WorldWideScience

Sample records for bring complex problems

  1. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings toGlobal Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Ooms, Gorik

    2017-05-20

    Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  2. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense

  3. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense

  4. Complex analogues of real problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune

    geometrical interpretations we construct sets with properties similar to the sets considered in the real case. We then formulate a conjecture which can be interpreted as a complex version of Schmidt's original conjecture. Finally we construct a variant of Schmidt's game, to show a partial result leading us......This thesis will be a mix of different problems in number theory. As such it is split into two natural parts. The rst part focuses on normal numbers and construction of numbers that are normal to a given complex base. It is written in the style of a thorough and introductory paper on that subject...... and Velani, and inspired by this An gave a different proof which provides a stronger result. The conjecture is concerned with intersections of certain sets in the plane and are as such a real problem. We will consider a slightly different setup where the real plane is replaced by the complex plane. Using...

  5. The complexity of wicked problems in large scale change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddock, S.; Meszoely, G.; Waddell, S.; Dentoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend and elaborate the notion of successful organizational change to incorporate the concept of large system change (LSC), by developing a framework that brings together complexity and wicked problems theories to understand how individual organizations and

  6. Solving complex problems a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,

  7. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  8. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...... to both natural, other material and to cultural conditions. Hence, solving the discard problem requires not only technical and regulatory instruments, but also arenas and structures that allow and facilitate processes of cultural change....

  9. Common ground, complex problems and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, P.J.; Boshuizen, H.P.A.; Kirschner, P.A.; Gijselaers, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Organisations increasingly have to deal with complex problems. They often use multidisciplinary teams to cope with such problems where different team members have different perspectives on the problem, different individual knowledge and skills, and different approaches on how to solve the problem.

  10. Complex Sequencing Problems and Local Search Heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.; Osman, I.H.; Kelly, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many problems can be formulated as complex sequencing problems. We will present problems in flexible manufacturing that have such a formulation and apply local search methods like iterative improvement, simulated annealing and tabu search to solve these problems. Computational results are reported.

  11. Education for complex problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental re...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....

  12. Advice Complexity of the Online Search Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemente, Jhoirene; Hromkovič, Juraj; Komm, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The online search problem is a fundamental problem in finance. The numerous direct applications include searching for optimal prices for commodity trading and trading foreign currencies. In this paper, we analyze the advice complexity of this problem. In particular, we are interested in identifying...

  13. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  14. Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doern, Sebastian

    2008-02-04

    This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)

  15. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application"…

  16. Neuropsychiatric problems in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, Miya R; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2004-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormal cellular differentiation and proliferation, as well as abnormal neuronal migration. It is a disease affecting multiple organ systems and typically has brain involvement, causing severe disabilities. This article reviews the literature of the commonly associated neuropsychiatric complications, including mental retardation, autism-like features, and other behavior problems, which are discussed in the context of the neuropathology and epilepsy observed in tuberous sclerosis complex. The potential pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric problems is explored, including links to the genetics, neuropathology, neurotrophins, and epilepsy factors associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. Treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including autism-like features, attention deficits, and sleep disorders, is also discussed.

  17. Bringing Lean Six Sigma to the Supply Chain Classroom: A Problem-Based Learning Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Keith E.; Hill, Craig; Miller, Antoinette R.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a project that employs problem-based learning (PBL) to teach the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology as part of an undergraduate or graduate business course. It is scalable to a variety of course delivery and schedule formats, and uses data sets that can create distinct problem-solving scenarios for up to 16 student teams. It…

  18. Complex of abstract cubes and median problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Cataranciuc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special complex $\\mathcal{K}^{n}$ of abstract cubes [2, 3], which contains only $n$-dimensional cubes is examined. The border of this complex is an abstract $(n-1$-dimensional sphere. It is proved that the abstract sphere contains at least one $0$-dimensional cube, which belongs to exactly $n$ cubes with dimension $1$, if the complex is a homogeneous $n$-dimensional tree. This result allows to solve, in an efficient way, the problem of median for a skeleton of size $1$ of the tree with weighted vertices and edges. The algorithm to calculate the median without using any metric is described. The proposed algorithm can be applied with some modifications, for arbitrary complex of abstract cubes. Mathematics subject classification: 18F15, 32Q60, 68R10

  19. Bringing cultural content and authentic materials to enhance problem-based learning in EFL classes

    OpenAIRE

    VENERANDA HAJRULLA

    2012-01-01

    In a class where elements and filters of Problem-Based Learning are used, students are engaged in language learning through organied and purposeful activities with authentic materials and collaborative learning models. Research has shown that this approach is effective in raising student’s motivation, enhancing their problem solving and critical thinking skills, and deepening their understanding of the subject contents. This paper aims to answer the questions of when and how authentic materia...

  20. Bringing science to medicine: an interview with Larry Weed, inventor of the problem-oriented medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F; McGowan, Julie; Ash, Joan S; Weed, Lawrence L

    2014-01-01

    Larry Weed, MD is widely known as the father of the problem-oriented medical record and inventor of the now-ubiquitous SOAP (subjective/objective/assessment/plan) note, for developing an electronic health record system (Problem-Oriented Medical Information System, PROMIS), and for founding a company (since acquired), which developed problem-knowledge couplers. However, Dr Weed's vision for medicine goes far beyond software--over the course of his storied career, he has relentlessly sought to bring the scientific method to medical practice and, where necessary, to point out shortcomings in the system and advocate for change. In this oral history, Dr Weed describes, in his own words, the arcs of his long career and the work that remains to be done. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Bringing Reality into Calculus Classrooms: Mathematizing a Real-life Problem Simulated in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Shipulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores how students, who had completed the AP calculus course, mathematized the optimal navigation real-life problem simulated in the Second Life Virtual Environment. The particular research interest was to investigate whether/how students’ empirical activity in VE influences the way of their mathematizing.

  2. From Problem Taxa to Problem Solver: A New Miocene Family, Tranatocetidae, Brings Perspective on Baleen Whale Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gol'din

    Full Text Available Miocene baleen whales were highly diverse and included tens of genera. However, their taxonomy and phylogeny, as well as relationships with living whales, are still a subject of controversy. Here, "Mesocetus" argillarius, a poorly known specimen from Denmark, is redescribed with a focus on the cranial anatomy. It was found to represent not only a new genus, Tranatocetus gen. nov., but also a new family; Tranatocetidae. The whales of this family have the rostral bones either overriding or dividing the frontals; the rostral bones are contacting the parietals and nasals dividing the maxillae on the vertex; the occipital shield is dorsoventrally bent. The tympanic bulla is particularly characteristic of this family featuring a short, narrow anterior portion with a rounded or squared anterior end and a wider and higher posterior portion that is swollen in the posteroventral area. A phylogenetic analysis including 51 taxa supports a monophyletic group comprising most Neogene and modern whales, with Tranatocetidae being possibly closer related to Balaenopteridae (rorquals than to Cetotheriidae. Tranatocetidae exhibit a charahteristic bulla shape. In fact, all Neogene and modern mysticete families examined have a unique shape of the tympanic bulla that is diagnostic at family-level. Inclusion of problematic taxa like Tranatocetus argillarius in phylogenies brings new understanding of the distribution and diagnostic value of character traits. This underlines the need for re-examination of earlier described specimens in the light of the wealth of new information published in later years.

  3. From Problem Taxa to Problem Solver: A New Miocene Family, Tranatocetidae, Brings Perspective on Baleen Whale Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol'din, Pavel; Steeman, Mette Elstrup

    2015-01-01

    Miocene baleen whales were highly diverse and included tens of genera. However, their taxonomy and phylogeny, as well as relationships with living whales, are still a subject of controversy. Here, "Mesocetus" argillarius, a poorly known specimen from Denmark, is redescribed with a focus on the cranial anatomy. It was found to represent not only a new genus, Tranatocetus gen. nov., but also a new family; Tranatocetidae. The whales of this family have the rostral bones either overriding or dividing the frontals; the rostral bones are contacting the parietals and nasals dividing the maxillae on the vertex; the occipital shield is dorsoventrally bent. The tympanic bulla is particularly characteristic of this family featuring a short, narrow anterior portion with a rounded or squared anterior end and a wider and higher posterior portion that is swollen in the posteroventral area. A phylogenetic analysis including 51 taxa supports a monophyletic group comprising most Neogene and modern whales, with Tranatocetidae being possibly closer related to Balaenopteridae (rorquals) than to Cetotheriidae. Tranatocetidae exhibit a charahteristic bulla shape. In fact, all Neogene and modern mysticete families examined have a unique shape of the tympanic bulla that is diagnostic at family-level. Inclusion of problematic taxa like Tranatocetus argillarius in phylogenies brings new understanding of the distribution and diagnostic value of character traits. This underlines the need for re-examination of earlier described specimens in the light of the wealth of new information published in later years.

  4. Problem based learning - 'Bringing everything together' - A strategy for Graduate Nurse Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittrup, Ann-Charlotte; Davey, Anna

    2010-03-01

    This article discusses a case study that was initiated by a Graduate Nurse Coordinator of an acute care inpatient hospital in Australia. It outlines the conceptualisation and creative implementation of a structured group problem based learning activity which was a component of a Graduate Nurse Program. The learning activity was based on the beliefs that knowledge acquisition today is an active process and should focus on the learner developing strategies to obtain, review and manage information. The learning activity implemented in this case study was valuable as it recognised the benefits that can be gained for the Graduate Nurse by ensuring the context of their teaching and learning activities is grounded in practical experiences. The learning activity aimed to prepare Graduate Nurses to cope with the multiple challenges faced as they enter the nursing profession by enhancing their skills of inquiry, problem solving and reasoning. The evaluation of this case study found that the incorporation of structured group problem based learning did promote the achievement of these educational outcomes with Graduate Nurses displaying critical thinking, clinical judgment and knowledge acquisition skills. An unexpected benefit of this activity for Graduate Nurses was the enhancement of clinical practice behaviours, such as communication and interactive skills. This case study describes the positive outcomes not only for Graduates Nurses in the application of their learning but also the wider benefits which can be gained for the organisation, patient care standards and the health care team. It is anticipated that this article will be an inspiration to others who are interested in implementing innovative teaching strategies into Graduate Nurse Programs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dependability problems of complex information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents original research results on selected problems of dependability in contemporary Complex Information Systems (CIS). The ten chapters are concentrated around the following three aspects: methods for modelling of the system and its components, tasks ? or in more generic and more adequate interpretation, functionalities ? accomplished by the system and conditions for their correct realization in the dynamic operational environment. While the main focus is on theoretical advances and roadmaps for implementations of new technologies, a?much needed forum for sharing of the bes

  6. Stretching health diplomacy beyond 'Global' problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the 'globalization of social policy', global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as 'go to' personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation.

  7. Stretching health diplomacy beyond ‘Global’ problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the ‘globalization of social policy’, global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as ‘go to’ personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation. PMID:26635500

  8. Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related

  9. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  10. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Y.; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Lans, T.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Niepel, Christoph; Greiff, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE) should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI) and complex problem-solving (CPS). OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of

  11. Complex problems in entrepreneurship education: Examining complex problem-solving in the application of opportunity identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Y.; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Lans, Thomas; Biemans, Harm J A; Niepel, Christoph; Greiff, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE) should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI) and complex problem-solving (CPS). OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of

  12. Sensitive Periods in Epigenetics: bringing us closer to complex behavioral phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Corina; Turecki, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic studies have attempted to elucidate causal mechanisms for the development of complex disease but genome-wide associations have been largely unsuccessful in establishing these links. As an alternative link between genes and disease, recent efforts have focused on mechanisms that alter the function of genes without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Known as epigenetic mechanisms, these include: DNA methylation, chromatin conformational changes through histone modifications, non-coding RNAs, and most recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Though DNA methylation is involved in normal development, aging and gene regulation, altered methylation patterns have been associated with disease. It is generally believed that early life constitutes a period during which there is increased sensitivity to the regulatory effects of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to outline the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to genomic function, particularly in the development of complex behavioral phenotypes, focusing on the sensitive periods. PMID:22920183

  13. Sensitive periods in epigenetics: bringing us closer to complex behavioral phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Corina; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-08-01

    Genetic studies have attempted to elucidate causal mechanisms for the development of complex disease, but genome-wide associations have been largely unsuccessful in establishing these links. As an alternative link between genes and disease, recent efforts have focused on mechanisms that alter the function of genes without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Known as epigenetic mechanisms, these include DNA methylation, chromatin conformational changes through histone modifications, ncRNAs and, most recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Although DNA methylation is involved in normal development, aging and gene regulation, altered methylation patterns have been associated with disease. It is generally believed that early life constitutes a period during which there is increased sensitivity to the regulatory effects of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to outline the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to genomic function, particularly in the development of complex behavioral phenotypes, focusing on the sensitive periods.

  14. The "Martes complex"-- an opportunity to bring together marten, fisher, sable, wolverine, and tayra biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert Proulx; Keith B. Aubry

    2014-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Martes is polyphyletic with respect to the Fisher (Pekania pennanti), which is more closely related to the Wolverine (Gulo gulo) and Tayra (Eira barbara) than it is to the martens. We refer to the 11 species in the genera Martes, Pekania, Gulo, and Eira as the “Martes Complex”. Because the species comprising the...

  15. Complexity of valued constraint satisfaction problems

    CERN Document Server

    Živný, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this book is the following optimisation problem: given a set of discrete variables and a set of functions, each depending on a subset of the variables, minimise the sum of the functions over all variables. This fundamental research problem has been studied within several different contexts of discrete mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence under different names: Min-Sum problems, MAP inference in Markov random fields (MRFs) and conditional random fields (CRFs), Gibbs energy minimisation, valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSPs), and, for two-state variabl

  16. Toward Modeling the Intrinsic Complexity of Test Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoufan, Abdulhadi

    2017-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic complexity explains why different problems of the same type, tackled by the same problem solver, can require different times to solve and yield solutions of different quality. This paper proposes a general four-step approach that can be used to establish a model for the intrinsic complexity of a problem class in terms of…

  17. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  18. Solving Nonlinear Optimization Problems of Real Functions in Complex Variables by Complex-Valued Iterative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songchuan; Xia, Youshen

    2018-01-01

    Much research has been devoted to complex-variable optimization problems due to their engineering applications. However, the complex-valued optimization method for solving complex-variable optimization problems is still an active research area. This paper proposes two efficient complex-valued optimization methods for solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems of real functions in complex variables, respectively. One solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with linear equality constraints. Another solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with both linear equality constraints and an -norm constraint. Theoretically, we prove the global convergence of the proposed two complex-valued optimization algorithms under mild conditions. The proposed two algorithms can solve the complex-valued optimization problem completely in the complex domain and significantly extend existing complex-valued optimization algorithms. Numerical results further show that the proposed two algorithms have a faster speed than several conventional real-valued optimization algorithms.

  19. Variational problem with complex coefficient of a nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An optimal control problem governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with complex coefficient is investigated. The paper studies existence, uniqueness and optimality conditions for the control problem.

  20. Automatic Algorithm Selection for Complex Simulation Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ewald, Roland

    2012-01-01

    To select the most suitable simulation algorithm for a given task is often difficult. This is due to intricate interactions between model features, implementation details, and runtime environment, which may strongly affect the overall performance. An automated selection of simulation algorithms supports users in setting up simulation experiments without demanding expert knowledge on simulation. Roland Ewald analyzes and discusses existing approaches to solve the algorithm selection problem in the context of simulation. He introduces a framework for automatic simulation algorithm selection and

  1. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Baggen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI and complex problem-solving (CPS. OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of entrepreneurship research, whereas CPS is a more domain-general skill. On a conceptual level, there are reasons to believe that CPS skills can help individuals to identify potential opportunities in dynamic and nontransparent environments. Therefore, we empirically investigated whether CPS relates to OI among 113 masters students. Data is analyzed using multiple regressions. The results show that CPS predicts the number of concrete ideas that students generate, suggesting that having CPS skills supports the generation of detailed, potential business ideas of good quality. The results of the current study suggest that training CPS, as a more domain-general skill, could be a valuable part of what should be taught in EE.

  2. Multivariate complexity analysis of team management problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bredereck, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt erschienen im Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin unter der ISBN 978-3-7983-2764-1; ISSN 2199-5249 In dieser Dissertation identifizieren und entwickeln wir einfache kombinatorische Modelle für vier natürliche Teamverwaltungsaufgaben und untersuchen bezüglich Berechnungskomplexität handhabbare und nicht handhabbare Fälle. Hierzu analysieren wir die multivariate Komplexität der zu Grunde liegenden Probleme und testen manche unserer Algorithmen auf synthetischen und empirischen...

  3. Preparing for Complexity and Wicked Problems through Transformational Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    As the information environment becomes increasingly complex and challenging, Library and Information Studies (LIS) education is called upon to nurture innovative leaders capable of managing complex situations and "wicked problems." While disciplinary expertise remains essential, higher levels of mental complexity and adaptive…

  4. 2. Global Problems, Complexity, and Civil Society in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Peter; Tanter, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This chapter presents an argument about the relationship between global problems, complexity, problem-solving, and East Asian civil society. In section 1, we begin by asking two fundamental questions: what is specifically “global” about a global problem, and what underlies an issue of global concern that makes it problematic? We outline three categories of global problems — those that affect the sharing of global commons, those that affect our shared humanity, and those that rely...

  5. DNA computing, computation complexity and problem of biological evolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V

    2008-12-01

    An analogy between the evolution of organisms and some complex computational problems (cryptosystem cracking, determination of the shortest path in a graph) is considered. It is shown that in the absence of a priori information about possible species of organisms such a problem is complex (is rated in the class NP) and cannot be solved in a polynomial number of steps. This conclusion suggests the need for re-examination of evolution mechanisms. Ideas of a deterministic approach to the evolution are discussed.

  6. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...

  7. On the complexity of container stowage planning problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the complexity of this problem from NP-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of the current state-of-the-art abstraction of container ship stowage planning, wherein containers and slots are grouped together. To do this, we define......The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the kk-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed in stacks such that at most kk containers must be removed in order to reach containers below them. We first solve an open problem introduced by Avriel et al. (2000) by showing...... the hatch overstow problem, in which a set of containers are placed on top of the hatches of a container ship such that the number of containers that are stowed on hatches that must be accessed is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-complete by a reduction from the set-covering problem, which means...

  8. On the complexity of container stowage planning problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the complexity of this problem from NP-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of the current state-of-the-art abstraction of container ship stowage planning, wherein containers and slots are grouped together. To do this, we define......The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the k-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed in stacks such that at most k containers must be removed in order to reach containers below them. We first solve an open problem introduced by Avriel et al. (2000) by showing...... the hatch overstow problem, in which a set of containers are placed on top of the hatches of a container ship such that the number of containers that are stowed on hatches that must be accessed is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-complete by a reduction from the set-covering problem, which means...

  9. Group Planning and Task Efficiency with Complex Problems. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, E. D.

    One hundred eighty 4-man groups (90 of men and 90 of women) using 3 types of net (All-Channel, Wheel and Circle) under 3 conditions (Planning Period (PP), Rest Period (RP) and Control) were run in a single session with 5 complex problems to determine whether a single 2-minute planning period after solution of the first problem would result in…

  10. Structuring and assessing large and complex decision problems using MCDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    This paper presents an approach for the structuring and assessing of large and complex decision problems using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The MCDA problem is structured in a decision tree and assessed using the REMBRANDT technique featuring a procedure for limiting the number of pair...

  11. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam S. Rohe; Joachim Funke; Maja Storch; Julia Weber

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Kr...

  12. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-07-01

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From problem solving to problem definition: scrutinizing the complex nature of clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Regehr, Glenn

    2017-02-01

    In medical education, we have tended to present problems as being singular, stable, and solvable. Problem solving has, therefore, drawn much of medical education researchers' attention. This focus has been important but it is limited in terms of preparing clinicians to deal with the complexity of the 21st century healthcare system in which they will provide team-based care for patients with complex medical illness. In this paper, we use the Soft Systems Engineering principles to introduce the idea that in complex, team-based situations, problems usually involve divergent views and evolve with multiple solution iterations. As such we need to shift the conversation from (1) problem solving to problem definition, and (2) from a problem definition derived exclusively at the level of the individual to a definition derived at the level of the situation in which the problem is manifested. Embracing such a focus on problem definition will enable us to advocate for novel educational practices that will equip trainees to effectively manage the problems they will encounter in complex, team-based healthcare.

  14. Semantic Annotation of Complex Text Structures in Problem Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.; Fleming, Land D.

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis is important for effective information retrieval from databases where the critical information is embedded in text fields. Aerospace safety depends on effective retrieval of relevant and related problem reports for the purpose of trend analysis. The complex text syntax in problem descriptions has limited statistical text mining of problem reports. The presentation describes an intelligent tagging approach that applies syntactic and then semantic analysis to overcome this problem. The tags identify types of problems and equipment that are embedded in the text descriptions. The power of these tags is illustrated in a faceted searching and browsing interface for problem report trending that combines automatically generated tags with database code fields and temporal information.

  15. Assessment and theory in Complex Problem Solving. A continuing contradiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Greiff, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Complex Problem Solving (CPS) describes skills frequently needed in everyday life such as the use of new technological devices. Therefore, CPS skills constitute an increasingly important individual ability that needs theoretically embedded, reliable and validated measurement devices. The present article shows that current tests do not sufficiently address the requirement of a theory-based assessment. An integrative approach, the Action Theoretical Problem Space Model by Rollett (2008), is int...

  16. A reinforcement learning formulation to the complex question answering problem

    OpenAIRE

    Chali, Yllias; Hasan, Sadid A.; Mojahid, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    We use extractive multi-document summarization techniques to perform complex question answering and formulate it as a reinforcement learning problem. Given a set of complex questions, a list of relevant documents per question, and the corresponding human generated summaries (i.e. answers to the questions) as training data, the reinforcement learning module iteratively learns a number of feature weights in order to facilitate the automatic generation of summaries i.e. answers to previously u...

  17. A reinforcement learning formulation to the complex question answering problem

    OpenAIRE

    Chali, Yllias; Hasan, Sadid A.; Mojahid, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We use extractive multi-document summarization techniques to perform complex question answering and formulate it as a reinforcement learning problem. Given a set of complex questions, a list of relevant documents per question, and the corresponding human generated summaries (i.e. answers to the questions) as training data, the reinforcement learning module iteratively learns a number of feature weights in order to facilitate the automatic generation of summaries i.e. a...

  18. Bringing meteorology ``alive`` through the use of immersion-based learning activities that emphasize role playing and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Estes, J.C.; Andrews, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Current research and emerging standards in teaching and learning say that students learning best when information is presented in a meaningful context and when the students are involved in things they care about. At the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), science education programs have been developed that incorporate these concepts. To help students and teachers understand the process of ``doing`` science, we provide immersion-based programs in such technical areas as meteorology, marine sciences, wetland ecology, groundwater hydrology, robotics, lasers materials science, biology, and archaeology. This paper focuses on a meteorology program the authors developed in recent years to support this immersion experience approach. We will discuss how we link meteorology with other subject matter, how we show the relevance of meteorology to real-world problems, and how we immerse student`s and teachers in activities that help them understand how scientists uncover knowledge and solve problems.

  19. EEG activity during the performance of complex mental problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, N; Jausovec, K

    2000-04-01

    This study investigated differences in cognitive processes related to problem complexity. It was assumed that these differences would be reflected in respondents' EEG activity--spectral power and coherence. A second issue of the study was to compare differences between the lower (alpha(1) = 7.9-10.0 Hz), and upper alpha band (alpha(2) = 10.1-12.9 Hz). In the first experiment two well-defined problems with two levels of complexity were used. Only minor differences in EEG power and coherence measures related to problem complexity were observed. In the second experiment divergent production problems resembling tasks on creativity tests were compared with dialectic problems calling for creative solutions. Differences in EEG power measures were mainly related to the form of problem presentation (figural/verbal). In contrast, coherence was related to the level of creativity needed to solve a problem. Noticeable increased intra- and interhemispheric cooperation between mainly the far distant brain regions was observed in the EEG activity of respondents while solving the dialectic problems. These results are explained by the more intense involvement of the long cortico-cortical fiber system in creative thinking. Differences between the lower and upper alpha band were significant for the power and coherence measures. In Experiment 2, fewer differences were observed in power measures in the upper alpha band than in the lower alpha band. A reverse pattern was observed for the coherence measures. These results hint to a functional independence of the two alpha bands, however, they do not allow to draw firm conclusions about their functional meanings. The study showed that it is unlikely that individuals solve well- and ill-defined problems by employing similar cognitive strategies.

  20. Theory of periodically specified problems: Complexity and approximability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Rosenkrantz, D.J. [Univ. at Albany - SUNY, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1997-12-05

    We study the complexity and the efficient approximability of graph and satisfiability problems when specified using various kinds of periodic specifications studied. The general results obtained include the following: (1) We characterize the complexities of several basic generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S) [Sc78], when instances are specified using various kinds of 1- and 2-dimensional periodic specifications. We outline how this characterization can be used to prove a number of new hardness results for the complexity classes DSPACE(n), NSPACE(n), DEXPTIME, NEXPTIME, EXPSPACE etc. These results can be used to prove in a unified way the hardness of a number of combinatorial problems when instances are specified succinctly using various succient specifications considered in the literature. As one corollary, we show that a number of basic NP-hard problems because EXPSPACE-hard when inputs are represented using 1-dimensional infinite periodic wide specifications. This answers a long standing open question posed by Orlin. (2) We outline a simple yet a general technique to devise approximation algorithms with provable worst case performance guarantees for a number of combinatorial problems specified periodically. Our efficient approximation algorithms and schemes are based on extensions of the ideas and represent the first non-trivial characterization of a class of problems having an {epsilon}-approximation (or PTAS) for periodically specified NEXPTIME-hard problems. Two of properties of our results are: (i) For the first time, efficient approximation algorithms and schemes have been developed for natural NEXPTIME-complete problems. (ii) Our results are the first polynomial time approximation algorithms with good performance guarantees for hard problems specified using various kinds of periodic specifications considered in this paper.

  1. Advice Complexity of the Online Induced Subgraph Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komm, Dennis; Královič, Rastislav; Královič, Richard

    2016-01-01

    these problems by investigating a generalized problem: for an arbitrary but fixed hereditary property, find some maximal induced subgraph having the property. We investigate this problem from the point of view of advice complexity, i.e. we ask how some additional information about the yet unrevealed parts...... of the input can influence the solution quality. We evaluate the information in a quantitative way by considering the best possible advice of given size that describes the unknown input. Using a result from Boyar et al. we give a tight trade-off relationship stating that, for inputs of length n, roughly n...

  2. Modal and Mixed Specifications: Key Decision Problems and their Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    Modal and mixed transition systems are specification formalisms that allow mixing of over- and under-approximation. We discuss three fundamental decision problems for such specifications: whether a set of specifications has a common implementation, whether a sole specification has an implementation......, and whether all implementations of one specification are implementations of another one. For each of these decision problems we investigate the worst-case computational complexity for the modal and mixed case. We show that the first decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for modal as well as for mixed...... specifications. We prove that the second decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications (while it is known to be trivial for modal ones). The third decision problem is furthermore demonstrated to be EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications....

  3. The Computational Complexity of the Parallel Knock-Out Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Johnson, M.; Paulusma, Daniël; Stewart, I.A.; Correa, J.R.; Hevia, A.; Kiwi, M.

    2006-01-01

    We consider computational complexity questions related to parallel knock-out schemes for graphs. In such schemes, in each round, each remaining vertex of a given graph eliminates exactly one of its neighbours. We show that the problem of whether, for a given graph, such a scheme can be found that

  4. Bringing down the trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    The density of junk orbiting the Earth is at or near a critical value beyond which this man-made debris will self-perpetuate, forming many smaller pieces that are even more of a problem. Stephen Ornes reports on the latest ideas about how to bring down the trash.

  5. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  6. Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

    There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe

  7. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...... domains involving different kinds of users and evaluators are needed before we can tell whether CUT with QU is an effective usability testing technique of wider applicability. Performing CUT with QU is very demanding by drawing heavily on the evaluators’ ability to respond effectively to openings...

  8. On the parameterized complexity of the workflow satisfiability problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crampton, Jason; Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2012-01-01

    an assignment of users to workflow steps that satisfies all the constraints. An algorithm for determining whether such an assignment exists is important, both as a static analysis tool for workflow specifications, and for the construction of run-time reference monitors for workflow management systems. Finding......A workflow specification defines a set of steps and the order in which those steps must be executed. Security requirements may impose constraints on which groups of users are permitted to perform subsets of those steps. A workflow specification is said to be satisfiable if there exists...... such an assignment is a hard problem in general, but work by Wang and Li in 2010 using the theory of parameterized complexity suggests that efficient algorithms exist under reasonable assumptions about workflow specifications. In this paper, we improve the complexity bounds for the workflow satisfiability problem...

