-phase lines of the field. This algorithm provides a new partial solution to the inverse problem in optics commonly referred to as the phase problem....
Hayes, Thomas P.
2011-01-01
For every positive integer k, we construct an explicit family of functions f : \\0, 1\\(n) -\\textgreater \\0, 1\\ which has (k + 1) - party communication complexity O(k) under every partition of the input bits into k + 1 parts of equal size, and k-party communication complexity Omega (n/k(4)2(k)) under every partition of the input bits into k parts. This improves an earlier hierarchy theorem due to V. Grolmusz. Our construction relies on known explicit constructions for a famous open problem of K...
Watts, C
1999-01-01
Robert Cailliau argues that the explosion of advertising on the web is limiting its' usefulness. He suggests that 'licensing' users may be the only way to stop additional problems such as pornography, spam email and viruses (1 page).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Xiu-Li; Dai Bao-Dong; Zhang Wei-Wei
2012-01-01
Based on the complex variable moving least-square (CVMLS) approximation and a local symmetric weak form,the complex variable meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (CVMLPG) method of solving two-dimensional potential problems is presented in this paper.In the present formulation,the trial function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with a one-dimensional basis function.The number of unknown coefficients in the trial function of the CVMLS approximation is less than that in the trial function of the moving least-square (MLS) approximation.The essential boundary conditions are imposed by the penalty method.The main advantage of this approach over the conventional meshless local PetrovGalerkin (MLPG) method is its computational efficiency.Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the implementation and performance of the present CVMLPG method.
Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.
Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J
2015-01-01
The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513
Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem
Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J
2015-01-01
The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513
A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend
2007-01-01
The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for evaluat......’. Herein the designer may view multiple ventilation solutions and navigate between them, evaluate the differences and choose the best ventilation system scenario in terms of energy consumption, indoor environment and architectural quality.......The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for...
Borot, Gaëtan
2011-01-01
Complex analysis is a powerful tool to study classical integrable systems, statistical physics on the random lattice, random matrix theory, topological string theory, … All these topics share certain relations, called "loop equations" or "Virasoro constraints". In the simplest case, the complete solution of those equations was found recently : it can be expressed in the framework of differential geometry over a certain Riemann surface which depends on the problem : the "spectral curve". This ...
Stable finite element pair for Stokes problem and discrete Stokes complex on quadrilateral grids
Zhang, Shuo
2013-01-01
In this paper, we first construct a nonconforming finite element pair for the incompressible Stokes problem on quadrilateral grids, and then construct a discrete Stokes complex associated with that finite element pair. The finite element spaces involved consist of piecewise polynomials only, and the divergence-free condition is imposed in a primal formulation. Combined with some existing results, these constructions can be generated onto grids that consist of both triangular and quadrilateral...
Higher complexity search problems for bounded arithmetic and a formalized no-gap theorem
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Thapen, Neil
2011-01-01
Roč. 50, 7-8 (2011), s. 665-680. ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk LC505; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * proof complexity * search problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l19kr20362065t86/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a new technique transforming a holomorphic curve into a higher dimensional projective algebraic variety, f : C → X, to a system of holomorphic maps between appropriate Riemann surfaces, {λ : Yλ → Sλ}. Then we apply this transformation and its modifications to settle the conjectural Second Main Theorem in Nevanlinna theory for holomorphic curves into smooth complex projective algebraic varieties. Applications to geometric Diophantine problems are discussed. (author). 25 refs
Qu Chiwen; He Wei
2016-01-01
The standard cuckoo search algorithm is of low accuracy and easy to fall into local optimal value in the later evolution. In this paper, an improved cuckoo algorithm is proposed. Dynamic change of parameter of probability is introduced to improve the convergence speed. Complex method is quoted to improve the capabilities of local search algorithm. A non-fixed multi-segment mapping penalty function is adopted to realize constraint processing algorithms. The results of the optimization problem ...
Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.
2004-05-17
Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a transportation tracking system (designated TRANSCOM) developed under the direction of the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to three institutional concerns about shipments of large quantities of radioactive materials: routing, prenotification, and emergency response. This tracking system consists of a geographical location system, a system for communicating with the vehicle operator while en route, and an information management system that appropriately distributes shipment information to DOE headquarters, field offices, and key state officials. This paper presents the development, testing, and demonstration efforts undertaken to bring the prototype system to a fully operational status. The LORAN-C locating system has proved to be acceptable as a geographical location system for TRANSCOM equipped vehicles. The satellite communications technology employed has demonstrated timely radio transmission regarding location and communication with the vehicle operator. This paper also discusses the interim developmental TRANSCOM Control Center, the Oak Ridge Operations TRANSCOM Control Center, software, hardware, operational issues, and the tracking of a WIPP TRUPACT-II demonstration trailer
The Complexity of Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information and Related Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luca Aceto; Jens A. Hansen; Anna Ingólfsdóttir; Jacob Johnsen; John Knudsen
2004-01-01
Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes (of some) of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This problem arose originally from the geneticists' need to filter their input data from erroneous information, and is well motivated from both a biological and a sociological viewpoint. This paper shows that consistency checking is NP-complete, even with focus on a single gene and in the presence of three alleles. Several other results on the computational complexity of problems from genetics that are related to consistency checking are also offered. In particular, it is shown that checking the consistency of pedigrees over two alleles, and of pedigrees without loops, can be done in polynomial time.
Theoretical understanding of the problem with a singular drift term in the complex Langevin method
Nishimura, Jun
2015-01-01
The complex Langevin method aims at performing path integral with a complex action numerically based on complexification of the original real dynamical variables. One of the poorly understood issues concerns occasional failure in the presence of logarithmic singularities in the action, which appear, for instance, from the fermion determinant in finite density QCD. We point out that the failure should be attributed to the breakdown of the relation between the complex weight that satisfies the Fokker-Planck equation and the probability distribution associated with the stochastic process. In fact, this problem can occur in general when the stochastic process involves a singular drift term. We show, however, in a simple example that there exists a parameter region in which the method works although the standard reweighting method is hardly applicable.
Understanding the problem with logarithmic singularities in the complex Langevin method
Nishimura, Jun
2015-01-01
In recent years, there has been remarkable progress in theoretical justification of the complex Langevin method, which is a promising method for evading the sign problem in the path integral with a complex weight. There still remains, however, an issue concerning occasional failure of this method in the case where the action involves logarithmic singularities such as the one appearing from the fermion determinant in finite density QCD. In this talk, we point out that this failure is due to the breakdown of the relation between the complex weight which satisfies the Fokker-Planck equation and the probability distribution generated by the stochastic process. In fact, this kind of failure can occur in general when the stochastic process involves a singular drift term. We show, however, in simple examples, that there exists a parameter region in which the method works although the standard reweighting method is hardly applicable.
Truthful Complex-valued Knapsack Problem and Discrete Optimization in A/C Electrical Grid
Chau, Chi-Kin
2012-01-01
Since efficient power allocation is a critical requirement for smart grid, we study an important basic setting -- "knapsack problem with selfish users", whereby we design a mechanism to find a utility-maximizing allocation for a group of users with inelastic demands, such that users truthfully reveal their private utility information. As a departure from the traditional setting, complex-valued entities (e.g. power, voltage, and current) are common in A/C electrical grid. There were only few results in the literature concerning complex-valued entities for discrete optimization, because they are substantially more challenging. In this paper, we introduce a non-trivial generalization of knapsack problem with a complex-valued constraint on A/C power, which casts fundamental insight to discrete optimization for smart grid. We provide results of approximability (the existence of a (1/2- e-approximation algorithm) and inapproximability (the absence of FPTAS unless P = NP) for a class of complex-valued knapsack probl...
Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.
2016-01-01
This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.
Castelvecchi, Davide
2007-01-01
The world's most powerful atom smasher turns on this year. The author foresees some breakthroughts - and more than a few tricky problems: the most likely scenario is that we're going to have a ton of weird stuff to explain. (3 pages)
Goode, Natassia; Beckmann, Jens F.
2010-01-01
This study investigates the relationships between structural knowledge, control performance and fluid intelligence in a complex problem solving (CPS) task. 75 participants received either complete, partial or no information regarding the underlying structure of a complex problem solving task, and controlled the task to reach specific goals.…
How to solve complex problems in foundry plants - future of casting simulation -
Ohnaka, I.
2015-06-01
Although the computer simulation of casting has progressed dramatically over the last decades, there are still many challenges and problems. This paper discusses how to solve complex engineering problems in foundry plants and what we should do in the future, in particular, for casting simulation. First, problem solving procedures including application of computer simulation are demonstrated and various difficulties are pointed-out exemplifying mainly porosity defects in sand castings of spheroidal graphite cast irons. Next, looking back conventional scientific and engineering research to understand casting phenomena, challenges and problems are discussed from problem solving view point, followed by discussion on the issues we should challenge such as how to integrate huge amount of dispersed knowledge in various disciplines, differentiation of science-oriented and engineering-oriented models, professional ethics, how to handle fluctuating materials, initial and boundary conditions, error accumulation, simulation codes as black-box, etc. Finally some suggestions are made on how to challenge the issues such as promotion of research on the simulation based on the science- oriented model and publication of reliable data of casting phenomena in complicated-shaped castings including reconsideration of the evaluation system.
2000-01-01
`I'm doing a physics that is pulling me towards it.' `I like the course being more up to date.' `You learn the physics but you also think ``well I actually see a point in knowing this physics''.' `This course presents physics in a more interesting way as it focuses on practical activity and applications of physics.' `The industrial visit gives students the opportunity to look for science in action.' These are just some of the comments from students and teachers piloting the new Salters Horners Advanced Physics course (SHAP). Contexts and applications drive the course, providing interest and motivation for students and alerting them to some of the many career areas that involve physics. For example, the operation of a CD player leads to a study of waves and superposition; archaeological surveying and analysis brings in d.c. circuitry and x-ray diffraction; consideration of safety in rail transport involves learning about mechanics and electromagnetism. The course is produced by a team directed from the University of York and funded by a consortium of industrial and charitable sponsors. It is examined by Edexcel and support materials are published by Heinemann. The pilot, involving some 50 centres, began in September 1998 with the new subject core and the AS qualification intermediate between GCSE and the full A-level standard. The course has been fully approved by QCA, and from September 2000 it will be open to all. For comprehensive information about SHAP, visit the project's website: www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics . Pilot materials for students, teachers and technicians are available from Heinemann. They will be re-edited and published in full colour for September 2000. Members of the team will attend the annual ASE meeting in Leeds this month; there will be a talk and a hands-on workshop where student activities can be sampled. Materials will be on view at the University of York stand. In addition, Edexcel and the York team are running a series of
Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds
Lange, Herbert
1989-01-01
It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.
Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SUSAN E. EMBRETSON
2008-09-01
Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of problem or function: FOCUS enables the calculation of any quantity related to neutron transport in reactor or shielding problems, but was especially designed to calculate differential quantities, such as point values at one or more of the space, energy, direction and time variables of quantities like neutron flux, detector response, reaction rate, etc. or averages of such quantities over a small volume of the phase space. Different types of problems can be treated: systems with a fixed neutron source which may be a mono-directional source located out- side the system, and Eigen function problems in which the neutron source distribution is given by the (unknown) fundamental mode Eigen function distribution. Using Monte Carlo methods complex 3- dimensional geometries and detailed cross section information can be treated. Cross section data are derived from ENDF/B, with anisotropic scattering and discrete or continuous inelastic scattering taken into account. Energy is treated as a continuous variable and time dependence may also be included. 2 - Method of solution: A transformed form of the adjoint Boltzmann equation in integral representation is solved for the space, energy, direction and time variables by Monte Carlo methods. Adjoint particles are defined with properties in some respects contrary to those of neutrons. Adjoint particle histories are constructed from which estimates are obtained of the desired quantity. Adjoint cross sections are defined with which the nuclide and reaction type are selected in a collision. The energy after a collision is selected from adjoint energy distributions calculated together with the adjoint cross sections in advance of the actual Monte Carlo calculation. For multiplying systems successive generations of adjoint particles are obtained which will die out for subcritical systems with a fixed neutron source and will be kept approximately stationary for Eigen function problems. Completely arbitrary problems can
Terekhoff, Serge A.
1997-04-01
This paper summarizes theoretical findings and applications of artificial neural networks to modeling of complex engineered system response in the abnormal environments. The thermal fire impact on the industrial container for waste and fissile materials was investigated using model and experimental data. Solutions for the direct problem show that the generalization properties of neural network based model are significantly better than those for standard interpolation methods. Minimal amount of data required for good prediction of system response is estimated in computer experiments with MLP network. It was shown that Kohonen's self-organizing map with counterpropagation may also estimate local accuracy of regularized solution for inverse and combined problems. Feature space regions of partial correctness of the inverse model can be automatically extracted using adaptive clustering. Practical findings include time strategy recommendations for fire-safe services when industrial or transport accidents occur.
A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem with Complex Constraints
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yan; LU Jun; LI Zeng-zhi
2006-01-01
Most research on the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is focused on standard conditions, which is not suitable for specific cases. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm is proposed to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with complex side constraints. A novel coding method is designed especially for side constraints. A greedy algorithm combined with a random algorithm is introduced to enable the diversity of the initial population, as well as a local optimization algorithm employed to improve the searching efficiency. In order to evaluate the performance, this mechanism has been implemented in an oil distribution center, the experimental and executing results show that the near global optimal solution can be easily and quickly obtained by this method, and the solution is definitely satisfactory in the VRP application.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)
2012-09-15
Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.
Tahvili, Sahar; Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei; Biteus, Jonas
2014-12-01
One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tahvili, Sahar [Mälardalen University (Sweden); Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei [Division of Applied Mathematics, Mälardalen University (Sweden); Biteus, Jonas [Scania CV (Sweden)
2014-12-10
One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.
Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Williams PAH
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. Keywords: cybersecurity, security, safety, wireless, risk, medical devices
The problem of sustainability within the complexity of agricultural production systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the general systems theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agricultural and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for the development of scientific and technological advances concordant with the agricultural food chain needs of the XX century; which permit an orientation of not only work by profession is who lead the processes of animal and vegetable production, but also creates a sense of pertinence in all of the participants in the chain, highlighting the importance of studying by means of systemic thought, agronomy and animal science, as disciplines that approach to complexities of agriculture which is the angular stone of civilization, such as we know it at the moment
The environmental impacts and waste problems of the Russian Nuclear complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russia as a successor state of the former Soviet Union with its big nuclear industry is one of the countries where a big amount of nuclear waste exists and where some regions are strongly affected by radioactive contaminations. In June 2001 the Russian State Duma passed an amendment to the Law on Environmental Protection and paved the way to import nuclear waste in large. The proponents of the law stress that the import will be important for the development of Russian industry and science and Russian authorities believe the income from the spent nuclear fuel import will total at least $20 billions. In view of Russia's problems with the management of the nuclear waste already existing and with the cleaning up of contaminated areas, environmentalists fear that the earnings neither will reach that level nor will be used for cleaning up the many dangerously contaminated areas, and that the massive import of nuclear waste will increase the danger of an environmental catastrophe to occur. Against this background the study gives a view over the most important components of the Russian nuclear complex and discusses its risks and problems as well as the effects on man and nature. National and international measures and aid programmes to remove the problems with the nuclear waste are represented. In comparison with Russia and with regard to the planned nuclear imports international practice of nuclear waste disposal and its problems are discussed. At the end recommendations are formulated which measures should be taken by Russia to decrease security risks by nuclear waste disposal, to reduce the amount of nuclear waste and to foster the search for suitable possibilities of permanent disposal. (orig.)
Perfect absorption in Schr\\"odinger-like problems using non-equidistant complex grids
Weinmüller, Markus; Rohland, Jonathan; Scrinzi, Armin
2015-01-01
Two non-equidistant grid implementations of infinite range exterior complex scaling are introduced that allow for perfect absorption in the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. Finite element discrete variables grid discretizations provide as efficient absorption as the corresponding finite elements basis set discretizations. This finding is at variance with results reported in literature [L. Tao et al., Phys. Rev. A 48, 063419 (2009)]. For finite differences, a new class of generalized $Q$-point schemes for non-equidistant grids is derived. Convergence of absorption is exponential $\\sim \\Delta x^{Q-1}$ and numerically robust. Local relative errors $\\sim10^{-9}$ are achieved in a standard problem of strong-field ionization.
Communication: Overcoming the root search problem in complex quantum trajectory calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J. [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2014-01-28
Three new developments are presented regarding the semiclassical coherent state propagator. First, we present a conceptually different derivation of Huber and Heller's method for identifying complex root trajectories and their equations of motion [D. Huber and E. J. Heller, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 5302 (1987)]. Our method proceeds directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and therefore allows various generalizations of the formalism. Second, we obtain an analytic expression for the semiclassical coherent state propagator. We show that the prefactor can be expressed in a form that requires solving significantly fewer equations of motion than in alternative expressions. Third, the semiclassical coherent state propagator is used to formulate a final value representation of the time-dependent wavefunction that avoids the root search, eliminates problems with caustics and automatically includes interference. We present numerical results for the 1D Morse oscillator showing that the method may become an attractive alternative to existing semiclassical approaches.
Communication: Overcoming the root search problem in complex quantum trajectory calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three new developments are presented regarding the semiclassical coherent state propagator. First, we present a conceptually different derivation of Huber and Heller's method for identifying complex root trajectories and their equations of motion [D. Huber and E. J. Heller, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 5302 (1987)]. Our method proceeds directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and therefore allows various generalizations of the formalism. Second, we obtain an analytic expression for the semiclassical coherent state propagator. We show that the prefactor can be expressed in a form that requires solving significantly fewer equations of motion than in alternative expressions. Third, the semiclassical coherent state propagator is used to formulate a final value representation of the time-dependent wavefunction that avoids the root search, eliminates problems with caustics and automatically includes interference. We present numerical results for the 1D Morse oscillator showing that the method may become an attractive alternative to existing semiclassical approaches
Computational researches about a problem of experiments on target complex TS-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A benchmark problem presented at the '10th International meetings of the working group on advanced nuclear reactors thermal-hydraulics' in Obninsk, Russia, in 2001, is the starting point for some computational researches validated against experiments on target complex TS-1. The window model of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) target TS-1, is under development in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) and Joint Design Bureau 'Gidropress' for accelerator LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The experiments were carried out with sodium-potassium eutectic alloy: 22% Na + 78% K. Different grids, different turbulence models, and different assumptions were tried using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes STAR-CD and FLUENT. It is a big challenge for these CFD codes, to simulate flows with low Prandtl number fluids, such as the liquid metals. (author)
On the Over-Fitting Problem of Complex Feature Selection Methods
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Somol, Petr; Novovičová, Jana; Pudil, Pavel
Káhira: Cairo University, 2009, s. 12-17. [5th International Computer Engineering Conference - A better Information Society Through the e@. Káhira (EG), 27.12.2009-28.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1594; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection * overfitting * overselection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/somol-on the over-fitting problem of complex feature selection methods.pdf
Environmental epidemiology: Epidemiological investigation of community environmental health problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldsmith, J.R.
1985-01-01
This volume brings together the experiences of practicing epidemiologists in solving world-wide community environmental health problems. Emphasis is placed on problems facing the community, methods of analysis, and means and results of action. Actual case histories of various complexity provide exercises in solving community health problems using applicable elementary concepts of statistics.
Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos
2013-01-01
The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…
Eseryel, Deniz; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Ge, Xun
2013-01-01
The important but little understood problem that motivated this study was the lack of research on valid assessment methods to determine progress in higher-order learning in situations involving complex and ill-structured problems. Without a valid assessment method, little progress can occur in instructional design research with regard to designing…
Winkel, Brian
2008-01-01
A complex technology-based problem in visualization and computation for students in calculus is presented. Strategies are shown for its solution and the opportunities for students to put together sequences of concepts and skills to build for success are highlighted. The problem itself involves placing an object under water in order to actually see…
Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris
2015-04-01
Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most elliptic interface solvers become complicated for complex interface problems at those “exceptional points” where there are not enough neighboring interior points for high order interpolation. Such complication increases especially in three dimensions. Usually, the solvers are thus reduced to low order accuracy. In this paper, we classify these exceptional points and propose two recipes to maintain order of accuracy there, aiming at improving the previous coupling interface method [26]. Yet the idea is also applicable to other interface solvers. The main idea is to have at least first order approximations for second order derivatives at those exceptional points. Recipe 1 is to use the finite difference approximation for the second order derivatives at a nearby interior grid point, whenever this is possible. Recipe 2 is to flip domain signatures and introduce a ghost state so that a second-order method can be applied. This ghost state is a smooth extension of the solution at the exceptional point from the other side of the interface. The original state is recovered by a post-processing using nearby states and jump conditions. The choice of recipes is determined by a classification scheme of the exceptional points. The method renders the solution and its gradient uniformly second-order accurate in the entire computed domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the second order accuracy of the presently proposed method in approximating the gradients of the original states for some complex interfaces which we had tested previous in two and three dimensions, and a real molecule ( (1D63)) which is double-helix shape and composed of hundreds of atoms
Managing the Complexity of Design Problems through Studio-Based Learning
Cennamo, Katherine; Brandt, Carol; Scott, Brigitte; Douglas, Sarah; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda; Vernon, Mitzi
2011-01-01
The ill-structured nature of design problems makes them particularly challenging for problem-based learning. Studio-based learning (SBL), however, has much in common with problem-based learning and indeed has a long history of use in teaching students to solve design problems. The purpose of this ethnographic study of an industrial design class,…
Bringing Reading Research to Life
McKeown, Margaret G., Ed.; Kucan, Linda, Ed.
2009-01-01
This book brings together some of the world's foremost literacy scholars to discuss how research influences what teachers actually do in the classroom. Chapters describe the current state of knowledge about such key topics as decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, digital literacies, reading disabilities, and reading reform. At the same time, the…
... Contact Us More COPD: Lifestyle Management Avoiding Infections Breathing Retraining Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Exercises Giving Up Smoking ... mucus is allowed to collect in the airways, breathing may become difficult and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...
Bringing science to the people
This is an opinion editorial piece about the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). It describes the active role that the ISHS takes in bringing scientific information to people throughout the world. The society holds periodic symposia on 10 different crops and 14 different cross-co...
Bringing Globalization into the Classroom
Billings, Nancy Carter
2006-01-01
Some of the most effective resources for bringing the concept of globalization into the classroom is through the personal and professional experiences of the classroom teacher, the personal experiences of students from diverse cultures, the inclusion of curriculum activities with a global context, and the involvement of guest speakers with global…
Neubert, Jonas; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Greiff, Samuel
2015-01-01
In the current paper, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychology can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of Human Capital. Specifically, Complex Problem Solving (CPS) and Collaborative Problem Solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are...
World, We Have Problems: Simulation for Large Complex, Risky Projects, and Events
Elfrey, Priscilla
2010-01-01
Prior to a spacewalk during the NASA STS/129 mission in November 2009, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) correspondent William Harwood reported astronauts, "were awakened again", as they had been the day previously. Fearing something not properly connected was causing a leak, the crew, both on the ground and in space, stopped and checked everything. The alarm proved false. The crew did complete its work ahead of schedule, but the incident reminds us that correctly connecting hundreds and thousands of entities, subsystems and systems, finding leaks, loosening stuck valves, and adding replacements to very large complex systems over time does not occur magically. Everywhere major projects present similar pressures. Lives are at - risk. Responsibility is heavy. Large natural and human-created disasters introduce parallel difficulties as people work across boundaries their countries, disciplines, languages, and cultures with known immediate dangers as well as the unexpected. NASA has long accepted that when humans have to go where humans cannot go that simulation is the sole solution. The Agency uses simulation to achieve consensus, reduce ambiguity and uncertainty, understand problems, make decisions, support design, do planning and troubleshooting, as well as for operations, training, testing, and evaluation. Simulation is at the heart of all such complex systems, products, projects, programs, and events. Difficult, hazardous short and, especially, long-term activities have a persistent need for simulation from the first insight into a possibly workable idea or answer until the final report perhaps beyond our lifetime is put in the archive. With simulation we create a common mental model, try-out breakdowns of machinery or teamwork, and find opportunity for improvement. Lifecycle simulation proves to be increasingly important as risks and consequences intensify. Across the world, disasters are increasing. We anticipate more of them, as the results of global warming
On Bringing Industry English Teaching into College English Course
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏圆圆
2016-01-01
With the development of global economy, it’s becoming increasingly important to bring industry English into College English Course. But there are still many problems about industry English teaching in most colleges. This paper will analyze these problems and put forward effective measures to promote industry English teaching.
Evolving hard problems: Generating human genetics datasets with a complex etiology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Himmelstein Daniel S
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of human genetics is to discover genetic factors that influence individuals' susceptibility to common diseases. Most common diseases are thought to result from the joint failure of two or more interacting components instead of single component failures. This greatly complicates both the task of selecting informative genetic variants and the task of modeling interactions between them. We and others have previously developed algorithms to detect and model the relationships between these genetic factors and disease. Previously these methods have been evaluated with datasets simulated according to pre-defined genetic models. Results Here we develop and evaluate a model free evolution strategy to generate datasets which display a complex relationship between individual genotype and disease susceptibility. We show that this model free approach is capable of generating a diverse array of datasets with distinct gene-disease relationships for an arbitrary interaction order and sample size. We specifically generate eight-hundred Pareto fronts; one for each independent run of our algorithm. In each run the predictiveness of single genetic variation and pairs of genetic variants have been minimized, while the predictiveness of third, fourth, or fifth-order combinations is maximized. Two hundred runs of the algorithm are further dedicated to creating datasets with predictive four or five order interactions and minimized lower-level effects. Conclusions This method and the resulting datasets will allow the capabilities of novel methods to be tested without pre-specified genetic models. This allows researchers to evaluate which methods will succeed on human genetics problems where the model is not known in advance. We further make freely available to the community the entire Pareto-optimal front of datasets from each run so that novel methods may be rigorously evaluated. These 76,600 datasets are available from http://discovery.dartmouth.edu/model_free_data/.
Untangling the Complex Needs of People Experiencing Gambling Problems and Homelessness
Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret
2013-01-01
People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…
Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Nishimura, J.
2002-11-01
Monte Carlo simulations of a system whose action has an imaginary part are considered to be extremely difficult. We propose a new approach to this ``complex-action problem,'' which utilizes a factorization property of distribution functions. The basic idea is quite general, and it removes the so-called overlap problem completely. Here we apply the method to a nonperturbative study of superstring theory using its matrix formulation. In this particular example, the distribution function turns out to be positive definite, which allows us to reduce the problem even further. Our numerical results suggest an intuitive explanation for the dynamical generation of 4D space-time.
A correct even-odd algorithm for the point-in-polygon (PIP) problem for complex polygons
Galetzka, Michael; Glauner, Patrick O.
2012-01-01
Determining if a point is in a polygon or not is used by a lot of applications in computer graphics, computer games and geoinformatics. Implementing this check is error-prone since there are many special cases to be considered. In this paper we present a simple even-odd algorithm to solve this problem for complex polygons in linear time.
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Molnar, Gyongyver; Fischer, Andreas; Funke, Joachim; Csapo, Beno
2013-01-01
Innovative assessments of cross-curricular competencies such as complex problem solving (CPS) have currently received considerable attention in large-scale educational studies. This study investigated the nature of CPS by applying a state-of-the-art approach to assess CPS in high school. We analyzed whether two processes derived from cognitive…
Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.
2016-01-01
We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…
Modelling of Octahedral Manganese II Complexes with Inorganic Ligands: A Problem with Spin-States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ludwik Adamowicz
2003-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Quantum mechanical ab initio UHF, MP2, MC-SCF and DFT calculations with moderate Gaussian basis sets were performed for MnX6, X = H2O, F-, CN-, manganese octahedral complexes. The correct spin-state of the complexes was obtained only when the counter ions neutralizing the entire complexes were used in the modelling at the B3LYP level of theory.
Yates, Jennifer L.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…
On the Combinatorics of SAT and the Complexity of Planar Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Talebanfard, Navid
In this thesis we study several problems arising in Boolean satisfiability ranging from lower bounds for SAT algorithms and proof systems to extremal properties of formulas. The first problem is about construction of hard instances for k-SAT algorithms. For PPSZ algorithm [40] we give the first...
Exponential-Time Algorithms and Complexity of NP-Hard Graph Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taslaman, Nina Sofia
NP-hard problems are deemed highly unlikely to be solvable in polynomial time. Still, one can often find algorithms that are substantially faster than brute force solutions. This thesis concerns such algorithms for problems from graph theory; techniques for constructing and improving this type of...
Introducing the Hero Complex and the Mythic Iconic Pathway of Problem Gambling
Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason
2009-01-01
Early research into the motivations behind problem gambling reflected separate paradigms of thought splitting our understanding of the gambler into divergent categories. However, over the past 25 years, problem gambling is now best understood to arise from biological, environmental, social, and psychological processes, and is now encapsulated…
Numerical nonlinear complex geometrical optics algorithm for the 3D Calderón problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Delbary, Fabrice; Knudsen, Kim
2014-01-01
The Calderon problem is the mathematical formulation of the inverse problem in Electrical Impedance Tomography and asks for the uniqueness and reconstruction of an electrical conductivity distribution in a bounded domain from the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map associated to the...
Bringing nursing to the public.
Kazis, Cornelia; Schwendimann, René
2009-11-01
For the past 5 years, an unusual program has been evolving in the University of Basel's Institute of Nursing Science master's program in Basel, Switzerland. A special course designed to help nurses master public communication skills requires students to play the roles of journalist, exhibition curator, conference organizer, radio reporter, and news producer. Two faculty members, an experienced radio and newspaper journalist and a nurse scientist, teach and support the students. By developing their competence in media relations, participants prepare themselves to tackle the course's long-term goal of bringing the nursing profession into the public eye. PMID:19731893
Analysis and formulation of a class of complex dynamic optimization problems
Kameswaran, Shivakumar
The Direct Transcription approach, also known as the direct simultaneous approach, is a widely used solution strategy for the solution of dynamic optimization problems involving differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). Direct transcription refers to the procedure of approximating the infinite dimensional problem by a finite dimensional one, which is then solved using a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver tailored to large-scale problems. Systems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) can also be handled by spatially discretizing the PDEs to convert them to a system of DAEs. The objective of this thesis is firstly to ensure that direct transcription using Radau collocation is provably correct, and secondly to widen the applicability of the direct simultaneous approach to a larger class of dynamic optimization and optimal control problems (OCPs). This thesis aims at addressing these issues using rigorous theoretical tools and/or characteristic examples, and at the same time use the results for solving large-scale industrial applications to realize the benefits. The first part of this work deals with the analysis of convergence rates for direct transcription of unconstrained and final-time equality constrained optimal control problems. The problems are discretized using collocation at Radau points. Convergence is analyzed from an NLP/matrix-algebra perspective, which enables the prediction of the conditioning of the direct transcription NLP as the mesh size becomes finer. Several convergence results are presented along with tests on numerous example problems. These convergence results lead to an adjoint estimation procedure given the Lagrange multipliers for the large-scale NLP. The work also reveals the role of process control concepts such as controllability on the convergence analysis, and provides a very important link between control and optimization inside the framework of dynamic optimization. As an effort to extend the applicability of the direct
Computer Security Team
2013-01-01
Have you ever heard of “BYOD”? No, it is not a pop band. Try again. It is short for “Bring Your Own Device” (the French use “AVEC” - “Apporter Votre Equipement personnel de Communication”) and describes an option long since offered at CERN: the possibility to bring along your personal laptop, smartphone or PDA, use it on CERN premises and connect it to the CERN office network. But hold on. As practical as it is, there is also a dark side. The primary advantage, of course, is having a digital work environment tuned to your needs and preferences. It allows you to continue working at home. Similarly, you always have your music, address books and bookmarks with you. However, as valuable as this is, it is also a responsibility. Laptop theft is happening - outside CERN but also on site. In France, 30% of stolen laptops were stolen out of cars or homes, and 10% during travel. At CERN, on average one ...
Bringing Technology into Physics Classrooms
Zettlili, Nouredine
2009-05-01
Through our outreach initiative at Jacksonville State University, we have been supporting a number of school districts in Northeast Alabama to improve the teaching of physics at the high school level. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. The main aim of project IMPACTSEED is to help teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama Course of Study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of program. In this presentation, we want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to physics classrooms. We have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms, most notably through a series of make-and-take technology workshops that were developed over several years of research. In turn, when the teachers assign these make-an-take projects to their students, the students will be able to see first-hand---by doing, rather than being told---that physics is not a dry, abstract subject. We found this approach to be particularly effective in heightening the students' interest in math and science.
Mayo, L. H.
1975-01-01
The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.
On the Complexity of the Minimum Latency Scheduling Problem on the Euclidean Plane
Lin, Henry
2012-01-01
We show NP-hardness of the minimum latency scheduling (MLS) problem under the physical model of wireless networking. In this model a transmission is received successfully if the Signal to Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR), is above a given threshold. In the minimum latency scheduling problem, the goal is to assign a time slot and power level to each transmission, so that all the messages are received successfully, and the number of distinct times slots is minimized. Despite its seeming simplicity and several previous hardness results for various settings of the minimum latency scheduling problem, it has remained an open question whether or not the minimum latency scheduling problem is NP-hard, when the nodes are placed in the Euclidean plane and arbitrary power levels can be chosen for the transmissions. We resolve this open question for all path loss exponent values $\\alpha \\geq 3$.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fajstrup, Lisbeth
2005-01-01
computer science disciplines which attract geometric methods is concurrency. Modern computers have more than one processor, and hence the execution of a program will often be distributed to different processors who then have to exchange information, to share memory, printers etc. For a fast execution, it...... is preferable that many processors work concurrently. On the other hand, the non-determinism introduced by various processors with their own local time and pace is problematic in verification that executions will do what they are expected to. Another problem introduced is the vast number of states in...... such a concurrent program - to check that a program will always behave correctly involves checking that all possible states are acceptable. This problem is referred to as the state space explosion problem. To discuss the problems, one needs a good model for concurrency. A model describing a program...
Local Fourier Analysis of the Complex Shifted Laplacian preconditioner for Helmholtz problems
Cools, Siegfried
2011-01-01
In this paper we solve the Helmholtz equation with multigrid preconditioned Krylov subspace methods. The class of Shifted Laplacian preconditioners are known to significantly speed-up Krylov convergence. However, these preconditioners have a parameter \\beta, a measure of the complex shift. Due to contradictory requirements for the multigrid and Krylov convergence, the choice of this shift parameter can be a bottleneck in applying the method. In this paper, we propose a wavenumber-dependent minimal complex shift parameter which is predicted by a rigorous k-grid Local Fourier Analysis (LFA) of the multigrid scheme. We claim that, given any (regionally constant) wavenumber, this minimal complex shift parameter provides the reader with a parameter choice that leads to efficient Krylov convergence. Numerical experiments in one and two spatial dimensions validate the theoretical results. It appears that the proposed complex shift is both the minimal requirement for a multigrid V-cycle to converge, as well as being ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theses of reports of the Fourth youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects (18-20 April 2007, Ozersk) are presented. The book contains theses of reports of the seventh subject sections: NFC: science and industry; Ecological problems in NFC development: radiation safety, radioecology and radiobiology; Nuclear power engineering: economics, safety, field experience; Atomic branch: history, today and future; New technologies in education. Education and training for NFC plants, public opinion; Information technologies and telecommunications; Long-term science intensive technologies and new materials
Does song complexity correlate with problem-solving performance in flocks of zebra finches?
Templeton, Christopher Neal; Laland, Kevin Neville; Boogert, Neeltje Janna
2014-01-01
The ‘cognitive capacity hypothesis’ states that song complexity could potentially be used by prospective mates to assess an individual's overall cognitive ability. Several recent studies have provided support for the cognitive capacity hypothesis, demonstrating that individuals with more complex songs or larger song repertoires performed better on various learning tasks. These studies all measured individuals' learning performance in social isolation. However, for gregarious species such as t...
Odendaal, Karen
2015-01-01
Accounting transactions are becoming more complex, and more extensive accounting guidance is provided on a continuous basis in the accounting standards. In addition, accounting guidance changes often and additional guidance is added to the standards regularly. In view of this immense amount of accounting knowledge that an accountant can be expected to have, exacerbated by often multifaceted structures in accounting problems, it can be challenging and onerous to solve certain ac...
Modeling of the conjugate radiation and conduction problem in a 3D complex multi-burner furnace
Lari Khosro; Gandjalikhan Nassab Abdolreza Seyyed
2012-01-01
Radiation is a major component of heat transfer in the modeling of furnaces. In this study, coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer problems are analyzed in complex geometries with inhomogeneous and anisotropic scattering participating media. A three-dimensional model is developed using combination of the discrete ordinates method and blocked-off-region procedure. The finite volume method has been adopted to solve the energy equation and the radiative source term in the energy eq...
SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Looms, Majken Caroline;
2013-01-01
We present an application of the SIPPI Matlab toolbox, to obtain a sample from the a posteriori probability density function for the classical tomographic inversion problem. We consider a number of different forward models, linear and non-linear, such as ray based forward models that rely on the...... high frequency approximation of the wave-equation and ‘fat’ ray based forward models relying on finite frequency theory. In order to sample the a posteriori probability density function we make use of both least squares based inversion, for linear Gaussian inverse problems, and the extended Metropolis...... sampler, for non-linear non-Gaussian inverse problems. To illustrate the applicability of the SIPPI toolbox to a tomographic field data set we use a cross-borehole traveltime data set from Arrenæs, Denmark. Both the computer code and the data are released in the public domain using open source and open...
Martín H, José Antonio
2013-01-01
Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to "efficiently" solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter α∈N. Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of α>k to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: P(α>k)≤2(-(k+1)), making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results. PMID:23349711
Hyytinen, Heidi; Holma, Katariina; Toom, Auli; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari
2014-01-01
The study utilized a multi-method approach to explore the connection between critical thinking and epistemological beliefs in a specific problem-solving situation. Data drawn from a sample of ten third-year bioscience students were collected using a combination of a cognitive lab and a performance task from the Collegiate Learning Assessment…
SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Caroline Looms, Majken; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
solution. The combined states of information (i.e. the solution to the inverse problem) is a probability density function typically referred to as the a posteriori probability density function. We present a generic toolbox for Matlab and Gnu Octave called SIPPI that implements a number of methods for...
Isoperimetric Functions of Groups and Computational Complexity of the Word Problem
Birget, J. -C.; Olshanskii, A. Yu.; Rips, E.; Sapir, M.
1998-01-01
We prove that the word problem of a finitely generated group $G$ is in NP (solvable in polynomial time by a non-deterministic Turing machine) if and only if this group is a subgroup of a finitely presented group $H$ with polynomial isoperimetric function. The embedding can be chosen in such a way that $G$ has bounded distortion in $H$.
Forecasting of Processes in Complex Systems for Real-World Problems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pelikán, Emil
2014-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 6 (2014), s. 567-589. ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : complex systems * data assimilation * ensemble forecasting * forecasting * global solar radiation * judgmental forecasting * multimodel forecasting * pollution Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2014
Foucault as Complexity Theorist: Overcoming the Problems of Classical Philosophical Analysis
Olssen, Mark
2008-01-01
This article explores the affinities and parallels between Foucault's Nietzschean view of history and models of complexity developed in the physical sciences in the twentieth century. It claims that Foucault's rejection of structuralism and Marxism can be explained as a consequence of his own approach which posits a radical ontology whereby the…
Eseryel, Deniz; Ge, Xun; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Law, Victor
2011-01-01
Following a design-based research framework, this article reports two empirical studies with an educational MMOG, called "McLarin's Adventures," on facilitating 9th-grade students' complex problem-solving skill acquisition in interdisciplinary STEM education. The article discusses the nature of complex and ill-structured problem solving and,…
Zhang, Hao; Trias, F Xavier; Yu, Aibing; Tan, Yuanqiang; Oliva, Assensi
2015-01-01
In our recent work [H. Zhang, F.X. Trias, A. Oliva, D. Yang, Y. Tan, Y. Sheng. PIBM: Particulate immersed boundary method for fluid-particle interaction problems. Powder Technology. 272(2015), 1-13.], a particulate immersed boundary method (PIBM) for simulating fluid-particle multiphase flow was proposed and assessed in both two- and three-dimensional applications. In this study, the PIBM was extended to solve thermal interaction problems between spherical particles and fluid. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was adopted to solve the fluid flow and temperature fields, the PIBM was responsible for the non-slip velocity and temperature boundary conditions at the particle surface, and the kinematics and trajectory of the solid particles were evaluated by the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Four case studies were implemented to demonstrate the capability of the current coupling scheme. Firstly, numerical simulation of natural convection in a two-dimensional square cavity with an isothermal concentric annulus was...
Complexity of matrix organization and problems caused by its inadequate implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janićijević Nebojša
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Matrix organization model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organizational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organizational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organization is not a novelty, it is still a controversial model of organization design. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the causes and effects of organizational misfits which appear in the implementation phase of three-dimensional matrix organization, as well as to offer some practical recommendations for managers on how to improve their capacities for successful management of complex matrix organization architecture in their organizations.
Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chuang, Hung-Yi
2002-07-01
The petrochemical and petroleum industries are the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living near petrochemical industrial complexes than in control mothers living elsewhere in Taiwan. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.18 (95% CI=1.04-1.34) for delivery of preterm infants in the petrochemically polluted region. The data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:12176003
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the preconditioned iterative solution of large dense linear systems, where the coefficient matrix is a complex valued matrix arising from discretizing the integral equation of electromagnetic scattering. For some scattering structures this matrix can be poorly conditioned. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a class of incomplete LU (ILU) factorization preconditioners for solving this type of matrices. We solve the electromagnetic wave equations using the BiCG method with an ILU preconditioner in the context of a multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). The novelty of this work is that the ILU preconditioner is constructed using the near part block diagonal submatrices generated from the MLFMA. Experimental results show that the ILU preconditioner reduces the number of BiCG iterations substantially, compared to the block diagonal preconditioner. The preconditioned iteration scheme also maintains the computational complexity of the MLFMA, and consequently reduces the total CPU time
Methods of Optimization and Systems Analysis for Problems of Transcomputational Complexity
Sergienko, Ivan V
2012-01-01
This work presents lines of investigation and scientific achievements of the Ukrainian school of optimization theory and adjacent disciplines. These include the development of approaches to mathematical theories, methodologies, methods, and application systems for the solution of applied problems in economy, finances, energy saving, agriculture, biology, genetics, environmental protection, hardware and software engineering, information protection, decision making, pattern recognition, self-adapting control of complicated objects, personnel training, etc. The methods developed include sequentia
Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem
Williams PAH; Woodward AJ
2015-01-01
Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecur...
COMPLEXITY OF MATRIX ORGANISATION AND PROBLEMS CAUSED BY ITS INADEQUATE IMPLEMENTATION
Nebojša Janićijević; Ana Aleksić
2007-01-01
Matrix organisation model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organisational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organisational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organisation is not a novelty, it i...
Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Fals-Stewart, William
2006-01-01
In community-based alcoholism and drug abuse treatment programs, the vast majority of interventions are delivered in a group therapy context. In turn, treatment providers and funding agencies have called for more research on interventions delivered in groups in an effort to make the emerging empirical literature on the treatment of substance abuse more ecologically valid. Unfortunately, the complexity of data structures derived from therapy groups (due to member interdependence and changing m...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sloventantor, V.Yu.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bardychev, M.S.; Khmelevskii, Ya.M. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)
1982-01-01
The treatment results of 52 patients with radiation enterocolitis and rectosygmoiditis are reported. The complex therapy included a partial or a complete parenteral nutrition according to the indication. The treatment caused an improvement in 86.7% of the cases, no changes in 5.7% and a deterioration of the condition in 7.6%. The additional nutritive therapy rendered it possible to hold the cell mass of the body constant and to decrease the protein losses of the gastrointestinal tract significantly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper witnesses the coupling of an analytical series expansion method which is called reduced differential transform with fractional complex transform. The proposed technique is applied on three mathematical models, namely, fractional Kaup-Kupershmidt equation, generalized fractional Drinfeld-Sokolov equations, and system of coupled fractional Sine-Gordon equations subject to the appropriate initial conditions which arise frequently in mathematical physics. The derivatives are defined in Jumarie’s sense. The accuracy, efficiency, and convergence of the proposed technique are demonstrated through the numerical examples. It is observed that the presented coupling is an alternative approach to overcome the demerit of complex calculation of fractional differential equations. The proposed technique is independent of complexities arising in the calculation of Lagrange multipliers, Adomian’s polynomials, linearization, discretization, perturbation, and unrealistic assumptions and hence gives the solution in the form of convergent power series with elegantly computed components. All the examples show that the proposed combination is a powerful mathematical tool to solve other nonlinear equations also.