  9. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  10. Complex saddle points and the sign problem in complex Langevin simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayata, Tomoya, E-mail: hayata@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hidaka, Yoshimasa [Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tanizaki, Yuya [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We show that complex Langevin simulation converges to a wrong result within the semiclassical analysis, by relating it to the Lefschetz-thimble path integral, when the path-integral weight has different phases among dominant complex saddle points. Equilibrium solution of the complex Langevin equation forms local distributions around complex saddle points. Its ensemble average approximately becomes a direct sum of the average in each local distribution, where relative phases among them are dropped. We propose that by taking these phases into account through reweighting, we can solve the wrong convergence problem. However, this prescription may lead to a recurrence of the sign problem in the complex Langevin method for quantum many-body systems.

  11. Complexity of some problems concerning L systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil D.; Skyum, Sven

    1979-01-01

    We determine the computational complexity of membership, emptiness and infiniteness for several types ofL systems. TheL systems we consider are ED0L, E0L, EDT0L, and ET0L, with and without empty productions. For each problem and each type of system we establish both upper and lower bounds on the ...... on the time or memory required for solution by Turing machines....

  12. Reducing complexity of inverse problems using geostatistical priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus; Cordua, Knud Skou

    In a probabilistic formulation of inverse problems the solution can be given as a sample of the posterior probability distribution. All realizations retained in the posterior sample are consistent with both an assumed prior model and observed data. Some inverse problems are unsolvable, in that one...... can practically never hope to generate a posterior sample, others are just ’difficult’ and require special methods to become tractable, while others again are easily solved. We discuss how difficult nonlinear inverse problems can be handled such that their complexity, i.e. the time taken to obtain...... a posterior sample, can be reduced significantly using informed priors based on geostatistical models. We discuss two approaches to include such geostatistically based prior information. One is based on a parametric description of the prior likelihood that applies to 2-point based statistical models...

  13. Complexity indices for the travelling salesman problem and data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Cvetković

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey paper we extend our previous work on complexity indices for the travelling salesman problem (TSP, summarized in cite{CvCK3}, using graph spectral techniques of data mining. A complexity index is an invariant of an instance $I$ by which we can predict the execution time of an exact algorithm for TSP for $I$. We consider the symmetric travelling salesman problem with instances $I$ represented by complete graphs $G$ with distances between vertices (cities as edge weights (lengths. Intuitively, the hardness of an instance $G$ depends on the distribution of short edges within $G$. Therefore we consider some short edge subgraphs of $G$ (minimal spanning tree, critical connected subgraph, and several others as non-weighted graphs and several their invariants as potential complexity indices. Here spectral invariants (e.g. spectral radius of the adjacency matrix play an important role since, in general, there are intimate relations between eigenvalues and the structure of a graph. Since hidden details of short edge subgraphs really determine the hardness of the instance, we use techniques of data mining to find them. In particular, spectral clustering algorithms are used including information obtained from the spectral gap in Laplacian spectra of short edge subgraphs.

  14. Complex analysis and dynamical systems new trends and open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Golberg, Anatoly; Jacobzon, Fiana; Shoikhet, David; Zalcman, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on developments in complex dynamical systems and geometric function theory over the past decade, showing strong links with other areas of mathematics and the natural sciences. Traditional methods and approaches surface in physics and in the life and engineering sciences with increasing frequency – the Schramm‐Loewner evolution, Laplacian growth, and quadratic differentials are just a few typical examples. This book provides a representative overview of these processes and collects open problems in the various areas, while at the same time showing where and how each particular topic evolves. This volume is dedicated to the memory of Alexander Vasiliev.

  15. The problem of motivating teaching staff in a complex amalgamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, M A

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses some of the problems brought about by the merger of a number of schools of nursing into a new complex amalgamation. A very real concern in the new colleges of nursing and midwifery in the United Kingdom is the effect of amalgamation on management systems and staff morale. The main focus of this paper is the motivation of staff during this time of change. There is currently a lack of security amongst staff and in many instances the personal job satisfaction of nurse teachers and managers of nurse education has been reduced, which has made the task of motivating staff difficult. Hence, two major theories of motivation and the implications of these theories for managers of nurse education are discussed. The criteria used for the selection of managers within the new colleges, leadership styles and organizational structures are reviewed. The amalgamations have brought about affiliation with higher-education institutions. Some problems associated with these mergers and the effects on the motivation of staff both within the higher-education institutions and the nursing colleges are outlined. Strategies for overcoming some of the problems are proposed including job enlargement, job enrichment, potential achievement rewards and the use of individual performance reviews which may be useful for assessing the ability of all staff, including managers, in the new amalgamations.

  16. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  17. Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

    2013-10-01

    Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.

  18. Complex problems and unchallenged solutions: Bringing ecosystem governance to the forefront of the UN sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Liette; Horning, Darwin; Thornbush, Mary; Cohen-Shacham, Emmanuelle; Andrade, Angela; Barrow, Ed; Edwards, Steve R; Wit, Piet; Jones, Mike

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development aims at addressing economic, social, and environmental concerns, but the current lack of responsive environmental governance hinders progress. Short-term economic development has led to limited actions, unsustainable resource management, and degraded ecosystems. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may continue to fall short of achieving significant progress without a better understanding of how ecosystems contribute to achieving sustainability for all people. Ecosystem governance is an approach that integrates the social and ecological components for improved sustainability and includes principles such as adaptive ecosystem co-management, subsidiarity, and telecoupling framework, as well as principles of democracy and accountability. We explain the importance of ecosystem governance in achieving the SDGs, and suggest some ways to ensure that ecosystem services are meaningfully considered. This paper reflects on how integration of these approaches into policies can enhance the current agenda of sustainability.

  19. Inverse problem in archeological magnetic surveys using complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, G.; Moreau, F.; Mathe, P. E.; Hermitte, D.

    2003-04-01

    The wavelet transform applied to potential fields (electric, magnetic, or gravimetric, ...) has been now used from several years in geophysical applications, in particular to define the depth of potentiel sources verifying Poisson equation and responsible for potential anomalies measured at the ground surface. The complex continuous wavelet transform (CCWT) has been described, but the phase has not yet been exploited. (For these kinds of problem we construct a complex analyzing wavelet by Hilbert transforms of the Poisson or derivative of the Poisson wavelet which is real by definition). We show, here, that the phase of the CCWT provides useful information on the geometric and total magnetic inclination of the potential sources, as the modulus allows to characterize their depth and heterogenety degree. Regarding the properties of the phase compared to the modulus, it is more stable in presence of noise and we can defined it, independantly of the low level of energy of the signal. In this sense, information carried by the phase is more efficient to detect small objects or to separate close sources. We have applied a multi-scale analysis on magnetic measurements providing from a cesium magnetometer on the Fox-Amphoux site (France), to detect and localize buried structures like antik ovens. Conjointly, a rock magnetic study including susceptibility and magnetisations (induced or remanent) measurements give a better constrain on the magnetic parameters we want to extract.

  20. Complexity of Decision Problems for Mixed and Modal Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Nyman, Ulrik Mathias

    2008-01-01

    We consider decision problems for modal and mixed transition systems used as specifications: the common implementation problem (whether a set of specifications has a common implementation), the consistency problem (whether a single specification has an implementation), and the thorough refinement...

  1. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  2. Aiming at strategies for a complex problem of medical nonadherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Jose M; Copeland-Halperin, Robert; Fuster, Valentin

    2013-09-01

    The deteriorating health of the population and the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases are global problems whose causes are multifactorial and complex. The Western lifestyle does not promote healthy living, and the consequences are most devastating when social inequalities, together with the economic and population explosion of recent decades, are considered. The expansion of poor nutritional habits, obesity, sedentarism, and hypertension are increasingly contributing to the development of a cardiovascular disease epidemic. Recent data on the rates of compliance with lifestyle modification and adherence to prescribed medication are alarming. Over 50% of patients, on average, decide to abandon the treatment prescribed, and the objectives to improve their habits (quit smoking, lose weight, or engage in physical activity) are met by an equal or lower percentage. Beyond the impact it has on individual health, it carries a huge economic cost, as it is associated with a failure in achieving therapeutic goals, higher rate of hospitalization, and death. Improving communication between doctors and patients, the active involvement of other health professionals, and the development of combination drug formulations (polypill) are potential strategies for improving adherence and reducing costs. Copyright © 2013 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The family orientation in order to get the best manifestation of the problems that bring the atention of the hyperactivity in pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Yunia Oliva-Feria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The best orientation of the family is one of the principal orientations in our society and beside Thad the stronger of the relations that we should do between the family and the school. The school is the basic state institution that for it level of organization and if scientific form, should answers all the interrogatives and difficulties that have all father in the education of their children the form of approximation of the school to the family, should be made for people that have the profession for that   situation, to bring the best orientation respect to the necessity and the education of the pupils. The more important of this work is to give forms that in this moment bring to everybody the necessary science about the orientation that should bring to the pupils and their family, respect to the attention of the hype activity in the pupils.

  4. How Cognitive Style and Problem Complexity Affect Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Abilities to Solve Problems in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…

  5. Complex Problem Solving: What It Is and What It Is Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Dörner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer-simulated scenarios have been part of psychological research on problem solving for more than 40 years. The shift in emphasis from simple toy problems to complex, more real-life oriented problems has been accompanied by discussions about the best ways to assess the process of solving complex problems. Psychometric issues such as reliable assessments and addressing correlations with other instruments have been in the foreground of these discussions and have left the content validity of complex problem solving in the background. In this paper, we return the focus to content issues and address the important features that define complex problems.

  6. Complex Problem Solving: What It Is and What It Is Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörner, Dietrich; Funke, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Computer-simulated scenarios have been part of psychological research on problem solving for more than 40 years. The shift in emphasis from simple toy problems to complex, more real-life oriented problems has been accompanied by discussions about the best ways to assess the process of solving complex problems. Psychometric issues such as reliable assessments and addressing correlations with other instruments have been in the foreground of these discussions and have left the content validity of complex problem solving in the background. In this paper, we return the focus to content issues and address the important features that define complex problems. PMID:28744242

  7. An analytical approach to managing complex process problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstad, Kari; Andersen, Espen; Rohde, Hans Christian; Tydal, Trine

    2006-03-15

    The oil companies are continuously investing time and money to ensure optimum regularity on their production facilities. High regularity increases profitability, reduces workload on the offshore organisation and most important; - reduces discharge to air and sea. There are a number of mechanisms and tools available in order to achieve high regularity. Most of these are related to maintenance, system integrity, well operations and process conditions. However, for all of these tools, they will only be effective if quick and proper analysis of fluids and deposits are carried out. In fact, analytical backup is a powerful tool used to maintain optimised oil production, and should as such be given high priority. The present Operator (Hydro Oil and Energy) and the Chemical Supplier (MI Production Chemicals) have developed a cooperation to ensure that analytical backup is provided efficiently to the offshore installations. The Operator's Research and Development (R and D) departments and the Chemical Supplier have complementary specialties in both personnel and equipment, and this is utilized to give the best possible service when required from production technologists or operations. In order for the Operator's Research departments, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) departments and Operations to approve analytical work performed by the Chemical Supplier, a number of analytical tests are carried out following procedures agreed by both companies. In the present paper, three field case examples of analytical cooperation for managing process problems will be presented. 1) Deposition in a Complex Platform Processing System. 2) Contaminated Production Chemicals. 3) Improved Monitoring of Scale Inhibitor, Suspended Solids and Ions. In each case the Research Centre, Operations and the Chemical Supplier have worked closely together to achieve fast solutions and Best Practice. (author) (tk)

  8. Emergent Science: Solving complex science problems via collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Wilson, B. D.; Lynnes, C.; Conover, H.

    2009-12-01

    The recent advances in Cyberinfrastructure have democratized the use of computational and data resources. These resources together with new social networking and collaboration technologies, present an unprecedented opportunity to impact the science process. These advances can move the science process from “circumspect science” -- where scientists publish only when the project is complete, publish only the final results, seldom publish things that did not work, and communicate results with each other using paper technology -- to “open science” -- where scientists can share and publish every element in their research, from the data used as input, workflows used to analyze these data sets, possibly failed experiments, and the final results. Open science can foster novel ways of social collaboration in science. We are already seeing the impact of social collaboration in our daily lives. A simple example is the use of reviews posted online by other consumers while evaluating whether to buy a product or not. This phenomenon has been well documented and is referred by many names such as Smart Mobs, Wisdom of Crowds, Wikinomics, Crowd sourcing, We-Think and swarm collaboration. Similar social collaborations during the science process can lead to “emergent science”. We define "emergent science" as way complex science problems can be solved and new research directions forged out of a multiplicity of relatively simple collaborative interactions. There are, however, barriers that prevent social collaboration within the science process. Some of these barriers are technical such as lack of science collaboration platforms and the others are social. The success of any collaborative platform has to take into account the incentives or motivation for the scientists to participate. This presentation will address obstacles facing emergent science and will suggest possible solutions required to build a critical mass.

  9. Variational problem with complex coefficient of a nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Optimal control problems for partial differential equations are currently of much interest. An extensive literature in this area is devoted to parabolic equations [10–12,15,16,23]. The problem of quantum systems control is a scientific problem of present interest related to modern physical technologies. Determining ...

  10. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  11. Environmental Sensing of Expert Knowledge in a Computational Evolution System for Complex Problem Solving in Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S.; Hill, Douglas P.; Moore, Jason H.

    The relationship between interindividual variation in our genomes and variation in our susceptibility to common diseases is expected to be complex with multiple interacting genetic factors. A central goal of human genetics is to identify which DNA sequence variations predict disease risk in human populations. Our success in this endeavour will depend critically on the development and implementation of computational intelligence methods that are able to embrace, rather than ignore, the complexity of the genotype to phenotype relationship. To this end, we have developed a computational evolution system (CES) to discover genetic models of disease susceptibility involving complex relationships between DNA sequence variations. The CES approach is hierarchically organized and is capable of evolving operators of any arbitrary complexity. The ability to evolve operators distinguishes this approach from artificial evolution approaches using fixed operators such as mutation and recombination. Our previous studies have shown that a CES that can utilize expert knowledge about the problem in evolved operators significantly outperforms a CES unable to use this knowledge. This environmental sensing of external sources of biological or statistical knowledge is important when the search space is both rugged and large as in the genetic analysis of complex diseases. We show here that the CES is also capable of evolving operators which exploit one of several sources of expert knowledge to solve the problem. This is important for both the discovery of highly fit genetic models and because the particular source of expert knowledge used by evolved operators may provide additional information about the problem itself. This study brings us a step closer to a CES that can solve complex problems in human genetics in addition to discovering genetic models of disease.

  12. Bringing Fenton Hill into the Digital Age: Data Conversion in Support of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study Challenge Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Signe K.; Kelkar, Sharad M.; Brown, Don W.

    2016-03-01

    The Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to facilitate collaboration among members of the geothermal modeling community and to evaluate and improve upon the ability of existing codes to simulate thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes associated with complex enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The first stage of the project, which has been completed, involved comparing simulations for seven benchmark problems that were primarily designed using well-prescribed, simplified data sets. In the second stage, the participating teams are tackling two challenge problems based on the EGS research conducted in hot dry rock (HDR) at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Fenton Hill project, conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1970 to 1995, was the world’s first HDR demonstration project. One of the criteria for selecting this experiment as the basis for the challenge problems was the amount and availability of data for generating model inputs. The Fenton Hill HDR system consisted of two reservoirs – an earlier Phase I reservoir tested from 1974 to 1981 and a deeper Phase II reservoir tested from 1980 to 1995. Detailed accounts of both phases of the HDR project have been presented in a number of books and reports, including a recently published summary of the lessons learned and a final report with a chronological description of the Fenton Hill project, prepared by LANL. Project documents and records have been archived and made public through the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). Some of the data acquired from Phase II are available in electronic format readable on modern computers. These include the microseismic data from some of the important experiments (e.g. the massive hydraulic fracturing test conducted in 1983) and the injection/production wellhead data from the circulation tests conducted between 1992-1995. However, much of the data collected

  13. Electromagnetic waves in complex systems selected theoretical and applied problems

    CERN Document Server

    Velychko, Lyudmyla

    2016-01-01

    This book gives guidance to solve problems in electromagnetics, providing both examples of solving serious research problems as well as the original results to encourage further investigations. The book contains seven chapters on various aspects of resonant wave scattering, each solving one original problem. All of them are unified by the authors’ desire to show advantages of rigorous approaches at all stages, from the formulation of a problem and the selection of a method to the interpretation of results. The book reveals a range of problems associated with wave propagation and scattering in natural and artificial environments or with the design of antennas elements. The authors invoke both theoretical (analytical and numerical) and experimental techniques for handling the problems. Attention is given to mathematical simulations, computational efficiency, and physical interpretation of the experimental results. The book is written for students, graduate students and young researchers. .

  14. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  15. Bringing minds together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, John

    2011-01-01

    Boston Scientific founder John Abele has been party to his share of groundbreaking innovations over the years. But the revolutionary advances in medical science that these breakthroughs brought about were not the efforts of one firm alone, let alone one inventor. Abele tells two fascinating stories of collaboration--one about Jack Whitehead's upending of hospitals' blood and urine testing procedures and the other about Andreas Gruentzig's success in bringing balloon catheterization into the cardiology mainstream. Both Whitehead and Gruentzig spearheaded the emergence of entirely new fields, bringing together scientist-customers to voluntarily develop standards, training programs, new business models, and even a specialized language to describe their new field. The process of collaboration, Abete says, is fraught with contradictions and subtlety. It takes consummate leadership skills to persuade others to spend countless hours solving important problems in partnership with people they don't necessarily like. Moreover, managing egos so that each person's commitment, energy, and creativity is unleashed in a way that doesn't disadvantage others requires an impresario personality. Finally, true authenticity--something that few people can project--is critical for earning customers' trust and convincing them that their valuable contributions won't be used for anything other than moving the technology forward.

  16. Information Problem Solving: Analysis of a Complex Cognitive Skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brand-Gruwel; I. Wopereis; Y. Vermetten

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn (higher) education students are often faced with information problems: tasks or assignments which require the student to identify information needs, locate corresponding information sources, extract and organize relevant information from each source, and synthesize information from a

  17. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  18. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Burnett; Michelle Furlong; Paul Guy Melvin; Richard Singiser

    2016-01-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various t...

  19. Complexity of data dependence problems for program schemas with concurrency

    OpenAIRE

    Danicic, S; Hierons, RM; Laurence, MR

    2012-01-01

    This is the pre-print version of the Article. The official published version can be accessed from the links below. Copyright @ 2012 ACM The problem of deciding whether one point in a program is data dependent upon another is fundamental to program analysis and has been widely studied. In this article we consider this problem at the abstraction level of program schemas in which computations occur in the Herbrand domain of terms and predicate symbols, which represent arbitrary predicate func...

  20. Complexity and Approximation for Scheduling Problem for Coupled-Tasks in Presence of Compatibility Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Simonin, Gilles; Giroudeau, Rodolphe; König, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we study a scheduling problem with compled-tasks in presence of incompatible constraint. We give complexity results and a polynomial-time approximation for a specific problem when the compatibility graph has different topologies.

  1. Numerical sensitivity computation for discontinuous gradient-only optimization problems using the complex-step method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilke, DN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the numerical sensitivity calculation for discontinuous gradientonly optimization problems using the complex-step method. The complex-step method was initially introduced to differentiate analytical functions in the late 1960s...

  2. Structural analysis of complex ecological economic optimal control problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of methods of bifurcation theory applied to studying non-convex optimal control problems. It opens up a new methodological approach to investigation of parameterized economic models. While standard analytical methods are not efficient and

  3. Client-Centered Problem-Solving Networks in Complex Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Charles; Hanna, Michael

    Employees in different kinds of organizations were surveyed for their perceptions of their companies' client and operational problem-solving networks. The individuals came from a manufacturing firm, a community college, a telephone company, a farmers' cooperative, and a hospital. Interviews were conducted with those people reporting numerous…

  4. Reduced-Complexity Semidefinite Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansson, Anders; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for generating semidefinite relaxations of optimal power flow problems. The method is based on chordal conversion techniques: by dropping some equality constraints in the conversion, we obtain semidefinite relaxations that are computationally cheaper, but potentially weaker...

  5. A New Approach to The Complexity of Decision Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA new measure of the complexity of optimal economic decisions is introduced. It is based on the level of detail of information (no information; ordinal; and cardinal information) that is required to establish optimality. A detailed example involving sequential group decision making is

  6. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-03-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article.

  7. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610

  8. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Burnett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article.

  9. Interpretation Problems in Modelling Complex Artifacts for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1996-01-01

    The paper analyse the interpretation problems involved in building models for diagnosis of industrial systems. It is shown that the construction of a fault tree of a plant is based on general diagnostic knowledge and an extensive body of plant knowledge. It is also shown that the plant knowledge...... can be organized in a means-end part-whole framework that serve as a background context for the modelling task....

  10. Making Sense of Complex Problems: A Resource for Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Unless everyone on the team has been trained in a specific conceptual planning methodology, there will likely be a lot of wheel spinning in getting...for Teams; also available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdSZJzb-aX8 Healthcare on a napkin Description: An example slideshow from author Dan...Problems: A Resource for Teams; also available at http://www.slideshare.net/danroam/ healthcare -napkins-all (3) Exercises Stakeholder analysis

  11. Zoonoses, One Health and complexity: wicked problems and constructive conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltner-Toews, David

    2017-07-19

    Infectious zoonoses emerge from complex interactions among social and ecological systems. Understanding this complexity requires the accommodation of multiple, often conflicting, perspectives and narratives, rooted in different value systems and temporal-spatial scales. Therefore, to be adaptive, successful and sustainable, One Health approaches necessarily entail conflicts among observers, practitioners and scholars. Nevertheless, these integrative approaches have, both implicitly and explicitly, tended to marginalize some perspectives and prioritize others, resulting in a kind of technocratic tyranny. An important function of One Health approaches should be to facilitate and manage those conflicts, rather than to impose solutions.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Low Complexity Distributed SDP Approach for General OPF Problems with Reactive Power Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Optimal power flow (OPF) problem is a class of large-scale and non-convex optimization problem. Various algorithms are proposed to solve the challenging OPF problem. Recent studies show that semidefinite programming (SDP) can either provide an exact or near global optima for many existing OPF problems. However, SDP-based approaches usually have the complexity growing exponentially with respect to the network size, which may not be suitable for large-scale OPF problem. In this paper, we rewrit...

  13. Complexity evaluation of benchmark instances for the p-median problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B.; Krushinsky, D.

    The paper is aimed at experimental evaluation of the complexity of the p-Median problem instances, defined by m x n costs matrices, from several of the most widely used libraries. The complexity is considered in terms of possible problem size reduction and preprocessing, irrespective of the solution

  14. A Multi-Methodological Approach to Complex Problem Solving: The Case of Serbian Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejana Zlatanović

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing complexity and diversity of management problems in modern enterprises requires the increasing diversity of models, methods, and methodologies. In creatively dealing with these complex, changeable and multidimensional management problems, i.e., problem situations, different systems methodologies for problem situations, structuring have been developed. Since no methodology is able to explore all aspects of the complex problems in enterprises, the topic of this paper is a multi-methodology approach that implies combining selected systems methodologies (Strategic Assumptions Surfacing and Testing, Team Syntegrity and Organizational Cybernetics within a particular intervention. Therefore, research in the paper is relied on Critical Systems Thinking as a conceptual framework for combined use of systems methodologies. The paper aims to demonstrate how mixing the selected systems methodologies and tools can help managers in solving complex problems, such as the issues of strategy formulation and implementation in enterprises. Accordingly, combining these methodologies to support strategy formulation and implementation is applied to a Serbian enterprise.

  15. Composing complex EXAFS problems with severe information constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravel, B.; (NIST)

    2010-05-06

    In recent work, a model for the structural environment of Hg bound to a catalytic DNA sensor was proposed on the basis of EXAFS data analysis. Although severely constrained by limited data quality and scant supporting structural data, a compelling structural model was found which agreed with a similar but less detailed model proposed on the basis on NMR data. I discuss in detail the successes and limitations of the analytical strategy that were implemented in the earlier work. I then speculate on future software requirements needed to make this and similarly complex analytical strategies more available to the wider audience of EXAFS practitioners.

  16. Simulation Gaming as a Social Development Instrument : Dealing with Complex Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, B.; Janssen, M.

    Improving public service delivery is a very complex domain and the complexity is difficult to grasp by stakeholders having various degree of knowledge and involvement. An emergent and promising method for dealing with complex problems is simulation gaming, which can be used to capitalize the

  17. Students' conceptual performance on synthesis physics problems with varying mathematical complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Bashirah; Ding, Lin; Heckler, Andrew F.; White, Daniel R.; Badeau, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    A body of research on physics problem solving has focused on single-concept problems. In this study we use "synthesis problems" that involve multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. We use two types of synthesis problems, sequential and simultaneous synthesis tasks. Sequential problems require a consecutive application of fundamental principles, and simultaneous problems require a concurrent application of pertinent concepts. We explore students' conceptual performance when they solve quantitative synthesis problems with varying mathematical complexity. Conceptual performance refers to the identification, follow-up, and correct application of the pertinent concepts. Mathematical complexity is determined by the type and the number of equations to be manipulated concurrently due to the number of unknowns in each equation. Data were collected from written tasks and individual interviews administered to physics major students (N =179 ) enrolled in a second year mechanics course. The results indicate that mathematical complexity does not impact students' conceptual performance on the sequential tasks. In contrast, for the simultaneous problems, mathematical complexity negatively influences the students' conceptual performance. This difference may be explained by the students' familiarity with and confidence in particular concepts coupled with cognitive load associated with manipulating complex quantitative equations. Another explanation pertains to the type of synthesis problems, either sequential or simultaneous task. The students split the situation presented in the sequential synthesis tasks into segments but treated the situation in the simultaneous synthesis tasks as a single event.

  18. Management strategies of Bring Your Own Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peixuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of mobile Internet and mobile terminals promote business office system from PC to mobile terminals gradually. Thus Bring Your Own Device (BYOD has become one of the important development trends of enterprise office mode. We analyse the driving factors of implementing Bring Your Own Device, then point out some problems in the process of implementing Bring Your Own Device. Further, we propose the corresponding management strategies of Bring Your Own Device in order to provide references for enterprises to meet the need of mobile office.

  19. Upper estimates of complexity of algorithms for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Novikov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There are proved upper explicit estimates of complexity of lgorithms: for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the limited number of disks, for Reve's puzzle and for $5$-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the free number of disks.

  20. The Streaming Complexity of Cycle Counting, Sorting by Reversals, and Other Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbin, Elad; Yu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    -way. By designing reductions from BHH, we prove lower bounds for the streaming complexity of approximating the sorting by reversal distance, of approximately counting the number of cycles in a 2-regular graph, and of other problems. For example, here is one lower bound that we prove, for a cycle-counting problem...

  1. A Real-Life Case Study of Audit Interactions--Resolving Messy, Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Vivien; Fearnley, Stella; Hines, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Real-life accounting and auditing problems are often complex and messy, requiring the synthesis of technical knowledge in addition to the application of generic skills. To help students acquire the necessary skills to deal with these problems effectively, educators have called for the use of case-based methods. Cases based on real situations (such…

  2. Child outcomes of home-visiting for families with complex and multiple problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, Arend; Dickscheit, Jana; Post, Wendy; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Families with complex and multiple problems are faced with an accumulation of problems across multiple areas of life. Furthermore, these families are often considered to be ‘difficult to treat’. Children and teenagers growing up in these families are exposed to an accumulation of risks

  3. The Ethnology of Traditional and Complex Societies. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Andrei

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This guide focuses on the ethnology of traditional and complex societies. Part I, Simple and Complex Societies, includes three sections: (1) Introduction: Anthropologists…

  4. Individual Differences in Students' Complex Problem Solving Skills: How They Evolve and What They Imply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the demands posed by increasingly complex workplaces in the 21st century have raised the importance of nonroutine skills such as complex problem solving (CPS). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of CPS, especially with regard to malleable external factors such as classroom climate. To investigate the relations…

  5. Health-related problems and quality of life in patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. de Jong (Tim); M. Maliepaard (Marianne); N. Bannink (Natalja); H. Raat (Hein); I.M.J. Mathijssen (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We conducted this study to gauge the health-related problems, quality of life and the performance of the Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI-3) in patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis. Patients with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis have various physical and

  6. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as

  7. Integrating competencies: exploring complex problem solving through case formulation in developmental pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Anne A; Orsino, Angela; Mylopoulos, Maria

    2014-11-01

    To understand how experienced clinicians formulate cases and to use this understanding to explore the broader processes involved in how clinicians solve complex problems in their daily work. Case formulation is a process that allows clinicians to provide a tentative explanation for why a patient with a certain condition presents in a particular way at a particular time. In this constructivist grounded theory study, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with 12 physicians (9 experienced clinicians, 3 new graduates and residents) from the University of Toronto Division of Developmental Pediatrics between July and December 2012. They used a constant comparative analysis to identify themes and iteratively developed a thematic structure, which one researcher applied to the entire data set. They maintained a detailed audit trail throughout the process. Experienced clinician participants articulated three interconnected themes that characterize their complex problem solving during case formulation: (1) interpreting individual patient factors in the context of medical and clinical knowledge, (2) strategically co-constructing the case formulation with parents and team members, and (3) refining the case formulation over time. Findings suggest that these interpretive, strategic, and longitudinal processes appear to be central to the complex problem solving of experienced clinicians engaged in case formulation. They illuminate how clinicians integrate multiple competencies when they solve complex problems in their daily work. Exploring this integration of competencies has broader implications for understanding expertise and expert development and may inform pedagogical practices that promote the development of complex problem solving in trainees.