Absenteeism- a complex problem: A study on absenteeism in Trondheim’s nursing homes
Evans, Josiane
2011-01-01
Absenteeism is a community problem when one looks at the amount of money spent because of it, an amount that could have been used on other more important matters. For this thesis I set out to study absenteeism in nursing homes here in my town, Trondheim. I wanted to study the nursing homes with relatively low absenteeism rate and the nursing homes with relatively high absenteeism rate to see if I could find differences that could explain the differences in their absenteeism rates. Interviews ...
On the Problem of Optimizing Parallel Programs for Complex Memory Hierarchies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金国华; 陈福接
1994-01-01
Based on a thorough study of the relationship between array element accesses and loop indices of the nested loop,a method is presented with which the staggering relation and the compacting relation between the threads of the nested loop (either with a single linear function of with multiple linear functions) can be determined at compile-time,and accordingly the nested loop (either perfectly nested one or imperfectly nested one) can be restructured to avoid the thrashing problem.Due to its simplicity,our method can be efficiently implemented in any parallel compiler,and the improvement of the performance is significant as shown be the experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The treatment results of 52 patients with radiation enterocolitis and rectosygmoiditis are reported. The complex therapy included a partial or a complete parenteral nutrition according to the indication. The treatment caused an improvement in 86.7% of the cases, no changes in 5.7% and a deterioration of the condition in 7.6%. The additional nutritive therapy rendered it possible to hold the cell mass of the body constant and to decrease the protein losses of the gastrointestinal tract significantly. (author)
In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring
Neelakantan, Shailaja
2007-01-01
Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…
QDPSO applied to the complex problem optimization of the nuclear engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this article is to show the performance of different approaches of quantum-inspired algorithms as optimization tool of diagnosis system of Brazilian nuclear power plant operating at 100% of full power. The algorithms implemented in this study were Quantum Delta-Potential-Well-based Particle Swarm Optimization (QDPSO), Quantum Swarm Evolutionary (QSE) and Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA). Both QDPSO and QSE are inspired on the philosophy of 'collective learning' of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) but use different theories of quantum mechanics to govern the motion of the particles. On the other hand QEA is inspired on the philosophy of 'population evolution' of Genetic Algorithm and uses the main concepts of Quantum Computation. The results found shown that only QDPSO and QEA achieve the best result of the problem. Besides QDPSO in terms of convergence speed is faster than QEA. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Frabetti
2013-05-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brugada syndrome, a disease burdened by elevated risk of sudden unexpected cardiac death, often affects young aged subjects that have structurally healthy heart. The diagnostic itinerary is complex: anamnesis, ECG, pharmacological test and electrophysiological study. Its phenotypes are three. METHOD We have identified 13 cases (10 men and 3 women, 12 estimated at the Cardiological Outpatients’ Department and 1 at the First-aid Station. RESULTS 2 cases belonged to phenotype 1, 4 cases to phenotype 2 and 7 cases to phenotype 3. CONCLUSIONS Our work of specialists in internal medicine, toward this syndrome, is: an accurate anamnesis, a correct interpretation of ECG, fast sending of high risk cases to advanced level cardiological competences, a selection of cases to submit to pharmacological test, to address middle risk patients to cardiological competences, offering our cooperation in the follow-up.
Henkin, Gennadi M
2011-01-01
Let $G\\subset \\C P^n$ be a linearly convex compact with smooth boundary, $D={\\C}P^n\\setminus G$, and let $D^* \\subset (\\C P^n)^*$ be the dual domain. Then for an algebraic, not necessarily reduced, complete intersection subvariety $V$ of dimension $d$ we construct an explicit inversion formula for the complex Radon transform $R_V:\\ H^{d,d-1}(V\\cap D)\\to H^{1,0}(D^*)$, and explicit formulas for solutions of an appropriate boundary value problem for the corresponding system of differential equations with constant coefficients on $D^*$.
On the Parameterized Complexity of Some Optimization Problems Related to Multiple-Interval Graphs
Jiang, Minghui
We show that for any constant t ≥ 2, K -Independent Set and K-Dominating Set in t-track interval graphs are W[1]-hard. This settles an open question recently raised by Fellows, Hermelin, Rosamond, and Vialette. We also give an FPT algorithm for K-Clique in t-interval graphs, parameterized by both k and t, with running time max { t O(k), 2 O(klogk) } ·poly(n), where n is the number of vertices in the graph. This slightly improves the previous FPT algorithm by Fellows, Hermelin, Rosamond, and Vialette. Finally, we use the W[1]-hardness of K-Independent Set in t-track interval graphs to obtain the first parameterized intractability result for a recent bioinformatics problem called Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR). We show that MSR-d is W[1]-hard for any constant d ≥ 4 when the parameter is either the total length of the strips, or the total number of adjacencies in the strips, or the number of strips in the optimal solution.
On Advice Complexity of the k-server Problem under Sparse Metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gupta, S.; Kamali, S.; López-Ortiz, A.
We consider the k-Server problem under the advice model of computation when the underlying metric space is sparse. On one side, we introduce Θ (1)-competitive algorithms for a wide range of sparse graphs, which require advice of (almost) linear size. Namely, we show that for graphs of size N and...... treewidth α, there is an online algorithm which receives O (n(log α +log log N))1 bits of advice and optimally serves a sequence of length n. With a different argument, we show that if a graph admits a system of μ collective tree (q, r)- spanners, then there is a (q + r)-competitive algorithm which receives...... O (n(log μ +log logN)) bits of advice. Among other results, this gives a 3-competitive algorithm for planar graphs, provided with O (n log log N) bits of advice. On the other side, we show that an advice of size Ω (n) is required to obtain a 1-competitive algorithm for sequences of size n even for...
Integrated Feature Selection and Clustering for Taxonomic Problems within Fish Species Complexes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huimin Chen
2008-07-01
Full Text Available As computer and database technologies advance rapidly, biologists all over the world can share biologically meaningful data from images of specimens and use the data to classify the specimens taxonomically. Accurate shape analysis of a specimen from multiple views of 2D images is crucial for finding diagnostic features using geometric morphometric techniques. We propose an integrated feature selection and clustering framework that automatically identifies a set of feature variables to group specimens into a binary cluster tree. The candidate features are generated from reconstructed 3D shape and local saliency characteristics from 2D images of the specimens. A Gaussian mixture model is used to estimate the significance value of each feature and control the false discovery rate in the feature selection process so that the clustering algorithm can efficiently partition the specimen samples into clusters that may correspond to different species. The experiments on a taxonomic problem involving species of suckers in the genus Carpiodes demonstrate promising results using the proposed framework with only a small size of samples.
Age and sex effects on human mutation rates. An old problem with new complexities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Base substitution mutations are far more common in human males than in females, and the frequency increases with paternal age. Both can be accounted for by the greater number of pre-meiotic cell divisions in males, especially old ones. In contrast, small deletions do not show any important age effect and occur with approximately equal frequency in the two sexes. Mutations in most genes include both types, and the sex and paternal age effect depends on the proportion of the two types. A few traits, of which Apert Syndrome is best understood, are mutation hot spots with all the mutations occurring in one or two codons, usually at one nucleotide. They occur with very high frequency almost exclusively in males and the frequency increases rapidly with paternal age. It has been suggested that the mutant cells have a selective advantage in the male germ-line prior to meiosis. Evidence for this surprising, but important, hypothesis is discussed. A possible mechanism is the conversion of asymmetrical stem-cell divisions into symmetric ones. Some traits with complex etiology show a slight paternal age effect. There is also a short discussion of the high deleterious mutation rate and the role of sexual reproduction in reducing the consequent mutation load. (author)
The oil-gas complex problems and ways of its development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The oil industry is suffering difficulties as well as the Kazakhstan as a whole. The oil extraction was 21.7 Mill. t. in 1992 and turned out lower then in 1991. The oil processing target did not carry out, the operational oil-well drilling volumes are reducing. It is necessary to improve the structure of branch management and to consolidate the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources Protection and Ministry of Energetics and Fuel Resources all institutions, which are concerned with the oil and gas processing, in integral complex in the first stage. The next stage must be the organization of the specialized firms with the different activity direction (geophysics, geology, oil-well drilling, extraction, transportation, processing) and carrying out of the works under the contracts. It is necessary to create the Joint Ventures with the participation of foreign firms for tube-rolling plant construction, drilling and oil-extraction equipment, instrument and material production. It is needed to create the scientific-research and planning and design organization for the oil branch, to improve the training of personnel including training abroad
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiara Biscarini
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical simulation of fast-moving fronts originating from dam or levee breaches is a challenging task for small scale engineering projects. In this work, the use of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS equations and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is proposed for testing the validity of, respectively, macroscopic and mesoscopic mathematical models. Macroscopic simulations are performed employing an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD code that solves the NS combined with the volume of fluid (VOF multiphase method to represent free-surface flows. The mesoscopic model is a front-tracking experimental variant of the LBM. In the proposed LBM the air-gas interface is represented as a surface with zero thickness that handles the passage of the density field from the light to the dense phase and vice versa. A single set of LBM equations represents the liquid phase, while the free surface is characterized by an additional variable, the liquid volume fraction. Case studies show advantages and disadvantages of the proposed LBM and NS with specific regard to the computational efficiency and accuracy in dealing with the simulation of flows through complex geometries. In particular, the validation of the model application is developed by simulating the flow propagating through a synthetic urban setting and comparing results with analytical and experimental laboratory measurements.
Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.
2014-01-01
This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢小华
2011-01-01
According to the relevant laws on the curriculum setting of the nine-year compulsory education,this paper analyzes its current status from the level of quality education.In this paper, the author also elaborates on the severe consequences discipline problem brings out and clearly points out that the discipline problem is the biggest obstacle in the course of the ba- sic education in our country.Finally,the writer advocates educators abandon seeking quick success and instant benefits,which will delay the growth of our children.%本文运用国家九年制义务教育课程设置的有关法规．从素质教育的高度出发．分析了义务教育各学科设置的现状．论证了“学科歧视”的严重后果．并明确指出“学科歧视现象是制约我国基础教育事业发展的毒瘤”．吁请教育工作者“切不可因急功近利的思想和行为．误国误民误了我们的孩子”．
Develaki, Maria
2008-09-01
In view of the complex problems of this age, the question of the socio-ethical dimension of science acquires particular importance. We approach this matter from a philosophical and sociological standpoint, looking at such focal concerns as the motivation, purposes and methods of scientific activity, the ambivalence of scientific research and the concomitant risks, and the conflict between research freedom and external socio-political intervention. We then point out the impediments to the effectiveness of cross-disciplinary or broader meetings for addressing these complex problems and managing the associated risks, given the difficulty in communication between experts in different fields and non-experts, difficulties that education is challenged to help resolve. We find that the social necessity of informed decision-making on the basis of cross-disciplinary collaboration is reflected in the newer curricula, such as that of Greece, in aims like the acquisition of cross-subject knowledge and skills, and the ability to make decisions on controversial issues involving value conflicts. The interest and the reflections of the science education community in these matters increase its—traditionally limited—contribution to the theoretical debate on education and, by extension, the value of science education in the education system.
System sight at a problem of efficiency of enterprises’s operaton of the Russian chemical complex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svyatoslav Arkadyevich Nikitin
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Chemical industry plays an important role in the development of the domestic economy as one of the basic facilities of Russia's economy, laying the foundation for its long-term and stable development. As a major supplier of raw materials, intermediates, and products of various materials (plastics, chemical fibers, tires, paints and varnishes, dyes, fertilizers, feed additives, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment etc. in almost all sectors of industry, agriculture, health care, human services, commerce, science, culture and education, defense industry, chemical complex has direct impact on the efficiency of their operation and development in these new directions. Therefore, the condition and development of domestic chemistry determines the level of national competitiveness, economic growth and Russia's wealth. However, like most industries in Russia today, chemical industry is going through a difficult period. The presence of a set of common economic problems (identified by technological backwardness and high depreciation, low innovation activity of domestic enterprises of the chemical complex, a lack of effectiveness of the investment process, infrastructure and resource constraints etc., as well as internal management problems causes the rapid growth of interest of uncompetitive Russian chemical products on the world market. Under these conditions, not only a radical adjustment of the internal control systems and chemical plants, but also a significant organizational and economic change is required. Thus, unless we take measures to improve the domestic chemical industry in the coming years, almost all of it grow back and may get into the situation of struggle for survival.
Graf, John F; Scholz, Bernhard J; Zavodszky, Maria I
2012-02-01
We developed a detailed, whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tool for calculating the distribution of pharmaceutical agents in the various tissues and organs of a human or animal as a function of time. Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) represent the circulation of body fluids through organs and tissues at the macroscopic level, and the biological transport mechanisms and biotransformations within cells and their organelles at the molecular scale. Each major organ in the body is modeled as composed of one or more tissues. Tissues are made up of cells and fluid spaces. The model accounts for the circulation of arterial and venous blood as well as lymph. Since its development was fueled by the need to accurately predict the pharmacokinetic properties of imaging agents, BioDMET is more complex than most PBPK models. The anatomical details of the model are important for the imaging simulation endpoints. Model complexity has also been crucial for quickly adapting the tool to different problems without the need to generate a new model for every problem. When simpler models are preferred, the non-critical compartments can be dynamically collapsed to reduce unnecessary complexity. BioDMET has been used for imaging feasibility calculations in oncology, neurology, cardiology, and diabetes. For this purpose, the time concentration data generated by the model is inputted into a physics-based image simulator to establish imageability criteria. These are then used to define agent and physiology property ranges required for successful imaging. BioDMET has lately been adapted to aid the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Given a range of built-in features and its inherent flexibility to customization, the model can be used to study a variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic problems such as the effects of inter-individual differences and disease-states on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dosing optimization, and inter
Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.
2014-12-01
Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.
Gershenson, Carlos
2011-01-01
The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.
Bringing customers into the boardroom.
McGovern, Gail J; Court, David; Quelch, John A; Crawford, Blair
2004-11-01
Misguided marketing strategies have destroyed more shareholder value than shoddy accounting or shady fiscal practices. Yet marketing functions typically reside deep in the organization, far from the executive suite and boardroom, and they are often poorly aligned with corporate strategy. Boards of directors, it would seem, have compelling reasons to monitor their companies' marketing activities. The authors argue that boards lack a clear understanding of how their companies are meeting customers' needs and how their marketing strategies drive (or often fail to drive) top-line growth. To help remedy that problem, they've devised a "marketing dashboard," a series of management reports that could give the board this critical knowledge. The dashboard has three parts, each of which the board should review regularly. The first part tracks the company's main business drivers--those business conditions that, when manipulated or otherwise changed, will directly and predictably affect the company's performance. The second part describes the specific innovations in a pipeline of growth ideas that will allow the company to reach its short- and long-term revenue goals. And the third part provides an overview of the company's marketing skill set so the board can determine not only if the company has enough marketing talent but also if it has the right marketing talent. Unlike isolated measures of marketing performance that are often insufficient, irrelevant, or misleading, the dashboard allows the board to quickly and routinely assess the effectiveness of its company's marketing strategies. Armed with a clear understanding of marketing's role and performance, the board can expose inadequate marketing campaigns, direct management to address the problem, and monitor progress. PMID:15559447
Model Testing - Bringing the Ocean into the Laboratory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Christian
2000-01-01
Hydrodynamic model testing, the principle of bringing the ocean into the laboratory to study the behaviour of the ocean itself and the response of man-made structures in the ocean in reduced scale, has been known for centuries. Due to an insufficient understanding of the physics involved, however......, the early model tests often gave incomplete or directly misleading results.This keynote lecture deals with some of the possibilities and problems within the field of hydrodynamic and hydraulic model testing....
Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.
2012-12-01
The highly interdisciplinary nature of sustainability presents pedagogic challenges when sustainability concepts are incorporated into traditional disciplinary courses. At Bentley University, where over 90 percent of students major in business disciplines, we have created a multidisciplinary course module centered on corn ethanol that explores a complex social, environmental, and economic problem and develops basic data analysis and analytical thinking skills in several courses spanning the natural, physical, and social sciences within the business curriculum. Through an NSF-CCLI grant, Bentley faculty from several disciplines participated in a summer workshop to define learning objectives, create course modules, and develop an assessment plan to enhance interdisciplinary sustainability teaching. The core instructional outcome was a data-rich exercise for all participating courses in which students plot and analyze multiple parameters of corn planted and harvested for various purposes including food (human), feed (animal), ethanol production, and commodities exchanged for the years 1960 to present. Students then evaluate patterns and trends in the data and hypothesize relationships among the plotted data and environmental, social, and economic drivers, responses, and unintended consequences. After the central data analysis activity, students explore corn ethanol production as it relates to core disciplinary concepts in their individual classes. For example, students in Environmental Chemistry produce ethanol using corn and sugar as feedstocks and compare the efficiency of each process, while learning about enzymes, fermentation, distillation, and other chemical principles. Principles of Geology students examine the effects of agricultural runoff on surface water quality associated with extracting greater agricultural yield from mid-continent croplands. The American Government course examines the role of political institutions, the political process, and various
Juhás, Pavol; Farrow, Christopher L; Yang, Xiaohao; Knox, Kevin R; Billinge, Simon J L
2015-11-01
A strategy is described for regularizing ill posed structure and nanostructure scattering inverse problems (i.e. structure solution) from complex material structures. This paper describes both the philosophy and strategy of the approach, and a software implementation, DiffPy Complex Modeling Infrastructure (DiffPy-CMI). PMID:26522405
Modeling of the conjugate radiation and conduction problem in a 3D complex multi-burner furnace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lari Khosro
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Radiation is a major component of heat transfer in the modeling of furnaces. In this study, coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer problems are analyzed in complex geometries with inhomogeneous and anisotropic scattering participating media. A three-dimensional model is developed using combination of the discrete ordinates method and blocked-off-region procedure. The finite volume method has been adopted to solve the energy equation and the radiative source term in the energy equation is computed from intensities field. The accuracy of radiative conductive model is verified by comparison with benchmark solutions from the literature. As an example of engineering problems, radiative-conductive heat transfer in a furnace model with gray, inhomogeneous and anisotropic scattering media is numerically studied. The distributions of temperature and heat flux in the furnace are analyzed for different thermoradiative parameters such as conduction-radiation parameter, scattering albedo and anisotropic scattering coefficient. The numerical algorithm described is found to be fast and reliable for studying combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in three-dimensional irregular geometries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philipp Sonnleitner
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Computer-based problem solving scenarios or “microworlds” are contemporary assessment instruments frequently used to assess students’ complex problem solving behavior – a key aspect of today’s educational curricula and assessment frameworks. Surprisingly, almost nothing is known about their (1 acceptance or (2 psychometric characteristics in student populations. This article introduces the Genetics Lab (GL, a newly developed microworld, and addresses this lack of empirical data in two studies. Findings from Study 1, with a sample of 61 ninth graders, show that acceptance of the GL was high and that the internal consistencies of the scores obtained were satisfactory. In addition, meaningful intercorrelations between the scores supported the instrument’s construct validity. Study 2 drew on data from 79 ninth graders in differing school types. Large to medium correlations with figural and numerical reasoning scores provided evidence for the instrument’s construct validity. In terms of external validity, substantial correlations were found between academic performance and scores on the GL, most of which were higher than those observed between academic performance and the reasoning scales administered. In sum, this research closes an important empirical gap by (1 proving acceptance of the GL and (2 demonstrating satisfactory psychometric properties of its scores in student populations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The Boltzmann simplified velocity distribution function equation describing the gas transfer phenomena from various flow regimes will be explored and solved numerically in this study. The discrete velocity ordinate method of the gas kinetic theory is studied and applied to simulate the complex multi-scale flows. Based on the uncoupling technique on molecular movement and colliding in the DSMC method, the gas-kinetic finite difference scheme is constructed to directly solve the discrete velocity distribution functions by extending and applying the unsteady time-splitting method from computational fluid dynamics. The Gauss-type discrete velocity numerical quadrature technique for different Mach number flows is developed to evaluate the macroscopic flow parameters in the physical space. As a result, the gas-kinetic numerical algorithm is established to study the three-dimensional complex flows from rarefied transition to continuum regimes. The parallel strategy adapted to the gas-kinetic numerical algorithm is investigated by analyzing the inner parallel degree of the algorithm, and then the HPF parallel processing program is developed. To test the reliability of the present gas-kinetic numerical method, the three-dimensional complex flows around sphere and spacecraft shape with various Knudsen numbers are simulated by HPF parallel computing. The computational results are found in high resolution of the flow fields and good agreement with the theoretical and experimental data. The computing practice has confirmed that the present gas-kinetic algorithm probably provides a promising approach to resolve the hypersonic aerothermodynamic problems with the complete spectrum of flow regimes from the gas-kinetic point of view of solving the Boltzmann model equation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Complex Monge-Ampère equation is a nonlinear equation with high degree,so its solution is very diffcult to get.How to get the plurisubharmonic solution of Dirichlet problem of complex Monge- Ampère equation on the Cartan-Hartogs domain of the second type is discussed by using the analytic method in this paper.Firstly,the complex Monge-Ampère equation is reduced to a nonlinear secondorder ordinary differential equation(ODE)by using quite different method.Secondly,the solution of the Dirichlet problem is given in semi-explicit formula,and under a special case the exact solution is obtained.These results may be helpful for the numerical method of Dirichlet problem of complex Monge-Ampère equation on the Cartan-Hartogs domain.
Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing ... are very similar genetically. They also share many lifestyle factors: low rates of childhood obesity, large family ...
Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last
... Talk Health Capsules Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Paralyzed Men Regain Movement Featured Website: Mental Health Topics Past Issues Most Viewed May 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit ...
Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...
Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT) to Education
Joseph M. Woodside; Shahram Amiri
2014-01-01
In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT). Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explore...
Full Text Available ... concerns with your sexual partner. Because they are complex, sexual concerns are treated in many different ways. ... a healthcare professional. Although sexual problems can be complex, there are a variety of treatments that can ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Khazaeli
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, a version of thermal immersed boundary-Lattice Boltzmann method (TIB-LBM is used to simulate thermal flow problems within complex geometries. The present approach is a combination of the immersed boundary method (IBM and the thermal lattice Boltzmann method (TLBM under the double population approach. The method combines two different grid systems, an Eulerian grid for the flow domain and a Lagrangian grid for the boundary points immersed in the flow. In the present method, an unknown velocity correction is considered on the boundary points to impose the no-slip boundary condition. As a similar approach, an unknown internal energy correction on the boundary points is applied to satisfy the constant temperature boundary condition. The advantages of this approach are its second-order accuracy and straightforward calculation of the Nusselt number. The natural convection in an annulus with various outer cylinder shapes for different Rayleigh numbers have been simulated to demonstrate the capability and the accuracy of present approach. In terms of accuracy, the predicted results show an excellent agreement with those predicted by other experimental and numerical approaches.
Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT to Education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph M. Woodside
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT. Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explores the technology devices, and educational implications of policies, device management, security and included components.
Mathematical models in biology bringing mathematics to life
Ferraro, Maria; Guarracino, Mario
2015-01-01
This book presents an exciting collection of contributions based on the workshop “Bringing Maths to Life” held October 27-29, 2014 in Naples, Italy. The state-of-the art research in biology and the statistical and analytical challenges facing huge masses of data collection are treated in this Work. Specific topics explored in depth surround the sessions and special invited sessions of the workshop and include genetic variability via differential expression, molecular dynamics and modeling, complex biological systems viewed from quantitative models, and microscopy images processing, to name several. In depth discussions of the mathematical analysis required to extract insights from complex bodies of biological datasets, to aid development in the field novel algorithms, methods and software tools for genetic variability, molecular dynamics, and complex biological systems are presented in this book. Researchers and graduate students in biology, life science, and mathematics/statistics will find the content...
Bringing Research into Educational Practice: Lessons Learned
Hille, Katrin
2011-01-01
Bringing research into educational practice is necessary but does not happen automatically. The Transfercenter for Neuroscience and Learning, at the University of Ulm in Germany, is set up to transfer (neuro)scientific knowledge into educational practice. In doing so we have learned why this does not happen automatically, and have tried to make…
DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life
Musante, Susan
2010-01-01
This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…
Talent Show Brings Changsha Fame and Fortune
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
@@ Super Girl, a TV singing contest,became famous nationwide almost overnight. The show brought Hunan Satellite TV over 100 million yuan(US$12.5 million) last year and is estimated to bring 200 million yuan (US$25 million) of advertising sales to the TV station this year.
Digitizing Brings New Life to Video Collections
Breeding, Marshall
2008-01-01
Talk of mass digitization generally brings to mind large-scale projects to scan huge collections of books. The Google Library Print project, the Open Content Alliance, and others have taken on incredibly ambitious projects to digitize enormous numbers of books in some of the world's biggest libraries. Digitization of book collections stands to…
Bringing together the best in Europe
Voss, Georgina
2006-01-01
With the planned formation of a "European Institute of Technology" announced last week, the EU hopes to bring European innovation and knowledge back into the global picture. The institute, which is planned to be built by 2010, will aim to compete and even rival like institutes in Janpan and the United States (1½ page)
Beckmann, Jens F.; Goode, Natassia
2014-01-01
Previous research has found that embedding a problem into a familiar context does not necessarily confer an advantage over a novel context in the acquisition of new knowledge about a complex, dynamic system. In fact, it has been shown that a semantically familiar context can be detrimental to knowledge acquisition. This has been described as the…
Weber, Carolyn F
2016-01-01
Western science has grown increasingly reductionistic and, in parallel, the undergraduate life sciences curriculum has become disciplinarily fragmented. While reductionistic approaches have led to landmark discoveries, many of the most exciting scientific advances in the late 20th century have occurred at disciplinary interfaces; work at these interfaces is necessary to manage the world's looming problems, particularly those that are rooted in cellular-level processes but have ecosystem- and even global-scale ramifications (e.g., nonsustainable agriculture, emerging infectious diseases). Managing such problems requires comprehending whole scenarios and their emergent properties as sums of their multiple facets and complex interrelationships, which usually integrate several disciplines across multiple scales (e.g., time, organization, space). This essay discusses bringing interdisciplinarity into undergraduate cellular biology courses through the use of multiscalar topics. Discussing how cellular-level processes impact large-scale phenomena makes them relevant to everyday life and unites diverse disciplines (e.g., sociology, cell biology, physics) as facets of a single system or problem, emphasizing their connections to core concepts in biology. I provide specific examples of multiscalar topics and discuss preliminary evidence that using such topics may increase students' understanding of the cell's position within an ecosystem and how cellular biology interfaces with other disciplines. PMID:27146162
Weber, Carolyn F.
2016-01-01
Western science has grown increasingly reductionistic and, in parallel, the undergraduate life sciences curriculum has become disciplinarily fragmented. While reductionistic approaches have led to landmark discoveries, many of the most exciting scientific advances in the late 20th century have occurred at disciplinary interfaces; work at these interfaces is necessary to manage the world’s looming problems, particularly those that are rooted in cellular-level processes but have ecosystem- and even global-scale ramifications (e.g., nonsustainable agriculture, emerging infectious diseases). Managing such problems requires comprehending whole scenarios and their emergent properties as sums of their multiple facets and complex interrelationships, which usually integrate several disciplines across multiple scales (e.g., time, organization, space). This essay discusses bringing interdisciplinarity into undergraduate cellular biology courses through the use of multiscalar topics. Discussing how cellular-level processes impact large-scale phenomena makes them relevant to everyday life and unites diverse disciplines (e.g., sociology, cell biology, physics) as facets of a single system or problem, emphasizing their connections to core concepts in biology. I provide specific examples of multiscalar topics and discuss preliminary evidence that using such topics may increase students’ understanding of the cell’s position within an ecosystem and how cellular biology interfaces with other disciplines. PMID:27146162
Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury
2015-04-01
Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or
Zarzycki, Paweł K; Portka, Joanna K
2015-09-01
Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves
Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster
CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.
Virtual Waterless Port:" BRING THE PORT FORWARD"
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Siyuan
2009-01-01
@@ To deal with the crisis,the central government of China carried out"ten major industries stimulating programme",which includes logistics and information industry.Lifting the development of logistics and information industry to a level of national strategy,it shows that the central governments is paying great attention to construct modern logistics service system,cut the costs and improve efficiency,bringing an opportunity for Chinese logistics industry.
Galin, Lev Aleksandrovich
2008-01-01
L.A. Galin's book on contact problems is a remarkable work. Actually there are two books: the first, published in 1953 deals with contact problems in the classical theory of elasticity; this is the one that was translated into English in 1961. The second book, published in 1980, included the first, and then had new sections on contact problems for viscoelastic materials, and rough contact problems; this section has not previously been translated into English. In this new translation, the original text and the mathematical analysis have been completely revised, new material has been added, and the material appearing in the 1980 Russian translation has been completely rewritten. In addition there are three essays by students of Galin, bringing the analysis up to date.
Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy- A research paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
for children undergoing radiotherapy and their parents, a paediatric radiographer may be one welcome solution to relieve the anxiety and stress during this difficult time in their lives. given the various factors, no one solution can be deemed ultimate in dealing with this complex situation. thus further efforts are needed to bring about workable solutions to this problem depending on the circumstances and situation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Guanting; (刘官厅); FAN; Tianyou; (范天佑)
2003-01-01
The complex method of the plane elasticity in 2D quasicrystal with point group 10 mm tenfold rotational symmetry is established. First displacement potential function in the quasicrystal is represented by four analytic functions. Then by utilizing the properties of analytic function and through a great deal of derivation, the complex representations of stresses and displacements components of phonon fields and phason fields in the quasicrystal are given, which are the theoretical foundation for this method. From this theory, and by the help of conformal transformations in the theory of complex function, the problems of elliptic hole in the quasicrystal are solved. Its special cases are the solutions of well-known crack problem. Meanwhile, the results show that even if under the self-counterbalance force in the quasicrystal plane with elliptic hole, the stress components of phonon fields are also related to material constants of the quasicrystal when the phonon fields and phason fields are coupled, which is another distinctive difference from the properties of classical elastic theory. Besides, the present work is generalization and application of the complex method in the classical elastic theory established by Muskhelishvili to 2D quasicrystal. As in the classical elastic theory, if only conformal transformation from the quasicrystal plane to unit circle is found, any holey and crack problem in the quasicrystal plane could be solved.
Zhou, YuQian
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a method to find efficient bounded algorithms of NPC problems by machine enumeration. The key contributions are: * On Universal Turing Machines, a program's time complexity should be characterized as: execution time(n) = loading time(n) + running time(n). * Introduces the concept of bounded algorithms; proposes a comparison based criterion to decide if a bounded algorithm is inefficient; and establishes the length upper bound of efficient bounded programs. * Introduces a new way to evaluate program complexity by using the growth rate characteristic function, which is more easily machine checkable based on observations.
Kalainoff, Melinda Zapata
Studio classrooms, designed such that laboratory and lecture functions can occur in the same physical space, have been recognized as a promising contributing factor in promoting collaborative learning in the sciences (NRC, 2011). Moreover, in designing for instruction, a critical goal, especially in the sciences and engineering, is to foster an environment where students have opportunities for learning problem solving practices (NRC, 2012a). However, few studies show how this type of innovative learning environment shapes opportunities for learning in the sciences, which is critical to informing future curricular and instructional designs for these environments. Even fewer studies show how studio environments shape opportunities to develop problem solving practices specifically. In order to make visible how the learning environment promotes problem solving practices, this study explores problem solving phenomena in the daily life of an undergraduate General Chemistry studio class using an ethnographic perspective. By exploring problem solving as a sociocultural process, this study shows how the instructor and students co-construct opportunities for learning in whole class and small group interactional spaces afforded in this studio environment and how the differential demands on students in doing problems requires re-conceptualizing what it means to "apply a concept".
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Zalatoi
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates computing characteristics of Newton methods by a parameter and two–parameter method of minimization in respect of poorly formulated algebraic systems of cubic and nonlinear equations of higher order. Some proposals are given to improve computing characteristics of the two-parameter minimization method while solving the problems concerning computation of steady modes in complex electric-power systems.
Reid, Graham J; Brown, Judith Belle
2008-07-01
Senior managers of children's mental health centers across Ontario, Canada were interviewed regarding the challenges and solutions of access and delivery of care. The central challenges--funding, case complexity, waitlists, staffing, and system integration--revealed a complex interplay between the policies and financing of children's mental health services and the provision of clinical services at the agency level and within the community. The desire for integration and collaboration was countered by competition for funding and service demands. A need for policies that allow for local solutions while providing leadership for sustained improvements in the ease and timeliness of access to care and effective clinical services emerged. PMID:18512157
Children with behavorial problem
Cerar, Kristina
2011-01-01
Behavioral problems are becoming more and more common phenomena in children education. When behavioral problems occur it is very important to have the appropriate approach that mitigates or completely removes them. The key to this is to know as much as possible about children development and behavioral problems. The theoretical part contains the features of a child's development and then I focused on behavioral problems and the causes that bring to such results. I described methods to remove...
Tsednee, Tsogbayar; Liang, Liyuan; Yeager, Danny L.
2015-02-01
We propose and develop the complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (CMCSTEP) technique for theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom and electron-molecule systems including open-shell and highly correlated atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (MCSTEP) method developed and implemented by Yeager and co-workers in real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and attachment energies. The CMCSTEP method uses a complex-scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field (CMCSCF) state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. The CMCSCF was developed and applied successfully to resonance problems earlier. We apply the CMCSTEP method to get 2P Be- shape resonance parameters using 14 s 11 p 5 d ,14 s 14 p 2 d , and 14 s 14 p 5 d basis sets with a 2 s 2 p 3 d complete active space. The obtained values of the resonance parameters are compared to previous results. Here CMCSTEP has been developed and used for a resonance problem. It appears to be among the most accurate and reliable techniques. Vertical ionization potentials and attachment energies in real space are typically within ±0.2 eV or better of excellent experimental results and full configuration-interaction calculations with a good basis set. We expect the same sort of agreement in complex space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher W. Tindale
2009-04-01
Full Text Available La nécessité pour l’argumentateur de connaître son auditoire afin de persuader est l’un des lieux communs de la théorie de l’argumentation. Mais, en dehors du cas où l’argumentation s’adresse à soi-même ou à un interlocuteur unique, les auditoires vers lesquels nous nous tournons sont de composition complexe, et reflètent la diversité de nos identités et les différents groupes auxquels nous appartenons. Comment les argumentateurs doivent-ils faire face à une telle diversité de l’auditoire ? S’inspirant principalement des travaux de Perelman et Olbrechts-Tyteca, ainsi que de ceux d’Amartya Sen, cet article explore la manière dont divers aspects identitaires sont choisis par les auditoires, et les moyens par lesquels les argumentateurs peuvent encourager de tels choix en préalable à l’acte de persuasion lui-même.It is a commonplace of argumentation theory that an arguer needs to know her or his audience in order to be persuasive. But beyond arguments directed to oneself or to a single interlocutor, the audiences we address are complex in make-up, reflecting the diversity of our own identities and the different groups to which we belong. How should arguers accommodate such diversity within audiences? Drawing principally from the work of Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca, as well as Amartya Sen, this paper explores the ways aspects of identities are chosen by audiences, and how arguers can encourage such choices as a preliminary move to persuasion itself.
Mockler, Nicole
2014-01-01
Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…
Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Latyshev, Anton; Ivanov, Stanislav
2016-04-01
The Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) of the Fore Range zone is one of the most high-grade metamorphosed element of the Great Caucasus fold belt. Determination of the timing and the mechanism of formation of the Fore Range fold-thrust structures are not possible without investigation of the BMC located at the basement of its section. At the same time, the conceptions about its structure and age are outdated and need revision. Somin (2011) determined the age of the protolith and metamorphism of the Blyb complex as the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous. We have recently shown that the BMC has not the dome, as previously thought, but nappe structure (Vidjapin, Kamzolkin, 2015), and is metamorphically coherent with the peak metamorphism pressures up to 22 kbar (Kamzolkin et al., 2015; Konilov et al., 2013). Considering the age and structure of the Blyb complex it is necessary to revise the age of granitoid intrusions and their relations with gneisses and schists, which constitute the main part of the section of the complex. Most authors (Gamkrelidze, Shengelia, 2007; Lavrischev, 2002; Baranov, 1967) adheres to Early Paleozoic age of intrusives, which is doubtful, considering the younger age of metamorphic rocks. We suppose, that the intrusive bodies broke through a BMC nappe structure during the exhumation of the complex (Perchuk, 1991) at the Devonian - Carboniferous boundary. Seemingly, the massive monzodiorites body (Lavrischev, 2002), intruding garnet-muscovite schists and amphibolite gneisses of the Blyb complex and cut by the Main Caucasian fault (MCF), are younger. Given the timing of termination of the MCF movement activity as the Middle Jurassic (Greater Caucasus..., 2005), their age should be in the Early Carboniferous - Middle Jurassic interval. At the same time, on the modern geological map (Lavrischev, 2002) monzodiorites body is assigned to the Middle Paleozoic. The study of the BMC granitoids and monzodiorites will help in determining of the mechanism and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer programme COMMIX-2 describes steady state and transient multidimensional single- and two-phase fluid flows with heat transfer in nuclear reactor components and multicomponent systems. Originally from the Argonne National Laboratory, the code has been further developed at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The original Point-SOR iterative method for the solution of a Poisson-like equation describing the pressure distribution in the fluid as well as the transport of enthalpy and turbulent quantities has been complemented with iterative and direct line- and block-methods. None of the newly implemented methods is original in itself but their implementation into the computer code, which can describe the most general shapes of definition domains, gave a code speed-up by a factor of 2-5, depending on the problem treated. The code capabilities are assessd by the calculation of a benchmark problem involving the numerical simulation of thermal buoyancy phenomena at a pipe/plenum interface. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Politis, E.S.; Prospathopoulos, J.; Cabezon, D.;
2012-01-01
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods are used in this paper to predict the power production from entire wind farms in complex terrain and to shed some light into the wake flow patterns. Two full three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solvers for incompressible fluid flow, employing k - ε and k - ω...... work being undertaken within the UpWind Integrated Project that aims to develop the design tools for next generation of large wind turbines. In this part of UpWind, the performance of wind farm and wake models is being examined in complex terrain environment where there are few pre-existing relevant...... turbulence closures, are used. The wind turbines are modeled as momentum absorbers by means of their thrust coefficient through the actuator disk approach. Alternative methods for estimating the reference wind speed in the calculation of the thrust are tested. The work presented in this paper is part of the...
Ney, Steven
2006-01-01
At present, a surprisingly wide variety of commentators and observers seem to agree that Europeans are failing to tackle urgent policy challenges. As a result, so the argument does, Europeans are falling further and further behind in an increasingly competitive global race. Part of the reason, these commentators believe, is the very nature of policy challenges that face European politicians, policy-makers and citizens. Today’s policy problems are messy: underlying causes are...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Souza, Thaianne Lopes de [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Catalao, GO (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text. What the Brazilian soccer championship, Hollywood actors, the network of the Internet, the spread of viruses and electric distribution network have in common? Until less than two decade ago, the answer would be 'nothing' or 'almost nothing'. However, the answer today to this same question is 'all' or 'almost all'. The answer to these questions and more can be found through a sub-area of statistical physics | called science of complex networks that has been used to approach and study the most diverse natural and non-natural systems, such as systems/social networks, information, technological or biological. In this work we study the distribution network of electric power in Brazil (DEEB), from a perspective of complex networks, where we associate stations and/or substations with a network of vertices and the links between the vertices we associate with the transmission lines. We are doing too a comparative study with the best-known models of complex networks, such as Erdoes-Renyi, Configuration Model and Barabasi-Albert, and then we compare with results obtained in real electrical distribution networks. Based on this information, we do a comparative analysis using the following variables: connectivity distribution, diameter, clustering coefficient, which are frequently used in studies of complex networks. We emphasize that the main objective of this study is to analyze the robustness of the network DEEB, and then propose alternatives for network connectivity, which may contribute to the increase of robustness in maintenance projects and/or expansion of the network, in other words our goal is to make the network to proof the blackouts or improve the endurance the network against the blackouts. For this purpose, we use information from the structural properties of networks, computer modeling and simulation. (author)
Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.
Franceschet, Massimo
2014-01-01
Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...
Hartmann, Alexander K
2005-01-01
A concise, comprehensive introduction to the topic of statistical physics of combinatorial optimization, bringing together theoretical concepts and algorithms from computer science with analytical methods from physics. The result bridges the gap between statistical physics and combinatorial optimization, investigating problems taken from theoretical computing, such as the vertex-cover problem, with the concepts and methods of theoretical physics. The authors cover rapid developments and analytical methods that are both extremely complex and spread by word-of-mouth, providing all the necessary
Bring your own device -strategia Lahden ammattikorkeakoulussa
Hänninen, Jasmi
2015-01-01
Bring your own device -strategia (BYOD) tarkoittaa käytäntöä, jossa oppilaiden on tarkoitus tuoda oma laitteensa kouluun käyttääkseen sitä opinnoissaan. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia, mitä BYOD tarkoittaa sekä miten sitä käytetään kouluympäristössä. Työssä myös selvitettiin, mitä BYOD:iin liittyviä asioita Lahden ammattikorkeakoulun täytyy huomioida siihen siirryttäessä. Opinnäytetyö on toteutettu toimeksiantona Päijät-Hämeen koulutuskonsernin Tietohallintopalveluille. Opinnä...
Trying Al Qaeda: Bringing Terrorists to Justice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua T. Bell
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Shortly after the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were attacked, the United States embarked on a mission to bring those responsible for the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 to justice. A tremendous effort ensued to find and capture the individuals who were responsible or associated with these events. Many of the individuals who were captured have remained imprisoned for an indefinite amount of time due to the political debate regarding what is the most appropriate venue to try suspecgts arrested and charged with acts of terrorism. The choices come down to trial either by a trial by a Military Commission or a U.S. Federal District Court. There are unique challenges for effective prosecution in both venues. Which venue the Obama Administration will deem appropriate to try the terrorists captured by the former administration remains uncertain at this point in time.
Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Flemmming Ove
1996-01-01
In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Extraction study of uranylnitrate, plutonium in trivalent, tetravalent and gexavalent states and trivalent americium, curium, praseodymium and promethium by alkyl, aromatic and mixed diphosphine dioxides is briefly outlined. The influence of diphosphine dioxide structures on their extraction capacity and, in particular, the problem of anomalous aryl strengthening of compounds, both of entropy and binding character, are considered. Perchlorate media, as opposed to nitrate ones, are characteristic for their high distribution coefficients and extraction equilibrium constants. Anomalous aryl strengthening of trivalent lanthanides and actinides can be applied, at the minimum, for solution purifications from the traces of actinides and lanthanides
K-复调和函数的Schwarz边值问题%Schwarz's boundary value problem for K- complex harmonic function
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张建元; 刘俊; 张毅敏; 张昕
2012-01-01
In the paper,the Schwarz's type mixed K- integral is defined and studied within elliptic domain B(0, R) (k): | z(k) | ≤R to obtain the solutions of Schwarz's boundary value problem within K-complex harmonic function. The conclusion is the continuation and application of the solution K- complex harmonic function with the corresponding theories of the analytic function and harmonic function.%在椭圆域B(0,R)(k)={z:｜z(k)｜≤R}上定义和讨论了Schwarz混合型K-积分,并用它来求K-复调和函数类H(D(k))中的Schwarz边值问题的解.所得结论包含了前人的有关结果.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Research reactors complex 'Bajkal' includes two research reactors IVG.1M and RA. The reactor IVG.1M is a research water-water heterogeneous tank type nuclear reactor on the thermal neutrons with light-water moderator and coolant and beryllium neutron reflector. At present time the experimental studies of processes of the fission yield, the precipitation, the filtration of fission products. The possibilities of this reactor and stand systems are allowed to begin the experimental studies of model fuel assemblies water-cooled reactors at the accidental regimes. The reactor RA is a research high temperature gas-cooled tank type nuclear reactor on the thermal neutrons with gas moderator, zirconium hydride coolant and beryllium neutron reflector. The reactor RA is used for studies of hard-working of fuel elements and fuel assemblies of gas-cooled reactors during long reactor irradiation and experimental study of yield processes, precipitation and filtration of fission products
Kovalevsky, L
2016-01-01
The Variational Theory of Complex Rays (VTCR) is an indirect Trefftz method designed to study systems governed by Helmholtz-like equations. It uses wave functions to represent the solution inside elements, which reduces the dispersion error compared to classical polynomial approaches but the resulting system is prone to be ill conditioned. This paper gives a simple and original presentation of the VTCR using the discontinuous Galerkin framework and it traces back the ill-conditioning to the accumulation of eigenvalues near zero for the formulation written in terms of wave amplitude. The core of this paper presents an efficient solving strategy that overcomes this issue. The key element is the construction of a search subspace where the condition number is controlled at the cost of a limited decrease of attainable precision. An augmented LSQR solver is then proposed to solve efficiently and accurately the complete system. The approach is successfully applied to different examples.