  8. Preparing new nurses with complexity science and problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Helen F

    2011-01-01

    Successful nurses function effectively with adaptability, improvability, and interconnectedness, and can see emerging and unpredictable complex problems. Preparing new nurses for complexity requires a significant change in prevalent but dated nursing education models for rising graduates. The science of complexity coupled with problem-based learning and peer review contributes a feasible framework for a constructivist learning environment to examine real-time systems data; explore uncertainty, inherent patterns, and ambiguity; and develop skills for unstructured problem solving. This article describes a pilot study of a problem-based learning strategy guided by principles of complexity science in a community clinical nursing course. Thirty-five senior nursing students participated during a 3-year period. Assessments included peer review, a final project paper, reflection, and a satisfaction survey. Results were higher than expected levels of student satisfaction, increased breadth and analysis of complex data, acknowledgment of community as complex adaptive systems, and overall higher level thinking skills than in previous years. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Medical and psychological problems in diagnosing and treating a patient with chronic complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota E. Ortenburger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the medical and psychological problems which occurred while diagnosing and treating a 42-year-old woman with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. It presents a description of somatic and emotional symptoms, social problems, and problems in diagnosis and treatment (left lower limb. Based on the described symptoms, it must be stated that there are specific premises to claim that the studied case fulfils the criteria of complex regional pain syndrome. Data concerning the patient’s psycho-emotional state were taken from a semi-structured interview, the degree of intensity of automatic negative thoughts, and psychological manifestations of hyperactivity by deep limbic system, developed by D. Amen. The patient had symptoms from a few categories, including sensation, reduced mobility, and trophic symptoms (skin lesions. Due to the complex nature of the formation of CRPS pain and associated disorders that are difficult to treat, multidisciplinary therapy was recommended.

  10. Complex symptomatology among young women who present with stress-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbäck, Maria; Wiklund, Maria; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt

    2015-06-01

    In Scandinavia and globally, mental health and stress-related problems among adolescent girls and young women are public health concerns that need attention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health and somatic symptoms with a special focus on internalised problems, self-image and body-mind aspects of body perception in a group of adolescent girls and young women presenting with stress-related problems at a youth-friendly Swedish health centre, and to compare them with normative and clinical reference groups. The participants were 47 adolescent girls and young women, aged 17-25 years. The adult self-report (ASR), social analysis of social behaviour (SASB) and body perception questionnaire (BPQ) were used to measure multiple symptom areas. Compared to reference groups, adolescent girls and young women report complex symptomatology with high levels of internalised problems such as anxiousness, depression and somatic complaints. This manifested in attention problems, negative self-image and perceived bodily discomfort and distrust. Adolescent girls and young women emerging into adulthood present complex symptomatology of stress-related problems. This study gathered valuable information about their symptoms when they were seeking help. These young women showed higher symptom frequency than normative groups, and similar or higher symptom frequency than other clinical groups. Our findings of internalised and cognitive problems, including impaired self-image and body perceptions, point to the need for preventive strategies and tailored multidisciplinary interventions involving body-based methods to meet this complexity. Using tenets of stress theory, the complex symptomatology may be understood as logical responses to overwhelming stimuli and demands that exceed their ability to cope and disturb their 'equilibrium'. However, the complex gendered interplays between various external/internal stressors and a broad range of stress responses and health outcomes

  11. Bringing Scientists to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  12. Medicines counterfeiting is a complex problem: a review of key challenges across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper begins by asking why there is a market for counterfeit medicines, which in effect creates the problem of counterfeiting itself. Contributing factors include supply chain complexity and the lack of whole-systems thinking. These two underpin the author's view that counterfeiting is a complex (i.e. wicked) problem, and that corporate, public policy and regulatory actions need to be mindful of how their actions may be causal. The paper offers a problem-based review of key components of this complexity, viz., the knowledge end-users/consumers have of medicines; whether restrictive information policies may hamper information provision to patients; the internet's direct access to consumers; internet-enabled distribution of unsafe and counterfeit medicines; whether the internet is a parallel and competitive supply chain to legitimate routes; organised crime as an emerging medicines manufacturer and supplier and whether substandard medicines is really the bigger problem. Solutions respect the perceived complexity of the supply chain challenges. The paper identifies the need to avoid technologically-driven solutions, calling for 'technological agnosticism'. Both regulation and public policy need to reflect the dynamic nature of the problem and avoid creating perverse incentives; it may be, for instance, that medicines pricing and reimbursement policies, which affect consumer/patient access may act as market signals to counterfeiters, since this creates a cash market in cheaper drugs.

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58) or low (n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  14. Social Learning Through Evaluation: from Evidence Based Management to Collective Action for Complex Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas G Measham

    2008-01-01

    The role of evaluation in environmental management in Australia tends to be limited to restricted measures of program effectiveness rather than contributing towards supporting environmental managers in addressing complex environmental problems. This paper shows how a social learning approach can be incorporated into evaluating public investment in environmental management dealing with the complex environmental challenges which are inherently difficult to understand, predict and manage. The pa...

  15. A new ant colony optimization model for complex graph-based problems

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pardo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Escuela Politécnica Superior, Departamento de Ingeniería Informática. Fecha de lectura: julio de 2014 Nowadays, there is a huge number of problems that due to their complexity have employed heuristic-based algorithms to search for near-to-optimal (or even optimal) solutions. These problems are usually NP-complete, so classical algorithms are not the best candidates to address these problems because they need a larg...

  16. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  17. On the Nondimensionalization Process in Complex Problems: Application to Natural Convection in Anisotropic Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alhama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nondimensionalization of the equations governing a given problem is a direct, relatively easy, and low-cost way to provide interesting information, the dimensionless groups that rule the problem and define its final patterns of solution. In complex problems, however, this technique frequently does not provide the precise and complete set of monomials we are looking for. The use of discrimination in the process of nondimensionalization, the detailed application of which is explained in this paper, always leads to a minimum set of parameters, which, separately, determine the solution of the problems. In addition, the physical meaning and order of magnitude of these discriminated monomials are also provided by the discrimination. The technique is applied to the coupled problem of natural convection between horizontal plates heated from below, containing an anisotropic porous medium.

  18. Tackling complex problems, building evidence for practice, and educating doctoral nursing students to manage the tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C

    2013-01-01

    The mandate for evidence-based practice (EBP) arose in response to, among other catalysts, several Institute of Medicine reports beginning in the late 1990s. At the same time, the National Institutes of Health and others have recognized that the most complex, important, and challenging problems, termed "wicked problems," are inherently transdisciplinary and require thinking beyond the limits of existing theories. When nursing students are prepared for EBP, they operate within a fairly stable set of assumptions and they exercise a past orientation. Wicked problem-solving occurs within a context that is characterized as dynamic and ambiguous and requires a future orientation to imagine potential solutions to questions of "what if?" Both skills, EBP, and wicked problem-solving, are essential within the discipline of nursing. Students at all levels need to understand when each scientific approach is required. PhD students must be prepared to participate in wicked problem-solving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Put, M.; Leeuwis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a

  20. Shopping Context and Consumers' Mental Representation of Complex Shopping Trip Decision Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); T.A. Arentze (Theo); H.J.P. Timmermans (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDepending on the shopping context, consumers may develop different mental representations of complex shopping trip decision problems to help them interpret the decision situation that they face and evaluate alternative courses of action. To investigate these mental representations and

  1. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for evaluat...

  2. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  3. Assessment of Complex Problem Solving: What We Know and What We Don't Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herde, Christoph Nils; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Complex Problem Solving (CPS) is seen as a cross-curricular 21st century skill that has attracted interest in large-scale-assessments. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, CPS was assessed all over the world to gain information on students' skills to acquire and apply knowledge while dealing with nontransparent…

  4. Computer-Based Assessment of Complex Problem Solving: Concept, Implementation, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Holt, Daniel V.; Goldhammer, Frank; Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Complex Problem Solving (CPS) skills are essential to successfully deal with environments that change dynamically and involve a large number of interconnected and partially unknown causal influences. The increasing importance of such skills in the 21st century requires appropriate assessment and intervention methods, which in turn rely on adequate…

  5. The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…

  6. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...... to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments....

  7. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  8. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  9. The adhesive contact problem in one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals with complex variable function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuefen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the adhesive contact problem in aperiodical plane of one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals. By complex variable method, the adhesive contact problem is converted into a Riemann-Hilbert boundary problem. By solving that, we obtain the explicit expressions of stress functions and contact stress for a rigid flat punch. The results how that: (1 the contact displacement is proportional to the indentation force under a flat rigid punch; (2 The contact stress exhibits the oscillatory singularities at the edge of the contact zone. Because phonon field and phason field are coupled in one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals, the distribution of contact stress under punch is different from the results of contact problems in the classical elasticity theory. Without the contribution of phason field, the above solutions degenerate into the classical ones. Here is the abstract of your article.

  10. Bringing Things Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The first sample surveys in the latter parts of the 19th century were an intellectual social movement. They were motivated by the intention to improve the economic and political conditions of workers. The quantitative survey was considered an ideal because it would present data about the workers...... as facts, i.e. establish a scientific authoritative truth. In a case study from Denmark, the paper shows how the first survey - a study of seamstresses - was carried out by bringing several cognitive and organizational elements together: a network of researchers, a method for sampling, the construction...

  11. Numerical nonlinear complex geometrical optics algorithm for the 3D Calderón problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delbary, Fabrice; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Calderon problem is the mathematical formulation of the inverse problem in Electrical Impedance Tomography and asks for the uniqueness and reconstruction of an electrical conductivity distribution in a bounded domain from the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map associated to the general......The Calderon problem is the mathematical formulation of the inverse problem in Electrical Impedance Tomography and asks for the uniqueness and reconstruction of an electrical conductivity distribution in a bounded domain from the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map associated...... to the generalized Laplace equation. The 3D problem was solved in theory in late 1980s using complex geometrical optics solutions and a scattering transform. Several approximations to the reconstruction method have been suggested and implemented numerically in the literature, but here, for the first time, a complete...... computer implementation of the full nonlinear algorithm is given. First a boundary integral equation is solved by a Nystrom method for the traces of the complex geometrical optics solutions, second the scattering transform is computed and inverted using fast Fourier transform, and finally a boundary value...

  12. The lower bound on complexity of parallel branch-and-bound algorithm for subset sum problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, Roman; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    The subset sum problem is a particular case of the Boolean knapsack problem where each item has the price equal to its weight. This problem can be informally stated as searching for most dense packing of a set of items into a box with limited capacity. Recently, coarse-grain parallelization approaches to Branch-and-Bound (B&B) method attracted some attention due to the growing popularity of weakly-connected distributed computing platforms. In this paper we consider one of such approaches for solving the subset sum problem. One of the processors (manager) performs some number of B&B steps on the first stage with generating some subproblems. On the second stage, the generated subproblems are sent to other processors, one subproblem per processor. The processors solve completely the received subproblems, the manager collects all the obtained solutions and chooses the optimal one. For this algorithm we formally define the parallel execution model (frontal scheme of parallelization) and the notion of the frontal scheme complexity. We study the frontal scheme complexity for a series of subset sum problems.

  13. How Students Process Equations in Solving Quantitative Synthesis Problems? Role of Mathematical Complexity in Students' Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Bashirah; Ding, Lin; Heckler, Andrew F.; White, Daniel R.; Badeau, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    We examine students' mathematical performance on quantitative "synthesis problems" with varying mathematical complexity. Synthesis problems are tasks comprising multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. Mathematical performance refers to the formulation, combination, and simplification of equations. Generally speaking,…

  14. Optical correlation algorithm for reconstructing phase skeleton of complex optical fields for solving the phase problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2014-01-01

    We propose an optical correlation algorithm illustrating a new general method for reconstructing the phase skeleton of complex optical fields from the measured two-dimensional intensity distribution. The core of the algorithm consists in locating the saddle points of the intensity distribution...... and connecting such points into nets by the lines of intensity gradient that are closely associated with the equi-phase lines of the field. This algorithm provides a new partial solution to the inverse problem in optics commonly referred to as the phase problem....

  15. Bringing science to business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  16. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat.

  17. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  18. Putting the puzzle together: the role of 'problem definition' in complex clinical judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Forbes, Thomas; Ott, Michael; Novick, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We teach judgement in pieces; that is, we talk about each aspect separately (patient, plan, resources, technique, etc.). We also let trainees figure out how to put the pieces together. In complex situations, this might be problematic. Using data from a drawing-based study on surgeons' experiences with complex situations, we explore the notion of 'problem definition' in real-world clinical judgement using the theoretical lens of systems engineering. 'Emergence', the sensitising concept for analysis, is rooted in two key systems premises: that person and context are inseparable and that what emerges is an act of choice. Via a 'gallery walk' we used these premises to perform analysis on individual drawings as well as cross-comparisons of multiple drawings. Our focus was to understand similarities and differences among the vantage points used by multiple surgeons. In this paper we challenge two assumptions from current models of clinical judgement: that experts hold a fixed and static definition of the problem and that consequently the focus of the expert's work is on solving the problem. Each situation described by our participants revealed different but complementary perspectives of what a surgical problem might come to be: from concerns about ensuring standard of care, to balancing personal emotions versus care choices, to coordinating resources, and to maintaining control while in the midst of personality clashes. We suggest that it is only at the situation and system level, not at the individual level, that we are able to appreciate the nuances of defining the problem when experts make judgements during real-world complex situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  19. Putting the puzzle together: the role of ‘problem definition’ in complex clinical judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Forbes, Thomas; Ott, Michael; Novick, Richard

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT We teach judgement in pieces; that is, we talk about each aspect separately (patient, plan, resources, technique, etc.). We also let trainees figure out how to put the pieces together. In complex situations, this might be problematic. Using data from a drawing-based study on surgeons’ experiences with complex situations, we explore the notion of ‘problem definition’ in real-world clinical judgement using the theoretical lens of systems engineering. METHODS ‘Emergence’, the sensitising concept for analysis, is rooted in two key systems premises: that person and context are inseparable and that what emerges is an act of choice. Via a ‘gallery walk’ we used these premises to perform analysis on individual drawings as well as cross-comparisons of multiple drawings. Our focus was to understand similarities and differences among the vantage points used by multiple surgeons. RESULTS In this paper we challenge two assumptions from current models of clinical judgement: that experts hold a fixed and static definition of the problem and that consequently the focus of the expert’s work is on solving the problem. Each situation described by our participants revealed different but complementary perspectives of what a surgical problem might come to be: from concerns about ensuring standard of care, to balancing personal emotions versus care choices, to coordinating resources, and to maintaining control while in the midst of personality clashes. CONCLUSION We suggest that it is only at the situation and system level, not at the individual level, that we are able to appreciate the nuances of defining the problem when experts make judgements during real-world complex situations. PMID:27943366

  20. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD: Lifestyle Management Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Make an Appointment Refer ... breathing may become difficult, and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  1. CONCEIVING LANGUAGE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM: A PROBLEM FOR SLA RESEARCHERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moraes Schwartzhaupt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at discussing the impact of the adoption of a perspective which conceives language as a Complex Adaptive System on the Second Language Acquisition research work. In order to achieve this goal, the text first presents a definition of language as a Complex Adaptive, as opposed to the perspective which traditionally permeates research in the field. Next, the main contributions of such a perspective to Second Language Acquisition are addressed. Finally, the implications of adopting this perspective for research in the field are approached. It is argued that conceiving language as a Complex Adaptive System presupposes a paradigm shift on the view of what this object of study is. As a consequence, researchers need to take into account multiple factors in interaction. Although, at first, this necessity might be faced as a problem for conducting scientific research on the field, it is concluded that this necessity may actually be seen as a motivational factor.

  2. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  3. Bring in the cyberpolice

    CERN Multimedia

    Watts, C

    1999-01-01

    Robert Cailliau argues that the explosion of advertising on the web is limiting its' usefulness. He suggests that 'licensing' users may be the only way to stop additional problems such as pornography, spam email and viruses (1 page).

  4. Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners' Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Treavor; Liu, Min; Chiang, Yueh-hui Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study.…

  5. Building University Capacity to Visualize Solutions to Complex Problems in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderson, D.; Veazey, P.; Raymond, V. L.; Kowalski, K.; Prakash, A.; Signor, B.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly changing environments are creating complex problems across the globe, which are particular magnified in the Arctic. These worldwide challenges can best be addressed through diverse and interdisciplinary research teams. It is incumbent on such teams to promote co-production of knowledge and data-driven decision-making by identifying effective methods to communicate their findings and to engage with the public. Decision Theater North (DTN) is a new semi-immersive visualization system that provides a space for teams to collaborate and develop solutions to complex problems, relying on diverse sets of skills and knowledge. It provides a venue to synthesize the talents of scientists, who gather information (data); modelers, who create models of complex systems; artists, who develop visualizations; communicators, who connect and bridge populations; and policymakers, who can use the visualizations to develop sustainable solutions to pressing problems. The mission of Decision Theater North is to provide a cutting-edge visual environment to facilitate dialogue and decision-making by stakeholders including government, industry, communities and academia. We achieve this mission by adopting a multi-faceted approach reflected in the theater's design, technology, networking capabilities, user support, community relationship building, and strategic partnerships. DTN is a joint project of Alaska's National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (NSF EPSCoR) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), who have brought the facility up to full operational status and are now expanding its development space to support larger team science efforts. Based in Fairbanks, Alaska, DTN is uniquely poised to address changes taking place in the Arctic and subarctic, and is connected with a larger network of decision theaters that include the Arizona State University Decision Theater Network and the McCain Institute in Washington, DC.

  6. Two-Level Solutions to Exponentially Complex Problems in Glass Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, John C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    Glass poses an especially challenging problem for physicists. The key to making progress in theoretical glass science is to extract the key physics governing properties of practical interest. In this spirit, we discuss several two-level solutions to exponentially complex problems in glass science......-network glasses of industrial interest, such as borosilicates. The two-level model also gives the thermal history dependence of network former speciation without any additional parameters........ Topological constraint theory, originally developed by J.C. Phillips, is based on a two-level description of rigid and floppy modes in a glass network and can be used to derive quantitatively accurate and analytically solvable models for a variety of macroscopic properties. The temperature dependence...

  7. An Experimental Analysis on Dispatching Rules for the Train Platforming Problem in Busy Complex Passenger Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongfang Zeng

    2017-09-01

    platforming problem (TPP by using mixed integer linear programming and job shop scheduling theory. First, the operation procedures and scheduled time adjustment costs of different train types specific to busy complex passenger stations are explicitly represented. Second, a multi-criteria scheduling model (MCS for TPP without earliness and tardiness time window (ETTW and a time window scheduling model (TWS with ETTW for TPP are proposed. Third, various dispatching rules were designed by incorporating the dispatcher experiences with modern scheduling theory and a rule-based metaheuristic to solve the above model is presented. With solution improvement strategies analogous to those used in practice by dispatchers, the realistic size problems in acceptable time can be solved.

  8. Hybrid binary GA-EDA algorithms for complex “black-box” optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopov, E.

    2017-02-01

    Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have proved their efficiency solving many complex optimization problems. GAs can be also applied for “black-box” problems, because they realize the “blind” search and do not require any specific information about features of search space and objectives. It is clear that a GA uses the “Trial-and-Error” strategy to explorer search space, and collects some statistical information that is stored in the form of genes in the population. Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDA) have very similar realization as GAs, but use an explicit representation of search experience in the form of the statistical probabilities distribution. In this study we discus some approaches for improving the standard GA performance by combining the binary GA with EDA. Finally, a novel approach for the large-scale global optimization is proposed. The experimental results and comparison with some well-studied techniques are presented and discussed.

  9. The complex variable reproducing kernel particle method for bending problems of thin plates on elastic foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the complex variable reproducing kernel particle method (CVRKPM) for solving the bending problems of isotropic thin plates on elastic foundations is presented. In CVRKPM, one-dimensional basis function is used to obtain the shape function of a two-dimensional problem. CVRKPM is used to form the approximation function of the deflection of the thin plates resting on elastic foundation, the Galerkin weak form of thin plates on elastic foundation is employed to obtain the discretized system equations, the penalty method is used to apply the essential boundary conditions, and Winkler and Pasternak foundation models are used to consider the interface pressure between the plate and the foundation. Then the corresponding formulae of CVRKPM for thin plates on elastic foundations are presented in detail. Several numerical examples are given to discuss the efficiency and accuracy of CVRKPM in this paper, and the corresponding advantages of the present method are shown.

  10. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  11. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvili, Sahar [Mälardalen University (Sweden); Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei [Division of Applied Mathematics, Mälardalen University (Sweden); Biteus, Jonas [Scania CV (Sweden)

    2014-12-10

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.

  12. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    for evaluating the performance of a ventilation system in the design proces by treating quantifiable and non-quantifiable datasets together. The method is based on general morphological analysis and applies cross-consistency assessment for reducing the problem complex, thus treating the multi......-dimensionality, the uncertainty and the subjectivity that arises in the design proces on a sound methodological and scientific basis. Through a distance analysis of the shared parameter values the solution scenarios may be plotted relative to each other, hence providing the designer with an illustrated ‘space of solutions...

  13. Collaborative Transportation Planning in Complex Adaptive Logistics Systems: A Complexity Science-Based Analysis of Decision-Making Problems of ``Groupage Systems''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsmann, Michael; Kopfer, Herbert; Cordes, Philip; Bloos, Melanie

    This paper aims to analyze decision-making problems in Groupage Systems from a complexity-science perspective. Therefore, the idea of Complex Adaptive Logistics Systems (CALS) and its inherent organization principle of autonomous co-operation and control will be presented. Furthermore, Groupage systems as a way to implement collaborative transportation planning will be introduced and, in combination with the idea of CALS, resulting decisionmaking problems for so-called ‘smart parts’ in logistics systems will be deduced.

  14. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  15. Bring it on!

    CERN Multimedia

    Castelvecchi, Davide

    2007-01-01

    The world's most powerful atom smasher turns on this year. The author foresees some breakthroughts - and more than a few tricky problems: the most likely scenario is that we're going to have a ton of weird stuff to explain. (3 pages)

  16. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams PAH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. Keywords: cybersecurity, security, safety, wireless, risk, medical devices

  17. Problems and forecast of the development of the Russian fuel and energy complex: the factorial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Toimentseva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing forecasts of Russian energy sector development have a number of general provisions and differ in approaches to their construction. The most realistic forecast is made within the framework of the Energy Strategy of Russia for the period up to 2035. However, the dynamism and high uncertainty of economic processes, international relations, domestic policy and the rapid growth of scientific and technical progress need a systematic correction of any forecast. The purpose of the article is to develop theoretical provisions and practical recommendations for making a forecast for the development of the Russian fuel and energy complex based on the application of the factor approach. The forecasting results are used in the development of management decisions, therefore, the authors of the article take into account the influence of various factors while making the forecast, but they (factors are all quantitatively commensurable. To make a reliable forecast, the internal environment of the research object is studied in detail, organizational and economic problems in the development of the Russian fuel and energy complex are revealed, and methods for their elimination are suggested. The external environment is also analyzed and trends in the development of world energy markets are revealed. To forecast the state of the fuel and energy complex, an integral indicator is chosen reflecting the level of its technical and economic development.

  18. On the complexity of classical and quantum algorithms for numerical problems in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessen, Arvid J.

    Our understanding of complex quantum mechanical processes is limited by our inability to solve the equations that govern them except for simple cases. Numerical simulation of quantum systems appears to be our best option to understand, design and improve quantum systems. It turns out, however, that computational problems in quantum mechanics are notoriously difficult to treat numerically. The computational time that is required often scales exponentially with the size of the problem. One of the most radical approaches for treating quantum problems was proposed by Feytiman in 1982 [46]: he suggested that quantum mechanics itself showed a promising way to simulate quantum physics. This idea, the so called quantum computer, showed its potential convincingly in one important regime with the development of Shor's integer factorization algorithm which improves exponentially on the best known classical algorithm. In this thesis we explore six different computational problems from quantum mechanics, study their computational complexity and try to find ways to remedy them. In the first problem we investigate the reasons behind the improved performance of Shor's and similar algorithms. We show that the key quantum part in Shor's algorithm, the quantum phase estimation algorithm, achieves its good performance through the use of power queries and we give lower bounds for all phase estimation algorithms that use power queries that match the known upper bounds. Our research indicates that problems that allow the use of power queries will achieve similar exponential improvements over classical algorithms. We then apply our lower bound technique for power queries to the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem and show matching lower bounds to the upper bounds of Papageorgiou and Wozniakowski [85]. It seems to be very difficult, though, to find nontrivial instances of the Sturm-Lionville problem for which power queries can be simulated efficiently. A quantum computer differs from a

  19. The Deadlock Recovery Problem in the AGV System with the Ladder Guidepath Layout and its Computational Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Kenji; Masuyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes the minimum time deadlock recovery problem in the AGV system with the ladder guidepath layout(DRPL, for short) and analyzes its computational complexity. In order to analyze the computational complexity, this paper introduces the decision problem version of DRPL to ask whether all deadlocks in the AGV system are recoverable within predetermined time, and NP-hardness in a special case of the problem is proved. Moreover, the condition by which the problem becomes NP-hard when the AGV system has a ladder guidepath layout is clarified, and we propose a polynomial time algorithm that solves the optimization problem version of this problem whenever the problem in the ladder guidepath layout is not NP-hard.

  20. A topological approach to the problem of emergence in complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pascual-García, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Emergent patterns in complex systems are related to many intriguing phenomena in modern science and philosophy. Several conceptions such as weak, strong and robust emergence have been proposed to emphasize different epistemological and ontological aspects of the problem. One of the most important concerns is whether emergence is an intrinsic property of the reality we observe, or it is rather a consequence of epistemological limitations. To elucidate this question, we propose a novel approximation through constructive topology, a framework that allow us to map the space of observed objects (ontology) with the knowledge subject conceptual apparatus (epistemology). Focusing in a particular type of emergent processes, namely those accessible through experiments and from which we have still no clue on the mechanistic processes yielding its formation, we analyse how a knowledge subject would build a conceptual explanatory framework. Working on these systems, we identify concept disjunction as a critical logical op...

  1. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving 'leadership'. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts.

  2. Combined Parameter and State Estimation Problem in a Complex Domain: RF Hyperthermia Treatment Using Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo Varon, L. A.; Orlande, H. R. B.; Eliçabe, G. E.

    2016-09-01

    The particle filter methods have been widely used to solve inverse problems with sequential Bayesian inference in dynamic models, simultaneously estimating sequential state variables and fixed model parameters. This methods are an approximation of sequences of probability distributions of interest, that using a large set of random samples, with presence uncertainties in the model, measurements and parameters. In this paper the main focus is the solution combined parameters and state estimation in the radiofrequency hyperthermia with nanoparticles in a complex domain. This domain contains different tissues like muscle, pancreas, lungs, small intestine and a tumor which is loaded iron oxide nanoparticles. The results indicated that excellent agreements between estimated and exact value are obtained.

  3. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Addressing complex healthcare problems in diverse settings: insights from activity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Gail; Entwistle, Vikki A; Beech, Nic

    2012-02-01

    In the U.K., approaches to policy implementation, service improvement and quality assurance treat policy, management and clinical care as separate, hierarchical domains. They are often based on the central knowledge transfer (KT) theory idea that best practice solutions to complex problems can be identified and 'rolled out' across organisations. When the designated 'best practice' is not implemented, this is interpreted as local--particularly management--failure. Remedial actions include reiterating policy aims and tightening performance management of solution implementation, frequently to no avail. We propose activity theory (AT) as an alternative approach to identifying and understanding the challenges of addressing complex healthcare problems across diverse settings. AT challenges the KT conceptual separations between levels of policy, management and clinical care. It does not regard knowledge and practice as separable, and does not understand them in the commodified way that has typified some versions of KT theory. Instead, AT focuses on "objects of activity" which can be contested. It sees new practice as emerging from contradiction and understands knowledge and practice as fundamentally entwined, not separate. From an AT perspective, there can be no single best practice. The contributions of AT are that it enables us to understand the dynamics of knowledge-practice in activities rather than between levels. It shows how efforts to reduce variation from best practice may paradoxically remove a key source of practice improvement. After explaining the principles of AT we illustrate its explanatory potential through an ethnographic study of primary healthcare teams responding to a policy aim of reducing inappropriate hospital admissions of older people by the 'best practice' of rapid response teams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Educational Data Mining Methods to Assess Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners' Complex Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…

  6. Enhancements of evolutionary algorithm for the complex requirements of a nurse scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tein, Lim Huai; Ramli, Razamin

    2014-12-01

    Over the years, nurse scheduling is a noticeable problem that is affected by the global nurse turnover crisis. The more nurses are unsatisfied with their working environment the more severe the condition or implication they tend to leave. Therefore, the current undesirable work schedule is partly due to that working condition. Basically, there is a lack of complimentary requirement between the head nurse's liability and the nurses' need. In particular, subject to highly nurse preferences issue, the sophisticated challenge of doing nurse scheduling is failure to stimulate tolerance behavior between both parties during shifts assignment in real working scenarios. Inevitably, the flexibility in shifts assignment is hard to achieve for the sake of satisfying nurse diverse requests with upholding imperative nurse ward coverage. Hence, Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) is proposed to cater for this complexity in a nurse scheduling problem (NSP). The restriction of EA is discussed and thus, enhancement on the EA operators is suggested so that the EA would have the characteristic of a flexible search. This paper consists of three types of constraints which are the hard, semi-hard and soft constraints that can be handled by the EA with enhanced parent selection and specialized mutation operators. These operators and EA as a whole contribute to the efficiency of constraint handling, fitness computation as well as flexibility in the search, which correspond to the employment of exploration and exploitation principles.