Bringing Seismological Research into the School Setting
Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.
2004-12-01
One of the primary goals of educational seismology programs is to bring inquiry-based research to the middle- and high-school classroom setting. Although it is often stated as a long-term goal of science outreach programs, in practice there are many barriers to research in the school setting, among them increasing emphasis on test-oriented training, decreasing interest and participation in science fairs, limited teacher confidence and experience for mentoring research, insufficient student preparedness for research projects, and the short term of university involvement (typically limited to brief one-day encounters). For the past three+ years we have tried to address these issues through a focused outreach program we have called the PEPP Research Fellows Program. This is treated as an honors program in which high school teachers in our group nominate students with interests in science careers. These students are invited to participate in the program, and those who elect to take part participate in a one-day education and training session in the fall. Rather than leave research projects completely open, we direct the students at toward one of two specific, group-oriented projects (in our case, one focusing on local recordings of mining explosions, and a second on teleseismic body-wave analysis), but we encourage them to act as independent researchers and follow topics of interest. The students then work on seismic data from the local educational network or from the IRIS facilities. Following several months of informal interaction with teachers and students (email, web conferencing, etc.), we bring the students and teachers to our university for a weekend research symposium in the spring. Students present their work in oral or poster form and prizes are given for the best papers. Projects range from highly local projects (records of seismic noise at school X) to larger-scale regional projects (analysis of teleseismic P-wave delays at PEPP network stations) From 20 to
Poster power brings together electronics community
2006-01-01
An 'Electronics at CERN' poster session was displayed on the mezzanine in building 500 for two days from 30 November. The display consisted of 20 posters and brought together a wide range of electronic projects designed and assembled by CERN teams and other collaborators involved in the building of the LHC. This was the first time this event had been held. As its organiser John Evans (IT/DES) explained, 'the idea came from the experience of attending conferences outside CERN, where you may find projects from CERN you didn't know about. It's nice to bring them together so we can all benefit from the efforts made.' The work on show spanned different departments and experiments, ranging from microelectronics to equipment designed for giant magnets. The invited audience was equally broad and included engineers, physicists as well as the electronics community at CERN. An informal gathering of all the exhibitors also offered an opportunity to view and discuss the work over a cup of coffee. 'The poster session acts...
Bringing science to the policy table
2014-01-01
“They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore." So says Isaiah 2:4, as transcribed on the famous wall in Ralph Bunche park, just the other side of 1st Avenue from the UN’s New York headquarters, where we held a celebration of our 60th anniversary year on Monday 20 October. I used the quotation in my opening address, since it is such a perfect fit to the theme of 60 years of science for peace and development. The event was organised with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC, in the framework of CERN’s observer status at the UN, and although focused on CERN, its aim was broader. Presentations used CERN as an example to bring out the vital importance of science in general to the themes of peace and development. The event was presided over by Martin Sajdik, President of ECOSOC, and we were privileged to have presentat...
Bringing University Pedagogical Approach into Companies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Lise B.; S. Stachowicz, Marian
2013-01-01
PBL structure was implemented in a Danish company which wanted to establish a learning environment, so that their employees would share their knowledge and understanding of the work processes across different departments. The pedagogical approach is described and two workshops are used as examples of...... the learning processes. Through facilitated workshops focusing on problem analysis and the development of solutions, the participants gained a greater understanding of the need for learning, as well as increased motivation for sharing experiences across organisational boundaries. All participants made...... a project and found solutions for for problems related to their work. Several of the problem solutions were implemented. The participants evaluated the process and the outcome of the workshops very as very good. Furthermore the results show that the pedagogical method which has been used within...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel eGreiff
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving. Importantly, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as Complex Problem Solving (CPS as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex. We assessed working memory and fluid reasoning at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N= 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male. Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that fluid reasoning was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas working memory exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves fluid reasoning and, to a lesser extent, working memory in childhood, and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.
Blickenstaff, Jacob Clark
2011-01-01
Movie clips can provide data for content-rich problem solving, show students exotic phenomena, allow them to apply science concepts in a new setting, and foster connections between science and the humanities. Though the latest release will have the advantage of pop-culture currency, films old enough to be released on DVD give teachers more…
Bringing the Arts to the School Library
Moorefield-Lang, Heather
2011-01-01
The arts have their place in every facet of a school, and the library is no exception. Thinking beyond traditional definitions, arts education could include teaching creative problem solving as well as continuous questioning of issues and ideas. The media center is the perfect venue to showcase students' efforts in the arts. This article gives…
Bringing Knowledge Management into an Engineering Curriculum
Winberg, S. L.; Schach, S. R.; Inggs, M. R.
2007-01-01
The use of effective knowledge management is becoming an essential part of technical development projects in order to enable developers to handle the growing complexity of these projects. In this article we discuss an innovative approach to address this concern from the perspective of an undergraduate engineering curriculum. Instead of adding…
The ASSIST: Bringing Information and Software Together for Scientists
Mandel, Eric
1997-01-01
The ASSIST was developed as a step toward overcoming the problems faced by researchers when trying to utilize complex and often conflicting astronomical data analysis systems. It implements a uniform graphical interface to analysis systems, documentation, data, and organizational memory. It is layered on top of the Answer Garden Substrate (AGS), a system specially designed to facilitate the collection and dissemination of organizational memory. Under the AISRP program, we further developed the ASSIST to make it even easier for researchers to overcome the difficulties of accessing software and information in a complex computer environment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙丹
2012-01-01
Accompanied by aging accelerated progress, ever-changing and growing concept of the economic system innovation, traditional bring usons to support parents in their old age began to change, under new rural old-age insurance system in the Government's planning swell dew Tau. This article in academic research and discussion on the basis of, from China's status and social development as well as analysis of causes and countermeasures.% 伴随着老龄化的加速、经济体制的不断变革以及人们观念的日益革新，传统的养儿防老模式开始改变，新型农村养老保险制度在政府的规划下崭露头角。将在学者们研究与论述的基础上，从中国的现状以及社会的发展等方面分析原因及应对措施。
Mediated participation: Using filmed narratives in complex multi-stakeholder settings
Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.; Lie, R
2009-01-01
Mediated participation aims to bring `distanced¿ or `overlooked¿ stakeholders in a mediated way to the doorstep of decision makers. It promotes inclusion of their stories, concerns and proposals in decision-making processes because it allows policy and decision makers to `learn¿ in mediated interaction with distant stakeholders. Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA) is a film-based methodology for analysis and social learning, which is produced and used in settings of complex problems and sustainabl...
Introduction: Bringing health research to practical use
Bailey, A; Geest, van der, S.
2009-01-01
This introduction to a special issue about translating health research to practice describes the problems that present themselves when applying research results. The authors emphasise the importance of engagement from all relevant parties during the design, the fieldwork and the reportage of the research. Only if there is a sense of ownership regarding the project among policymakers, health workers and the target population, application is likely to succeed.
Bringing Molecules Back into Molecular Evolution
Wilke, Claus O.
2012-01-01
Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models a...
Bringing Theorem Proving to the (sonic) Masses
Gallego Arias, Emilio Jesús; Pin, Benoît; Jouvelot, Pierre,
2015-01-01
We explore the intersection of interactive theorem proving and digital signal processing through the use of web-based, rich interfaces. Traditionally, the barrier to entry to interactive theorem proving has been high.Provers are complex systems using obscure programming languages, and libraries may be underdocumented and use formalisms and notations far from the standard domain-specific practice. Thus, it doesn't come at a surprise that interactive theorem proving has seldom been explored in ...
Smart Technology Brings Power to the People
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Gephart, Julie M.
2006-12-01
Imagine you’re at home one Saturday morning on the computer, as your son takes a shower, your daughter is watching TV, and a load of laundry is in your washer and dryer. Meanwhile, the fragrance of fresh-brewed coffee fills the house. You hear a momentary beep from the dryer that tells you that if you were to look, a high-energy price indicator would be displayed on the front panels of some of your favorite appliances. This tells you that you could save money right now by using less energy. (You’ve agreed to this arrangement to help your utility avoid a substation upgrade. In return, you get a lower rate most of the time.) So you turn off some of the unneeded lights in your home and opt to wait until evening to run the dishwasher. Meanwhile, some of your largest appliances have automatically responded to this signal and have already reduced your home’s energy consumption, saving you money. On January 11, 2006, demonstration projects were launched in 200 homes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States to test and speed adoption of new smart grid technologies that can make the power grid more resilient and efficient. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory in Richland, Washington, is managing the yearlong study called the Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration, a project funded primarily by DOE. Through the GridWise™ Demonstration projects, researchers are gaining insight into energy consumers’ behavior while testing new technologies designed to bring the electric transmission system into the information age. Northwest utilities, appliance manufacturers and technology companies are also supporting this effort to demonstrate the devices and assess the resulting consumer response. A combination of devices, software and advanced analytical tools will give homeowners more information about their energy use and cost, and we want to know if this will modify their behavior. Approximately 100
2005-01-01
Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications
Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences
Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.
2009-12-01
Individual, departmental and community efforts have all played a major role in developing a thriving research effort addressing thinking and learning in the geosciences. Community efforts have been effective in elevating the importance of the field, defining a research agenda, fostering collaborations with cognitive science and education communities, building capacity within the geosciences, and developing reviewer awareness of the importance and opportunities within geoscience education research. Important community efforts include a call for geoscience education research in the 1997 NSF report Geoscience Education: A Recommended Strategy and in the subsequent 2000 NSF report ‘Bridges: Connecting Research and Education in the Earth System Sciences’. A research agenda and supporting recommendations for collaboration and capacity building were jointly developed by geoscience educators, cognitive scientists and education researchers at the 2002 NSF/Johnson Foundation funded workshop Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences. This research agenda emphasized studies of geoscience expertise, learning pathways (and their challenges) that are critical to the development of that expertise, and materials and environments that support this learning, with a focus on learning in the field and from large data sets, complex systems and deep time, spatial skills, and the synthesis of understanding from multiple sources of incomplete data. Collaboration and capacity building have been further supported by the NAGT sponsored professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” with workshops bringing together cognitive scientists, educators and geoscientists on topics including developing on-line learning resources, teaching with visualizations, the role of the affective domain in geoscience learning, teaching metacognition, and teaching with data. 40 successful educational research proposals are attributed to participation in On the Cutting Edge. An NSF funded
D4M: Bringing Associative Arrays to Database Engines
Gadepally, Vijay; Kepner, Jeremy; Arcand, William; Bestor, David; Bergeron, Bill; Byun, Chansup; Edwards, Lauren; Hubbell, Matthew; Michaleas, Peter; Mullen, Julie; Prout, Andrew; De Rosa, Antonio; Yee, Charles; Reuther, Albert
2015-01-01
The ability to collect and analyze large amounts of data is a growing problem within the scientific community. The growing gap between data and users calls for innovative tools that address the challenges faced by big data volume, velocity and variety. Numerous tools exist that allow users to store, query and index these massive quantities of data. Each storage or database engine comes with the promise of dealing with complex data. Scientists and engineers who wish to use these systems often ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A modified finite-volume method based on a cell vertex scheme was applied to solve radiative transfer problems within a participating medium of complex three-dimensional shaped domain. The computational spatial domain of interest was divided into four-node tetrahedron elements with unstructured meshes while the adopted formulation was combined with a closure relation based on an exponential scheme. The studied medium was assumed to be grey, non-scattering and was bounded by black surfaces. Our results were then compared with those found in other articles on the subject. The approach shows a very good level of performance for wall heat transfer evaluation. Accurate results were obtained on coarse computational meshes and solution errors were found to decrease with grid refinement.
Bringing molecules back into molecular evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claus O Wilke
Full Text Available Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models and simulations to identify fundamental principles of molecular evolution; and atom-level, highly realistic computational modeling of molecular structure and function aimed at making predictions about possible future evolutionary events.
Problems in radiation shielding calculations with Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte Carlo method is a very useful tool for solving a large class of radiation transport problem. In contrast with deterministic method, geometric complexity is a much less significant problem for Monte Carlo calculations. However, the accuracy of Monte Carlo calculations is of course, limited by statistical error of the quantities to be estimated. In this report, we point out some typical problems to solve a large shielding system including radiation streaming. The Monte Carlo coupling technique was developed to settle such a shielding problem accurately. However, the variance of the Monte Carlo results using the coupling technique of which detectors were located outside the radiation streaming, was still not enough. So as to bring on more accurate results for the detectors located outside the streaming and also for a multi-legged-duct streaming problem, a practicable way of ''Prism Scattering technique'' is proposed in the study. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamen Kotsilkov
2015-07-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The modern Periodontology has various approaches to achieve a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the mucogingival complex. These techniques include application of flaps with apical or coronal advancement in order to achieve different treatment objectives. Complex cases with different pathology on adjacent teeth require several surgeries thereby increasing treatment time and patient discomfort. New combined approaches are needed to meet the challenges of such cases. OBJECTIVE: This report presents a case with a simultaneous application of a resective and a mucogingival technique in one dental sextant. METHODS: I.C. (36 with a localized chronic periodontitis, Miller Class I gingival recessions (13,14 and subgingival caries lesions (15,16. A combined approach with simultaneous crown lengthening with apically positioned flap for 16,15 and root coverage with enamel matrix derivate and a coronally advanced flap for 14,13 was applied in order to avoid multiple surgical procedures. RESULTS: On the third month after the surgical procedure a complete root coverage (13,14 was achieved. The crown lengthening procedure enabled the restoration of the caries lesions and the placement of new crowns (15,16. The result at the third year demonstrates a stable gingival margin with no recurrence of the gingival recessions. CONCLUSION: The applied combined procedure led to a complete resolution of the existing problems with a single surgery. The simultaneous application of different procedures seems a promising approach aimed to reduce the treatment time and to diminish patient discomfort.
SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM
María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo
2015-01-01
School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relation...
Full Text Available ... with your sexual partner. Because they are complex, sexual concerns are treated in many different ways. Often, multiple types of treatment may be required and are used together to treat a problem. Education is important in understanding the anatomy and physiology ...
Frensch, Peter; Funke, Joachim
2005-01-01
Human thinking, and in particular, the human ability to solve complex, real-life problems contributes more than any other human ability to the development of human culture and the growth and development of human life on earth. However, the human ability to solve complex problems is still not well understood, partly because it has for a long time been largely ignored by traditional problem-solving research in the field of psychology. In this article, we present a definition of complex problem ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alejandro Cotes Torres
2005-12-01
Full Text Available El problema de la sostenibilidad es una temática que desde finales del siglo XX, ha venido preocupando cada vez mas a los diferentes sectores de la sociedad; pasando a ser uno de los temas de mayor interés para empresarios, consumidores, académicos e investigadores, que conforman las diferentes cadenas agroalimentarias del mundo. Este artículo presenta desde el punto de vista de la Teoría General de Sistemas, algunos elementos de reflexión critica, abordando la problemática de la sostenibilidad desde la complejidad de los sistemas de producción agropecuarios, partiendo desde la concepción filosófica original de la agricultura, hasta llegar a plantear algunas consideraciones que se deben tener en cuenta para el desarrollo de avances científicos y tecnológicos acordes con las necesidades de las cadenas agroalimentarias del siglo XXI; las cuales permiten orientar no solo el trabajo de los profesionales que lideran los procesos de producción animal y vegetal, sino que crea un sentido de pertenencia en todos los participantes de la cadena, resaltando la importancia de estudiar a través de un pensamiento sistémico, la Agronomía y la Zootecnia, como disciplinas que se aproximan a las complejidades de la Agricultura la cual es la piedra angular de la civilización, tal y como la conocemos actualmente.The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the General Systems Theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agriculture and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for
Ontario's energy crisis brings out conflicting visions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ontario's medium-term energy supply situation is discussed in light of the Ontario provincial government's insistence on phasing out coal-fired generation by 2007, and the somewhat longer term uncertainty about the aging nuclear fleet and the price tag associated with their overhauling or replacement. Centre to the discussion is the replacement of coal-fired plants by natural gas-fired generating plants, complicated by the fact is that there is already a surfeit of gas-fired plants sitting idle for lack of fuel available at an economically acceptable price. Recent statistics show that conventional gas supplies have already levelled off and unconventional sources, such as coalbed methane, and imports like LNG, are more abundant, but also significantly more expensive. The nuclear option is considered by knowledgeable insiders as a viable option for increased generation, although it is generally acknowledged as a serious public relations problem. The contributions of green power and cogeneration are also explored; the most optimistic estimates put the supply from this source at 50,000 GWh a year; less than the amount needed even in the absence of growth in demand. The overall conclusion is that Ontario's energy future can only be assured by aggressive pursuit of productivity improvements, financial and policy innovations, extensive use of cogeneration, strong development of renewables, energy conservation, efficiency, and demand management
BRING YOUR OWN DEVICE POLICY AND WI-FI TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION
Savchenko, Vitalii A.
2015-01-01
This article explores the concept of combining a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy and Wi-Fi technology with existing information policies and infrastructure for typical Military Educational Organization. In face of financial restrictions many Military Educational Organizations in many countries are expecting a problem of computer renewal. To give employees and students an opportunity to work effectively under impossibility to renovate computer facilities a new BYOD policy has to be applied...
Scharcanski, Jacob
2016-01-01
Bringing computer vision into our daily life has been challenging researchers in industry and in academia over the past decades. However, the continuous development of cameras and computing systems turned computer vision-based measurements into a viable option, allowing new solutions to known problems. In this context, computer vision is a generic tool that can be used to measure and monitor phenomena in wide range of fields. The idea of using vision-based measurements is appealing, since the...
Bringing inorganic chemistry to life with inspiration from R. J. P. Williams
Hill, H. Allen O.; Sadler, Peter J.
2016-01-01
Our appreciation of the scholarly ideas and thinking of Bob Williams is illustrated here by a few of the areas in which he inspired us. His journey to bring inorganic chemistry to life began with an early interest in analytical chemistry, rationalising the relative stabilities of metal coordination complexes (The Irving-Williams Series), and elucidating the organometallic redox chemistry of vitamin B12. He (and Vallee) recognised that metal ions are in energised (entatic) states in proteins a...
Simulation Apps Bring Us Closer to Mars
Knox, Jim
2015-01-01
My work with mathematical modeling and computer simulations began in earnest in 1987 when I signed on with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, better known as NASA. At the time I was developing computer simulations to support the design of carbon dioxide (CO2) removal systems for the International Space Station (ISS) life support system. CO2 is a human metabolic waste, produced at a rate of a kilogram per day per crewmember. CO2 must be removed from the crew cabin, as it will quickly become detrimental to crew health. The systems used to remove CO2 are typically based on sorption processes, which include complex interactions of heat transfer, mass transfer, and gas flow through porous media. At this time, there were no commercial options for solving a set of coupled mathematical models such as partial differential equations (PDEs); you either force-fit the physics into a thermal analysis package or wrote your own code, complete with discretization, meshing, and solution algorithms. Unfortunately, coding CO2 removal processes from scratch did not allow an appropriate focus on the challenging yet crucial task of understanding and capturing the underlying physics via appropriate mathematical models. Configuration control was often simply ignored due to tight schedules, resulting in a code that would be quicker for a second party to rewrite than modify. In the early 2000s, I decided to move CO2 removal simulations to a platform with built-in meshing, solvers, and postprocessing capabilities, and that could solve user-defined multiphysics PDEs. The program chosen to meet these needs was COMSOL Multiphysics®. Along with freeing the engineer to focus on the underlying physics, a degree of configuration control was automatically achieved via a consistent user interface, thus allowing COMSOL users to share computer models. My team has developed simulations that are already providing a valuable debugging capability for the ISS CO2 removal system, and will
About an optimal visiting problem
Bagagiolo, Fabio; Benetton, Michela
2010-01-01
In this paper we are concerned with the optimal control problem consisting in minimizing the time for reaching (visiting) a fixed number of target sets, in particular more than one target. Such a problem is of course reminiscent of the famous "Traveling Salesman Problem" and brings all its computational diculties. Our aim is to apply the dynamic programming technique in order to characterize the value function of the problem as the unique viscosity solution of a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi equat...
Bring your own device (BYOD) to work trend report
Hayes, Bob
2013-01-01
Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to Work examines the emerging BYOD (Bring Your Own Device to work) trend in corporate IT. BYOD is the practice of employees bringing personally-owned mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets, laptops) to the workplace, and using those devices to access company resources such as email, file servers, and databases. BYOD presents unique challenges in data privacy, confidentiality, security, productivity, and acceptable use that must be met proactively by information security professionals. This report provides solid background on the practice, original res
2010-09-01
CPD Event: Teaching day gives new perspectives Workshop: IOP network devolops its ideas Conference: Conference offers much to teachers Event: Physics is made easy in Liverpool Communication: IOSTE debates the complexities of STE Conference: Teaching event excites in Exeter Meeting Invitation: Wales physics meeting invites bookings CPD Event: Science teachers get hands on with development Research: Conference highlights liquid crytstal research in teaching Education: Teachers give positive feedback Science Fair: Science fair brings physics to students Teaching: Conference explores trends in teaching Forthcoming events
Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji
2016-01-01
Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a gene...
Anagnostopoulos, K.; Azuma, T.; Nishimura, J.
The IIB matrix model proposes a mechanism for dynamically generating four dimensional space--time in string theory by spontaneous breaking of the ten dimensional rotational symmetry $\\textrm{SO}(10)$. Calculations using the Gaussian expansion method (GEM) lend support to this conjecture. We study a simple $\\textrm{SO}(4)$ invariant matrix model using Monte Carlo simulations and we confirm that its rotational symmetry breaks down, showing that lower dimensional configurations dominate the path integral. The model has a strong complex action problem and the calculations were made possible by the use of the factorization method on the density of states $\\rho_n(x)$ of properly normalized eigenvalues $\\tilde\\lambda_n$ of the space--time moment of inertia tensor. We study scaling properties of the factorized terms of $\\rho_n(x)$ and we find them in agreement with simple scaling arguments. These can be used in the finite size scaling extrapolation and in the study of the region of configuration space obscured by the large fluctuations of the phase. The computed values of $\\tilde\\lambda_n$ are in reasonable agreement with GEM calculations and a numerical method for comparing the free energy of the corresponding ansatze is proposed and tested.
Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji
2016-07-01
Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.
Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160300.html Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas ... must be monitored "in the light of ongoing climate change, especially in coastal areas most heavily affected by ...
Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together
1999-01-01
The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.
Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together
1997-01-01
The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.
Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings
... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...
Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena
Legêne, S.
2011-01-01
Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antill...
Gent, Tiejo van
2012-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the hearing impaired population with severe mental health problems. The rate of mental health problems, especially of emotional problems, was increased in deaf adolescents of normal intelligence compare...
Fast and accurate analytical model to solve inverse problem in SHM using Lamb wave propagation
Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2016-04-01
Lamb wave propagation is at the center of attention of researchers for structural health monitoring of thin walled structures. This is due to the fact that Lamb wave modes are natural modes of wave propagation in these structures with long travel distances and without much attenuation. This brings the prospect of monitoring large structure with few sensors/actuators. However the problem of damage detection and identification is an "inverse problem" where we do not have the luxury to know the exact mathematical model of the system. On top of that the problem is more challenging due to the confounding factors of statistical variation of the material and geometric properties. Typically this problem may also be ill posed. Due to all these complexities the direct solution of the problem of damage detection and identification in SHM is impossible. Therefore an indirect method using the solution of the "forward problem" is popular for solving the "inverse problem". This requires a fast forward problem solver. Due to the complexities involved with the forward problem of scattering of Lamb waves from damages researchers rely primarily on numerical techniques such as FEM, BEM, etc. But these methods are slow and practically impossible to be used in structural health monitoring. We have developed a fast and accurate analytical forward problem solver for this purpose. This solver, CMEP (complex modes expansion and vector projection), can simulate scattering of Lamb waves from all types of damages in thin walled structures fast and accurately to assist the inverse problem solver.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
At present, most of China’s railway hubs are developed to be transportation complexes, with some problems like unsmooth traffic circulation, mixed but disordered functions, separated spaces, etc. In high-speed rail era, high-speed railway hubs should be regarded as the catalyst to promoted urban development. The mode of urban complex should be developed, to closely connect the railway hub and the surrounding area within walking distance, so as people could get to their destinations in the most convenient way. Furthermore, it would strengthen people’s aggregation, thus to bring about larger scale urban development by the successful development of urban complex.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel Greiff
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Since the 1960ies, when pioneering research on Item Response Theory (IRT was published, considerable progress has been made with regard to the psychometrical quality of psychological assessment tools. One recent development building upon IRT is the introduction of Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling (CDM. The major goal of introducing CDM was to develop methods that allow for examining which cognitive processes are involved when a person is working on a specific assessment task. More precisely, CDM enables researchers to investigate whether assumed task characteristics drive item difficulty and, thus, person ability parameters. This may – at least according to the assumption inherent in CDM - allow conclusions about cognitive processes involved in assessment tasks. In this study, out of the numerous CDMs available the Least Square Distance Method (LSDM; Dimitrov, 2012 was applied to investigate psychometrical qualities of an assessment instrument measuring Complex Problem Solving (CPS skills. For the purpose of the study, two task characteristics essential for mastering CPS tasks were identified ex-ante – degree of connectivity and presence of indirect effects by adding eigendynamics to the task. The study examined whether and how the two hypothesized task characteristics drive item difficulty of two CPS dimensions, knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. The sample consisted of 490 German high school students, who completed the computer-based CPS assessment instrument MicroDYN. The two task characteristics in MicroDYN items were varied systematically. Results obtained in LSDM indicated that the two hypothesized task characteristics, degree of connectivity and introducing indirect effects, drove item difficulty only for knowledge acquisition. Hence, other task characteristics that may determine item difficulty of knowledge application need to be investigated in future studies in order to provide a sound measurement of CPS.
Causality problem in Economic Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JOSÉ LUIS RETOLAZA
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1 The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2 The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3 The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1 the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2 the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years we have seen the birth of a new field known as Hamiltonian complexity lying at the crossroads between computer science and theoretical physics. Hamiltonian complexity is directly concerned with the question: how hard is it to simulate a physical system? Here I review the foundational results, guiding problems, and future directions of this emergent field.
Bringing Model Checking Closer to Practical Software Engineering
AUTHOR|(CDS)2079681; Templon, J A; Willemse, T.A.C.
Software grows in size and complexity, making it increasingly challenging to ensure that it behaves correctly. This is especially true for distributed systems, where a multitude of components are running concurrently, making it dicult to anticipate all the possible behaviors emerging in the system as a whole. Certain design errors, such as deadlocks and race-conditions, can often go unnoticed when testing is the only form of verication employed in the software engineering life-cycle. Even when bugs are detected in a running software, revealing the root cause and reproducing the behavior can be time consuming (and even impossible), given the lack of control the engineer has over the execution of the concurrent components, as well as the number of possible scenarios that could have produced the problem. This is especially pronounced for large-scale distributed systems such as the Worldwide Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid. Formal verication methods oer more rigorous means of determining whether a system sat...
An Approach to Implement Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Securely
Vishal Gupta; Deepak Sangroha; Lovekesh Dhiman
2013-01-01
BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) is a business policy to allow employees to bring their own devices at their work. The same device is used in and out of the corporate office and during outside use, it may be connected to insecure internet and critical corporate data become public. This can be a big threat to the office as well as business strategies and future policies are derived from this data. In this paper an approach is explained to guard against this type of threat and to secure the corpora...
Does Satisfaction with Teaching Quality Factors Bring Conceptual Change?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saifur Rehman Khan
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore classroom teaching quality factors that determine the satisfaction level and ultimately bring conceptual change among students. This study tests the theories of customer satisfaction in educational psychology research on a sample of 972 respondents. Overwhelmingly the results point out that male students were highly dissatisfied and have little impact on conceptual change whereas female students were reported significant level of satisfaction and conceptual change. In conclusion, detailed empirical analyses promote the theory of learning-satisfaction with classroom teaching bring conceptual change.
Framework for Bringing Data Streams to the Grid
Beth Plale
2004-01-01
Data streams are a prevalent and growing source of timely data, particularly in the scientific domain. Just as it is common today to read starting conditions such as initial weather conditions, for a scientific simulation from a file, it should be equally as easy to draw starting conditions on-demand from live data streams. But efforts to date to bring streaming data to the grid have lacked generality. In this article we introduce a new model for bringing existing data streams systems onto th...
An Approach to Implement Bring Your Own Device (BYOD Securely
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr. Vishal Gupta
2013-04-01
Full Text Available BYOD (Bring Your Own Device is a business policy to allow employees to bring their own devices at their work. The same device is used in and out of the corporate office and during outside use, it may be connected to insecure internet and critical corporate data become public. This can be a big threat to the office as well as business strategies and future policies are derived from this data. In this paper an approach is explained to guard against this type of threat and to secure the corporate data even outside the corporate premises.
E. Saez de Camara; A. Lopez-Urionabarrenechea; M. N. Azpiazu; P. Ruiz de Arbulo; G. Insunza
2015-01-01
Three courses of the second year degree in Environmental Engineering (Geology and Pedology, Ecology and Economics and Business Administration) have been remodeled using the Problem-Based Learning methodology. The proposed problem is a real-life and integrative problem related to their specialization which must be solved in these three courses at the same time. The results reveal that during this experience students were considerably more active, cooperative and involved, and the success rate ...
Solution to complex container loading problem based on ant colony algorithm%蚁群算法求解复杂集装箱装载问题
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜立宁; 张德珍; 陈世峰
2011-01-01
针对复杂集装箱装载问题(CLP),应用启发式信息与蚁群算法求解了最优装栽方案.首先,建立了复杂集装箱装载问题的数学模型,利用蚁群算法对解空间的强搜索能力、潜在并行性及可扩充性,结合三空间分解策略将布局空间依次分割;然后,装入满足约束条件的最优货物块,完成不同大小三维矩形货物的装载布局.在此基础上,设计了基于空间划分策略的蚁群算法.最后以700件货物装入40尺(12.025 m)高柜箱进行计算,结果表明该方法能提高集装箱的空间利用率,同时兼顾了多个装载约束条件,可应用性好.%In view of the complex Container Loading Problem ( CLP), the optimal loading plan with heuristic information and the ant colony algorithm was proposed. Firstly, a mathematical model was generated. Considering the strong search ability, potential parallelism and scalability of ant colony algorithm, the proposed algorithm was combined with the triple-tree structure to split the layout of space in turn. Then, the three-dimensional rectangular objects of different sizes were placed to the layout space under the constraints. An ant colony algorithm based on spatial partition was designed to solve the optimal procedure. Finally, a design example that 700 pieces of goods were loaded into a 40-foot ( 12. 025 m) high cubic was calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed method can enhance the utilization of the container and it has a strong practicality.
Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Cherinka
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.
Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems
Robert Cherinka; Joe Prezzama
2014-01-01
Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" enviro...
Gent, Tiejo van
2012-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the h
Bring Your Own Device: Parental Guidance (PG) Suggested
Kiger, Derick; Herro, Dani
2015-01-01
Educators are incorporating students' mobile devices into the schooling experience via Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiatives. This is advantageous for many reasons, most notably, improving access to Internet resources and digital tools in support of teaching and learning. Obtaining parental support is key to BYOD success. Therefore, this study…
Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.
Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard
2003-01-01
Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)
Foreign Aided: Why Democratization Brings Growth When Democracy Does Not
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hariri, Jacob Gerner
2015-01-01
if being one does not? This article shows that a substantial and immediate influx of foreign aid into new democracies accounts for the positive growth effect of democratization. The domestic regime characteristics of neither democracy nor democratization therefore seems to bring growth. The...
Bring Your Own Digital Device in Teacher Education
Newhouse, C. Paul; Cooper, Martin; Pagram, Jeremy
2015-01-01
This article reports on an investigation to advise a teacher education institution on the feasibility of having a "Bring Your Own Digital Device" policy for students. The investigation built on components of two research projects while adding the comprehensive testing of representative potential hardware and software platforms. The…
Excelsior: Bringing the Benefits of Modularisation to Excel
Paine, Jocelyn
2008-01-01
Excel lacks features for modular design. Had it such features, as do most programming languages, they would save time, avoid unneeded programming, make mistakes less likely, make code-control easier, help organisations adopt a uniform house style, and open business opportunities in buying and selling spreadsheet modules. I present Excelsior, a system for bringing these benefits to Excel.
Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children
Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth
2007-01-01
Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization promotes…
Bringing Curriculum Theory and Didactics Together: A Deweyan Perspective
Deng, Zongyi
2016-01-01
Using Dewey's method of resolution for resolving a dualism exemplified in "The Child and the Curriculum," this article reconciles and brings together two rival schools of thought--curriculum theory and didactics--in China. The central thesis is that the rapprochement requires a reconceptualisation of curriculum theory and didactics in…
Bringing internet connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach
Matthee, K.W.; Mweemba, G.; Pais, A.V.; Starn, G.V.; Rijken, M.
2007-01-01
This paper presents an initiative to bring connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. In particular, it focuses on a proof-of-concept Internet service that has been implemented in rural Macha located in the Southern Province of Zambia. The service operates using satellite terminals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Saez de Camara
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Three courses of the second year degree in Environmental Engineering (Geology and Pedology, Ecology and Economics and Business Administration have been remodeled using the Problem-Based Learning methodology. The proposed problem is a real-life and integrative problem related to their specialization which must be solved in these three courses at the same time. The results reveal that during this experience students were considerably more active, cooperative and involved, and the success rate doubled that of similar engineering courses of the Faculty. Regarding students’ opinion, it should be emphasized that they perceive that this method is functional and encouraging. A high percentage of the students describe the experience as positive or very positive. Additionally, they stated that the Problem-Based Learning promoted the development of skills that, in their own view, are essential for their career, such as teamwork and communication.
Communication complexity and information complexity
Pankratov, Denis
Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information
The \\infty eigenvalue problem and a problem of optimal transportation
Champion, Thierry; De Pascale, Luigi; Jimenez, Chloé
2008-01-01
The so-called eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the infinite Laplacian $\\Delta_\\infty$ are defined through an asymptotic study of that of the usual $p$-Laplacian $\\Delta_p$, this brings to a characterization via a non-linear eigenvalue problem for a PDE satisfied in the viscosity sense. In this paper, we obtain an other characterization of the first eigenvalue via a problem of optimal transportation, and recover properties of the first eigenvalue and corresponding positive eigenfunctions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The collection contains materials of plenary, sectional and poster sessions, presented at the XI International conference Problems of solvation and complex formation in solutions, and VI Conference of young scientists Theoretical and experimental chemistry of liquid-phase systems (Krestovsky readings). Theoretical questions and new experimental methods of chemistry of solutions, structure and dynamics of molecular and ion-molecular systems in solution and at the phase boundary; modern aspects of applied chemistry of solutions are discussed
Bringing together Anthropology, Ethnology and Folklore: From Factions to Union
Fournier, Laurent Sébastien
2016-01-01
In this paper I first focus on the foundation of the AFEA (Association Française d’Ethnologie et d’Anthropologie) and I try to find out how this new association has been managing (or not) to bring together anthropology and folklore since its foundation in 2009. Using this French example, I also try to shed light on more global discussions going on between folklorists, ethnologists and anthropologists worldwide. I present different models of possible cooperation between anthropologists and fol...
Foreign Aided: Why Democratization Brings Growth When Democracy Does Not
Hariri, Jacob Gerner
2015-01-01
There is an unresolved puzzle in research on the economics of democracy: While there is consensus that democracy is not generally associated with higher rates of economic growth, a recent literature has found that democratization is followed by growth. Why should becoming a democracy bring growth if being one does not? This article shows that the positive growth effect of democratization is accounted for by a substantial and immediate influx of foreign aid into new democracies. The domestic r...
Towards Bringing EEG Research and Diagnostics out of the Lab.
Bitsch, Jó Ágila; Ramos, Roann; Severijns, Cassandra; Wehrle, Klaus
2015-01-01
Bringing brain research tools like EEG devices out of the lab into the pockets of practitioners and researchers may fundamentally change the way we perform diagnostics and research. While most of the current techniques are limited to research clinics and require excessive set-up, new consumer EEG devices connected to standard, off-the-shelf mobile devices allow us to lift these limitations. This allows neuropsychological assessment and research in mobile settings, possibly even in remote areas with limited accessibility and infrastructure, thus bringing the equipment to the patient, instead of bringing the patient to the equipment. We are developing an Android based mobile framework to perform EEG studies. By connecting a mobile consumer EEG headset directly to an unmodified mobile device, presenting auditory and visual stimuli, as well as user interaction, we create a self-contained experimental platform. We complement this platform by a toolkit for immediate evaluation of the recorded data directly on the device, even without Internet connectivity. Initial results from the replication of two Event Related Potentials studies indicate the feasibility of the approach. PMID:25980867
Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Legêne
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antillean islands in the Caribbean. Bosma traces the development of postcolonial immigrant organizations. In interaction with government policies, these organizations moved from mere socioeconomic emancipation struggles to mere cultural identity politics. Van Leeuwen takes such cultural identity politics as the starting point for her analysis of Indo-Dutch and Dutch Indies cultural initiatives and the competing interests at stake in the Indies heritage discourse. Oostindie discusses these developments in terms of community development and change within Dutch society at large. He introduces the notion of a ‘postcolonial bonus’. In postcolonial Netherlands, this bonus was available to immigrants on the grounds of a shared colonial past. Today, this bonus is (almost spent. The review discusses the three monographs, as well as the coherence of Bringing History Home as a research programme. Legêne argues, that notwithstanding valuable research outcomes, the very category of postcolonial immigrants does not constitute a convincing category of analysis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王中德; 赵万民
2011-01-01
城市公共空间是复杂系统并表现出复杂性问题.但在传统老三论的影响下,人们曾错误地将复杂性与复杂性问题混为一谈,甚至试图将复杂性导致的随机性结果排除在理性思考之外,这些都直接或间接造成了城市规划和景观设计在城市公共空间的营造、建设及管理中的许多问题.而复杂系统科学理论告诉我们,复杂性是促成系统演化、发展、直至涌现的必要前提,消除了系统的复杂性也就意味着系统的消融.因此,在理解复杂系统科学理论的基础上,对西南山地城市公共空间系统的复杂性与复杂性问题做出深刻探讨.%The urban public space is a complex system and it shows complex problems. However, under the influence of the traditional theories, people used to erroneously confuse complexity with complex problems, and even try to exclude the random results brought by the complexity out of the rational thinking, which directly or indirectly lead to lots of problems in urban planning and landscape design in the urban public space construction, building and management. Meanwhile, the theory of complex system tells that the complexity is an essential premise of the evolution, developing and emergence process of a system. A system would break down without its complexity. Based on a profound understanding of the complex system theory, this article carries on a deep research into the complexity and complex problems in the public space system in mountainous cities in southwest China.
Soler, R.; Hinojosa, J.; Bravo, M.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2004-01-01
A variety of programmes and field experiments were carried out in order to develop and evaluate models of transport and diffusion of pollutants in complex terrain areas. As part of this programme, in this study, we have focused our interest on analyzing the basic features of different flow fields an
Hutchins, Susan G.; Kendall, Anthony; Bordetsky, Alex
2008-01-01
Tracks in priority order: Topic 4: Cognitive and Social Issues; Topic 1: C2 Concepts, Theory, and Policy; Topic 9: Collaborative Technologies for Network-Centric Operations ‘Macrocognition’ is a nascent area of knowledge engineering that focuses on understanding how cognition emerges in natural environments. One goal for studying macrocognition is to understand the complexity entailed in inter- and intra-individual cognition. The goal of the research reported here is to better ...
Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Looms, Majken Caroline; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-03-01
We present an application of the SIPPI Matlab toolbox, to obtain a sample from the a posteriori probability density function for the classical tomographic inversion problem. We consider a number of different forward models, linear and non-linear, such as ray based forward models that rely on the high frequency approximation of the wave-equation and 'fat' ray based forward models relying on finite frequency theory. In order to sample the a posteriori probability density function we make use of both least squares based inversion, for linear Gaussian inverse problems, and the extended Metropolis sampler, for non-linear non-Gaussian inverse problems. To illustrate the applicability of the SIPPI toolbox to a tomographic field data set we use a cross-borehole traveltime data set from Arrenæs, Denmark. Both the computer code and the data are released in the public domain using open source and open data licenses. The code has been developed to facilitate inversion of 2D and 3D travel time tomographic data using a wide range of possible a priori models and choices of forward models.
Lau, August
2012-01-01
Classical approach of solvability problem has shed much light on what we can solve and what we cannot solve mathematically. Starting with quadratic equation, we know that we can solve it by the quadratic formula which uses square root. Polynomial is a generalization of quadratic equation. If we define solvability by using only square roots, cube roots etc, then polynomials are not solvable by radicals (square root, cube root etc). We can classify polynomials into simple (solvable by radicals) and complex (not solvable by radicals). We will use the same metaphor to separate what is solvable (simple part) and what is not solvable (complex part). This paper is a result of our presentation at a University of Houston seminar. In this paper, we will study seismic complexity through the eyes of solvability. We will investigate model complexity, data complexity and operator complexity. Model complexity is demonstrated by multiple scattering in a complex model like Cantor layers. Data complexity is studied through Bet...
Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragelund, Peter
Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...
Bring Your Own Device in the Information Literacy Classroom
Stonebraker, Ilana; Robertshaw, M Brooke; Kirkwood, Hal; Dugan, Mary
2014-01-01
In the 2013 school year, a team of librarians in the Parrish Library of Management and Economics at Purdue University taught a business information literacy course to approximately 500 management students in eight 70-person sessions. Due to limitations on a set of iPads borrowed from another department, one of two concurrent classes was taught with a set of iPads, while another had a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy, where students brought their own laptops or iPads. Focus groups, observat...
The Key to Stabilizing House Prices: Bring Them Down
Dean Baker
2008-01-01
This report states that bringing about the rapid adjustment of house prices to trend levels is the best means of returning stability to the housing market. The paper also calls for the restriction of GSE capital in bubble-inflated markets, with the intent of forcing house prices in these areas to return to trend level. The removal of capital from bubble markets and the consequent infusion of loans into non-bubble markets would stabilize prices in these areas, thus preventing a downward price ...
Bringing a Finnish Company to the Russian E-Market
Veselova, Victoria
2012-01-01
The main objective of the project was to enable a small business case company that is operating in the town of Lappeenranta, Finland, to reach successfully its target segment (Russian consumers) with the help of digital technology in order to increase sales both in its physical shop and in online store. In order to reach the aim of the project and bring Russian consumers and the case company together by the means of electronic marketing, a marketing plan for the promotional campaigns of th...
BRINGING CIVILIZATION: SAVAGERY AND THE TAMING OF THE SAVAGE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas D. Newman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available “See, the Conqu’ring Hero Comes” goes the famous chorus from Handel’s Judas Maccabeus, but how does the hero conquer? Achilles defeats his enemies through his extraordinary prowess in battle, Odysseus by using his wit, but some heroes must abandon the trappings of civilization in order to conquer. This paper examines two examples of such heroes from Germanic and Greco-Roman myth: Beowulf and Herakles. In the texts analyzed, these heroes not only set aside their civilized veneer, but must journey into the territory of the monster they wish to destroy and there use savagery to defeat the savage, in order to bring civilization.
Teaching Computer Science through Problems, Not Solutions
Fee, Samuel B.; Holland-Minkley, Amanda M.
2010-01-01
Regardless of the course topic, every instructor in a computing field endeavors to engage their students in deep problem-solving and critical thinking. One of the specific learning outcomes throughout our computer science curriculum is the development of independent, capable problem solving--and we believe good pedagogy can bring such about. Our…
About an Optimal Visiting Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagagiolo, Fabio, E-mail: bagagiol@science.unitn.it; Benetton, Michela [Unversita di Trento, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)
2012-02-15
In this paper we are concerned with the optimal control problem consisting in minimizing the time for reaching (visiting) a fixed number of target sets, in particular more than one target. Such a problem is of course reminiscent of the famous 'Traveling Salesman Problem' and brings all its computational difficulties. Our aim is to apply the dynamic programming technique in order to characterize the value function of the problem as the unique viscosity solution of a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We introduce some 'external' variables, one per target, which keep in memory whether the corresponding target is already visited or not, and we transform the visiting problem in a suitable Mayer problem. This fact allows us to overcome the lacking of the Dynamic Programming Principle for the originary problem. The external variables evolve with a hysteresis law and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation turns out to be discontinuous.
[Population problem, comprehension problem].
Tallon, F
1993-08-01
Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cameron Richards
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The challenge of better reconciling individual and collective aspects of innovative problem-solving can be productively addressed to enhance the role of PBL as a key focus of the creative process in future higher education. This should involve ‘active learning’ approaches supported by related processes of teaching, assessment and curriculum. As Biggs & Tan (2011 have suggested, an integrated or systemic approach is needed for the most effective practice of outcomes-based education also especially relevant for addressing relatively simple as well as more complex problems. Such a model will be discussed in relation to the practical example of a Masters subject conceived with interdisciplinary implications, applications, and transferability: ‘sustainable policy studies in science, technology and innovation’. Different modes of PBL might be encouraged in terms of the authentic kinds of ‘complex problem-solving’ issues and challenges which increasingly confront an interdependent and changing world. PBL can be further optimized when projects or cases also involve contexts and examples of research and inquiry. However, perhaps the most crucial pillar is a model of portfolio assessment for linking and encouraging as well as distinguishing individual contributions to collaborative projects and activities.
Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Looms, Majken Caroline; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
We present an application of the SIPPI Matlab toolbox, to obtain a sample from the a posteriori probability density function for the classical tomographic inversion problem. We consider a number of different forward models, linear and non-linear, such as ray based forward models that rely on the high frequency approximation of the wave-equation and ‘fat’ ray based forward models relying on finite frequency theory. In order to sample the a posteriori probability density function we make use of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The European Commission is funding within its Sixth Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry. The organisational framework for this project is provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. One task within the CONRAD project, Work Package 6 (WP6), was to provide a report outlining research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterisation of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators, but also at the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities. The paper provides an overview of the report, which will be available as CERN Yellow Report. (authors)
Bringing Technology into college and High School Physics Classrooms
Zettili, Nouredine
2007-04-01
We want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to college and high school physics classrooms. We focus in particular on our outreach initiative in supporting a number of school districts with ways to improve high school physics education. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a No-Child Left Behind grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. IMPACTSEED aims at helping high school teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama course of study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of programs: a two-week long summer institute, a series of five technology workshops, and onsite year-round support. Through our hands-on approach, we have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms. A number of technology projects were assigned to the teachers so as to show their students how physics connects to the technological devices around us. IMPACTSEED aims at providing our students with a physics education that enjoys continuity and consistency from high school to college.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jackie Ford
2015-04-01
Full Text Available There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald’s (1 call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking.
Allen, Deborah E.; Donham, Richard S.; Bernhardt, Stephen A.
2011-01-01
In problem-based learning (PBL), students working in collaborative groups learn by resolving complex, realistic problems under the guidance of faculty. There is some evidence of PBL effectiveness in medical school settings where it began, and there are numerous accounts of PBL implementation in various undergraduate contexts, replete with…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵伟
2011-01-01
当今时代,各种复杂性理论变体对于经典形而上学思维带来了挑战,并引起了人们对于复杂性理论是否是科学的怀疑。为了理解什么是复杂性以及怎么应对它所带来的形而上学新问题。首先,给出一个关于复杂性的相对定义,并介绍＂复杂性＂理论的三个发展阶段成果;其次,比较研究经典思维和复杂性思维的形而上学预设的冲突;最后,建构适应于复杂性理论的形而上学的构成承诺和构成原则。%Nowadays,all kinds of theories of complexity have brourht about challenges to the classical metaphysical thinking,and cause people to be doubtful whether the theories of complexity are scientific.In order to understand what is complexity and how to cope with the new metaphysical problems it produced.Firstly,give a relevant notion about complexity,and offers a chronological presentation of three generations of theories that have shaped its uses;secondly,compare and study the comflicts of metaphysical preferences between the classical thinking and the complexity thinking;in the end,construct the constitutive commitments and the constitutive principles which are adapted to complexity theories.
Bilski, P; Blomgren, J; d'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P
2007-01-01
The European Commission is funding within its Sixth Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organisational framework for this project is provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. One task within the CONRAD project, Work Package 6 (WP6), was to provide a report outlining research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterisation of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators, but also at the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities. The paper provides an overview of the report, which will be available as CERN Yellow Report. PMID:17496292
Laughlin, Patrick R
2011-01-01
Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gask Linda
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom and worldwide, there is significant policy interest in improving the quality of care for patients with mental health disorders and distress. Improving quality of care means addressing not only the effectiveness of interventions but also the issue of limited access to care. Research to date into improving access to mental health care has not been strongly rooted within a conceptual model, nor has it systematically identified the different elements of the patient journey from identification of illness to receipt of care. This paper set out to review core concepts underlying patient access to mental health care, synthesise these to develop a conceptual model of access, and consider the implications of the model for the development and evaluation of interventions for groups with poor access to mental health care such as older people and ethnic minorities. Methods Narrative review of the literature to identify concepts underlying patient access to mental health care, and synthesis into a conceptual model to support the delivery and evaluation of complex interventions to improve access to mental health care. Results The narrative review adopted a process model of access to care, incorporating interventions at three levels. The levels comprise (a community engagement (b addressing the quality of interactions in primary care and (c the development and delivery of tailored psychosocial interventions. Conclusions The model we propose can form the basis for the development and evaluation of complex interventions in access to mental health care. We highlight the key methodological challenges in evaluating the overall impact of access interventions, and assessing the relative contribution of the different elements of the model.
A multiscale problem in thermal science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casenave Fabien
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a multiscale heat problem in civil aviation: determine the temperature field in a plane in flying conditions, with air conditioning. Ventilated electronic components in the bay bring a heat source, introducing a second scale in the problem. First, we present three levels of modelling for the physical phenomena, which are applied to the two sub-problems: the plane and the electronic component. Then, having reduced the complexity of the problem to a linear non-symmetric coercive PDE, we will use the reduced basis method for the electronic component problem. Nous considérons un problème multi-échelle d’aérothermie en aviation civile. Nous souhai- tons déterminer le champ de température dans un avion en conditions de vol, avec présence d’une climatisation. Des composants électroniques ventilés sont présents dans la soute, et constituent une source de chaleur, introduisant une deuxième échelle dans notre problème. Dans un premier temps, nous présentons trois niveaux de modélisation pour le phénomène d’aérothermie, que nous appliquerons aux deux sous-problèmes : l’avion et le composant électronique. Ensuite, nous appliquons la méthode des bases réduites au problème du composant électronique, en considérant des simplifications de modélisation amenant à la résolution numérique d’une EDP elliptique linéaire coercive non-symétrique.
Next Challenges in Bringing Artificial Immune Systems to Production in Network Security
Hilker, Michael
2008-01-01
The human immune system protects the human body against various pathogens like e.g. biological viruses and bacteria. Artificial immune systems reuse the architecture, organization, and workflows of the human immune system for various problems in computer science. In the network security, the artificial immune system is used to secure a network and its nodes against intrusions like viruses, worms, and trojans. However, these approaches are far away from production where they are academic proof-of-concept implementations or use only a small part to protect against a certain intrusion. This article discusses the required steps to bring artificial immune systems into production in the network security domain. It furthermore figures out the challenges and provides the description and results of the prototype of an artificial immune system, which is SANA called.
Bringing authentic service learning to the classroom: benefits and lessons learned
Chamberlain, Leslie C.
2016-06-01
Project-based learning, which has gained significant attention within K-12 education, provides rich hands-on experiences for students. Bringing an element of service to the projects allow students to engage in a local or global community, providing an abundance of benefits to the students’ learning. For example, service projects build confidence, increase motivation, and exercise problem-solving and communication skills in addition to developing a deep understanding of content. I will present lessons I have learned through four years of providing service learning opportunities in my classroom. I share ideas for astronomy projects, tips for connecting and listening to a community, and helpful guidelines to hold students accountable in order to ensure a productive and educational project.
Bringing inorganic chemistry to life with inspiration from R. J. P. Williams.
Hill, H Allen O; Sadler, Peter J
2016-03-01
Our appreciation of the scholarly ideas and thinking of Bob Williams is illustrated here by a few of the areas in which he inspired us. His journey to bring inorganic chemistry to life began with an early interest in analytical chemistry, rationalising the relative stabilities of metal coordination complexes (The Irving-Williams Series), and elucidating the organometallic redox chemistry of vitamin B12. He (and Vallee) recognised that metal ions are in energised (entatic) states in proteins and enzymes, which themselves are dynamic structures of rods and springs. He played a key role in helping Rosenberg to pave the road toward the clinic for the anticancer drug cisplatin. He believed that evolution is not just dependent on DNA, but also on the metallome. Organisms and the environment are one system: does DNA code directly for all the essential elements of life? PMID:26841789
Problems over Information Systems
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
The problems of estimation of the minimum average time complexity of decision trees and design of efficient algorithms are complex in general case. The upper bounds described in Chap. 2.4.3 can not be applied directly due to large computational complexity of the parameter M(z). Under reasonable assumptions about the relation of P and NP, there are no polynomial time algorithms with good approximation ratio [12, 32]. One of the possible solutions is to consider particular classes of problems and improve the existing results using characteristics of the considered classes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Bringing Science into Schools through Astronomy. Project ASTRO, Tucson
Barban, C; Barban, Caroline; Dole, Herve
2005-01-01
We report our experience in bringing science into US and French classrooms. We participated in the US scientific educational program Project ASTRO. It is based on a partnership between a school teacher and an astronomer. They together design and realize simple and interesting scientific activities for the children to learn and enjoy science. We present four hands-on activities we realized in a 4th-grade class (10 yr-old kids) in Tucson (USA) in 2002-2003. Among the covered topics were: the Solar System, the Sun (helioseismology) and the Galaxies. We also present a similar experience done in two classrooms in 2005, in Chatenay-Malabry (France) in partnership with an amateur astronomy association (Aphelie). This is a pleasant and rewarding activity, extremely well appreciated by the children and the school teachers. It furthermore promotes already at a young age the excitement of science, and provides concrete examples of the scientific methodology.
Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology.
Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D
2006-05-01
The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied. PMID:17152604
Bringing the power of dynamic languages to hardware control systems
Caicedo, J M; Neufeld, N
2009-01-01
Hardware control systems are normally programmed using high-performance languages like C or C++ and increasingly also Java. All these languages are strongly typed and compiled which brings usually good performance but at the cost of a longer development and testing cycle and the need for more programming expertise. Dynamic languages which were long thought to be too slow and not powerful enough for control purposes are, thanks to modern powerful computers and advanced implementation techniques, fast enough for many of these tasks. We present examples from the LHCb Experiment Control System (ECS), which is based on a commercial SCADA software. We have successfully used Python to integrate hardware devices into the ECS. We present the necessary lightweight middle-ware we have developed, including examples for controlling hardware and software devices. We also discuss the development cycle, tools used and compare the effort to traditional solutions.
Amoebas of Complex Hypersurfaces in Statistical Thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Passare, Mikael [Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics (Sweden); Pochekutov, Dmitry, E-mail: potchekutov@gmail.com [Siberian Federal University, Institute of Core Undergraduate Programmes (Russian Federation); Tsikh, August, E-mail: atsikh@sfu-kras.ru [Siberian Federal University, Institute of Mathematics (Russian Federation)
2013-03-15
The amoeba of a complex hypersurface is its image under the logarithmic projection. A number of properties of algebraic hypersurface amoebas are carried over to the case of transcendental hypersurfaces. We demonstrate the potential that amoebas can bring into statistical physics by considering the problem of energy distribution in a quantum thermodynamic ensemble. The spectrum {l_brace}{epsilon}{sub k}{r_brace} Subset-Of Z{sup n} of the ensemble is assumed to be multidimensional; this leads us to the notions of multidimensional temperature and a vector of differential thermodynamic forms. Strictly speaking, in the paper we develop the multidimensional Darwin-Fowler method and give the description of the domain of admissible average values of energy for which the thermodynamic limit exists.
Complex wounds Feridas complexas
Marcus Castro Ferreira; Paulo Tuma Júnior; Viviane Fernandes de Carvalho; Fábio Kamamoto
2006-01-01
Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treat...
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) we...
Problem behaviour in primary health care
Lamberts, H
1980-01-01
Primary health care can be regarded as the boundary between society as a whole and the medical system. Many of the problems patients bring to doctors in primary care are concerned with their personalities and life situation, and can be considered together as problems of human behaviour. On being questioned in a waiting room, 15 per cent of patients considered their problem “psychosocial only”, and an additional 13 to 14 per cent “both somatic and psychosocial”.
GRAY MARKETING: PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS & STRATEGIES
PREETI KHATRI
2013-01-01
Understanding the grey marketing…….Gray markets occur when a product is designed and destined for a particular market, and an intermediary known as a 'gray marketer' brings that product to a second market to sell it for less than its list price in that second market. (David Soberman, 2012)The grey market has been escalating rapidly, leading to a number of problems including loss of revenue and margin, damage to the carrier affiliation, depreciation of the brand, possible liability and safety ...
Bringing Curriculum to Life. Enacting Project-Based Learning in Music Programs
Tobias, Evan S.; Campbell, Mark Robin; Greco, Phillip
2015-01-01
At its core, project-based learning is based on the idea that real-life problems capture student interest, provoke critical thinking, and develop skills as they engage in and complete complex undertakings that typically result in a realistic product, event, or presentation to an audience. This article offers a starting point for music teachers who…
Tsednee, Tsogbayar; Yeager, Danny L
2015-01-01
We propose and develop the complex scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator (CMCSTEP) technique for theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom/molecule systems including open-shell and highly correlated atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method (MCSTEP) developed and implemented by Yeager his coworkers in real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and attachment energies. The CMCSTEP method uses a complex scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field (CMCSCF) state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. CMCSCF was developed and applied successfully to resonance problems earlier. We apply the CMCSTEP method to get $^2 P\\,\\mbox{Be}^{-}$ shape resonance parameters using $14s11p5d$, $14s14p2d$, and $14s14p5d$ basis sets with a $2s2p3d$\\,CAS. The obtained value of the resonance parameters are compared to previous res...
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together
2000-01-01
Laboratories:Bogoliubov Laboratory Theoretical Physics Laboratory of High Energies Laboratory of Particle Physics Laboratory of Nuclear Problems Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation
EarthObserver: Bringing the world to your fingertips
Ryan, W. B.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Coplan, J.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Chan, S.; Bonczkowski, J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Morton, J. J.; McLain, K.; Weissel, R.
2011-12-01
EarthObserver (http://www.earth-observer.org/), developed by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, brings a wealth of geoscience data to Apple iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices. Built around an easy-to-use interface, EarthObserver allows users to explore and visualise a wide range of data sets superimposed upon a detailed base map of land elevations and ocean depths - tapping the screen will instantly return the height or depth at that point. A simple transparency function allows direct comparison of built-in content. Data sets include high-resolution coastal bathymetry of bays, sounds, estuaries, harbors and rivers; geological maps of the US states and world - tapping the screen displays the rock type, and full legends can be viewed; US Topo sheets; and, geophysical content including seafloor crustal age and sediment thickness, earthquake and volcano data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and plate boundary descriptions. The names of physiographic features are automatically displayed. NASA Visible Earth images along with ocean temperature, salinity and productivity maps and precipitation information expose data sets of interest to the atmospheric, oceanic and biological communities. Natural hazard maps, population information and political boundaries allow users to explore impacts upon society. EarthObserver, so far downloaded by more than 55,000 users, offers myriad ways for educators at all levels to bring research-quality geoscience data into the learning environment, whether for use as an in-class illustration or for extensive exploration of earth sciences data. By using cutting-edge mobile app technology, EarthObserver boosts access to relevant earth science content. The EarthObserver base map is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography digital elevation model (GMRT; http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt/), also developed at LDEO and updated regularly. It provides land elevations with horizontal resolution as high as 10m for
Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems
Harnad, Stevan
2001-01-01
The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...
Using Multimedia to Bring Science News to the Public
O'Riordan, C.; Stein, B.; Lorditch, E. M.
2015-12-01
Creative partnerships between scientists and journalists open new opportunities to bring the excitement of scientific discoveries to wider audiences. Research tells us that the majority of the general public now gets more science and technology news from the Internet than from TV sources (2014 NSF Science and Engineering Indicators). In order to reach these audiences news organizations must embrace multiple forms of multimedia. We will review recent research on how the new multimedia landscape is changing the way that science news is consumed and how news organizations are changing the way they deliver news. News programs like Inside Science, and other examples of new partnerships that deliver research news to journalists, teachers, students, and the general public will be examined. We will describe examples of successful collaborations including an article by a former Newsweek science reporter entitled "My 1975 'Cooling World' Story Doesn't Make Today's Climate Scientists Wrong," which got reprinted in Slate, RealClearScience, and mentioned in Factcheck.org and USA Today.
Geodesy Brings the Geoscience Community Together as Geophysicists
Kittross, S.; Rowan, L. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Morris, A. R.; Bartel, B. A.
2015-12-01
Geodesy, the science of determining Earth's shape, gravity field and rotation, has been in existence for millennia. Today, few geoscientists identify with the pure science of geodesy, though many use geodetic tools and data for their research. In 2014, we interviewed members of the UNAVCO community and asked, "Do you call yourself a geodesist?" Most replied that they used geodesy, but would call themselves "geophysicists". This "use of geodesy" for other fields of study, particularly for geophysics-related fields, is consistent with an analysis of AGU's sections and focus groups. Additional analysis of geoscience departments at U.S. universities would suggest a similar trend. The expanding use of geodetic tools and geodetic data for many fields of research such as geophysics, tectonophysics, geodynamics, space physics, geology, geomorphology, seismology, hydrology, volcanology, glaciology, paleontology, paleoseismology, structural geology, meteorology, ecology, archaeology, oceanography, geography, soil science, atmospheric science, and snow science, may provide an approach to bringing diverse fields together under the moniker of geoscience and geoscientists. Scientists using a shared approach to research and education might be able to see themselves under the broader identity of geoscientist. The hurdle to making this transformation towards a larger shared voice in public discourse, is the more common use of "geophysicist" among the geodesy community, which is tied to the strong foundation of physics and mathematics needed to work with geodetic data and tools.
Demarketing fear: Bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper attempts to explore the strategies for breaking the deadlock between the demand for resolving climate crisis and the resistance to deploying nuclear power. Since our present renewable technology is not advanced enough to replace fossil fuel power plants, nuclear power becomes the only available means that can buy us more time to explore better energy sources for coping with the dilemma of global warming and energy security. Therefore, this paper proposes an elaborated fear appeal framework that may shed light on the intervention points for mitigating fear. By examining the influence of fear appeal on the nuclear issue, three strategies for demarketing the nuclear fear of the public are recommended. The paper concludes that only when energy policy makers and the nuclear industry recognize the significance of minimizing fear and begin to work on removing the sources of fear, can we then expect to bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse. - Highlights: • Both cognition and emotion are critical in decision-making processes. • Dealing with the emotion of fear is essential for resolving the nuclear issue. • Fear should be mitigated to make rational discourses on nuclear power happen. • Fear can be mitigated by manipulating issue familiarity and response feasibility. • Using equivalency and issue framing may alter public perceptions of nuclear power
Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system
Bringing solar light to the bottom of the pyramid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, S. [SGA Energy Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2006-07-01
This presentation described the efforts in bringing solar light to areas of Rwanda, Uganda and the Congo that are currently unserved by electricity. In particular, it highlighted the contributions made by Light Up the World Foundation (LUTW) and the International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP) to improve the quality of life in periphery villages by introducing solar LED lighting in 6 pilot villages. Efficient, long-lasting white LED lamps combined with solar can provide a low cost alternative to the current light source, which is kerosene, diesel and candles. It was noted that the technology exists, but the challenge lies in reaching the market and making a sustainable intervention. The operating parameters of solar panels, LED lamps and batteries were listed with reference to output power, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and capacity. The service life of these devices was also listed along with estimates of their operating costs. The project needs were also identified. It was emphasized that financial support of IGCP and LUTW is needed to support private sector development and market expansion to other areas of Africa. figs.
Disulfide Bridges: Bringing Together Frustrated Structure in a Bioactive Peptide.
Zhang, Yi; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin; Bansal, Paramjit S; Wilson, David; Daly, Norelle L
2016-04-26
Disulfide bridges are commonly found covalent bonds that are usually believed to maintain structural stability of proteins. Here, we investigate the influence of disulfide bridges on protein dynamics through molecular dynamics simulations on the cysteine-rich trypsin inhibitor MCoTI-II with three disulfide bridges. Correlation analysis of the reduced cyclic peptide shows that two of the three disulfide distances (Cys(11)-Cys(23) and Cys(17)-Cys(29)) are anticorrelated within ∼1 μs of bridge formation or dissolution: when the peptide is in nativelike structures and one of the distances shortens to allow bond formation, the other tends to lengthen. Simulations over longer timescales, when the denatured state is less structured, do not show the anticorrelation. We propose that the native state contains structural elements that frustrate one another's folding, and that the two bridges are critical for snapping the frustrated native structure into place. In contrast, the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge is predicted to form together with either of the other two bridges. Indeed, experimental chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance data show that an engineered peptide with the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge deleted can still fold into its near-native structure even in its noncyclic form, confirming the lesser role of the Cys(4)-Cys(21) bridge. The results highlight the importance of disulfide bridges in a small bioactive peptide to bring together frustrated structure in addition to maintaining protein structural stability. PMID:27119635
Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula
2013-04-01
An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). PMID:23453322
The Role of Religious and Scientific Leaders in Bringing Awareness to the Urgency of Climate Change.
Ramanathan, V.
2015-12-01
The release of the Encyclical by Pope Francis has opened a powerful new venue to bring forth the urgency of climate change to the public. The background work that preceded the encyclical was several years in the making. The Church has its own Science Academy, known as the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, consisting of 80 members from around the world with more than a third Nobel Laureates. The members are chosen for their scientific excellence (like most science academies of the world) and not for their religious affiliations. This academy organized a series of scientific meetings for the last 5 years, culminating in a 2014 workshop entitled: Sustainable Humanity, Sustainable Nature , Our Responsibility, jointly organized with the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. This meeting of the world's thought leaders in natural and Social sciences, came to a remarkable set of conclusions: Climate Change has become a moral issue. A fundamental change in our attitude towards natue and towards each other is required to solve the problem. Religious leaders can have a transformational effect by mobilizing public opinion for actions to stabilize climate change and protect the people. Being a council member of the Pontifical Academy and watching from within the powerful moral voice of Pope Francis, I conclude that this partnership with religion is a powerful new venue for those researchers, reticent about publicly voicing their grave concerns to pursue. We are going to bring massive public support for urgent actions only when the impacts of climate change and its origins are taught in every church, every temple, every mosque, every synagogue, and other places of worship.