  7. Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Complex problems made easy; Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Complexe vraagstukken behapbaar maken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oeffelen, E.C.M.; Van Zundert, K.; Westerlaekn, A.C. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    The existing housing stock needs to become smarter and more sustainable in its energy use. From a technical viewpoint, renovations can usually be realized successfully, but the multitude of preconditions such as phasing and the degree of inconvenience for residents often turn renovation into a complex matter. The MCDM method can be a suitable instrument in handling complex renovation issues. [Dutch] In de bestaande woningvoorraad moet slimmer en vooral duurzamer met energie worden omgegaan. Technisch gezien is een renovatie vaak goed realiseerbaar, maar vele randvoorwaarden, zoals fasering en mate van overlast voor bewoners, maken renovatievraagstukken vaak complex. De MCDM-methodiek kan een geschikt hulpmiddel zijn bij het aanpakken van complexe renovatievraagstukken.

  8. Bringing Geoethics into Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The responsibility and role of the scientific community in the proper exploitation of natural resources, in the defense against natural hazards and in building geoeducational strategies for the population are key themes of Geoethics. But, what is the awareness among Geoscientists about the importance of an ethical debate within Earth Sciences? With the goal to increase this awareness, in 2012 the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics was founded (http://www.iapg.geoethics.org). The IAPG aims to join forces of geoscientists all over the world, by creating an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussing on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, for promoting Geoethics themes through scientific publications and conferences, for strengthening the research base on Geoethics, for focusing on case-studies to be taken as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. The IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), it is among the collaborative organizations of the IUGS - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism (TGGGP), and it has been recognized as an International Associate Organization of the American Geosciences Institute (AGI). The IAPG network is growing fast and currently it is going to reach 500 members in more than 75 countries in 5 continents. The IAPG is working to offer its contribution in building a framework of values for a new model of development, more respectful towards the Geosphere. After 2 years of successful results and numerous ongoing activities, IAPG appears to be on the right way in promoting new ideas to research and practice geosciences. This work aims to give an overview on the IAPG activities, to illustrate the IAPG impact on public through web-statistics, to present publications, events and other initiatives on Geoethics carried out by its members.

  9. Subspace Iteration Method for Complex Eigenvalue Problems with Nonsymmetric Matrices in Aeroelastic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Lung, Shun-fat

    2009-01-01

    Modern airplane design is a multidisciplinary task which combines several disciplines such as structures, aerodynamics, flight controls, and sometimes heat transfer. Historically, analytical and experimental investigations concerning the interaction of the elastic airframe with aerodynamic and in retia loads have been conducted during the design phase to determine the existence of aeroelastic instabilities, so called flutter .With the advent and increased usage of flight control systems, there is also a likelihood of instabilities caused by the interaction of the flight control system and the aeroelastic response of the airplane, known as aeroservoelastic instabilities. An in -house code MPASES (Ref. 1), modified from PASES (Ref. 2), is a general purpose digital computer program for the analysis of the closed-loop stability problem. This program used subroutines given in the International Mathematical and Statistical Library (IMSL) (Ref. 3) to compute all of the real and/or complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues of the Hessenberg matrix. For high fidelity configuration, these aeroelastic system matrices are large and compute all eigenvalues will be time consuming. A subspace iteration method (Ref. 4) for complex eigenvalues problems with nonsymmetric matrices has been formulated and incorporated into the modified program for aeroservoelastic stability (MPASES code). Subspace iteration method only solve for the lowest p eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analysis. In general, the selection of p is ranging from 10 for wing flutter analysis to 50 for an entire aircraft flutter analysis. The application of this newly incorporated code is an experiment known as the Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) which was designed by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California to research aeroelastic instabilities. Specifically, this experiment was used to study an instability

  10. How students process equations in solving quantitative synthesis problems? Role of mathematical complexity in students' mathematical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Bashirah; Ding, Lin; Heckler, Andrew F.; White, Daniel R.; Badeau, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    We examine students' mathematical performance on quantitative "synthesis problems" with varying mathematical complexity. Synthesis problems are tasks comprising multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. Mathematical performance refers to the formulation, combination, and simplification of equations. Generally speaking, formulation and combination of equations require conceptual reasoning; simplification of equations requires manipulation of equations as computational tools. Mathematical complexity is operationally defined by the number and the type of equations to be manipulated concurrently due to the number of unknowns in each equation. We use two types of synthesis problems, namely, sequential and simultaneous tasks. Sequential synthesis tasks require a chronological application of pertinent concepts, and simultaneous synthesis tasks require a concurrent application of the pertinent concepts. A total of 179 physics major students from a second year mechanics course participated in the study. Data were collected from written tasks and individual interviews. Results show that mathematical complexity negatively influences the students' mathematical performance on both types of synthesis problems. However, for the sequential synthesis tasks, it interferes only with the students' simplification of equations. For the simultaneous synthesis tasks, mathematical complexity additionally impedes the students' formulation and combination of equations. Several reasons may explain this difference, including the students' different approaches to the two types of synthesis problems, cognitive load, and the variation of mathematical complexity within each synthesis type.

  11. Cloud Model-Based Artificial Immune Network for Complex Optimization Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingan; Li, Jianming; Guo, Dongliang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial immune network based on cloud model (AINet-CM) for complex function optimization problems. Three key immune operators—cloning, mutation, and suppression—are redesigned with the help of the cloud model. To be specific, an increasing half cloud-based cloning operator is used to adjust the dynamic clone multipliers of antibodies, an asymmetrical cloud-based mutation operator is used to control the adaptive evolution of antibodies, and a normal similarity cloud-based suppressor is used to keep the diversity of the antibody population. To quicken the searching convergence, a dynamic searching step length strategy is adopted. For comparative study, a series of numerical simulations are arranged between AINet-CM and the other three artificial immune systems, that is, opt-aiNet, IA-AIS, and AAIS-2S. Furthermore, two industrial applications—finite impulse response (FIR) filter design and proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller tuning—are investigated and the results demonstrate the potential searching capability and practical value of the proposed AINet-CM algorithm. PMID:28630620

  12. Leadership and Leadership Development in Healthcare Settings – A Simplistic Solution to Complex Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McDonald

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving ‘leadership’. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts

  13. Cloud Model-Based Artificial Immune Network for Complex Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial immune network based on cloud model (AINet-CM for complex function optimization problems. Three key immune operators—cloning, mutation, and suppression—are redesigned with the help of the cloud model. To be specific, an increasing half cloud-based cloning operator is used to adjust the dynamic clone multipliers of antibodies, an asymmetrical cloud-based mutation operator is used to control the adaptive evolution of antibodies, and a normal similarity cloud-based suppressor is used to keep the diversity of the antibody population. To quicken the searching convergence, a dynamic searching step length strategy is adopted. For comparative study, a series of numerical simulations are arranged between AINet-CM and the other three artificial immune systems, that is, opt-aiNet, IA-AIS, and AAIS-2S. Furthermore, two industrial applications—finite impulse response (FIR filter design and proportional-integral-differential (PID controller tuning—are investigated and the results demonstrate the potential searching capability and practical value of the proposed AINet-CM algorithm.

  14. Problem of phase transitions and thermodynamic stability in complex (dusty, colloid etc) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, I. A.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.

    2016-11-01

    Features of the first-order phase transitions in complex (dusty, colloid etc) plasma are under discussion. The basis for consideration is the well-known phase diagram of dusty plasma as a Debye system from Hamaguchi et al (1997 Phys. Rev. E 92 4671) in Γ-κ plane (Γ is a Coulomb non-ideality parameter, κ is a screening parameter). The initial Γ -κ phase diagram from Hamaguchi et al (1997 Phys. Rev. E 92 4671) is converted in standard thermodynamic variables in temperature-density planes. Here 2-component electroneutral systems of macro- and microions (+Z, -1) and (-Z, +1) are considered as thermodynamically equilibrium ensembles of classical Coulomb particles. An extensive area for negative compressibility of the system was revealed at the phase diagram in a fluid state of the initial Debye system when one considers the system as equilibrium two-component electroneutral mixture of macro- and microions (+Z, -1) (or (-Z, +1)) under equations of state from Hamaguchi et al (1997 Phys. Rev. E 92 4671) and Khrapak et al (2014 Phys. Rev. E 89 023102). This means thermodynamic instability of the simplified Debye system in this domain. Non-linear screening and an unavoidable existence of additional phase transitions of gas-liquid and gas-crystal type are proposed as hypothetical resolution of discussed thermodynamic instability problem.

  15. Cloud Model-Based Artificial Immune Network for Complex Optimization Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingan; Feng, Shuo; Li, Jianming; Li, Zhonghua; Xue, Yu; Guo, Dongliang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial immune network based on cloud model (AINet-CM) for complex function optimization problems. Three key immune operators-cloning, mutation, and suppression-are redesigned with the help of the cloud model. To be specific, an increasing half cloud-based cloning operator is used to adjust the dynamic clone multipliers of antibodies, an asymmetrical cloud-based mutation operator is used to control the adaptive evolution of antibodies, and a normal similarity cloud-based suppressor is used to keep the diversity of the antibody population. To quicken the searching convergence, a dynamic searching step length strategy is adopted. For comparative study, a series of numerical simulations are arranged between AINet-CM and the other three artificial immune systems, that is, opt-aiNet, IA-AIS, and AAIS-2S. Furthermore, two industrial applications-finite impulse response (FIR) filter design and proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller tuning-are investigated and the results demonstrate the potential searching capability and practical value of the proposed AINet-CM algorithm.

  16. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings – a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving ‘leadership’. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts. PMID:25337595

  17. Complexity of Problems Concerning Carefully Synchronizing Words for PFA and Directing Words for NFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyugin, P. V.

    We show that the problem of checking careful synchronizability of partial finite automata and the problem of finding the shortest carefully synchronizing word are PSPACE-complete. We show that the problem of checking D 1, D 2 and D 3-directability of nondeterministic finite automata and the problem of finding the shortest D 1, D 2 and D 3-directing word are PSPACE-complete. The restrictions of these problems to 2-letter automata remain PSPACE-complete.

  18. Case study method and problem-based learning: utilizing the pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Michelle A; Christopher, Kimberly A

    2011-08-19

    As the complexity of health care delivery continues to increase, educators are challenged to determine educational best practices to prepare BSN students for the ambiguous clinical practice setting. Integrative, active, and student-centered curricular methods are encouraged to foster student ability to use clinical judgment for problem solving and informed clinical decision making. The proposed pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education suggests gradually introducing students to complex and multi-contextual clinical scenarios through the utilization of case studies and problem-based learning activities, with the intention to transition nursing students into autonomous learners and well-prepared practitioners at the culmination of a nursing program. Exemplar curricular activities are suggested to potentiate student development of a transferable problem solving skill set and a flexible knowledge base to better prepare students for practice in future novel clinical experiences, which is a mutual goal for both educators and students.

  19. How students process equations in solving quantitative synthesis problems? Role of mathematical complexity in students’ mathematical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashirah Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine students’ mathematical performance on quantitative “synthesis problems” with varying mathematical complexity. Synthesis problems are tasks comprising multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. Mathematical performance refers to the formulation, combination, and simplification of equations. Generally speaking, formulation and combination of equations require conceptual reasoning; simplification of equations requires manipulation of equations as computational tools. Mathematical complexity is operationally defined by the number and the type of equations to be manipulated concurrently due to the number of unknowns in each equation. We use two types of synthesis problems, namely, sequential and simultaneous tasks. Sequential synthesis tasks require a chronological application of pertinent concepts, and simultaneous synthesis tasks require a concurrent application of the pertinent concepts. A total of 179 physics major students from a second year mechanics course participated in the study. Data were collected from written tasks and individual interviews. Results show that mathematical complexity negatively influences the students’ mathematical performance on both types of synthesis problems. However, for the sequential synthesis tasks, it interferes only with the students’ simplification of equations. For the simultaneous synthesis tasks, mathematical complexity additionally impedes the students’ formulation and combination of equations. Several reasons may explain this difference, including the students’ different approaches to the two types of synthesis problems, cognitive load, and the variation of mathematical complexity within each synthesis type.

  20. The Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Complex and Collaborative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Jonas; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychology can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of Human Capital. Specifically, Complex Problem Solving (CPS) and Collaborative Problem Solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are...

  1. Bring Your Own Device or Bring Your Own Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Holt, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to investigate the utilisation of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) technologies in the classroom to determine if students and teachers perceive that the use of a digital device increased a learner's access to learning opportunities within the classroom, and, if the use of digital devices increased their…

  2. World, We Have Problems: Simulation for Large Complex, Risky Projects, and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrey, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Prior to a spacewalk during the NASA STS/129 mission in November 2009, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) correspondent William Harwood reported astronauts, "were awakened again", as they had been the day previously. Fearing something not properly connected was causing a leak, the crew, both on the ground and in space, stopped and checked everything. The alarm proved false. The crew did complete its work ahead of schedule, but the incident reminds us that correctly connecting hundreds and thousands of entities, subsystems and systems, finding leaks, loosening stuck valves, and adding replacements to very large complex systems over time does not occur magically. Everywhere major projects present similar pressures. Lives are at - risk. Responsibility is heavy. Large natural and human-created disasters introduce parallel difficulties as people work across boundaries their countries, disciplines, languages, and cultures with known immediate dangers as well as the unexpected. NASA has long accepted that when humans have to go where humans cannot go that simulation is the sole solution. The Agency uses simulation to achieve consensus, reduce ambiguity and uncertainty, understand problems, make decisions, support design, do planning and troubleshooting, as well as for operations, training, testing, and evaluation. Simulation is at the heart of all such complex systems, products, projects, programs, and events. Difficult, hazardous short and, especially, long-term activities have a persistent need for simulation from the first insight into a possibly workable idea or answer until the final report perhaps beyond our lifetime is put in the archive. With simulation we create a common mental model, try-out breakdowns of machinery or teamwork, and find opportunity for improvement. Lifecycle simulation proves to be increasingly important as risks and consequences intensify. Across the world, disasters are increasing. We anticipate more of them, as the results of global warming

  3. On the Character and Complexity of Certain Defensive Resource Allocation Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malcolm, W

    2004-01-01

    In this article we consider two classes of static defensive resource allocation problems, these are, the static "target-value based" weapon target allocation and the static "asset-value based" weapon allocation problem...

  4. Atrial fibrillation management in older heart failure patients: a complex clinical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pulignano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF and heart failure (HF, two problems of growing prevalence as a consequence of the ageing population, are associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. AF and HF also share common risk factors and pathophysiologic processes such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and valvular heart disease often occur together. Although elderly patients with both HF and AF are affected by worse symptoms and poorer prognosis, there is a paucity of data on appropriate management of these patients.MethodsPubMed was searched for studies on AF and older patients using the terms atrial fibrillation, elderly, heart failure, cognitive impairment, frailty, stroke, and anticoagulants.ResultsThe clinical picture of HF patients with AF is complex and heterogeneous with a higher prevalence of frailty, cognitive impairment, and disability. Because of the association of mental and physical impairment to non-administration of oral anticoagulants (OACs, screening for these simple variables in clinical practice may allow better strategies for intervention in this high-risk population. Since novel direct OACs (NOACs have a more favorable risk-benefit profile, they may be preferable to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs in many frail elderly patients, especially those at higher risk of falls. Moreover, NOACs are simple to administer and monitor and may be associated with better adherence and safety in patients with cognitive deficits and mobility impairments.ConclusionsLarge multicenter longitudinal studies are needed to examine the effects of VKAs and NOACs on long-term cognitive function and frailty; future studies should include geriatric conditions.

  5. USING OF COMPLEX HARMONIOUS SIGNALS IN PROBLEMS OF ACOUSTIC SPECTROMETRY OF POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bitiukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In article features of definition of acoustic properties of polymers with application of ultrasonic fluctuations are considered. The opportunity of definition with single method of such parameters of quality as a relaxation spectra of polymer and function of molecular-mass distribution in a solution that results in increase in time of carrying out of measurements is shown. For reduction of time, may use narrowing of a range of frequencies of the ultrasonic fluctuations rendered on the measured sample, or increase the step of quantization of a registered signal with the oscillograph. Thus both variants result in reduction in reliability of the received information because of a possible extends for limits of an effective frequency range or loss of a high-frequency component of a registered signal at increase in a step of quantization. For the decision of the listed problems it is offered to use the complex harmonious signal being superposition of several signals. Frequency is necessary for choosing proceeding from sensitivity of each determined polymer parameter of quality. On concrete examples it is shown, that sensitivity of such parameters of quality as strength and viscosity on Mooney essentially depends on frequency. For initial research, in a case when properties of a material beforehand are not known and it is necessary to reveal effective ranges of frequencies, for each determined property of a material, it is offered to use a signal such as «white noise» which will allow to reveal ranges of frequencies with the greatest sensitivity each measured parameter of quality. That, it is in turn connected to uniform distribution of spectral making frequencies on all possible frequency range. Necessity for definition of an effective range of time of registration and a step of quantization for a kind of limitation of technical opportunities of means of registration of electric signals (oscillographs is shown.

  6. Untangling the Complex Needs of People Experiencing Gambling Problems and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…

  7. Bringing Secrecy into the Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings into focus the concept of organizational secrecy, defined as the ongoing formal and informal social processes of intentional concealment of information from actors by actors in organizations. It is argued that existing literature on the topic is fragmented and predominantly...

  8. Bringing reality into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.

    2009-01-01

    Technology offers ample opportunities to bring reality into the classroom. Students and teachers nowadays have many tools to work in an authentic way with real data in mathematics and science education. However, much research and development are still needed to create a consistent learning

  9. Does Visualization Enhance Complex Problem Solving? The Effect of Causal Mapping on Performance in the Computer-Based Microworld Tailorshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öllinger, Michael; Hammon, Stephanie; von Grundherr, Michael; Funke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Causal mapping is often recognized as a technique to support strategic decisions and actions in complex problem situations. Such drawing of causal structures is supposed to particularly foster the understanding of the interaction of the various system elements and to further encourage holistic thinking. It builds on the idea that humans make use…

  10. Generalist solutions to complex problems: generating practice-based evidence - the example of managing multi-morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeve, J.; Blakeman, T.; Freeman, G.K.; Green, L.A.; James, P.A.; Lucassen, P.; Martin, C.M.; Sturmberg, J.P.; Weel, C. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet

  11. Validity of the MicroDYN Approach: Complex Problem Solving Predicts School Grades beyond Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Fabian; Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the complex problem solving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions--rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge (acquired knowledge), rule application (control performance)--and working memory capacity (WMC), and b) whether CPS predicts school grades in…

  12. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Educational Contexts--Something beyond "g": Concept, Assessment, Measurement Invariance, and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Molnar, Gyongyver; Fischer, Andreas; Funke, Joachim; Csapo, Beno

    2013-01-01

    Innovative assessments of cross-curricular competencies such as complex problem solving (CPS) have currently received considerable attention in large-scale educational studies. This study investigated the nature of CPS by applying a state-of-the-art approach to assess CPS in high school. We analyzed whether two processes derived from cognitive…

  14. Solution of internal ballistic problem for SRM with grain of complex shape during main firing phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushkin, A. E.; Minkov, L. L.

    2017-10-01

    Solid rocket motor (SRM) internal ballistics problems are related to the problems with moving boundaries. The algorithm able to solve similar problems in axisymmetric formulation on Cartesian mesh with an arbitrary order of accuracy is considered in this paper. The base of this algorithm is the ghost point extrapolation using inverse Lax-Wendroff procedure. Level set method is used as an implicit representation of the domain boundary. As an example, the internal ballistics problem for SRM with umbrella type grain was solved during the main firing phase. In addition, flow parameters distribution in the combustion chamber was obtained for different time moments.

  15. Modelling of Octahedral Manganese II Complexes with Inorganic Ligands: A Problem with Spin-States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Adamowicz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Quantum mechanical ab initio UHF, MP2, MC-SCF and DFT calculations with moderate Gaussian basis sets were performed for MnX6, X = H2O, F-, CN-, manganese octahedral complexes. The correct spin-state of the complexes was obtained only when the counter ions neutralizing the entire complexes were used in the modelling at the B3LYP level of theory.

  16. On the Combinatorics of SAT and the Complexity of Planar Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talebanfard, Navid

    In this thesis we study several problems arising in Boolean satisfiability ranging from lower bounds for SAT algorithms and proof systems to extremal properties of formulas. The first problem is about construction of hard instances for k-SAT algorithms. For PPSZ algorithm [40] we give the first...

  17. Computer-aided complexity classification of dial-a-ride problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Paepe, W.E.; Lenstra, J.K.; Sgall, J.; Sitters, R.A.; Stougie, L.

    2004-01-01

    In dial-a-ride problems, items have to be transported from a source to a destination. The characteristics of the servers involved as well as the specific requirements of the rides may vary. Problems are defined on some metric space, and the goal is to find a feasible solution that minimizes a

  18. Predictability problems of global change as seen through natural systems complexity description. 1. General Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kozoderov

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall problem of global change is considered as the mathematical discrete dynamics discipline that deals with the sets, measures and metrics (SMM categories in information sub-spaces. The SMM conception enables to unify techniques of data interpretation and analysis and to explain how effectively the giant amounts of information from multispectral satellite radiometers and ground-based instruments are to be processed. It is shown that Prigogine's chaos/order theory and Kolmogorov's probability space are two milestones in understanding the predictability problems of global change. The essence of the problems is maintained to be in filtering out a “useful signal” that would spread from key regions of the globe as compared to their background. Global analysis, interpretation and modelling issues are outlined in the framework of incorrect mathematical problems and of the SMM categories, which contribute to solving the comparability problem for different sets of observations.

  19. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows

  20. The Average Network Flow Problem: Shortest Path and Minimum Cost Flow Formulations, Algorithms, Heuristics, and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    supplier selection problem. 3.1 Introduction Multi-objective decision analysis (MODA) and multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) are very popular decision...xiv I. Introduction ...52 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.2 Decision

  1. Information problem solving by experts and novices: Analysis of a complex cognitive skill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Vermetten, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    In (higher) education students are often faced with information problems: tasks or assignments that require them to identify information needs, locate corresponding information sources, extract and organize relevant information from each source, and synthesize information from a variety of sources.

  2. RESEARCH OF PROBLEMS OF DESIGN OF COMPLEX TECHNICAL PROVIDING AND THE GENERALIZED MODEL OF THEIR DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In this work the general ideas of a method of V. I. Skurikhin taking into account the specified features develop and questions of the analysis and synthesis of a complex of technical means, with finishing them to the level suitable for use in engineering practice of design of information management systems are in more detail considered. In work the general system approach to the solution of questions of a choice of technical means of the information management system is created, the general technique of the sys tem analysis and synthesis of a complex of the technical means and its subsystems providing achievement of extreme value of criterion of efficiency of functioning of a technical complex of the information management system is developed. The main attention is paid to the applied party of system researches of complex technical providing, in particular, to definition of criteria of quality of functioning of a technical complex, development of methods of the analysis of information base of the information management system and definition of requirements to technical means, and also methods of structural synthesis of the main subsystems of complex technical providing. Thus, the purpose is research on the basis of system approach of complex technical providing the information management system and development of a number of methods of the analysis and the synthesis of complex technical providing suitable for use in engineering practice of design of systems. The well-known paradox of development of management information consists of that parameters of the system, and consequently, and requirements to the complex hardware, can not be strictly reasonable to development of algorithms and programs, and vice versa. The possible method of overcoming of these difficulties is prognostication of structure and parameters of complex hardware for certain management informations on the early stages of development, with subsequent clarification and

  3. CONCEIVING LANGUAGE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM: A PROBLEM FOR SLA RESEARCHERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartzhaupt, Bruno Moraes

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims at discussing the impact of the adoption of a perspective which conceives language as a Complex Adaptive System on the Second Language Acquisition research work. In order to achieve this goal, the text first presents a definition of language as a Complex Adaptive, as opposed to the perspective which traditionally permeates research in the field. Next, the main contributions of such a perspective to Second Language Acquisition are addressed. Finally, the implications o...

  4. Introducing Complexity Curtailing Techniques for the Tour Construction Heuristics for the Travelling Salesperson Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziauddin Ursani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, complexity curtailing techniques are introduced to create faster version of insertion heuristics, that is, cheapest insertion heuristic (CIH and largest insertion heuristic (LIH, effectively reducing their complexities from O(n3 to O(n2 with no significant effect on quality of solution. This paper also examines relatively not very known heuristic concept of max difference and shows that it can be culminated into a full-fledged max difference insertion heuristic (MDIH by defining its missing steps. Further to this the paper extends the complexity curtailing techniques to MDIH to create its faster version. The resultant heuristic, that is, fast max difference insertion heuristic (FMDIH, outperforms the “farthest insertion” heuristic (FIH across a wide spectrum of popular datasets with statistical significance, even though both the heuristics have the same worst case complexity of O(n2. It should be noted that FIH is considered best among lowest order complexity heuristics. The complexity curtailing techniques presented here open up the new area of research for their possible extension to other heuristics.

  5. Funeral and Memorial Ceremonialism and Armor Complex of the Ancient and Medieval Population (to the statement of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the major aspects of archeology: the reconstruction of social relations on the basis of data on burial and mortuary ceremonialism. Attention is mainly focused on the theoretical problems of the ratio of the “living” reality and its reflection in funeral monuments, especially on the armor as the key material used to determine the social status and restore the armor complex of ancient and medieval societies.

  6. Perspectives on mathematical practices bringing together philosophy of mathematics, sociology of mathematics, and mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    van Kerkhove, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Philosophy of mathematics today has transformed into a very complex network of diverse ideas, viewpoints, and theories. Sometimes the emphasis is on the ""classical"" foundational work (often connected with the use of formal logical methods), sometimes on the sociological dimension of the mathematical research community and the ""products"" it produces, then again on the education of future mathematicians and the problem of how knowledge is or should be transmitted from one generation to the next. The editors of this book felt the urge, first of all, to bring together the widest variety of aut

  7. Solving hard computational problems efficiently: asymptotic parametric complexity 3-coloring algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Martín H

    Full Text Available Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete. In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate or be absent (no admissible structure, however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to "efficiently" solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter α∈N. Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of α>k to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: P(α>k≤2(-(k+1, making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results.

  8. Solving Hard Computational Problems Efficiently: Asymptotic Parametric Complexity 3-Coloring Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín H., José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to “efficiently” solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter . Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: , making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results. PMID:23349711

  9. Dealing with wicked problems: conducting a causal layered analysis of complex social psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian J; Dzidic, Peta L

    2014-03-01

    Causal layered analysis (CLA) is an emerging qualitative methodology adopted in the discipline of planning as an approach to deconstruct complex social issues. With psychologists increasingly confronted with complex, and "wicked" social and community issues, we argue that the discipline of psychology would benefit from adopting CLA as an analytical method. Until now, the application of CLA for data interpretation has generally been poorly defined and overwhelming for the novice. In this paper we propose an approach to CLA that provides a method for the deconstruction and analysis of complex social psychological issues. We introduce CLA as a qualitative methodology well suited for psychology, introduce the epistemological foundations of CLA, define a space for it adoption within the discipline, and, outline the steps for conducting a CLA using an applied example.

  10. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Looms, Majken Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We present an application of the SIPPI Matlab toolbox, to obtain a sample from the a posteriori probability density function for the classical tomographic inversion problem. We consider a number of different forward models, linear and non-linear, such as ray based forward models that rely...... sampler, for non-linear non-Gaussian inverse problems. To illustrate the applicability of the SIPPI toolbox to a tomographic field data set we use a cross-borehole traveltime data set from Arrenæs, Denmark. Both the computer code and the data are released in the public domain using open source and open...

  11. Exponential-Time Algorithms and Complexity of NP-Hard Graph Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taslaman, Nina Sofia

    NP-hard problems are deemed highly unlikely to be solvable in polynomial time. Still, one can often find algorithms that are substantially faster than brute force solutions. This thesis concerns such algorithms for problems from graph theory; techniques for constructing and improving this type...... to a polylogarithmic factor in the exponent. For planar graphs, lower bounds are found by examining and combining existing reductions. An asymptotically tight bound is found for points corresponding to evaluation of the 3-state Potts model partition function; for remaining points the obtained lower bounds...

  12. On Advice Complexity of the k-server Problem under Sparse Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, S.; Kamali, S.; López-Ortiz, A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the k-Server problem under the advice model of computation when the underlying metric space is sparse. On one side, we introduce Θ (1)-competitive algorithms for a wide range of sparse graphs, which require advice of (almost) linear size. Namely, we show that for graphs of size N...... for the 2-server problem on a path metric of size N ≥ 5. Through another lower bound argument, we show that at least n/2 (log α - 1.22) bits of advice is required to obtain an optimal solution for metric spaces of treewidth α, where 4 ≤ α

  13. Solving the phase-retrieval problem of a complex signal in the fractional Fourier domain by nonlinear least-squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Liao, Tian-he; Cui, Yuan-feng

    2008-08-15

    From the viewpoint of unconstrained optimization the phase-retrieval problem of a 1D complex signal in the fractional Fourier domain is formulated as a nonlinear least-squares problem. A definition of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFRFT) constructed by a discrete Hermite-Gaussian function is adopted here. The ill-posedness of the problem is stressed, and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm of Moré's form is used to solve it. In contrast to many published references, this method can reconstruct the phase accurately from the amplitude of the original signal and the one of its DFRFT at any order in the interval (0, 2). For amplitudes with low-level noise this method also works well.

  14. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Caroline Looms, Majken

    2013-01-01

    From a probabilistic point-of-view, the solution to an inverse problem can be seen as a combination of independent states of information quantified by probability density functions. Typically, these states of information are provided by a set of observed data and some a priori information on the ...

  15. Complexity results on restricted instances of a paint shop problem for words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsma, P.S.; Epping, Th.; Hochstättler, W.

    2006-01-01

    We study the following problem: an instance is a word with every letter occurring twice. A solution is a 2-coloring of its letters such that the two occurrences of every letter are colored with different colors. The goal is to minimize the number of color changes between adjacent letters. This is a

  16. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  17. Self-Reference as a Problem in the Control of Complex Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    Argues that it is necessary that control systems for complex processes be self-referencing. A system is described as self-referencing when it uses a model of itself as a basis for communication and interaction with other systems, and it is suggested that human–machine systems should be looked upo...

  18. Foucault as Complexity Theorist: Overcoming the Problems of Classical Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the affinities and parallels between Foucault's Nietzschean view of history and models of complexity developed in the physical sciences in the twentieth century. It claims that Foucault's rejection of structuralism and Marxism can be explained as a consequence of his own approach which posits a radical ontology whereby the…

  19. BYOD: Bring your own disaster

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever heard of “BYOD”? No, it is not a pop band. Try again. It is short for “Bring Your Own Device” (the French use “AVEC” -  “Apporter Votre Equipement personnel de Communication”) and describes an option long since offered at CERN: the possibility to bring along your personal laptop, smartphone or PDA, use it on CERN premises and connect it to the CERN office network. But hold on. As practical as it is, there is also a dark side.   The primary advantage, of course, is having a digital work environment tuned to your needs and preferences. It allows you to continue working at home. Similarly, you always have your music, address books and bookmarks with you. However, as valuable as this is, it is also a responsibility. Laptop theft is happening - outside CERN but also on site. In France, 30% of stolen laptops were stolen out of cars or homes, and 10% during travel. At CERN, on average one ...

  20. Interdisciplinary approach for bilateral maxillary canine: First premolar transposition with complex problems in an adult patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Dhivakar; Raja, Jhonson; Prasath, Somasundaram

    2013-01-01

    Adult patients seeking orthodontic care were increased nowadays not only on esthetic need but also on functional demand. But problems with adult patients were not only malocclusions but also dental caries, pulpal pathology, missing teeth, muco-gingival problems and loss of supporting structures. We report here a case of 35-year-old female with complete transposition referred as a positional interchange of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch along with gingival recession of the lower anteriors and missing molars. Gingival health was improved by free gingival graft in lower anteriors followed by fixed orthodontic procedure to correct transposition. Based on transposition crown recontouring and restoration was done along with replacement of missing molars with fixed prosthesis. Thus, proper treatment planning with interdisciplinary management improves not only the esthetics and occlusal relationship but also with stable results. PMID:23956606

  1. Sensitivity analysis to compute advanced stochastic problems in uncertain and complex electromagnetic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lalléchère

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the advanced integration of uncertainties in electromagnetic interferences (EMI and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC problems.   In this context,  the Monte Carlo formalism may provide a reliable reference to proceed to statistical assessments.   After all, other  less  expensive  and  efficient  techniques  have  been implemented more recently (the unscented transform and stochastic collocation methods for instance and will be illustrated through uncertain EMC problems. Finally, we will present how the use of sensitivity analysis techniques may offer an efficient complement to rough statistical or stochastic studies.

  2. Interdisciplinary approach for bilateral maxillary canine: First premolar transposition with complex problems in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivakar Selvaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult patients seeking orthodontic care were increased nowadays not only on esthetic need but also on functional demand. But problems with adult patients were not only malocclusions but also dental caries, pulpal pathology, missing teeth, muco-gingival problems and loss of supporting structures. We report here a case of 35-year-old female with complete transposition referred as a positional interchange of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch along with gingival recession of the lower anteriors and missing molars. Gingival health was improved by free gingival graft in lower anteriors followed by fixed orthodontic procedure to correct transposition. Based on transposition crown recontouring and restoration was done along with replacement of missing molars with fixed prosthesis. Thus, proper treatment planning with interdisciplinary management improves not only the esthetics and occlusal relationship but also with stable results.

  3. An elitist teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for solving complex constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Patel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature inspired population based algorithms is a research field which simulates different natural phenomena to solve a wide range of problems. Researchers have proposed several algorithms considering different natural phenomena. Teaching-Learning-based optimization (TLBO is one of the recently proposed population based algorithm which simulates the teaching-learning process of the class room. This algorithm does not require any algorithm-specific control parameters. In this paper, elitism concept is introduced in the TLBO algorithm and its effect on the performance of the algorithm is investigated. The effects of common controlling parameters such as the population size and the number of generations on the performance of the algorithm are also investigated. The proposed algorithm is tested on 35 constrained benchmark functions with different characteristics and the performance of the algorithm is compared with that of other well known optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm can be applied to various optimization problems of the industrial environment.

  4. Methods of Optimization and Systems Analysis for Problems of Transcomputational Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V

    2012-01-01

    This work presents lines of investigation and scientific achievements of the Ukrainian school of optimization theory and adjacent disciplines. These include the development of approaches to mathematical theories, methodologies, methods, and application systems for the solution of applied problems in economy, finances, energy saving, agriculture, biology, genetics, environmental protection, hardware and software engineering, information protection, decision making, pattern recognition, self-adapting control of complicated objects, personnel training, etc. The methods developed include sequentia

  5. Complexity of matrix organization and problems caused by its inadequate implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix organization model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organizational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organizational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organization is not a novelty, it is still a controversial model of organization design. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the causes and effects of organizational misfits which appear in the implementation phase of three-dimensional matrix organization, as well as to offer some practical recommendations for managers on how to improve their capacities for successful management of complex matrix organization architecture in their organizations.

  6. Incomplete LU preconditioning for large scale dense complex linear systems from electromagnetic wave scattering problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee Jeong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    We consider the preconditioned iterative solution of large dense linear systems, where the coefficient matrix is a complex valued matrix arising from discretizing the integral equation of electromagnetic scattering. For some scattering structures this matrix can be poorly conditioned. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a class of incomplete LU (ILU) factorization preconditioners for solving this type of matrices. We solve the electromagnetic wave equations using the BiCG method with an ILU preconditioner in the context of a multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). The novelty of this work is that the ILU preconditioner is constructed using the near part block diagonal submatrices generated from the MLFMA. Experimental results show that the ILU preconditioner reduces the number of BiCG iterations substantially, compared to the block diagonal preconditioner. The preconditioned iteration scheme also maintains the computational complexity of the MLFMA, and consequently reduces the...

  7. Numerical solution of the problem of detecting diffractors in a complex acoustic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, Alexander N.; Pestov, Leonid N.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most effective methods for detecting weak scattering objects (diffractors) associated with cracked-cavernous hydrocarbon reservoirs is the CSP (Common Scattering Point) method [1]. This method is the most effective for weakly inhomogeneous media. The CSP method can be supplemented by a preliminary continuation of the wave field to a certain depth for strongly inhomogeneous medium. In this paper we use Reverse Time Datuming (RTD) procedure for this purpose [2, 3, 4]. The new CSP-RTD method is based on both CSP and RTD methods for determining deep-seated diffractors in complex acoustic medium. The results of numerical studies of CSP-RTD method for a complex acoustic model is presented. The comparison of CSP-RTD method and RTM method is also presented.

  8. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RECREATION COMPLEX IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kamalova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine the organizational and economic aspects of sustainable development of the tourist and recreation complex in the Republic of Dagestan.Methods. Logical analysis, forecasting, economic and statistical method, method of comparative and expert assessments, sociological surveys, complex-factor method, SWOT-analysis.Results. In line with the aim of the study, we made an assessment of the state of the tourism industry in the Republic of Dagestan, thus existing challenges were identified. In the republic, measures are being taken in order to develop the tourism industry on the basis of using a unique cultural and historical heritage, natural and climatic potential, improve the quality of tourist services and implement the priority projects for the development of the Republic of Dagestan. Despite the existing resources, as well as the positive trends of recent years that can be seen both in the growth of the tourist flow and the construction of new facilities of tourist infrastructure, the tourist potential of the republic is not fully realized.Conclusions. Tourist and recreation complex should be considered as one of the most promising and priority directions of development of the economy of the Republic of Dagestan. In the republic, it is necessary to implement a set of measures aimed at institutional, investment and infrastructure support of the tourist and recreational complex; strengthen human capacities; support scientific and research activities in the tourist and recreational area; increase the level of safety of tourist facilities; promote the tourist product of the Republic of Dagestan in the Russian and world markets. To form a positive tourist image of the Republic of Dagestan, it is necessary to use the marketing tools in tourism trade. 

  9. Complexity of matrix organization and problems caused by its inadequate implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević Nebojša; Aleksić Ana

    2007-01-01

    Matrix organization model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organizational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organizational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organization is not a novelty, it i...

  10. The Syllis gracilis species complex: A molecular approach to a difficult taxonomic problem (Annelida, Syllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis and suggested the possibility of it being a species complex. In order to assess the speciation patterns within the putative S. gracilis complex, we undertook species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses on 61 specimens morphologically ascribed to Syllis gracilis and closely related species using a multilocus molecular dataset (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). Our results suggest high levels of genetic differentiation between the S. gracilis populations analyzed, some of which have morphologically distinctive features. Five to eight distinct lineages (depending on the analysis) were identified, all with geographically restricted distributions. Although the presence of ypsiloid chaetae has been traditionally considered the main character to identify S. gracilis, we conclude that this feature is homoplastic. Instead, we propose that characters such as the degree of fusion of blades and shafts in chaetae, the morphology of the posterior chaetae or the animal color pattern should be considered to differentiate lineages within the S. gracilis species complex. Our study does not support the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis, and instead provides morphological and molecular evidence of the existence of a complex of pseudo-cryptic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Uncertainty analysis for complex watershed water quality models: the parameter identifiability problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, F.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Watershed-scale water quality simulation using distributed models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) usually involves significant uncertainty. The uncertainty needs to be appropriately quantified if the simulation is used to support management practices. Many uncertainty analysis (UA) approaches have been developed for watershed hydrologic models, but their applicability to watershed water quality models, which are more complex, has not been well investigated. This study applied a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis algorithm (DREAM), to the SWAT model. The sediment and total nitrogen pollution in the Newport Bay watershed (Southern California) was used as a case study. Different error assumptions were tested. The major findings include: 1) in the water quality simulation, many parameters are non-identifiable due to different causes; 2) the existence of identifiability seriously reduces the efficiency of the MCMC algorithm, and distorts the posterior distributions of the non-identifiable parameters, although the uncertainty band produced by the algorithm does not change much if enough samples are obtained. It was concluded that a sensitivity analysis (SA) followed by an identifiability analysis is necessary to reduce the non-identifiability, and enhances the applicability of a Bayesian UA approach to complex watershed water quality models. In addition, the analysis on the different causes of non-identifiablity provides insights into model tradeoffs between complexity and performance.

  12. Differential Transform Method with Complex Transforms to Some Nonlinear Fractional Problems in Mathematical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper witnesses the coupling of an analytical series expansion method which is called reduced differential transform with fractional complex transform. The proposed technique is applied on three mathematical models, namely, fractional Kaup-Kupershmidt equation, generalized fractional Drinfeld-Sokolov equations, and system of coupled fractional Sine-Gordon equations subject to the appropriate initial conditions which arise frequently in mathematical physics. The derivatives are defined in Jumarie’s sense. The accuracy, efficiency, and convergence of the proposed technique are demonstrated through the numerical examples. It is observed that the presented coupling is an alternative approach to overcome the demerit of complex calculation of fractional differential equations. The proposed technique is independent of complexities arising in the calculation of Lagrange multipliers, Adomian’s polynomials, linearization, discretization, perturbation, and unrealistic assumptions and hence gives the solution in the form of convergent power series with elegantly computed components. All the examples show that the proposed combination is a powerful mathematical tool to solve other nonlinear equations also.

  13. Abstract Besov-Hardy-Sobolev spaces and elliptic boundary value problems with complex bounded measurable coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Amenta, Alex; Auscher, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this monograph our main goal is to study the well-posedness of boundary value problems of Dirichlet and Neumann type for elliptic systems div A∇u = 0 on the upper half-space with coefficients independent of the transversal variable, and with boundary data in fractional Hardy–Sobolev and Besov spaces. Our approach uses minimal assumptions on the coefficients A, and in particular does not require De Giorgi–Nash–Moser estimates. Our results are completely new for the H...

  14. Cubical complexes in concurrency theory, discrete and continuous models for directed lifting problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, methods from algebraic topology and geometry have entered computer science. These methods are used in many different areas of computer science, and various traditional methods of geometry and algebraic topology are applied directly or costumized to fit the applications. Among......, it is preferable that many processors work concurrently. On the other hand, the non-determinism introduced by various processors with their own local time and pace is problematic in verification that executions will do what they are expected to. Another problem introduced is the vast number of states...

  15. Biological complexity, quantum coherent states and the problem of efficient transmission of information inside a cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V

    2013-03-01

    The intracellular channel of information transmission was analyzed from the point of view of complexity. The most important steps in the transfer of information within a cell are the folding, transport and recognition of proteins. It was shown that the large number of conformational degrees of freedom that proteins possess can paradoxically lead to an information channel with an exponentially small capacity. To resolve this paradox, a model, which assumes a quantum collective behavior of biologically important molecules, was proposed. Experiments to test the quantum nature of the intracellular transfer of information were also proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Model of geophysical fields representation in problems of complex correlation-extreme navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr KHARCHENKO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A model of the optimal representation of spatial data for the task of complex correlation-extreme navigation is developed based on the criterion of minimum deviation of the correlation functions of the original and the resulting fields. Calculations are presented for one-dimensional case using the approximation of the correlation function by Fourier series. It is shown that in the presence of different geophysical map data fields their representation is possible by single template with optimal sampling without distorting the form of the correlation functions.

  17. The ongoing need for local services for people with complex mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Despite developments in mental healthcare over recent decades, there remains a group of people with very complex needs who require lengthy admissions and high levels of support in the community on discharge. This is the group that mental health rehabilitation services focus on. In the context of contemporary mental health services that minimise in-patient lengths of stay, the needs of this group must not be overlooked. Providing a local, 'whole system, integrated rehabilitation care pathway' requires intelligent commissioning in order to avoid the social exclusion of this group to the 'virtual asylum' of out-of-area placements.

  18. Mathematical Analysis of Deterministic and Stochastic Problems in Complex Media Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Roach, G F; Yannacopoulos, A N

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic complex media are artificial materials that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves in surprising ways not usually seen in nature. Because of their wide range of important applications, these materials have been intensely studied over the past twenty-five years, mainly from the perspectives of physics and engineering. But a body of rigorous mathematical theory has also gradually developed, and this is the first book to present that theory. Designed for researchers and advanced graduate students in applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and physics, this book in

  19. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Durham Smith Vest-Over-Pant Technique: Simple Procedure for a Complex Problem (Post-Hypospadias Repair Fistula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, Venkat A; Patil, Saurabh R; Bote, Sachin M; Siddiqui, Mohd Ayub Karam Nabi; Nikose, Jayant V; Kandi, Anitha J

    2017-01-01

    Urethrocutaneous fistula, which occurs after hypospadias surgery, is often a baffling problem and its treatment is challenging. The study aimed to evaluate the results of the simple procedure (Durham Smith vest-over-pant technique) for this complex problem (post-hypospadias repair fistula). During the period from 2011 to 2015, 20 patients with post-hypospadias repair fistulas underwent Durham Smith repair. Common age group was between 5 and 12 years. Site wise distribution of fistula was coronal 2 (10%), distal penile 7 (35%), mid-penile 7 (35%), and proximal-penile 4 (20%). Out of 20 patients, 15 had fistula of size 5 mm (25%). All cases were repaired with Durham Smith vest-over-pant technique by a single surgeon. In case of multiple fistulas adjacent to each other, all fistulas were joined to form single fistula and repaired. We have successfully repaired all post-hypospadias surgery urethrocutaneous fistulas using the technique described by Durham Smith with 100% success rate. Durham Smith vest-over-pant technique is a simple solution for a complex problem (post hypospadias surgery penile fistulas) in properly selected patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.

  2. Motion Artefacts in MRI: a Complex Problem with Many Partial Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Maxim; Maclaren, Julian.; Herbst, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Subject motion during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been problematic since its introduction as a clinical imaging modality. While sensitivity to particle motion or blood flow can be used to provide useful image contrast, bulk motion presents a considerable problem in the majority of clinical applications. It is one of the most frequent sources of artefacts. Over 30 years of research have produced numerous methods to mitigate or correct for motion artefacts, but no single method can be applied in all imaging situations. Instead, a ‘toolbox’ of methods exists, where each tool is suitable for some tasks, but not for others. This article reviews the origins of motion artefacts and presents current mitigation and correction methods. In some imaging situations, the currently available motion correction tools are highly effective; in other cases, appropriate tools still need to be developed. It seems likely that this multifaceted approach will be what eventually solves the motion sensitivity problem in MRI, rather than a single solution that is effective in all situations. This review places a strong emphasis on explaining the physics behind the occurrence of such artefacts, with the aim of aiding artefact detection and mitigation in particular clinical situations. PMID:25630632

  3. Using density functional theory to solve complex problems: from liquid water to dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Serra, Marivi

    In this talk I will review our current efforts on on understanding the physics of liquid water and the interaction of water with functional semiconductor surfaces using ab initio molecular dynamics methods. I will present the state of the art of current simulations and the challenges we face, focusing on two specific problems: the description of electron-electron interactions using semilocal density functionals and the role of nuclear quantum effects. I will finish the talk introducing our work in the field of dark matter detection, showing how electronic structure theory is a tool that can easily be used by high energy theorists to evaluate their predictions about the interactions of dark matter particles with electrons in solids, opening a bridge between two otherwise very distant communities.

  4. Experimental identification of flexural and shear complex moduli by inverting the Timoshenko beam problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassereau, Thibault; Ablitzer, Frédéric; Pézerat, Charles; Guyader, Jean-Louis

    2017-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the local viscoelastic parameters of sandwich beams. An original procedure involving an inverse vibratory method (Force Analysis Technique) and the Timoshenko beam theory is detailed and applied experimentally on a sample presenting a honeycomb core. The major philosophy relies in considering multi-layer beams as equivalent homogeneous structures. This simplified approach is thought to be more representative of the global dynamic behaviour, in addition the reduction of degrees of freedom is obviously an improvement for modelling on Finite Element software. When compared to other usual approaches, the method developed in this paper shows a very good agreement between the experimental sandwich beam and the homogeneous model, which highlights interesting insights for applying it to industrial structures. The local aspect, the robustness and the self-regularization properties are verified on a wide frequency range, making the procedure possibly efficient for characterization of structures on a production line, flaw detection and Structural Health Monitoring.

  5. QDPSO applied to the complex problem optimization of the nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to show the performance of different approaches of quantum-inspired algorithms as optimization tool of diagnosis system of Brazilian nuclear power plant operating at 100% of full power. The algorithms implemented in this study were Quantum Delta-Potential-Well-based Particle Swarm Optimization (QDPSO), Quantum Swarm Evolutionary (QSE) and Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA). Both QDPSO and QSE are inspired on the philosophy of 'collective learning' of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) but use different theories of quantum mechanics to govern the motion of the particles. On the other hand QEA is inspired on the philosophy of 'population evolution' of Genetic Algorithm and uses the main concepts of Quantum Computation. The results found shown that only QDPSO and QEA achieve the best result of the problem. Besides QDPSO in terms of convergence speed is faster than QEA. (author)

  6. Using the complex Langevin equation to solve the sign problem of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexty, Denes [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Using the resources of SuperMUC we have been able to calculate the reweighting results and compare them to the CLE for lattice sizes up to Nt=8. This did not allow the exploration of the phase transition line. It's an open question whether increasing the lattice size will allow us to go to smaller temperatures. The cost of larger lattices is of course increasing, especially the reweighting becomes much more expensive at larger volumes, as it's cost is proportional to the spatial volume cubed. An other important open question is the question of the poles: the fermionic drift term has singularities on the complex manifold, which in some cases can lead to the breakdown of the method, but it is unknown what its effect is on QCD, especially at low temperatures.

  7. Integrating water and agricultural management: collaborative governance for a complex policy problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Rob D; Ioris, Antonio A R; Watson, Nigel M

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines governance requirements for integrating water and agricultural management (IWAM). The institutional arrangements for the agriculture and water sectors are complex and multi-dimensional, and integration cannot therefore be achieved through a simplistic 'additive' policy process. Effective integration requires the development of a new collaborative approach to governance that is designed to cope with scale dependencies and interactions, uncertainty and contested knowledge, and interdependency among diverse and unequal interests. When combined with interdisciplinary research, collaborative governance provides a viable normative model because of its emphasis on reciprocity, relationships, learning and creativity. Ultimately, such an approach could lead to the sorts of system adaptations and transformations that are required for IWAM. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Wolves, dogs, rearing and reinforcement: complex interactions underlying species differences in training and problem-solving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Harry

    2011-11-01

    Frank and Frank et al. (1982-1987) administered a series of age-graded training and problem-solving tasks to samples of Eastern timber wolf (C. lupus lycaon) and Alaskan Malamute (C. familiaris) pups to test Frank's (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 53:389-399, 1980) model of the evolution of information processing under conditions of natural and artificial selection. Results confirmed the model's prediction that wolves should perform better than dogs on problem-solving tasks and that dogs should perform better than wolves on training tasks. Further data collected at the University of Connecticut in 1983 revealed a more complex and refined picture, indicating that species differences can be mediated by a number of factors influencing wolf performance, including socialization regimen (hand-rearing vs. mother-rearing), interactive effects of socialization on the efficacy of both rewards and punishments, and the flexibility to select learning strategies that experimenters might not anticipate.

  9. Size estimates for the inverse boundary value problems of isotropic elasticity and complex conductivity in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Cârstea, Cătălin; Wang, Jenn-Nan

    2017-12-01

    In the inverse boundary value problems of isotropic elasticity and complex conductivity, we derive estimates for the volume fraction of an inclusion whose physical parameters satisfy suitable gap conditions. For both the inclusion and the background medium we assume that the material coefficients are constant. In the elasticity case we require one measurement for the lower bound and another for the upper one. In the complex conductivity case we need three measurements for the lower bound and three for the upper. We accomplish this with the help of the ‘translation method’ which consists of perturbing the minimum principle associated with the equation by either a null-Lagrangian or a quasi-convex quadratic form.

  10. A framework to approach problems of forensic anthropology using complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Inés; Dorso, Claudio O.; Gallo, Pablo; Somigliana, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a method to analyze and interpret emerging structures in a set of data which lacks some information. It has been conceived to be applied to the problem of getting information about people who disappeared in the Argentine state of Tucumán from 1974 to 1981. Even if the military dictatorship formally started in Argentina had begun in 1976 and lasted until 1983, the disappearance and assassination of people began some months earlier. During this period several circuits of Illegal Detention Centres (IDC) were set up in different locations all over the country. In these secret centres, disappeared people were illegally kept without any sort of constitutional guarantees, and later assassinated. Even today, the final destination of most of the disappeared people’s remains is still unknown. The fundamental hypothesis in this work is that a group of people with the same political affiliation whose disappearances were closely related in time and space shared the same place of captivity (the same IDC or circuit of IDCs). This hypothesis makes sense when applied to the systematic method of repression and disappearances which was actually launched in Tucumán, Argentina (2007) [11]. In this work, the missing individuals are identified as nodes on a network and connections are established among them based on the individuals’ attributes while they were alive, by using rules to link them. In order to determine which rules are the most effective in defining the network, we use other kind of knowledge available in this problem: previous results from the anthropological point of view (based on other sources of information, both oral and written, historical and anthropological data, etc.); and information about the place (one or more IDCs) where some people were kept during their captivity. For these best rules, a prediction about these people’s possible destination is assigned (one or more IDCs where they could have been kept), and the success of the

  11. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  12. Heterogeneous symptom patterns of sexually abused children in treatment: understanding the complexity of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Genelle K; Hansen, David J

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for clinicians and researchers is the heterogeneity of the severity and type of symptoms presented by sexually abused youth, including those who are subclinical on traditional clinical measures but still present to treatment. Most research continues to treat sexually abused youth as a single population and has not assessed the outcomes or symptom trajectories of various groups of sexually abused youth. Participants included 107 sexually abused children and their nonoffending parents presenting to a cognitive-behavioral group treatment. A cluster analysis using child- and parent-report measures revealed four profiles, including Subclinical, Highly Distressed, Problem Behaviors, and Self-Reported Distress clusters. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to create separate child- and parent-report models of weekly symptomatology to examine differential change over the course of treatment. Contrary to expectation, there was little variation in the weekly rates of change for the different symptom groups; however, all groups evidenced a decrease in symptoms over the course of treatment, including the Subclinical cluster.

  13. Detailed Simulation of Complex Hydraulic Problems with Macroscopic and Mesoscopic Mathematical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Biscarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation of fast-moving fronts originating from dam or levee breaches is a challenging task for small scale engineering projects. In this work, the use of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS equations and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is proposed for testing the validity of, respectively, macroscopic and mesoscopic mathematical models. Macroscopic simulations are performed employing an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD code that solves the NS combined with the volume of fluid (VOF multiphase method to represent free-surface flows. The mesoscopic model is a front-tracking experimental variant of the LBM. In the proposed LBM the air-gas interface is represented as a surface with zero thickness that handles the passage of the density field from the light to the dense phase and vice versa. A single set of LBM equations represents the liquid phase, while the free surface is characterized by an additional variable, the liquid volume fraction. Case studies show advantages and disadvantages of the proposed LBM and NS with specific regard to the computational efficiency and accuracy in dealing with the simulation of flows through complex geometries. In particular, the validation of the model application is developed by simulating the flow propagating through a synthetic urban setting and comparing results with analytical and experimental laboratory measurements.

  14. Application of the similarity theory including variable property effects to a complex benchmark problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Herwig, H.

    2010-06-01

    An asymptotic method to account for variable property effects, recently described in this journal, is now applied to a complex benchmark geometry. It is a room which is ventilated by forced convection through inlet and outlet slit nozzles at the top and bottom of the side walls. Four heating elements standing on the ground floor add heat with constant heat flux density of varying strength. CFD solutions with the full coverage of all property temperature dependencies of air and SF6 are compared with asymptotic results (ACFD), applied for these fluids. ACFD results are given as systematic expansions with respect to a heat transfer parameter {\\varepsilon} which serves as perturbation parameter. First and second order asymptotic results of the Nußelt number at the surface of the heating elements are shown as well as temperature distributions along the adiabatic walls of the room. Special attention is given to the reference Nußelt numbers of zero order {(\\varepsilon=0)} which are those for constant properties only for pure forced convection.