Hidden Symmetry Subgroup Problems
Decker, Thomas; Santha, Miklos; Wocjan, Pawel
2011-01-01
We advocate a new approach of addressing hidden structure problems and finding efficient quantum algorithms. We introduce and investigate the Hidden Symmetry Subgroup Problem (HSSP), which is a generalization of the well-studied Hidden Subgroup Problem (HSP). Given a group acting on a set and an oracle whose level sets define a partition of the set, the task is to recover the subgroup of symmetries of this partition inside the group. The HSSP provides a unifying framework that, besides the HSP, encompasses a wide range of algebraic oracle problems, including quadratic hidden polynomial problems. While the HSSP can have provably exponential quantum query complexity, we obtain efficient quantum algorithms for various interesting cases. To achieve this, we present a general method for reducing the HSSP to the HSP, which works efficiently in several cases related to symmetries of polynomials. The HSSP therefore connects in a rather surprising way certain hidden polynomial problems with the HSP. Using this connect...
... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...
Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.
Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon
2010-03-01
Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity. PMID:20595351
Who's bringing you hot ideas and how are you responding?
Davenport, Thomas H; Prusak, Laurence; Wilson, H James
2003-02-01
There's an unsung hero in your organization. It's the person who's bringing in new ideas from the outside about how to manage better. These aren't your product and service innovators--those people are celebrated loudly and often. This is the manager who, for instance, first uttered the phrase "balance scorecard" in your hallways, or "real options," or "intellectual capital." Managerial innovation is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage--especially given the speed with which product innovations are copied--but it doesn't happen automatically. It takes a certain kind of person to welcome new management ideas and usher them into an organization. The authors recently studied 100 such people to find out how they translate new ideas into action in their organizations. They discovered that they are a distinct type of practitioner; that is to say, they resemble their counterparts in other organizations more than they resemble their own colleagues, and they share a common way of working. "Idea practitioners," as the authors call them, begin by scouting for ideas. All of them are avid readers of management literature and enthusiastic participants in business conferences; many are friendly with business gurus. Once they've identified an idea that seems to hold promise, they tailor it to fit their organizations' specific needs. Next, they actively sell the idea--to senior executives, to the rank and file, to middle managers. And finally, they get the ball rolling by participating in small-scale experiments. But when those take off, they get out of the way and let others execute. In this article, the authors identify the characteristics of idea practitioners and offer strategies for managing them wisely. PMID:12577653
Bringing air pollution into the climate change equation.
Pettersen, Marit Viktoria; Fleck, Fiona
2014-08-01
As countries gear up for a major round of international climate talks next year in Paris, the growing problem of air pollution is fast becoming a vital part of the climate change and health debate. Fiona Fleck talks to Marit Viktoria Pettersen. PMID:25177069
Bringing air pollution into the climate change equation
2014-01-01
As countries gear up for a major round of international climate talks next year in Paris, the growing problem of air pollution is fast becoming a vital part of the climate change and health debate. Fiona Fleck talks to Marit Viktoria Pettersen.
Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)
1997-12-31
Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.
Bringing the "Folk" into Applied Linguistics: An Introduction
Wilton, Antje; Stegu, Martin
2011-01-01
As applied linguistics is mainly concerned with solving the language-related problems of laypeople, the examination of folk views constitutes an important research field and its relevance is illustrated in this issue of the AILA review. In this introductory article, we address some of the more general aspects that need to be considered in the…
Bringing the Digital Camera to the Physics Lab
Rossi, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.
2013-01-01
We discuss how compressed images created by modern digital cameras can lead to even severe problems in the quantitative analysis of experiments based on such images. Difficulties result from the nonlinear treatment of lighting intensity values stored in compressed files. To overcome such troubles, one has to adopt noncompressed, native formats, as…
Bringing Outdoor Challenge Education Inside the Business Communication Classroom.
DuFrene, Debbie D.; Sharbrough, William; Clipson, Tim; McCall, Miles
1999-01-01
Describes present-day outdoor challenge education and briefly notes its history. Argues that it provides a framework for organizations to improve teamwork, problem solving, risk-taking, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication. Describes how advantages of outdoor education can be maintained when a program goes indoors. Notes advantages of…
Bringing Action Research to the Curriculum Development Process
Nason, Pamela Nuttall; Whitty, Pam
2007-01-01
In this article, we describe our efforts as project coordinators to negotiate directions and meanings at the initial stages of a childcare curriculum development project for children from birth to age five in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. Understanding curriculum as a complex relational dynamic that is shaped by the multiple social and…
Beyond the Central Dogma: Bringing Epigenetics into the Classroom
Drits-Esser, Dina; Malone, Molly; Barber, Nicola C.; Stark, Louisa A.
2014-01-01
Epigenetics is the study of how external factors and internal cellular signals can lead to changes in the packaging and processing of DNA sequences, thereby altering the expression of genes and traits. Exploring the epigenome introduces students to environmental influences on our genes and the complexities of gene expression. A supplemental…
WHAT DO TEACHERS BRING TO THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
This article, from the point of view of psychology, considers ways in which teachers seek to make sense of the learning process and suggests that their beliefs about learning and learners will have a profound influence on their teaching no matter what syllabus or course book they use. However, an understanding of what makes an effective teacher is inevitably more complex than this.
Atoms for Peace Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together
2000-01-01
"Atoms for Peace", this old slogan is gaining a new meaning today. Rejecting confrontation, mankind looks for new ways to unite the world. Political and economic integration makes it possible to use the great potential and high technologies of the military-industrial complex for constructing new scientific facilities.
Penha, Helio M.
The situation briefly described here shows the consequences which arise from rapid urban growth in areas with complex environmental features, in which the existing delicate balance can easily be disturbed as a result of ill-planned development. Many parts of Brazil, particulary the metropolitan regions in the southeastern part of the country, suffer the types of environmental problems commented above. In areas with low density of population, such as parts of the Amazonia, the degradation is also intense and the destruction of the forests is bringing about important modifications in the climatic, geomorphological and geochemical processes. Although the existing legislation is, in theory, adequate, the actual application and enforcement of the laws and regulations leaves much to be desired. Profound cultural changes, both at the level of the authorities and of the general population, are needed to bring about a more careful approach in the use of the environment.
The Constrained Bottleneck Transportation Problem
Peerayuth Charnsethikul; Saeree Svetasreni
2007-01-01
Two classes of the bottleneck transportation problem with an additional budget constraint are introduced. An exact approach was proposed to solve both problem classes with proofs of correctness and complexity. Moreover, the approach was extended to solve a class of multi-commodity transportation network with a special case of the multi-period constrained bottleneck assignment problem.
Some problems of complex drive system solution
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kratochvíl, Ctirad; Heriban, P.; Houfek, Lubomír; Houfek, Martin
Praha : Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2007 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 131-132 ISBN 978-80-87012-06-2. [Engineering mechanics 2007. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2007-17.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/0063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : drive system * mechanical basic Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery
SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai
2011-01-01
In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propos...
SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai
In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propos...
Bringing Internet-based education and intervention into mental health practice: afterdeployment.org
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josef I. Ruzek
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Internet-facilitated interventions may offer numerous advantages in reaching the large numbers of military service men and women exposed to traumatic events. The Internet is now a primary source of health-related information for consumers and research has shown the effectiveness of web-based interventions in addressing a range of mental health problems.Clinicians can learn how to bring Internet education and intervention into routine care, to help clients better understand mental health issues and learn skills for self-management of problems.The Afterdeployment.org (AD Internet site can be used by health care professionals serving U.S. military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, and their families. The site currently addresses 18 key domains of functioning, including post-traumatic stress, sleep, anger, alcohol and drugs, and military sexual trauma. It provides an extensive amount of client and family education that is suitable for immediate use by clients and providers, as well as the kinds of interactive workshop content and self-assessment tools that have been shown to be helpful in other treatment contexts. AD can be utilized in clinical practice in a variety of ways: as an adjunct to treatment for PTSD, to supplement existing treatments for a range of post-deployment problems, or as the primary focus of treatment for a client.AD represents a kind of service that is likely to become increasingly available in coming years and that is important for mental health providers to actively explore as a tool for extending their reach, improving their efficiency, and improving quality of care.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.
International Scientific School of Excellence Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together
2000-01-01
The Bogolyubov Conference on the Problems of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics - an important international forum, dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding scientist N.N. Bogolyubov (1909- 1992), took place in 1999. The Conference opened at Moscow State University, continued in Dubna and then moved to Kiev. Leading scientists and research organisers from many countries of the world attended the Conference.
Bringing Home the Japanese Abductees from North Korea
ITO, Takuya
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the official and unofficial attitude of former Japanese prime minister Abe Shinzo towards the abductions of Japanese people by North Korea. Officially, Abe displayed an aggressive attitude towards the problem. However, unofficially, he possessed an ingratiating attitude. A Japanese weekly magazine reported that he had been in regular negotiations with North Korea surreptitiously. Abe's ingratiating attitude may be explained by his alleged connection with the Holy Spirit A...
How can scientists bring research to use: the HENVINET experience
Bartonova Alena
2012-01-01
Abstract Background Health concerns have driven the European environmental policies of the last 25 years, with issues becoming more complex. Addressing these concerns requires an approach that is both interdisciplinary and engages scientists with society. In response to this requirement, the FP6 coordination action “Health and Environment Network” HENVINET was set up to create a permanent inter-disciplinary network of professionals in the field of health and environment tasked to bridge the c...
ISSLIVE! Bringing the Space Station to Every Generation
Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Severance, Mark; Blue, Regina; Khan, Ahmed; Healy, Matthew D.; Ehlinger, Jesse B.
2011-01-01
traditional education system, ISSLive! provides a single, interactive, and engaging experience to learn about the ISS and its role in space exploration, international collaboration, and science. While traditional students are using ISSLive! in the classroom, their parents, grandparents, and friends are using it at home. ISSLive! truly brings the daily operations of the ISS into the daily lives of the public from every generation.
Kaiserschnitten Wien - Let's bring the forest in the city
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajda Primožič
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The location is part of the Vienna River Valley, known as "Wiental", one of the most dissonant, incongruous, and contested areas of Vienna. Depending on one’s perspective, the Vienna River Valley can be viewed as a transit corridor, an unresolved urban area, an urban interface, an inter- zone, an infrastructure bundle, an ugly wound in the urban landscape, a socially charged boundary, etc. We started the project with urban pattern analyses on different scales: the scale of the city, the scale of Wiental (from Schönbrunn to Hofburg and on a minor scale, i.e. the scale of the project.The analysis showed that Wiental constitutes the main connection between the city centre and suburbia and the countryside in the background of the city. With its clear morphological importance, it could become a green axis of the city, a pleasant place for people, rather than having only an infrastructural role. Our concept is to bring new character to Wiental by making it a pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly green axis. Our initial goal was to reduce car traffic. We proposed introducing a park-and-ride system, which would become a point of transfer where car traffic is replaced by public transport and cycle traffic. Through the afforestation of Wiental, the area could become a park or recreational route, and the quality of life in the area would improve.An important aspect of the project was dealing with the Danube. We proposed to manage the flood peaks by introducing a dam, and after the point of regulation, we arranged the River into two levels: an ambient upper flow and infrastructural lower flow in the existing channel. Also, by rearranging "Naschmarkt" with the Danube uncovered, we predicted an extension of tourism from the city centre to Schönbrunn by bicycle or on foot, which could be followed by an expansion of the public programme. We wanted to show that the Danube, with an appropriate environment, could become a significant element of the city structure.
Complex shape product tolerance and accuracy control method for virtual assembly
Ma, Huiping; Jin, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Hai
2015-02-01
The simulation of virtual assembly process for engineering design lacks of accuracy in the software of three-dimension CAD at present. Product modeling technology with tolerance, assembly precision preanalysis technique and precision control method are developed. To solve the problem of lack of precision information transmission in CAD, tolerance mathematical model of Small Displacement Torsor (SDT) is presented, which can bring about technology transfer and establishment of digital control function for geometric elements from the definition, description, specification to the actual inspection and evaluation process. Current tolerance optimization design methods for complex shape product are proposed for optimization of machining technology, effective cost control and assembly quality of the products.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter;
Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie
2016-01-01
This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....
Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life
Howard, Ava R.
2014-01-01
Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.
2004-08-01
Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.
Parchment, guns, and the problem of governance
Garzarelli, Giampaolo; Matthew J. Holian
2011-01-01
The genuine problem of governance is one that pays equal attention to both incentive and knowledge issues in private and public contexts. This work brings together Austrian, Public Choice and theory of the firm insights to address such problem. By taking into account incentives and knowledge, it proposes a framework that accommodates comparisons not just of kind (firm or market), but also of degree (e.g., among different types of internal organization). Moreover, although the suggested framew...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel method of producing an approximate mathematical model of the heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in complex enclosures has been developed for the study of the effects of fires. The flow of heat across the boundaries separating fluid and solid domains is treated by the development of a technique previously published by the authors. The effects of the thermal boundary are accounted for in the formulation of the diffusive coefficients to fit into a standard tridiagonal matrix solution of the finite difference heat transfer equation. A particular feature, bringing large economies in computational effort into the solution of complex, three-dimensional problems, is the embedding of local, analytical subsolutions into the finite difference treatment of the whole problem domain. In the method described in this chapter the embedding technique has been used for representing the conduction in included solid regions
Bringing Home the Japanese Abductees from North Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ITO, Takuya
2007-11-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the official and unofficial attitude of former Japanese prime minister Abe Shinzo towards the abductions of Japanese people by North Korea. Officially, Abe displayed an aggressive attitude towards the problem. However, unofficially, he possessed an ingratiating attitude. A Japanese weekly magazine reported that he had been in regular negotiations with North Korea surreptitiously. Abe's ingratiating attitude may be explained by his alleged connection with the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity—which preaches the establishment of a harmonious relationship with North Korea. Abe's dual attitude confounded the families of the abductees as they were unable to ascertain which of his attitudes was genuine.
Global Breast Cancer: The Lessons to Bring Home
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women globally. This paper discusses the current progress in breast cancer in Western countries and focuses on important differences of this disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). It introduces several arguments for applying caution before globalizing some of the US-adopted practices in the screening and management of the disease. Finally, it suggests that studies of breast cancer in LMCs might offer important insights for a more effective management of the problem both in developing as well as developed countries.high-energy Japanese immigrants female higher proliferative
Once Upon a Time ... Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together
2000-01-01
In 1956, a year and a half after the establishment of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, the states of the "socialist bloc" signed an agreement establishing a similar international centre for the study of fundamental problems in physics: the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR. The seat of the Institute was chosen to be the town of Dubna, 120 km north of Moscow. Though the establish-ment of JINR was clearly a political response, during the Cold War, to the establishment of CERN, from the very beginning the Institute's activities were aimed solely at investigating the fundamental properties of matter and using scientific discoveries for peaceful purposes.
Synthetic real estate: bringing corporate finance to health care.
Varwig, D; Smith, J
1998-01-01
The changing landscape of health care has caused hospitals, health care systems, and other health care organizations to look for ways to finance expansions and acquisitions without "tainting" their balance sheets. This search has led health care executives to a financing technique that has been already embraced by Fortune 500 companies for most of this decade and more recently adopted by high-tech companies: synthetic real estate. Select case studies provide examples of the more creative financial structures currently being employed to meet rapidly growing and increasingly complex funding needs. PMID:9612732
Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.
Vogel, Wendy H
2016-01-01
Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776
Larson, Stefan M; Shirts, Michael; Pande, Vijay S
2009-01-01
For decades, researchers have been applying computer simulation to address problems in biology. However, many of these "grand challenges" in computational biology, such as simulating how proteins fold, remained unsolved due to their great complexity. Indeed, even to simulate the fastest folding protein would require decades on the fastest modern CPUs. Here, we review novel methods to fundamentally speed such previously intractable problems using a new computational paradigm: distributed computing. By efficiently harnessing tens of thousands of computers throughout the world, we have been able to break previous computational barriers. However, distributed computing brings new challenges, such as how to efficiently divide a complex calculation of many PCs that are connected by relatively slow networking. Moreover, even if the challenge of accurately reproducing reality can be conquered, a new challenge emerges: how can we take the results of these simulations (typically tens to hundreds of gigabytes of raw data...
From the Moon: Bringing Space Science to Diverse Audiences
Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.; M3 Science; E/PO Team
2011-12-01
NASA's Apollo missions held a place in the mindset of many Americans - we dared to go someplace where humans had never set foot, a place unknown and beyond our imaginations. These early NASA missions and discoveries resulted in an enhanced public understanding of the Moon. Now, with the human element so far removed from space exploration, students must rely on textbooks, TV's, and computers to build their understanding of our Moon. However, NASA educational materials about the Moon are stale and out-of-date. In addition, they do not effectively address 21st Century Skills, an essential for today's classrooms. Here, we present a three-part model for developing opportunities in lunar science education professional development that is replicable and sustainable and integrates NASA mission-derived data (e.g., Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1). I) With the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better explore and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the imaging spectrometer are incorporated into the M3 Educator's Guide: Seeing the Moon in a New Light. The guide includes an array of activities and lessons to help educators and students understand how NASA is currently exploring the Moon. The guide integrates NASA maps and data into the interactive lessons, bringing the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into the classroom. II) Utilizing the M3 Educator's Guide as well as educational activities from more current NASA lunar missions, we offer two sustained professional development opportunities for educators to explore the Moon through interactive and creative strategies. 1) Geology of the Moon, an online course offered through Montana State University's National Teacher Enhancement Network, is a 3-credit graduate course. 2) Fly Me to the Moon, offered through the College of Charleston's Office of Professional Development in Education, is a two
... in Chinese 繁體中文 ) What Are Knee Problems? (in Korean 한국어 ) What Are Knee Problems? (in Vietnamese bằng ... the knee. Ultrasound. A technique that uses sound waves to produce images of the soft tissue structures ...
Bringing politics back into water planning scenarios in Europe
Fernandez, Sara; Bouleau, Gabrielle; Treyer, Sébastien
2014-10-01
The shift from government to governance in European water policies conveys a pluralist conception of stakeholder participation in planning. This article argues that the current Driving forces-Pressures-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) approach to the planning of natural resource use, developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Environmental Agency (EEA) is at odds with a pluralistic conception. The DPSIR approach consists in constructing a single socio-environmental model to address a specific problem in water management, while paying no attention to the existence of conflicts surrounding the definition of the issue at hand, the social, political and spatial delimitation of that issue, and the translation of stakes in terms of quantitative variables. Scenarios produced in this process therefore explore a limited range of policies, i.e. those defining the problem in the same way, as illustrated here with the case of the Garonne River in France. This article presents an alternative method, combining knowledge in social science and natural determinisms to build contrasting socio-hydrological scenarios that do not share the same hypotheses regarding their respective key issues.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
SAGITOVA ZH; MIRZAMBETOVA ZH.; KUNGOZHANOVA A.
2015-01-01
This article observes problem-based learning where students engage complex, challenging problems and collaboratively work toward their resolution. Problem-based learning is about students connecting disciplinary knowledge to real-world problems - the motivation to solve a problem becomes the motivation to learn.
Issues and Solutions for Bringing Heterogeneous Water Cycle Data Sets Together
Acker, James; Kempler, Steven; Teng, William; Belvedere, Deborah; Liu, Zhong; Leptoukh, Gregory
2010-01-01
The water cycle research community has generated many regional to global scale products using data from individual NASA missions or sensors (e.g., TRMM, AMSR-E); multiple ground- and space-based data sources (e.g., Global Precipitation Climatology Project [GPCP] products); and sophisticated data assimilation systems (e.g., Land Data Assimilation Systems [LDAS]). However, it is often difficult to access, explore, merge, analyze, and inter-compare these data in a coherent manner due to issues of data resolution, format, and structure. These difficulties were substantiated at the recent Collaborative Energy and Water Cycle Information Services (CEWIS) Workshop, where members of the NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) community gave presentations, provided feedback, and developed scenarios which illustrated the difficulties and techniques for bringing together heterogeneous datasets. This presentation reports on the findings of the workshop, thus defining the problems and challenges of multi-dataset research. In addition, the CEWIS prototype shown at the workshop will be presented to illustrate new technologies that can mitigate data access roadblocks encountered in multi-dataset research, including: (1) Quick and easy search and access of selected NEWS data sets. (2) Multi-parameter data subsetting, manipulation, analysis, and display tools. (3) Access to input and derived water cycle data (data lineage). It is hoped that this presentation will encourage community discussion and feedback on heterogeneous data analysis scenarios, issues, and remedies.
Bringing solar home systems to rural El Salvador: lessons for small NGOs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the results of case studies examining two independent projects that worked to bring solar home systems (SHSs) to isolated communities in El Salvador. Both projects were implemented by small nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that did not have prior experience with SHSs. One project was market-based: families were given the opportunity to purchase the systems at going prices. The other was donor-based: residents were provided the equipment in return for their agreement to cooperate in local environmental protection efforts. Results of a comparative analysis support several conclusions. (1) For small NGOs, the promotion of markets is appealing because of the potential for financial sustainability; yet a reliance on markets may also heighten complexity and increase opportunities for failure. (2) In implementation of market-based projects, all stakeholders, including potential consumers, private-sector service providers, and the staff of NGOs acting as project managers, will face pressures to modify and adapt their attitudes and behaviors. (3) Alternative models for small-scale projects that integrate market-based and donor-based design features deserve consideration
Bringing the CMS distributed computing system into scalable operations
Belforte, S; Fisk, I; Flix, J; HernÃ¡ndez, J M; Kress, T; Letts, J; Magini, N; Miccio, V; SciabÃ , A
2010-01-01
Establishing efficient and scalable operations of the CMS distributed computing system critically relies on the proper integration, commissioning and scale testing of the data and workload management tools, the various computing workflows and the underlying computing infrastructure, located at more than 50 computing centres worldwide and interconnected by the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Computing challenges periodically undertaken by CMS in the past years with increasing scale and complexity have revealed the need for a sustained effort on computing integration and commissioning activities. The Processing and Data Access (PADA) Task Force was established at the beginning of 2008 within the CMS Computing Program with the mandate of validating the infrastructure for organized processing and user analysis including the sites and the workload and data management tools, validating the distributed production system by performing functionality, reliability and scale tests, helping sites to commission, configure an...