  15. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  16. The manual of strategic economic decision making using Bayesian belief networks to solve complex problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This book is an extension of the author’s first book and serves as a guide and manual on how to specify and compute 2-, 3-, & 4-Event Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). It walks the learner through the steps of fitting and solving fifty BBN numerically, using mathematical proof. The author wrote this book primarily for naïve learners and professionals, with a proof-based academic rigor. The author's first book on this topic, a primer introducing learners to the basic complexities and nuances associated with learning Bayes’ theory and inverse probability for the first time, was meant for non-statisticians unfamiliar with the theorem - as is this book. This new book expands upon that approach and is meant to be a prescriptive guide for building BBN and executive decision-making for students and professionals; intended so that decision-makers can invest their time and start using this inductive reasoning principle in their decision-making processes. It highlights the utility of an algorithm that served as ...

  17. Bringing the Unidata IDV to the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. I.; Oxelson Ganter, J.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining software compatibility across new computing environments and the associated underlying hardware is a common problem for software engineers and scientific programmers. While traditional software engineering provides a suite of tools and methodologies which may mitigate this issue, they are typically ignored by developers lacking a background in software engineering. Causing further problems, these methodologies are best applied at the start of project; trying to apply them to an existing, mature project can require an immense effort. Visualization software is particularly vulnerable to this problem, given the inherent dependency on particular graphics hardware and software API's. As a result of these issues, there exists a large body of software which is simultaneously critical to the scientists who are dependent upon it, and yet increasingly difficult to maintain.The solution to this problem was partially provided with the advent of Cloud Computing; Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations, with little-to-no re-engineering required. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily bring the same visualization software to a desktop, a netbook, a smartphone, and the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be.Unidata has been able to harness Application Streaming to provide a tablet-compatible version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  18. Assessment of complex environmental health problems: framing the structures and structuring the frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Anne B; Briggs, David J; Lebret, Erik

    2010-06-15

    Many environmental risks are multi-faceted and their health consequences can be far-ranging in both time and space. It can be a challenging task to develop informed policies for such risks. Integrated environmental health impact assessment aims to support policy by assessing environmental health effects in ways that take into account the complexities and uncertainties involved. For such assessment to be successful, a clear and agreed conceptual framework is needed, which defines the issue under consideration and sets out the principles on which the assessment is based. Conceptual frameworks facilitate involvement of stakeholders, support harmonized discussions, help to make assumptions explicit, and provide a framework for data analysis and interpretation. Various conceptual frameworks have been developed for different purposes, but as yet no clear taxonomy exists. We propose a three-level taxonomy of conceptual frameworks for use in environmental health impact assessment. At the first level of the taxonomy, structural frameworks show the wide context of the issues at hand. At the second level, relational frameworks describe how the assessment variables are causally related. At the third level, this causal structure is translated into an operational model, which serves as a basis for analysis. The different types of frameworks are complementary and all play a role in the assessment process. The taxonomy is illustrated using a hypothetical assessment of urban brownfield development for residential uses. We suggest that a better understanding of types of conceptual frameworks and their potential roles in the different phases of assessment will contribute to more informed assessments and policies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. System sight at a problem of efficiency of enterprises’s operaton of the Russian chemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav Arkadyevich Nikitin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry plays an important role in the development of the domestic economy as one of the basic facilities of Russia's economy, laying the foundation for its long-term and stable development. As a major supplier of raw materials, intermediates, and products of various materials (plastics, chemical fibers, tires, paints and varnishes, dyes, fertilizers, feed additives, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment etc. in almost all sectors of industry, agriculture, health care, human services, commerce, science, culture and education, defense industry, chemical complex has direct impact on the efficiency of their operation and development in these new directions. Therefore, the condition and development of domestic chemistry determines the level of national competitiveness, economic growth and Russia's wealth. However, like most industries in Russia today, chemical industry is going through a difficult period. The presence of a set of common economic problems (identified by technological backwardness and high depreciation, low innovation activity of domestic enterprises of the chemical complex, a lack of effectiveness of the investment process, infrastructure and resource constraints etc., as well as internal management problems causes the rapid growth of interest of uncompetitive Russian chemical products on the world market. Under these conditions, not only a radical adjustment of the internal control systems and chemical plants, but also a significant organizational and economic change is required. Thus, unless we take measures to improve the domestic chemical industry in the coming years, almost all of it grow back and may get into the situation of struggle for survival.

  20. Deciphering the structure of isomeric oligosaccharides in a complex mixture by tandem mass spectrometry: photon activation with vacuum ultra-violet brings unique information and enables definitive structure assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropartz, David; Lemoine, Jérôme; Giuliani, Alexandre; Bittebière, Yann; Enjalbert, Quentin; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2014-01-07

    Carbohydrates have a wide variety of structures whose complexity and heterogeneity challenge the field of analytical chemistry. Tandem mass spectrometry, with its remarkable sensitivity and high information content, provides key advantages to addressing the structural elucidation of polysaccharides. Yet, classical fragmentation by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in many cases fails to reach a comprehensive structural determination, especially when isomers have to be differentiated. In this work, for the first time, vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) synchrotron radiation is used as the activation process in tandem mass spectrometry of large oligosaccharides. Compared to low energy CAD (LE-CAD), photon activated dissociation brought more straightforward and valuable structural information. The outstanding feature was that complete series of informative ions were produced, with only minor neutral losses. Moreover, systematic fragmentation rules could be drawn thus facilitating the definitive assignments of fragment identities. As a result, most of the structures present in a complex mixture of oligogalacturonans could be comprehensively resolved, including many isomers differing in the position of methyl groups along the galacturonic acid backbone. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. BioDMET: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic simulation tool for assessing proposed solutions to complex biological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John F; Scholz, Bernhard J; Zavodszky, Maria I

    2012-02-01

    We developed a detailed, whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tool for calculating the distribution of pharmaceutical agents in the various tissues and organs of a human or animal as a function of time. Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) represent the circulation of body fluids through organs and tissues at the macroscopic level, and the biological transport mechanisms and biotransformations within cells and their organelles at the molecular scale. Each major organ in the body is modeled as composed of one or more tissues. Tissues are made up of cells and fluid spaces. The model accounts for the circulation of arterial and venous blood as well as lymph. Since its development was fueled by the need to accurately predict the pharmacokinetic properties of imaging agents, BioDMET is more complex than most PBPK models. The anatomical details of the model are important for the imaging simulation endpoints. Model complexity has also been crucial for quickly adapting the tool to different problems without the need to generate a new model for every problem. When simpler models are preferred, the non-critical compartments can be dynamically collapsed to reduce unnecessary complexity. BioDMET has been used for imaging feasibility calculations in oncology, neurology, cardiology, and diabetes. For this purpose, the time concentration data generated by the model is inputted into a physics-based image simulator to establish imageability criteria. These are then used to define agent and physiology property ranges required for successful imaging. BioDMET has lately been adapted to aid the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Given a range of built-in features and its inherent flexibility to customization, the model can be used to study a variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic problems such as the effects of inter-individual differences and disease-states on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dosing optimization, and inter

  2. Process evaluation of an integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation for people with complex health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everink, Irma H J; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Maessen, Jose M C; Schols, Jos M G A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2017-01-13

    An integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation was developed to improve coordination and continuity of care for community-living older adults in the Netherlands, who go through the process of hospital admission, admission to a geriatric rehabilitation facility and discharge back to the home situation. This pathway is a complex intervention and is focused on improving communication, triage and transfers of patients between the hospital, geriatric rehabilitation facility and primary care organisations. A process evaluation was performed to assess the feasibility of this pathway. The study design incorporated mixed methods. Feasibility was assessed thru if the pathway was implemented according to plan (fidelity and dose delivered), (b) if patients, informal caregivers and professionals were satisfied with the pathway (dose received) and (c) which barriers and facilitators influenced implementation (context). These components were derived from the theoretical framework of Saunders and colleagues. Data were collected using three structured face-to-face interviews with patients, self-administered questionnaires among informal caregivers, and group interviews with professionals. Furthermore, data were collected from the information transfer system in the hospital, patient files of the geriatric rehabilitation facility and minutes of evaluation meetings. In total, 113 patients, 37 informal caregivers and 19 healthcare professionals participated in this process evaluation. The pathway was considered largely feasible as two components were fully implemented according to plan and two components were largely implemented according to plan. The timing and quality of medical discharge summaries were not sufficiently implemented according to plan and professionals indicated that the triage instrument needed refinement. Healthcare professionals were satisfied with the implementation of the pathway and they indicated that due to improved collaboration, the quality of care

  3. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: a Quasi-experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2017-03-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A quasi-experimental methodology was used to compare performances of the participants in various dimensions, including systems thinking skills, competence in dynamic environmental problem solving and success in science achievement tests. The same pre-, post- and delayed tests were used with both the comparison and experimental groups in the same public middle school in Istanbul. Classroom activities designed for the comparison group (N = 20) followed the directives of the Science and Technology Curriculum, while the experimental group (N = 22) covered the same subject matter through activities benefiting from systems tools and representations such as behaviour over time graphs, causal loop diagrams, stock-flow structures and hands-on dynamic modelling. After a one-month systems-based instruction, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better systems thinking and dynamic environmental problem solving skills. Achievement in dynamic problem solving was found to be relatively stable over time. However, standard science achievement did not improve at all. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the results, the weaknesses of the curriculum and educational implications.

  4. Improving and validating 3D models for the leaf energy balance in canopy-scale problems with complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.

    2014-12-01

    Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  5. Bringing Power to Planning Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an answer to what has been called the biggest problem in theorizing and understanding planning, namely the ambivalence about power found among planning researchers, theorists, and students. The author narrates how he came to work with issues of power. He then gives an example...

  6. Bringing Power to Planning Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article provides an answer to what has been called the biggest problem in theorizing and understanding planning, namely the ambivalence about power found among planning researchers, theorists, and students. The author narrates how he came to work with issues of power. He then gives an example...

  7. The debauchery that crack brings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eudison da Silva Maia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the substances with psychoactive effects, the most powerful and damaging is the crack, which acts directly on the central nervous system, producing various sensations of pleasure over the conventional. Currently, because of the debauchery that is causing, it is considered a problem of public health worldwide.

  8. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  9. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  10. Influence of model complexity and problem formulation on the forces in the knee calculated using optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chen, Sheng-Chang

    2013-03-07

    Predictions of the forces transmitted by the redundant force-bearing structures in the knee are often performed using optimization methods considering only moment equipollence as a result of simplified knee modeling without ligament contributions. The current study aimed to investigate the influence of model complexity (with or without ligaments), problem formulation (moment equipollence with or without force equipollence) and optimization criteria on the prediction of the forces transmitted by the force-bearing structures in the knee. Ten healthy young male adults walked in a gait laboratory while their kinematic and ground reaction forces were measured simultaneously. A validated 3D musculoskeletal model of the locomotor system with a knee model that included muscles, ligaments and articular surfaces was used to calculate the joint resultant forces and moments, and subsequently the forces transmitted in the considered force-bearing structures via optimization methods. Three problem formulations with eight optimization criteria were evaluated. Among the three problem formulations, simultaneous consideration of moment and force equipollence for the knee model with ligaments and articular contacts predicted contact forces (first peak: 3.3-3.5 BW; second peak: 3.2-4.2 BW; swing: 0.3 BW) that were closest to previously reported theoretical values (2.0-4.0 BW) and in vivo data telemetered from older adults with total knee replacements (about 2.8 BW during stance; 0.5 BW during swing). Simultaneous consideration of moment and force equipollence also predicted more physiological ligament forces (problem formulation affect the prediction of the forces transmitted by the force-bearing structures at the knee during normal level walking. Inclusion of the ligaments in a knee model enables the simultaneous consideration of equations of force and moment equipollence, which is required for accurately estimating the contact and ligament forces, and is more critical than the

  11. Sadik brings message to Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    UNFPA Executive Director, Dr. Nafis Sadik, visited Tokyo in February to publicize the organization and its activities. UNFPA worked in 1989 with a US $200 million budget on 3266 projects in 147 countries. Dr Sadik is currently UN Under Secretary General and gave a speech at the College Women's Association on the deterioration of the world environment. Environmental problems stem from industrialization and urbanization. World population will rise to 6.2 billion by 2000 (80% of which are in developing countries) and 8.5 billion by 2025. Developing countries are also becoming dumping grounds for developed countries' waste. Dr. Sadik stresses that women need to change their current status from childbearers to productive members of their societies who ca choose when to have a family and how large it will be. The next decade will be crucial for changes of attitude among governments and the role of non-governmental organizations. Dr. Sadik discussed the importance of Population Forum 21 where 24 Japanese policy makers met to discuss global population problems. She urged Japan to invest more finances, advice, and technical help in this major crisis. She also states that there are no boundaries for environmental and population problems, so we must all work on a solution together. Dr. Sadik praised the efforts of NGO's in this struggle.

  12. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    The highly interdisciplinary nature of sustainability presents pedagogic challenges when sustainability concepts are incorporated into traditional disciplinary courses. At Bentley University, where over 90 percent of students major in business disciplines, we have created a multidisciplinary course module centered on corn ethanol that explores a complex social, environmental, and economic problem and develops basic data analysis and analytical thinking skills in several courses spanning the natural, physical, and social sciences within the business curriculum. Through an NSF-CCLI grant, Bentley faculty from several disciplines participated in a summer workshop to define learning objectives, create course modules, and develop an assessment plan to enhance interdisciplinary sustainability teaching. The core instructional outcome was a data-rich exercise for all participating courses in which students plot and analyze multiple parameters of corn planted and harvested for various purposes including food (human), feed (animal), ethanol production, and commodities exchanged for the years 1960 to present. Students then evaluate patterns and trends in the data and hypothesize relationships among the plotted data and environmental, social, and economic drivers, responses, and unintended consequences. After the central data analysis activity, students explore corn ethanol production as it relates to core disciplinary concepts in their individual classes. For example, students in Environmental Chemistry produce ethanol using corn and sugar as feedstocks and compare the efficiency of each process, while learning about enzymes, fermentation, distillation, and other chemical principles. Principles of Geology students examine the effects of agricultural runoff on surface water quality associated with extracting greater agricultural yield from mid-continent croplands. The American Government course examines the role of political institutions, the political process, and various

  13. Bringing mask repair to the next level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Auth, N.; Spies, P.; Oster, J.; Schneider, H.; Budach, M.; Hofmann, T.; Waiblinger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. These challenges require sophisticated technologies to bring mask repair to the next level. For high end masks ion-beam based and e-based repair technologies are the obvious choice when it comes to the repair of small features. Both technologies have their pro and cons. The scope of this paper is to review and compare the performance of ion-beam based mask repair to e-beam based mask repair. We will analyze the limits of both technologies theoretically and experimentally and show mask repair related performance data. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair tools.

  14. Bringing customers into the boardroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Gail J; Court, David; Quelch, John A; Crawford, Blair

    2004-11-01

    Misguided marketing strategies have destroyed more shareholder value than shoddy accounting or shady fiscal practices. Yet marketing functions typically reside deep in the organization, far from the executive suite and boardroom, and they are often poorly aligned with corporate strategy. Boards of directors, it would seem, have compelling reasons to monitor their companies' marketing activities. The authors argue that boards lack a clear understanding of how their companies are meeting customers' needs and how their marketing strategies drive (or often fail to drive) top-line growth. To help remedy that problem, they've devised a "marketing dashboard," a series of management reports that could give the board this critical knowledge. The dashboard has three parts, each of which the board should review regularly. The first part tracks the company's main business drivers--those business conditions that, when manipulated or otherwise changed, will directly and predictably affect the company's performance. The second part describes the specific innovations in a pipeline of growth ideas that will allow the company to reach its short- and long-term revenue goals. And the third part provides an overview of the company's marketing skill set so the board can determine not only if the company has enough marketing talent but also if it has the right marketing talent. Unlike isolated measures of marketing performance that are often insufficient, irrelevant, or misleading, the dashboard allows the board to quickly and routinely assess the effectiveness of its company's marketing strategies. Armed with a clear understanding of marketing's role and performance, the board can expose inadequate marketing campaigns, direct management to address the problem, and monitor progress.

  15. Complex Problem Solving in L1 Education: Senior High School Students' Knowledge of the Language Problem-Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Joke H.

    2017-01-01

    The solving of reasoning problems in first language (L1) education can produce an understanding of language, and student autonomy in language problem solving, both of which are contemporary goals in senior high school education. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of senior high school students' knowledge of the language…

  16. Bringing voice in policy building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Kane, Mary; Zocchi, Mark S; Gosa, Jessica; Lazar, Danielle; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of group concept mapping (GCM) as a tool for developing a conceptual model of an episode of acute, unscheduled care from illness or injury to outcomes such as recovery, death and chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach After generating a literature review drafting an initial conceptual model, GCM software (CS Global MAXTM) is used to organize and identify strengths and directionality between concepts generated through feedback about the model from several stakeholder groups: acute care and non-acute care providers, patients, payers and policymakers. Through online and in-person population-specific focus groups, the GCM approach seeks feedback, assigned relationships and articulated priorities from participants to produce an output map that described overarching concepts and relationships within and across subsamples. Findings A clustered concept map made up of relational data points that produced a taxonomy of feedback was used to update the model for use in soliciting additional feedback from two technical expert panels (TEPs), and finally, a public comment exercise was performed. The results were a stakeholder-informed improved model for an acute care episode, identified factors that influence process and outcomes, and policy recommendations, which were delivered to the Department of Health and Human Services's (DHHS) Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Practical implications This study provides an example of the value of cross-population multi-stakeholder input to increase voice in shared problem health stakeholder groups. Originality/value This paper provides GCM results and a visual analysis of the relational characteristics both within and across sub-populations involved in the study. It also provides an assessment of observational key factors supporting how different stakeholder voices can be integrated to inform model development and policy recommendations.

  17. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  18. Supporting Shared Decision-making for Children's Complex Behavioral Problems: Development and User Testing of an Option Grid™ Decision Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Erin R; Boucher, Elizabeth A; Daviss, William B; Elwyn, Glyn

    2018-01-01

    There is a lack of research to guide collaborative treatment decision-making for children who have complex behavioral problems, despite the extensive use of mental health services in this population. We developed and pilot-tested a one-page Option Grid™ patient decision aid to facilitate shared decision-making for these situations. An editorial team of parents, child psychiatrists, researchers, and other stakeholders developed the scope and structure of the decision aid. Researchers included information about a carefully chosen number of psychosocial and pharmacological treatment options, using descriptions based on the best available evidence. Using semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 18), we conducted user testing with four parents and four clinical prescribers and field testing with four parents, four clinical prescribers, and two clinic administrators. The researchers coded and synthesized the interview responses using mixed inductive and deductive methods. Parents, clinicians, and administrators felt the Option Grid had significant value, although they reported that additional training and other support would be required in order to successfully implement the Option Grid and achieve shared decision-making in clinical practice.

  19. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  20. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe May 2014 Print this issue Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last En español Send ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  1. Complex Mapping of Aerofoils--A Different Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Miccal T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article an application of conformal mapping to aerofoil theory is studied from a geometric and calculus point of view. The problem is suitable for undergraduate teaching in terms of a project or extended piece of work, and brings together the concepts of geometric mapping, parametric equations, complex numbers and calculus. The Joukowski…

  2. HSTLBO: A hybrid algorithm based on Harmony Search and Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization for complex high-dimensional optimization problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouheng Tuo

    Full Text Available Harmony Search (HS and Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO as new swarm intelligent optimization algorithms have received much attention in recent years. Both of them have shown outstanding performance for solving NP-Hard optimization problems. However, they also suffer dramatic performance degradation for some complex high-dimensional optimization problems. Through a lot of experiments, we find that the HS and TLBO have strong complementarity each other. The HS has strong global exploration power but low convergence speed. Reversely, the TLBO has much fast convergence speed but it is easily trapped into local search. In this work, we propose a hybrid search algorithm named HSTLBO that merges the two algorithms together for synergistically solving complex optimization problems using a self-adaptive selection strategy. In the HSTLBO, both HS and TLBO are modified with the aim of balancing the global exploration and exploitation abilities, where the HS aims mainly to explore the unknown regions and the TLBO aims to rapidly exploit high-precision solutions in the known regions. Our experimental results demonstrate better performance and faster speed than five state-of-the-art HS variants and show better exploration power than five good TLBO variants with similar run time, which illustrates that our method is promising in solving complex high-dimensional optimization problems. The experiment on portfolio optimization problems also demonstrate that the HSTLBO is effective in solving complex read-world application.

  3. HSTLBO: A hybrid algorithm based on Harmony Search and Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization for complex high-dimensional optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Shouheng; Yong, Longquan; Deng, Fang'an; Li, Yanhai; Lin, Yong; Lu, Qiuju

    2017-01-01

    Harmony Search (HS) and Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) as new swarm intelligent optimization algorithms have received much attention in recent years. Both of them have shown outstanding performance for solving NP-Hard optimization problems. However, they also suffer dramatic performance degradation for some complex high-dimensional optimization problems. Through a lot of experiments, we find that the HS and TLBO have strong complementarity each other. The HS has strong global exploration power but low convergence speed. Reversely, the TLBO has much fast convergence speed but it is easily trapped into local search. In this work, we propose a hybrid search algorithm named HSTLBO that merges the two algorithms together for synergistically solving complex optimization problems using a self-adaptive selection strategy. In the HSTLBO, both HS and TLBO are modified with the aim of balancing the global exploration and exploitation abilities, where the HS aims mainly to explore the unknown regions and the TLBO aims to rapidly exploit high-precision solutions in the known regions. Our experimental results demonstrate better performance and faster speed than five state-of-the-art HS variants and show better exploration power than five good TLBO variants with similar run time, which illustrates that our method is promising in solving complex high-dimensional optimization problems. The experiment on portfolio optimization problems also demonstrate that the HSTLBO is effective in solving complex read-world application.

  4. Making sense of frailty: An ethnographic study of the experience of older people living with complex health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbeck, Julie Kathryn; Arthur, Antony; Seymour, Jane

    2017-10-09

    To explore how older people with complex health problems experience frailty in their daily lives. A better understanding of the personal experience of frailty in the context of fluctuating ill-health has the potential to contribute to the development of personalised approaches to care planning and delivery. An ethnographic study of older people, living at home, receiving support from a community matron service in a large city in the North of England. Up to six care encounters with each of ten older people, and their community matron, were observed at monthly intervals, over a period of time ranging from 4 to 11 months. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the older participants in their own homes. Fieldwork took place over a 4-year period. Data analysis was undertaken using the constant comparative method. The experience of frailty was understood through the construction of four themes: Fluctuating ill-health and the disruption of daily living; Changes to the management of daily living; Frailty as fear, anxiety and uncertainty; Making sense of changes to health and daily living. Older people work hard to shape and maintain daily routines in the context of complicated and enduring transitions in health and illness. However, they experience episodic moments of frailty, often articulated as uncertainty, where daily living becomes precarious and their resilience is threatened. Developing an understanding of the personal experiences of frail older people in the context of transition has the potential to inform nursing practice in person-centred care . Nurses need to support frail older people to maintain independence and continuity of personhood in the context of daily routines. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Older People Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Computer-Based Assessment of Complex Problem Solving and How It Is Influenced by Students' Information and Communication Technology Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Kretzschmar, André; Müller, Jonas C.; Spinath, Birgit; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The 21st-century work environment places strong emphasis on nonroutine transversal skills. In an educational context, complex problem solving (CPS) is generally considered an important transversal skill that includes knowledge acquisition and its application in new and interactive situations. The dynamic and interactive nature of CPS requires a…

  6. Dealing with Complex and Ill-Structured Problems: Results of a Plan-Do-Check-Act Experiment in a Business Engineering Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Achenbach, Marlies; Israelsen, Poul; Kyvsgaard Hansen, Poul; Johansen, John; Deuse, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Challenged by increased globalisation and fast technological development, we carried out an experiment in the third semester of a global business engineering programme aimed at identifying conditions for training students in dealing with complex and ill-structured problems of forming a new business. As this includes a fuzzy front end, learning…

  7. Fourth- through sixth-grade students' representations of area-of-rectangle problems: influences of relational complexity and cognitive holding power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang

    2008-11-01

    The relational complexity of variables in a problem and characteristics of the learning settings may affect students' representations of word problems. The settings that pressure students into using and developing 1st- or 2nd-order cognitive procedures are known to have 1st- or 2nd-order cognitive holding power. In the present study, the author explored 382 4th-6th-grade students' representation levels of area-of-rectangle problems, which belonged to 4 templates with different relational complexity and influences of cognitive holding power. Students' representation levels improved across grades and their representation levels of 4 templates had a clear hierarchical order. The higher the relational complexity and knowledge requirements of a problem, the greater the grade differences in representations of the problem. 1st- and 2nd-order cognitive holding power significantly predicted the representation levels of each template. Moreover, the predictive power increased from Template 1 to Template 4, but the predictive directions were opposite.

  8. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Woodside

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT. Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explores the technology devices, and educational implications of policies, device management, security and included components.

  9. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  10. Mathematical models in biology bringing mathematics to life

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Maria; Guarracino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an exciting collection of contributions based on the workshop “Bringing Maths to Life” held October 27-29, 2014 in Naples, Italy.  The state-of-the art research in biology and the statistical and analytical challenges facing huge masses of data collection are treated in this Work. Specific topics explored in depth surround the sessions and special invited sessions of the workshop and include genetic variability via differential expression, molecular dynamics and modeling, complex biological systems viewed from quantitative models, and microscopy images processing, to name several. In depth discussions of the mathematical analysis required to extract insights from complex bodies of biological datasets, to aid development in the field novel algorithms, methods and software tools for genetic variability, molecular dynamics, and complex biological systems are presented in this book. Researchers and graduate students in biology, life science, and mathematics/statistics will find the content...

  11. Waleli: Bringing Wireless Opportunities to Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirwan, P.M.; Gutierrez, Jairo

    2009-01-01

    This chapter tells the development story of Waleli, a high-tech company utilizing the latest proven developments in wireless communications to bring innovations to the market. It presents the journey of the firm through the entrepreneurial process, from initial idea right through to value creation.

  12. DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…

  13. Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Lee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first four issues of a serial publication, "Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!" The volumes focus on: (1) "A Sampling of Renaissance Instruments," which includes: information on Christopher Columbus, Leondardo da Vinci, and William Shakespeare, a timeline from the middle ages through the renaissance, Queen…

  14. Beyond the Cell: Using Multiscalar Topics to Bring Interdisciplinarity into Undergraduate Cellular Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn F.

    2016-01-01

    Western science has grown increasingly reductionistic and, in parallel, the undergraduate life sciences curriculum has become disciplinarily fragmented. While reductionistic approaches have led to landmark discoveries, many of the most exciting scientific advances in the late 20th century have occurred at disciplinary interfaces; work at these interfaces is necessary to manage the world’s looming problems, particularly those that are rooted in cellular-level processes but have ecosystem- and even global-scale ramifications (e.g., nonsustainable agriculture, emerging infectious diseases). Managing such problems requires comprehending whole scenarios and their emergent properties as sums of their multiple facets and complex interrelationships, which usually integrate several disciplines across multiple scales (e.g., time, organization, space). This essay discusses bringing interdisciplinarity into undergraduate cellular biology courses through the use of multiscalar topics. Discussing how cellular-level processes impact large-scale phenomena makes them relevant to everyday life and unites diverse disciplines (e.g., sociology, cell biology, physics) as facets of a single system or problem, emphasizing their connections to core concepts in biology. I provide specific examples of multiscalar topics and discuss preliminary evidence that using such topics may increase students’ understanding of the cell’s position within an ecosystem and how cellular biology interfaces with other disciplines. PMID:27146162

  15. Modeling wake effects in large wind farms in complex terrain: the problem, the methods and the issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, E.S.; Prospathopoulos, J.; Cabezon, D.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods are used in this paper to predict the power production from entire wind farms in complex terrain and to shed some light into the wake flow patterns. Two full three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solvers for incompressible fluid flow, employing k - ε and k - ω...... of the work being undertaken within the UpWind Integrated Project that aims to develop the design tools for next generation of large wind turbines. In this part of UpWind, the performance of wind farm and wake models is being examined in complex terrain environment where there are few pre-existing relevant...... measurements. The focus of the work being carried out is to evaluate the performance of CFD models in large wind farm applications in complex terrain and to examine the development of the wakes in a complex terrain environment....

  16. Making Visible the Complexities of Problem Solving: An Ethnographic Study of a General Chemistry Course in a Studio Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainoff, Melinda Zapata

    Studio classrooms, designed such that laboratory and lecture functions can occur in the same physical space, have been recognized as a promising contributing factor in promoting collaborative learning in the sciences (NRC, 2011). Moreover, in designing for instruction, a critical goal, especially in the sciences and engineering, is to foster an environment where students have opportunities for learning problem solving practices (NRC, 2012a). However, few studies show how this type of innovative learning environment shapes opportunities for learning in the sciences, which is critical to informing future curricular and instructional designs for these environments. Even fewer studies show how studio environments shape opportunities to develop problem solving practices specifically. In order to make visible how the learning environment promotes problem solving practices, this study explores problem solving phenomena in the daily life of an undergraduate General Chemistry studio class using an ethnographic perspective. By exploring problem solving as a sociocultural process, this study shows how the instructor and students co-construct opportunities for learning in whole class and small group interactional spaces afforded in this studio environment and how the differential demands on students in doing problems requires re-conceptualizing what it means to "apply a concept".

  17. Bourbaki's structure theory in the problem of complex systems simulation models synthesis and model-oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Yu. I.

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to the application of Bourbaki's structure theory to substantiate the synthesis of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems, where every component may be a complex system itself. An application of the Bourbaki's structure theory offers a new approach to the design and computer implementation of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems—model synthesis and model-oriented programming. It differs from the traditional object-oriented approach. The central concept of this new approach and at the same time, the basic building block for the construction of more complex structures is the concept of models-components. A model-component endowed with a more complicated structure than, for example, the object in the object-oriented analysis. This structure provides to the model-component an independent behavior-the ability of standard responds to standard requests of its internal and external environment. At the same time, the computer implementation of model-component's behavior is invariant under the integration of models-components into complexes. This fact allows one firstly to construct fractal models of any complexity, and secondly to implement a computational process of such constructions uniformly-by a single universal program. In addition, the proposed paradigm allows one to exclude imperative programming and to generate computer code with a high degree of parallelism.

  18. Investigating Strategies for Using Related Cases to Support Design Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Case-based learning has long been used to bring students into contact with the complexity of real-world situations. Despite this popularity and considerable history, research into how case analysis can support future problem-solving has been limited. The study reported in this paper investigated learners' understanding of multimedia instructional…

  19. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  20. A modelling tool for policy analysis to support the design of efficient and effective policy responses for complex public health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Page, Andrew; Wells, Robert; Milat, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-03-03

    In the design of public health policy, a broader understanding of risk factors for disease across the life course, and an increasing awareness of the social determinants of health, has led to the development of more comprehensive, cross-sectoral strategies to tackle complex problems. However, comprehensive strategies may not represent the most efficient or effective approach to reducing disease burden at the population level. Rather, they may act to spread finite resources less intensively over a greater number of programs and initiatives, diluting the potential impact of the investment. While analytic tools are available that use research evidence to help identify and prioritise disease risk factors for public health action, they are inadequate to support more targeted and effective policy responses for complex public health problems. This paper discusses the limitations of analytic tools that are commonly used to support evidence-informed policy decisions for complex problems. It proposes an alternative policy analysis tool which can integrate diverse evidence sources and provide a platform for virtual testing of policy alternatives in order to design solutions that are efficient, effective, and equitable. The case of suicide prevention in Australia is presented to demonstrate the limitations of current tools to adequately inform prevention policy and discusses the utility of the new policy analysis tool. In contrast to popular belief, a systems approach takes a step beyond comprehensive thinking and seeks to identify where best to target public health action and resources for optimal impact. It is concerned primarily with what can be reasonably left out of strategies for prevention and can be used to explore where disinvestment may occur without adversely affecting population health (or equity). Simulation modelling used for policy analysis offers promise in being able to better operationalise research evidence to support decision making for complex problems

  1. L’argumentation rhétorique et le problème de l’auditoire complexe Rhetorical Argumentation and the Problem of the Complex Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Tindale

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La nécessité pour l’argumentateur de connaître son auditoire afin de persuader est l’un des lieux communs de la théorie de l’argumentation. Mais, en dehors du cas où l’argumentation s’adresse à soi-même ou à un interlocuteur unique, les auditoires vers lesquels nous nous tournons sont de composition complexe, et reflètent la diversité de nos identités et les différents groupes auxquels nous appartenons. Comment les argumentateurs doivent-ils faire face à une telle diversité de l’auditoire ? S’inspirant principalement des travaux de Perelman et Olbrechts-Tyteca, ainsi que de ceux d’Amartya Sen, cet article explore la manière dont divers aspects identitaires sont choisis par les auditoires, et les moyens par lesquels les argumentateurs peuvent encourager de tels choix en préalable à l’acte de persuasion lui-même.It is a commonplace of argumentation theory that an arguer needs to know her or his audience in order to be persuasive. But beyond arguments directed to oneself or to a single interlocutor, the audiences we address are complex in make-up, reflecting the diversity of our own identities and the different groups to which we belong. How should arguers accommodate such diversity within audiences? Drawing principally from the work of Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca, as well as Amartya Sen, this paper explores the ways aspects of identities are chosen by audiences, and how arguers can encourage such choices as a preliminary move to persuasion itself.

  2. Complex Problems, Care Demands, and Quality of Life Among People Living With HIV in the Antiretroviral Era in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindayani, Linlin; Chen, Yen-Chin; Wang, Jung-Der; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2017-10-10

    People living with HIV (PLWH) suffer from physical and psychological distress that palliative care could alleviate. Our cross-sectional study identified HIV-related problems and demands for palliative care at different disease stages, and their interactions with quality of life (QOL) in 215 PLWH from a referral hospital and an AIDS nongovernmental organization in Indonesia. A brief survey of demographic information, the Bahasa version of Problems and Needs of Palliative Care, and the World Health Organization Quality of Live in HIV-infected Persons instrument (WHOQOL-HIV BREF; Cronbach's alpha = .89) were used for data collection. Mean age was 33.5 years (SD = 4.7); 66% were male. Fatigue (67%) was the most prevalent symptom, and the symptom sleeping problems (54.9%) was the priority for palliative care. Higher spiritual and financial demands were found in PLWH with stage IV HIV. Multivariable analysis indicated negative associations between QOL and psychosocial problems, and demands for social and financial support. Interventions focused on psychosocial issues would improve the QOL for PLWH. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study of Theory U and Its Application to a Complex Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    figure cannot be solved unless people or organizations change their way of thinking ( Heifetz , 2009). 6 This thesis will focus on the problems shown...New York: Picador. Heifetz , R. A., Grashow, A., & Linsky, M. (2009). The practice of adaptive leadership: Tools and tactics for changing your

  4. Tangled Narratives and Wicked Problems: A Complex Case of Positioning and Politics in a Diverse School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi; Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The case of Allen Elementary School presents tangled narratives and wicked problems describing the multidimensionality of school community work. Using multiple converging and diverging vignettes, the case points to the distinctiveness of individual experience in schools; the ways institutionalized organizational narratives become cultural…

  5. RTL validation methodology on high complexity wireless microcontroller using OVM technique for fast time to market

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nurul Zhafirah; Harun A.; Hambali N.A.M.A.; Murad S. A. Z.; Mohyar S. N.; Isa M.N.; Jambek AB

    2017-01-01

    Increased demand in internet of thing (IOT) application based has inadvertently forced the move towards higher complexity of integrated circuit supporting SoC. Such spontaneous increased in complexity poses unequivocal complicated validation strategies. Hence, the complexity allows researchers to come out with various exceptional methodologies in order to overcome this problem. This in essence brings about the discovery of dynamic verification, formal verification and hybrid techniques. In re...

  6. Evidence of a complex association between dose, pattern and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure and child behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Colleen M; Nassar, Natasha; Zubrick, Stephen R; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Stanley, Fiona; Bower, Carol

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence regarding the effect of dose, pattern and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure and behaviour problems in children aged 2 years and older. A 10% random sample of women delivering a live infant in Western Australia (1995-96) were invited to participate in an 8-year longitudinal survey (78% response rate n = 2224); 85% were followed-up at 2 years, 73% at 5 years and 61% at 8 years. Alcohol consumption was classified by combining the overall dose, dose per occasion and frequency to reflect realistic drinking patterns. Longitudinal analysis was conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to investigate the association between child behaviour as measured by the Child Behaviour Checklist at 2, 5 and 8 years of age and prenatal alcohol exposure collected 3 months postpartum for each trimester separately, adjusting for a wide range of confounding factors. Low levels of prenatal alcohol were not associated with child behaviour problems. There were increased odds of internalizing behaviour problems following heavy alcohol exposure in the first trimester; anxiety/depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-7.43] and somatic complaints (aOR 2.74; 95% CI 1.47-5.12) and moderate levels of alcohol exposure increased the odds of anxiety/depression (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 1.16-4.34). Prenatal alcohol exposure at moderate and higher levels increased the odds of child behaviour problems with the dose, pattern and timing of exposure affecting the type of behaviour problems expressed. Larger studies with more power are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Self-Regulation in the Midst of Complexity: A Case Study of High School Physics Students Engaged in Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeffrey David

    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore the experiences of high school physics students who were solving complex, ill-structured problems, in an effort to better understand how self-regulatory behavior mediated the project experience. Consistent with Voss, Green, Post, and Penner's (1983) conception of an ill-structured problem in the natural sciences, the 'problems' consisted of scientific research projects that students completed under the supervision of a faculty mentor. Zimmerman and Campillo's (2003) self-regulatory framework of problem solving provided a holistic guide to data collection and analysis of this multi-case study, with five individual student cases. The study's results are explored in two manuscripts, each targeting a different audience. The first manuscript, intended for the Science Education Research community, presents a thick, rich description of the students' project experiences, consistent with a qualitative, case study analysis. Findings suggest that intrinsic interest was an important self-regulatory factor that helped motivate students throughout their project work, and that the self-regulatory cycle of forethought, performance monitoring, and self-reflection was an important component of the problem-solving process. Findings also support the application of Zimmerman and Campillo's framework to complex, ill-structured problems, particularly the cyclical nature of the framework. Finally, this study suggests that scientific research projects, with the appropriate support, can be a mechanism for improving students' selfregulatory behavior. The second manuscript, intended for Physics practitioners, combines the findings of the first manuscript with the perspectives of the primary, on-site research mentor, who has over a decade's worth of experience mentoring students doing physics research. His experience suggests that a successful research experience requires certain characteristics, including: a slow, 'on-ramp' to the research

  8. Can the complex networks help us in the resolution of the problem of power outages (blackouts) in Brazil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Souza, Thaianne Lopes de [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Catalao, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. What the Brazilian soccer championship, Hollywood actors, the network of the Internet, the spread of viruses and electric distribution network have in common? Until less than two decade ago, the answer would be 'nothing' or 'almost nothing'. However, the answer today to this same question is 'all' or 'almost all'. The answer to these questions and more can be found through a sub-area of statistical physics | called science of complex networks that has been used to approach and study the most diverse natural and non-natural systems, such as systems/social networks, information, technological or biological. In this work we study the distribution network of electric power in Brazil (DEEB), from a perspective of complex networks, where we associate stations and/or substations with a network of vertices and the links between the vertices we associate with the transmission lines. We are doing too a comparative study with the best-known models of complex networks, such as Erdoes-Renyi, Configuration Model and Barabasi-Albert, and then we compare with results obtained in real electrical distribution networks. Based on this information, we do a comparative analysis using the following variables: connectivity distribution, diameter, clustering coefficient, which are frequently used in studies of complex networks. We emphasize that the main objective of this study is to analyze the robustness of the network DEEB, and then propose alternatives for network connectivity, which may contribute to the increase of robustness in maintenance projects and/or expansion of the network, in other words our goal is to make the network to proof the blackouts or improve the endurance the network against the blackouts. For this purpose, we use information from the structural properties of networks, computer modeling and simulation. (author)

  9. Teaching computer science through problems, not solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Samuel B.; Holland-Minkley, Amanda M.

    2010-06-01

    Regardless of the course topic, every instructor in a computing field endeavors to engage their students in deep problem-solving and critical thinking. One of the specific learning outcomes throughout our computer science curriculum is the development of independent, capable problem solving - And we believe good pedagogy can bring such about. Our experiences indicate to us that students improve their ability to analyze and solve complex computational problems when we pursue pedagogies that support them in developing these skills incrementally. Specifically, we pursue a problem-based learning approach that we apply individually in each course as well as across the entire curriculum of our department, instead of solely considering our pedagogy on a course-by-course basis.

  10. Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity deals with the analysis of evolution, information and complexity. The time evolution of systems or processes is a central question in science, this text covers a broad range of problems including diffusion processes, neuronal networks, quantum theory and cosmology. Bringing together a wide collection of research in mathematics, information theory, physics and other scientific and technical areas, this new title offers elementary and thus easily accessible introductions to the various fields of research addressed in the book.

  11. A quasi-optimal coarse problem and an augmented Krylov solver for the Variational Theory of Complex Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalevsky, L

    2016-01-01

    The Variational Theory of Complex Rays (VTCR) is an indirect Trefftz method designed to study systems governed by Helmholtz-like equations. It uses wave functions to represent the solution inside elements, which reduces the dispersion error compared to classical polynomial approaches but the resulting system is prone to be ill conditioned. This paper gives a simple and original presentation of the VTCR using the discontinuous Galerkin framework and it traces back the ill-conditioning to the accumulation of eigenvalues near zero for the formulation written in terms of wave amplitude. The core of this paper presents an efficient solving strategy that overcomes this issue. The key element is the construction of a search subspace where the condition number is controlled at the cost of a limited decrease of attainable precision. An augmented LSQR solver is then proposed to solve efficiently and accurately the complete system. The approach is successfully applied to different examples.

  12. Bringing medicinal plants into cultivation: opportunities and challenges for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Peter H; Thomas, Howard; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-04-01

    Consumption of herbal medicines is widespread and increasing. Harvesting from the wild, the main source of raw material, is causing loss of genetic diversity and habitat destruction. Domestic cultivation is a viable alternative and offers the opportunity to overcome the problems that are inherent in herbal extracts: misidentification, genetic and phenotypic variability, extract variability and instability, toxic components and contaminants. The use of controlled environments can overcome cultivation difficulties and could be a means to manipulate phenotypic variation in bioactive compounds and toxins. Conventional plant-breeding methods can improve both agronomic and medicinal traits, and molecular marker assisted selection will be used increasingly. There has been significant progress in the use of tissue culture and genetic transformation to alter pathways for the biosynthesis of target metabolites. Obstacles to bringing medicinal plants into successful commercial cultivation include the difficulty of predicting which extracts will remain marketable and the likely market preference for what is seen as naturally sourced extracts.

  13. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  15. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Zhao, Shu-Ping; Liang, Chang-Yong

    2017-10-02

    In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE) as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM) approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS) to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager's prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  16. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wen Qi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager’s prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  17. Is the Process of Special Measures an Effective Tool for Bringing about Authentic School Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Managing change in education is a complex process, but to do so under the pressure of a punishment-based measurement system (Fullan, 2008) makes sustainable and meaningful change increasingly difficult. Systems which produce high stakes accountability measures, which bring with it sanctions that create a greater sense of distrust, demoralization…

  18. Bringing Preschoolers and the Institutionalized Elderly Together: How One Program Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbert, Lois

    In developing an intergenerational program bringing together preschool children and elderly adults in a retirement home/geriatric center complex, preschool staff had to discard three misconceptions. It was initially supposed that the elderly would like to visit the nursery school. It was assumed that people in the retirement home have nothing to…

  19. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Higher-Order Thinking Skills: Working Memory and Fluid Reasoning in Childhood Enhance Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel eGreiff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving. Importantly, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as Complex Problem Solving (CPS as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex. We assessed working memory and fluid reasoning at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N= 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male. Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that fluid reasoning was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas working memory exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves fluid reasoning and, to a lesser extent, working memory in childhood, and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  1. Hypertension: Believe it or not, a Complex Problem La hipertensión arterial: aunque no lo parezca, un problema complejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure (hypertension is recognized as a major health problem due both to its morbidity and the disability it causes and to its impact on mortality, especially cardiovascular mortality. However, effectively addressing its prevention and control, both in individuals and in the general population, does not seem to be an easy task, even these days. This paper aims to present different aspects of arterial hypertension (a concept through diagnosis, treatment and follow-up focusing on this entity as a complex system including multiple elements related to cardiovascular disease.La hipertensión arterial constituye un reconocido problema de salud, tanto por su morbilidad, por la discapacidad que provoca, como por su repercusión en la mortalidad, especialmente cardiovascular. Sin embargo, enfrentar eficazmente su prevención y control, tanto en los individuos como en la población en general, no parece una tarea fácil, aún en nuestros días. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar diferentes aspectos de la hipertensión arterial (concepto pasando por el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento enfocando dicha entidad como un sistema complejo que abarca múltiples elementos relacionados con las enfermedades cardiovasculares.HYPERTENSION: BELIEVE IT OR NOT, A COMPLEX PROBLEMABSTRACTHigh blood pressure (hypertension is recognized as a major health problem due both to its morbidity and the disability it causes and to its impact on mortality, especially cardiovascular mortality. However, effectively addressing its prevention and control, both in individuals and in the general population, does not seem to be an easy task, even these days. This paper aims to present different aspects of arterial hypertension (a concept through diagnosis, treatment and follow-up focusing on this entity as a complex system including multiple elements related to cardiovascular disease.

  2. Bringing science to the policy table

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore." So says Isaiah 2:4, as transcribed on the famous wall in Ralph Bunche park, just the other side of 1st Avenue from the UN’s New York headquarters, where we held a celebration of our 60th anniversary year on Monday 20 October. I used the quotation in my opening address, since it is such a perfect fit to the theme of 60 years of science for peace and development.   The event was organised with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC, in the framework of CERN’s observer status at the UN, and although focused on CERN, its aim was broader. Presentations used CERN as an example to bring out the vital importance of science in general to the themes of peace and development. The event was presided over by Martin Sajdik, President of ECOSOC, and we were privileged to have presentat...

  3. Poster power brings together electronics community

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    An 'Electronics at CERN' poster session was displayed on the mezzanine in building 500 for two days from 30 November. The display consisted of 20 posters and brought together a wide range of electronic projects designed and assembled by CERN teams and other collaborators involved in the building of the LHC. This was the first time this event had been held. As its organiser John Evans (IT/DES) explained, 'the idea came from the experience of attending conferences outside CERN, where you may find projects from CERN you didn't know about. It's nice to bring them together so we can all benefit from the efforts made.' The work on show spanned different departments and experiments, ranging from microelectronics to equipment designed for giant magnets. The invited audience was equally broad and included engineers, physicists as well as the electronics community at CERN. An informal gathering of all the exhibitors also offered an opportunity to view and discuss the work over a cup of coffee. 'The poster session acts...

  4. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  5. Bringing University Pedagogical Approach into Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; S. Stachowicz, Marian

    2013-01-01

    and this PBL structure was implemented in a Danish company which wanted to establish a learning environment, so that their employees would share their knowledge and understanding of the work processes across different departments. The pedagogical approach is described and two workshops are used as examples......This paper describes and discusses how the university pedagogical approach used in engineering education can be applied in a corporate setting. Problem Based and Project Organised Learning (PBL) pedagogical approach has been used in engineering education at Aalborg University for 30 years...... a project and found solutions for for problems related to their work. Several of the problem solutions were implemented. The participants evaluated the process and the outcome of the workshops very as very good. Furthermore the results show that the pedagogical method which has been used within engineering...

  6. TQM brings collaboration to patient transport process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K L; Clute, C; Ryan-Crepin, K; Kimball, M; Matthews, R

    1994-10-01

    Total quality management (TQM) principles can be utilized to achieve successful outcomes of an interdepartmental problem-solving process prior to implementation of a TQM formal structure within an organization. Prior to implementation of the new process, patient transport time from nursing units to lab destination was calculated at 17.6 minutes; postimplementation, an institutional benchmark of 15.4 minutes has been set. The mechanisms utilized for development, implementation, and evaluation of a process improvement team is the focus of the article. The reader will be taken on a journey through an interdepartmental problem-solving process utilizing the TQM principles.

  7. Rigged or rigorous? Partnerships for research and evaluation of complex social problems: Lessons from the field of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Michau, Lori; Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Borland, Rosilyne; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    There is growing demand for robust evidence to address complex social phenomena such as violence against women and girls (VAWG). Research partnerships between scientists and non-governmental or international organizations (NGO/IO) are increasingly popular, but can pose challenges, including concerns about potential conflicts of interest. Drawing on our experience collaborating on VAWG research, we describe challenges and contributions that NGO/IO and academic partners can make at different stages of the research process and the effects that collaborations can have on scientific inquiry. Partners may struggle with differing priorities and misunderstandings about roles, limitations, and intentions. Benefits of partnerships include a shared vision of study goals, differing and complementary expertise, mutual respect, and a history of constructive collaboration. Our experience suggests that when investigating multi-faceted social problems, instead of 'rigging' study results, research collaborations can strengthen scientific rigor and offer the greatest potential for impact in the communities we seek to serve.

  8. Bring NASA Scientific Data into GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) and many other missions produce data of huge volume and near real time which drives the research and understanding of climate change. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a technology used for the management, visualization and analysis of spatial data. Since it's inception in the 1960s, GIS has been applied to many fields at the city, state, national, and world scales. People continue to use it today to analyze and visualize trends, patterns, and relationships from the massive datasets of scientific data. There is great interest in both the scientific and GIS communities in improving technologies that can bring scientific data into a GIS environment, where scientific research and analysis can be shared through the GIS platform to the public. Most NASA scientific data are delivered in the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a format is both flexible and powerful. However, this flexibility results in challenges when trying to develop supported GIS software - data stored with HDF formats lack a unified standard and convention among these products. The presentation introduces an information model that enables ArcGIS software to ingest NASA scientific data and create a multidimensional raster - univariate and multivariate hypercubes - for scientific visualization and analysis. We will present the framework how ArcGIS leverages the open source GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstract Library) to support its raster data access, discuss how we overcame the GDAL drivers limitations in handing scientific products that are stored with HDF4 and HDF5 formats and how we improve the way in modeling the multidimensionality with GDAL. In additional, we will talk about the direction of ArcGIS handling NASA products and demonstrate how the multidimensional information model can help scientists work with various data products such as MODIS, MOPPIT, SMAP as well as many data products in a GIS environment.

  9. Bringing nature-based solutions to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Balog, Simone; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje

    2017-04-01

    Coastal communities in developing countries are highly exposed and vulnerable to coastal flood risk, and are likely to suffer from climate change induced changes in risk. Over the last decade, strong evidence has surfaced that nature-based solutions or ecosystem-based approaches are efficient and effective alternatives for flood risk reduction and climate change adaptation. In developing countries, numerous projects have therefore been implemented, often driven by international donors and NGOs. Some of these projects have been successful in reducing risk while improving environmental and socioeconomic conditions. However, the feasibility assessment, design and implementation of nature-based solutions is a multifaceted process, which needs to be well-understood before such solutions can be effectively implemented as an addition or alternative to grey infrastructure. This process has not always been followed. As a result, many projects have failed to deliver positive outcomes. The international community therefore has a challenge in bringing nature-based solutions to scale in an effective way. In this presentation, we will present best practice guidelines on nature-based solution implementation that are currently being discussed by the international community. Furthermore, we will present the alpha version of a new web platform being developed by the World Bank that will serve as a much-needed central repository for project information on nature-based solutions, and that will host actionable implementation guidelines. The presentation will also serve as an invitation to the scientific community to share their experience and lessons learned, and contribute to the outlining of best practice guidance.

  10. I'll Bring the Popcorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickenstaff, Jacob Clark

    2011-01-01

    Movie clips can provide data for content-rich problem solving, show students exotic phenomena, allow them to apply science concepts in a new setting, and foster connections between science and the humanities. Though the latest release will have the advantage of pop-culture currency, films old enough to be released on DVD give teachers more…

  11. Bringing eggs and bones to light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der Carla W.

    2017-01-01

    Leg bone pathologies are a common problem in broiler chickens, and they can lead to decreased welfare and poor production performance. It can be speculated that the ae­tiology of some leg bone pathologies lies, to some extent, in suboptimal early life bone development. One factor that can be

  12. Bringing knowledge management into an engineering curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of effective knowledge management is becoming an essential part of technical development projects in order to enable developers to handle the growing complexity of these projects. In this article we discuss an innovative approach to address this concern from the perspective of an undergraduate engineering ...

  13. Bringing Knowledge Management into an Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg, S. L.; Schach, S. R.; Inggs, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of effective knowledge management is becoming an essential part of technical development projects in order to enable developers to handle the growing complexity of these projects. In this article we discuss an innovative approach to address this concern from the perspective of an undergraduate engineering curriculum. Instead of adding…

  14. The "Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries" (PROVIDE) study: description of methods of an interventional study designed to explore complex biologic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Colgate, E Ross; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Naylor, Caitlin; Qadri, Firdausi; Ma, Jennie Z; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Petri, William A

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccines appear less effective in children in the developing world. Proposed biologic reasons include concurrent enteric infections, malnutrition, breast milk interference, and environmental enteropathy (EE). Rigorous study design and careful data management are essential to begin to understand this complex problem while assuring research subject safety. Herein, we describe the methodology and lessons learned in the PROVIDE study (Dhaka, Bangladesh). A randomized clinical trial platform evaluated the efficacy of delayed-dose oral rotavirus vaccine as well as the benefit of an injectable polio vaccine replacing one dose of oral polio vaccine. This rigorous infrastructure supported the additional examination of hypotheses of vaccine underperformance. Primary and secondary efficacy and immunogenicity measures for rotavirus and polio vaccines were measured, as well as the impact of EE and additional exploratory variables. Methods for the enrollment and 2-year follow-up of a 700 child birth cohort are described, including core laboratory, safety, regulatory, and data management practices. Intense efforts to standardize clinical, laboratory, and data management procedures in a developing world setting provide clinical trials rigor to all outcomes. Although this study infrastructure requires extensive time and effort, it allows optimized safety and confidence in the validity of data gathered in complex, developing country settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. The “Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries” (PROVIDE) Study: Description of Methods of an Interventional Study Designed to Explore Complex Biologic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Colgate, E. Ross; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Naylor, Caitlin; Qadri, Firdausi; Ma, Jennie Z.; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A.; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccines appear less effective in children in the developing world. Proposed biologic reasons include concurrent enteric infections, malnutrition, breast milk interference, and environmental enteropathy (EE). Rigorous study design and careful data management are essential to begin to understand this complex problem while assuring research subject safety. Herein, we describe the methodology and lessons learned in the PROVIDE study (Dhaka, Bangladesh). A randomized clinical trial platform evaluated the efficacy of delayed-dose oral rotavirus vaccine as well as the benefit of an injectable polio vaccine replacing one dose of oral polio vaccine. This rigorous infrastructure supported the additional examination of hypotheses of vaccine underperformance. Primary and secondary efficacy and immunogenicity measures for rotavirus and polio vaccines were measured, as well as the impact of EE and additional exploratory variables. Methods for the enrollment and 2-year follow-up of a 700 child birth cohort are described, including core laboratory, safety, regulatory, and data management practices. Intense efforts to standardize clinical, laboratory, and data management procedures in a developing world setting provide clinical trials rigor to all outcomes. Although this study infrastructure requires extensive time and effort, it allows optimized safety and confidence in the validity of data gathered in complex, developing country settings. PMID:25711607

  16. COMBINATION OF APICALLY POSITIONED AND CORONALLY ADVANCED FLAP IN THE TREATMENT OF A COMPLEX MUCOGINGIVAL AND RESTORATIVE PROBLEM. A 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP. (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The modern Periodontology has various approaches to achieve a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the mucogingival complex. These techniques include application of flaps with apical or coronal advancement in order to achieve different treatment objectives. Complex cases with different pathology on adjacent teeth require several surgeries thereby increasing treatment time and patient discomfort. New combined approaches are needed to meet the challenges of such cases. OBJECTIVE: This report presents a case with a simultaneous application of a resective and a mucogingival technique in one dental sextant. METHODS: I.C. (36 with a localized chronic periodontitis, Miller Class I gingival recessions (13,14 and subgingival caries lesions (15,16. A combined approach with simultaneous crown lengthening with apically positioned flap for 16,15 and root coverage with enamel matrix derivate and a coronally advanced flap for 14,13 was applied in order to avoid multiple surgical procedures. RESULTS: On the third month after the surgical procedure a complete root coverage (13,14 was achieved. The crown lengthening procedure enabled the restoration of the caries lesions and the placement of new crowns (15,16. The result at the third year demonstrates a stable gingival margin with no recurrence of the gingival recessions. CONCLUSION: The applied combined procedure led to a complete resolution of the existing problems with a single surgery. The simultaneous application of different procedures seems a promising approach aimed to reduce the treatment time and to diminish patient discomfort.

  17. Complexity of Quantum Impurity Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Gosset, David

    2017-12-01

    We give a quasi-polynomial time classical algorithm for estimating the ground state energy and for computing low energy states of quantum impurity models. Such models describe a bath of free fermions coupled to a small interacting subsystem called an impurity. The full system consists of n fermionic modes and has a Hamiltonian {H=H_0+H_{imp}}, where H 0 is quadratic in creation-annihilation operators and H imp is an arbitrary Hamiltonian acting on a subset of O(1) modes. We show that the ground energy of H can be approximated with an additive error {2^{-b}} in time {n^3 \\exp{[O(b^3)]}}. Our algorithm also finds a low energy state that achieves this approximation. The low energy state is represented as a superposition of {\\exp{[O(b^3)]}} fermionic Gaussian states. To arrive at this result we prove several theorems concerning exact ground states of impurity models. In particular, we show that eigenvalues of the ground state covariance matrix decay exponentially with the exponent depending very mildly on the spectral gap of H 0. A key ingredient of our proof is Zolotarev's rational approximation to the {√{x}} function. We anticipate that our algorithms may be used in hybrid quantum-classical simulations of strongly correlated materials based on dynamical mean field theory. We implemented a simplified practical version of our algorithm and benchmarked it using the single impurity Anderson model.

  18. A complex analysis problem book

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This second edition presents a collection of exercises on the theory of analytic functions, including completed and detailed solutions. It introduces students to various applications and aspects of the theory of analytic functions not always touched on in a first course, while also addressing topics of interest to electrical engineering students (e.g., the realization of rational functions and its connections to the theory of linear systems and state space representations of such systems). It provides examples of important Hilbert spaces of analytic functions (in particular the Hardy space and the Fock space), and also includes a section reviewing essential aspects of topology, functional analysis and Lebesgue integration. Benefits of the 2nd edition Rational functions are now covered in a separate chapter. Further, the section on conformal mappings has been expanded.

  19. EL PROBLEMA DE LA SOSTENIBILIDAD DENTRO DE LA COMPLEJIDAD DE LOS SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCION AGROPECUARIOS THE PROBLEM OF SUSTAINABILITY WITHIN THE COMPLEXITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cotes Torres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la sostenibilidad es una temática que desde finales del siglo XX, ha venido preocupando cada vez mas a los diferentes sectores de la sociedad; pasando a ser uno de los temas de mayor interés para empresarios, consumidores, académicos e investigadores, que conforman las diferentes cadenas agroalimentarias del mundo. Este artículo presenta desde el punto de vista de la Teoría General de Sistemas, algunos elementos de reflexión critica, abordando la problemática de la sostenibilidad desde la complejidad de los sistemas de producción agropecuarios, partiendo desde la concepción filosófica original de la agricultura, hasta llegar a plantear algunas consideraciones que se deben tener en cuenta para el desarrollo de avances científicos y tecnológicos acordes con las necesidades de las cadenas agroalimentarias del siglo XXI; las cuales permiten orientar no solo el trabajo de los profesionales que lideran los procesos de producción animal y vegetal, sino que crea un sentido de pertenencia en todos los participantes de la cadena, resaltando la importancia de estudiar a través de un pensamiento sistémico, la Agronomía y la Zootecnia, como disciplinas que se aproximan a las complejidades de la Agricultura la cual es la piedra angular de la civilización, tal y como la conocemos actualmente.The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the General Systems Theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agriculture and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for

  20. MAJOR ISSUES IN BRINGING ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainability is now fast approaching half a century of dedicated work. Although there have been significant breakthroughs, sustainability and its corollary, sustainable development, have proven a tough nut to crack. In our paper, we have started from some fundamental questions, which have yet to be answered and analyzed the implications that stem from these questions. Going past the problem of weakly quantifiable concepts in the definition, a very important issue is that of individual and community preferences. Specifically, these are all short to mid-term lived, while some sustainability problems, particularly those relating to the environment require a significantly longer time period. Another implication is that, given our limited resources, sustainable development would require a careful balance between investments among the three pillars of sustainability, and not follow a maximization policy. Lastly, we conclude that basing our sustainability policies on premises of linear evolution is a dangerous undertaking.

  1. Bringing molecules back into molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus O Wilke

    Full Text Available Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models and simulations to identify fundamental principles of molecular evolution; and atom-level, highly realistic computational modeling of molecular structure and function aimed at making predictions about possible future evolutionary events.

  2. Bringing Classroom-Based Assessment into the EFL classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Finch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers can bring reliable, valid, user-friendly assessment into their classrooms, and thus improve the quality of learning that occurs there. Based on the experience of the author as a an EFL teacher and teacher-trainer, it is suggested that the promotion and development of autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and self-esteem that takes place in a Classroom-Based Assessment (CBA environment facilitates an holistic approach to language learning and prepares the students for the high-stakes tests that often determine their motivation for learning English. Rather than relying on the memorization of language code, form, lexis, and prepared answers, students who have learned in a CBA environment are able to self-assess, peer-assess, build portfolios, and edit their own work. Not only does this reduce the assessment burden on the teacher, but it also develops the skills of problem-solving, critical thinking, and summarization in the students, in addition to a heightened awareness of the language-learning process. By learning how to set goals, assess their achievements, and reflect on their future learning needs, students become more efficient language learners. While acknowledging the place of standardized, summative tests in contemporary society, it is suggested that CBA in the EFL classroom can enhance long-term learning and consequently enable and empower students to prepare for their future learning needs.

  3. Business leaders bring their clout to Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M

    1990-04-20

    Big business has always been opposed to government interference in its affairs. But now, besieged by the high cost--increasing at an annual rate of 20 to 30 percent--of health benefits for employees, their families, and retirees, a significant number of major corporate executives are seeking greater government involvement in finding a solution to the problem. Interest in health care policy decisions is so high that business leaders are participating in special health care commissions as members or by providing testimony. Some corporations even send company advocates to Washington, DC, to track and influence health care policymaking. What exactly do these corporate leaders want? They are not all in agreement about the degree of government involvement that is necessary or desirable. Nevertheless, they do have strong opinions about delivery of health care at the local level.

  4. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  5. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Keitaro [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nishimura, Jun [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, School of High Energy Accelerator Science,Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Shimasaki, Shinji [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2016-07-14

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  6. A Study of the Complex Action Problem in a Simple Model for Dynamical Compactification in Superstring Theory Using the Factorization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos N; Nishimura, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The IIB matrix model proposes a mechanism for dynamically generating four dimensional space--time in string theory by spontaneous breaking of the ten dimensional rotational symmetry $\\textrm{SO}(10)$. Calculations using the Gaussian expansion method (GEM) lend support to this conjecture. We study a simple $\\textrm{SO}(4)$ invariant matrix model using Monte Carlo simulations and we confirm that its rotational symmetry breaks down, showing that lower dimensional configurations dominate the path integral. The model has a strong complex action problem and the calculations were made possible by the use of the factorization method on the density of states $\\rho_n(x)$ of properly normalized eigenvalues $\\tilde\\lambda_n$ of the space--time moment of inertia tensor. We study scaling properties of the factorized terms of $\\rho_n(x)$ and we find them in agreement with simple scaling arguments. These can be used in the finite size scaling extrapolation and in the study of the region of configuration space obscured by the...

  7. Bringing ayahuasca to the clinical research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2005-06-01

    Since the winter of 1999, the authors and their research team have been conducting clinical studies involving the administration of ayahuasca to healthy volunteers. The rationale for conducting this kind of research is twofold. First, the growing interest of many individuals for traditional indigenous practices involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs such as ayahuasca demands the systematic study of their pharmacological profiles in the target species, i.e., human beings. The complex nature of ayahuasca brews combining a large number of pharmacologically active compounds requires that research be carried out to establish the safety and overall pharmacological profile of these products. Second, the authors believe that the study of psychedelics in general calls for renewed attention. Although the molecular and electrophysiological level effects of these drugs are relatively well characterized, current knowledge of the mechanisms by which these compounds modify the higher order cognitive processes in the way they do is still incomplete, to say the least. The present article describes the development of the research effort carried out at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, commenting on several methodological aspects and reviewing the basic clinical findings. It also describes the research currently underway in our laboratory, and briefly comments on two new studies we plan to undertake in order to further our knowledge of the pharmacology of ayahuasca.

  8. Design Problems for Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Are there different kinds of design problems? Jonassen (2011) argued that problems vary in terms of structuredness, complexity, and context. On the structuredness and complexity continua, design problems tend to be the most ill-structured and complex. Brown and Chandrasekaran suggest that design problems may vary along a continuum from…

  9. Bring your own device (BYOD) to work trend report

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to Work examines the emerging BYOD (Bring Your Own Device to work) trend in corporate IT. BYOD is the practice of employees bringing personally-owned mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets, laptops) to the workplace, and using those devices to access company resources such as email, file servers, and databases. BYOD presents unique challenges in data privacy, confidentiality, security, productivity, and acceptable use that must be met proactively by information security professionals. This report provides solid background on the practice, original res

  10. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  11. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...

  12. Can Smartphone Use Bring on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166847.html Can Smartphone Use Bring on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? Maybe, especially ... People who spend lots of time on their smartphones may be scrolling, tapping and swiping their way ...

  13. Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.

  14. Dubna at Play Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    The small town of Dubna brings together the advantages of urban and country lifestyles. Dubna people spend a large part of their time outdoors taking part in all kind of sports or simply enjoying the beautiful surroundings.

  15. What to bring to your labor and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal care - what to bring ... underwear, and basic toiletries. While it is nice to have your own clothes with you, labor and ... very messy time, so you may not want to wear your brand-new lingerie. Items you should ...

  16. Social learning for solving complex problems: a promising solution or wishful thinking? A case study of multi-actor negotiation for the integrated management and sustainable use of the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van S.; Roling, N.G.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Turnhout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning has been championed as a promising approach to address complex resource problems. According to theory, social learning requires several pre-conditions to be met, including (1) a divergence of interests, (2) mutual interdependence and (3) the ability to communicate. This article

  17. Bringing critical realism to nursing practice: Roy Bhaskar's contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynne; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Burton, Christopher R

    2017-04-01

    In the context of modern nursing practice that is embedded within complex social situations, critical discussions about the contribution of major philosophers are relevant and important. Whilst nurse theorists have advanced and shaped nursing as a discipline, other major philosophers can offer much to advance nursing enquiry. In this paper, we focus on philosopher Roy Bhaskar who, amongst others, developed critical realism, a philosophy for social science which connects with how many of us think about the world. Bhaskar's work focuses our attention on the interplay between structure and agency and on the search for the causative or generative mechanisms that explain the social world. Bhaskar was interested in human emancipation, and we suggest his work is of great importance to advance understanding of complex social situations. Critical realism has already been endorsed by a range of disciplines, especially in research which focuses on real problems and acknowledges the complexities of the social world. In recent evidence from healthcare literature, there has been a surge in research using realist methodology (realist evaluation and realist synthesis), which is underpinned by the philosophy of critical realism and which offers a different perspective to understanding nursing and healthcare problems through the realist lens. However, we suggest that sufficient attention is not always paid to the philosophical roots of this methodology. In this paper, we provide insight into Bhaskar's work and demonstrate how research positioned within critical realism and realist methodology can advance nursing and healthcare-related knowledge. Through shining a light on Bhaskar, we illustrate how critical realism philosophy is a natural fit with human and health science enquiry, including nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, Tiejo van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the

  19. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  20. The Stigma Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  1. Bringing Model Checking Closer to Practical Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079681; Templon, J A; Willemse, T.A.C.

    Software grows in size and complexity, making it increasingly challenging to ensure that it behaves correctly. This is especially true for distributed systems, where a multitude of components are running concurrently, making it dicult to anticipate all the possible behaviors emerging in the system as a whole. Certain design errors, such as deadlocks and race-conditions, can often go unnoticed when testing is the only form of verication employed in the software engineering life-cycle. Even when bugs are detected in a running software, revealing the root cause and reproducing the behavior can be time consuming (and even impossible), given the lack of control the engineer has over the execution of the concurrent components, as well as the number of possible scenarios that could have produced the problem. This is especially pronounced for large-scale distributed systems such as the Worldwide Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid. Formal verication methods oer more rigorous means of determining whether a system sat...

  2. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Hair Loss Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems Headaches Hearing Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back ... have ear pain or redness but is having problems hearing?YesNo Back to Questions Step 3 Possible Causes ...

  3. An interdisciplinary complex problem as a starting point for learning: Impact of the PBL method in second-year Environmental engineering students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saez de Camara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three courses of the second year degree in Environmental Engineering (Geology and Pedology, Ecology and Economics and Business Administration have been remodeled using the Problem-Based Learning methodology. The proposed problem is a real-life and integrative problem related to their specialization which must be solved in these three courses at the same time. The results reveal that during this experience students were considerably more active, cooperative and involved, and the success rate doubled that of similar engineering courses of the Faculty. Regarding students’ opinion, it should be emphasized that they perceive that this method is functional and encouraging. A high percentage of the students describe the experience as positive or very positive. Additionally, they stated that the Problem-Based Learning promoted the development of skills that, in their own view, are essential for their career, such as teamwork and communication.

  4. About some problems of creation of ultimedia education - methodical complexes within the limits of innovative educational program of the Peoples' friendship university of Russia (PFUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н К Аникина

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers one of the stages of creation of education - methodical complexes within the limits of performance of innovative educational program of the PFUR «Creation of a complex of innovative educational programs and formation of the innovative educational environment for effective realization of the state interests of the Russian Federation through system of export of educational services».

  5. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cherinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  6. Creativity for Problem Solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications related to the theme are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support problem solving are also presented. Finally......, the paper outlines the author’s experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems, and creative design of software optimisation for complex non...

  7. Practical ways of bringing innovations and creativity into the school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the practical ways of bringing innovations and creativity into the school library media programme in Nigeria. Discussion focused on areas on creativity and innovations such as environmental design, staffing, outreach activities, library cooperation, and introduction of ICT system. Keywords: Innovations ...

  8. Bring Your Own Device: Parental Guidance (PG) Suggested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Derick; Herro, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Educators are incorporating students' mobile devices into the schooling experience via Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiatives. This is advantageous for many reasons, most notably, improving access to Internet resources and digital tools in support of teaching and learning. Obtaining parental support is key to BYOD success. Therefore, this study…

  9. "Bring Your Own Device": Considering Potential Risks to Student Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Schools in Australia and internationally are increasingly adopting a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) approach to teaching and learning. The review: While discussion of a BYOD approach has taken place, there is a dearth of consideration of the potential impact of BYOD policy on student health. Implementation of a BYOD policy…

  10. Bringing climate change into natural resource management: proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Joyce; R. Haynes; R. White; R.J. Barbour

    2007-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 2005 workshop titled implications of bringing climate into natural resource management in the Western United States. This workshop was an attempt to further the dialogue among scientists, land managers, landowners, interested stakeholders and the public about how individuals are addressing climate change in natural resource management....

  11. High School Academies Bring Inner-City Youth into Mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Hendrik B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Philadelphia High School Academies, vocational schools in the inner city that are jointly operated and funded by the public schools and local business and labor leaders. Discusses the program's growth and the reasons for its success in bringing inner city youth into the mainstream. (JOW)

  12. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's communes. December 16, 2010. Image. Michelle Hibler. In Vietnam, a .... The strategy, he says, is to concentrate assistance on vulnerable groups, like women-headed households, widows, and invalids. There are 41 such deprived households in Gia Son.

  13. Model Testing - Bringing the Ocean into the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Hydrodynamic model testing, the principle of bringing the ocean into the laboratory to study the behaviour of the ocean itself and the response of man-made structures in the ocean in reduced scale, has been known for centuries. Due to an insufficient understanding of the physics involved, however...

  14. Bringing Critical Thinking to the Education of Developing Country Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Cultural differences between Asia and the West and their influence on teaching, are reviewed along with previous experiments in bringing critical thinking to Asian education, and recognition of needs for and barriers to achieving change. Principles driving design and implementation of a two-course sequence in professional transportation studies…

  15. Bringing Curriculum Theory and Didactics Together: A Deweyan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2016-01-01

    Using Dewey's method of resolution for resolving a dualism exemplified in "The Child and the Curriculum," this article reconciles and brings together two rival schools of thought--curriculum theory and didactics--in China. The central thesis is that the rapprochement requires a reconceptualisation of curriculum theory and didactics in…

  16. Bringing the LHC and ATLAS to a regional planetarium

    CERN Document Server

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    An outreach effort has started at Michigan State University to bring particle physics, the Large Hadron Collider, and the ATLAS experiment to a general audience at the Abrams planetarium on the MSU campus. A team of undergraduate students majoring in physics, communications arts & sciences, and journalism are putting together short clips about ATLAS and the LHC to be shown at the planetarium.

  17. Bringing golf into sport psychology sessions through technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bringing golf into sport psychology sessions through technology (video footage) ... sessions through technology (video footage). L Human, D Kriek, T Bezuidenhout ... psychology sessions informed by narrative practice with the six golfers respectively, during which the identified material from Stage 2 was discussed. During ...

  18. Bringing connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthee, K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an initiative to bring connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. In particular, it focuses on a proof-of-concept Internet service that has been implemented in rural Macha located in the Southern Province...

  19. Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st century | Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st Century. The different challenges facing foreign language lecturers are considered as well as the different methods used to teach a foreign language. Technology and multimedia are proposed not only as tools and supports but also as a possible solution. With the change ...

  20. A Case-Based, Problem-Based Learning Approach to Prepare Master of Public Health Candidates for the Complexities of Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A.; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013–2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health–Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned. PMID:25706029

  1. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)…

  2. Early days in complex dynamics a history of complex dynamics in one variable during 1906-1942

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Daniel S; Rosa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The theory of complex dynamics, whose roots lie in 19th-century studies of the iteration of complex function conducted by Kœnigs, Schröder, and others, flourished remarkably during the first half of the 20th century, when many of the central ideas and techniques of the subject developed. This book by Alexander, Iavernaro, and Rosa paints a robust picture of the field of complex dynamics between 1906 and 1942 through detailed discussions of the work of Fatou, Julia, Siegel, and several others. A recurrent theme of the authors' treatment is the center problem in complex dynamics. They present its complete history during this period and, in so doing, bring out analogies between complex dynamics and the study of differential equations, in particular, the problem of stability in Hamiltonian systems. Among these analogies are the use of iteration and problems involving small divisors which the authors examine in the work of Poincaré and others, linking them to complex dynamics, principally via the work of Samuel...

  3. A Proposal for Measuring Interactivity that Brings Learning Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosh Yamamoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed in this paper that some type of way to measure and visualize interactivity in the multimedia or e-Learning contents is necessary in order to clearly identify interactivity that brings learning effectiveness. Interactivity during learning will arouse students’ intellectual curiosity and motivate them to learn further. Although the interaction in the communication between the teacher and his/her students in a regular classroom is ideal, it is not possible to maintain the equivalence in the multimedia or e-Learning contents. In order to rigorously formalize the field of measuring interactivity as a theory, theoretical constructs such as interactivity, interest, knowledge, and experience are redefined first. Then, the defined “interactivity” is broken down to subcomponents to develop an assessment tool for the interactivity which brings learning effectiveness. In the end, it is proved that the interactivity in learning can be measured.

  4. Befriending Everyday Life When Bringing Technology Into the Private Sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Catharina; Fagerström, Cecilia; Willman, Ania; Sivberg, Bengt

    2017-05-01

    We present the findings of our phenomenological interview study concerning the meaning of being an autonomous person while dependent on advanced medical technology at home. This was elucidated in the participants' narratives as befriending everyday life when bringing technology into the private sphere. We discovered four constituents of the phenomenon: befriending the lived body, depending on good relationships, keeping the home as a private sphere, and managing time. The most important finding was the overall position of the lived body by means of the illness limiting the control over one's life. We found that the participants wanted to be involved in and have influence over their care to be able to enjoy autonomy. We therefore stress the importance of bringing the patients into the care process as chronic illness will be a part of their everyday life for a long time to come, hence challenging patient autonomy.

  5. Framework for Bringing Data Streams to the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Plale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Data streams are a prevalent and growing source of timely data, particularly in the scientific domain. Just as it is common today to read starting conditions such as initial weather conditions, for a scientific simulation from a file, it should be equally as easy to draw starting conditions on-demand from live data streams. But efforts to date to bring streaming data to the grid have lacked generality. In this article we introduce a new model for bringing existing data streams systems onto the grid. The model is predicated on the ability to identify stream systems that meet the criteria of being a "data resource". We establish the criteria in this article, and define a grid service architecture for a data streams resource that leverages standardization efforts in the Global Grid Forum. We discuss key research issues in realizing the data streams model. We are currently developing a prototype of this architecture using our dQUOB system.

  6. Foreign Aided: Why Democratization Brings Growth When Democracy Does Not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    2015-01-01

    There is an unresolved puzzle in research on the economics of democracy. While there is consensus that democracy is not generally associated with higher rates of economic growth, recent studies have found that democratization is followed by growth. But why should becoming a democracy bring growth...... if being one does not? This article shows that a substantial and immediate influx of foreign aid into new democracies accounts for the positive growth effect of democratization. The domestic regime characteristics of neither democracy nor democratization therefore seems to bring growth. The importance...... of aid in explaining the democratization-growth nexus underscores that democratizations do not occur in vacuum and cannot be fully understood from internal factors alone...

  7. When 'solutions of yesterday become problems of today': crisis-ridden decision making in a complex adaptive system (CAS)--the Additional Duty Hours Allowance in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Kodua, Augustina; Adjei, Sam; Adam, Taghreed

    2012-10-01

    Implementation of policies (decisions) in the health sector is sometimes defeated by the system's response to the policy itself. This can lead to counter-intuitive, unanticipated, or more modest effects than expected by those who designed the policy. The health sector fits the characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS) and complexity is at the heart of this phenomenon. Anticipating both positive and negative effects of policy decisions, understanding the interests, power and interaction between multiple actors; and planning for the delayed and distal impact of policy decisions are essential for effective decision making in CAS. Failure to appreciate these elements often leads to a series of reductionist approach interventions or 'fixes'. This in turn can initiate a series of negative feedback loops that further complicates the situation over time. In this paper we use a case study of the Additional Duty Hours Allowance (ADHA) policy in Ghana to illustrate these points. Using causal loop diagrams, we unpack the intended and unintended effects of the policy and how these effects evolved over time. The overall goal is to advance our understanding of decision making in complex adaptive systems; and through this process identify some essential elements in formulating, updating and implementing health policy that can help to improve attainment of desired outcomes and minimize negative unintended effects.

  8. MANU Building – Bringing together Manufacturing Automation and Building Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Bratukhin, Aleksey; Treytl, Albert; Sauter, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Part IV: ICT and Emerging Technologies in Production Management; International audience; Up to now, production systems only concern was to minimize production costs or optimize the utilization of production resources. But with the increasing energy prices and the growing concern over the environmental impact of production systems (industrial systems consume a quarter of all energy), efficient use of energy in manufacturing environment cannot be ignored any longer.MANUbuilding concept brings t...

  9. [Psychological features of mothers bringing up disabled children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherova, O Iu; Fil'kina, O M; Dolotova, N V; Malyshkina, A I; Antysheva, E N

    2014-01-01

    Research objective was to define psychological makers of mothers bringing up disabled children for scientific justification of the family psychotherapy branches. 60 mothers bringing up children of early age with infantile cerebral palsy and 50 mothers of children with compensation of perinatal affections of the central nervous system by the 1 life year are surveyed. Personal characteristics, family orientations of mothers, child and mother relations, awareness of mothers on the children health state and the attitude to their rehabilitation were studied by means of psychological techniques. It is found out that the mothers bringing up disabled children more often have emotional disorders, negative attitude to divorce and give the leading role in a family to the husband less often they show hypoguardianship of the child than the mothers of children with compensation of perinatal affections of the central nervous system. Mothers are less satisfied with the child development, they are more often worried about disorders of development of movements, speech and mental development delay, small appetite of the child, they feel helplessness in rehabilitation more often, note the ambiguity of its prospects. They understand that their child needs the help of the qualified experts: neurologist, orthopaedist, logopedist, psychologist, but they aren't satisfied with communication with them more often, underestimate own role in rehabilitation. The revealed characteristics prove the necessity and define the main directions of family psychotherapy--correction of mother's emotional disorders, child and parental relations, increase of medical and psychological competence that allows to increase efficiency of rehabilitation.

  10. Outcomes-Based Authentic Learning, Portfolio Assessment, and a Systems Approach to ‘Complex Problem-Solving’: Related Pillars for Enhancing the Innovative Role of PBL in Future Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of better reconciling individual and collective aspects of innovative problem-solving can be productively addressed to enhance the role of PBL as a key focus of the creative process in future higher education. This should involve ‘active learning’ approaches supported by related processes of teaching, assessment and curriculum. As Biggs & Tan (2011 have suggested, an integrated or systemic approach is needed for the most effective practice of outcomes-based education also especially relevant for addressing relatively simple as well as more complex problems. Such a model will be discussed in relation to the practical example of a Masters subject conceived with interdisciplinary implications, applications, and transferability: ‘sustainable policy studies in science, technology and innovation’. Different modes of PBL might be encouraged in terms of the authentic kinds of ‘complex problem-solving’ issues and challenges which increasingly confront an interdependent and changing world. PBL can be further optimized when projects or cases also involve contexts and examples of research and inquiry. However, perhaps the most crucial pillar is a model of portfolio assessment for linking and encouraging as well as distinguishing individual contributions to collaborative projects and activities.

  11. Problems in problem analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The majority of literature on engineering design methods is focused on the processes of fulfilling the design goals as efficiently as possible. This paper will focus on - and discuss - the processes of determining the design goals: the specifications. The purpose is to draw attention to the inher...... to the inherent problems, dilemmas and possibilities in these processes bearing in mind that that the most important decisions in a design project are taken in the beginning of the project....

  12. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may also ... injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  13. Going beyond the Hero in Leadership Development: The Place of Healthcare Context, Complexity and Relationships; Comment on “Leadership and Leadership Development in Healthcare Settings – A Simplistic Solution to Complex Problems?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Ford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald’s (1 call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking.

  14. Going beyond the hero in leadership development: the place of healthcare context, complexity and relationships: Comment on "Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory) core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald's (1) call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking.

  15. About an Optimal Visiting Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagagiolo, Fabio, E-mail: bagagiol@science.unitn.it; Benetton, Michela [Unversita di Trento, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    In this paper we are concerned with the optimal control problem consisting in minimizing the time for reaching (visiting) a fixed number of target sets, in particular more than one target. Such a problem is of course reminiscent of the famous 'Traveling Salesman Problem' and brings all its computational difficulties. Our aim is to apply the dynamic programming technique in order to characterize the value function of the problem as the unique viscosity solution of a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We introduce some 'external' variables, one per target, which keep in memory whether the corresponding target is already visited or not, and we transform the visiting problem in a suitable Mayer problem. This fact allows us to overcome the lacking of the Dynamic Programming Principle for the originary problem. The external variables evolve with a hysteresis law and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation turns out to be discontinuous.

  16. THE PROBLEMS OF MODELING THE RELIABILITY STRUCTURE OF THE COMPLEX TECHNICAL SYSTEM ON THE BASIS OF A STEAM‐WATER SYSTEM OF THE ENGINE ROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek CHYBOWSKI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the concept of a system structure with particular emphasis on the reliability structure has been presented. Advantages and disadvantages of modeling the reliability structure of a system using reliability block diagrams (RBD have been shown. RBD models of a marine steam‐water system constructed according to the concept of ‘multi‐component’, ‘one component’ and mixed models have been discussed. Critical remarks on the practical application of models which recognize only the structural surplus have been dealt with. The significant value of the model by professors Smalko and Jaźwiński called by them ‘default reliability structure’ has been pointed out. The necessity of building a new type of models: quality‐quantity, useful in the methodology developed by the author's multi-criteria analysis of importance of elements in the reliability structure of complex technical systems.

  17. International Career Development in Education: What Teachers Bring Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Altun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Working abroad helps teachers have a global perspective and enable them to become aware of global affairs. Teachers with international experience stands a better chance for professional and personal development. They not only enhance their teaching skills but also become more social. The skills they develop while working abroad make a difference in the lives of their students. Through transferring what they have learnt abroad to their home country, they can enhance the success of their students. This article presents the reasons why teachers need international experience and what changes they bring home.

  18. Bring Your Own Device - Providing Reliable Model of Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stąpór Paweł

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD as a model network, which provides the user reliable access to network resources. BYOD is a model dynamically developing, which can be applied in many areas. Research network has been launched in order to carry out the test, in which as a service of BYOD model Work Folders service was used. This service allows the user to synchronize files between the device and the server. An access to the network is completed through the wireless communication by the 802.11n standard. Obtained results are shown and analyzed in this article.

  19. BI GIS Competition Brings DSS to AITP NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayen, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    A national student competition problem in business intelligence (BI) is considered to foster an understanding of this competition and of the underlying case study problem used. The focus here is two-fold. First, is to illustrate this competition, and second, is to provide a case problem that can be considered for use in various information systems…

  20. Implementation of a multidisciplinary approach to solve complex nano EHS problems by the UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Malasarn, Davin; Lin, Sijie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Haiyuan; Miller, Robert J; Keller, Arturo A; Nisbet, Roger M; Harthorn, Barbara H; Godwin, Hilary A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Liu, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge; Cohen, Yoram; Mädler, Lutz; Holden, Patricia A; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, Andre E

    2013-05-27

    UC CEIN was established with funding from the US National Science Foundation and the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2008 with the mission to study the impact of nanotechnology on the environment, including the identification of hazard and exposure scenarios that take into consideration the unique physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Since its inception, the Center has made great progress in assembling a multidisciplinary team to develop the scientific underpinnings, research, knowledge acquisition, education and outreach that is required for assessing the safe implementation of nanotechnology in the environment. In this essay, the development of the infrastructure, protocols, and decision-making tools that are required to effectively integrate complementary scientific disciplines allowing knowledge gathering in a complex study area that goes beyond the traditional safety and risk assessment protocols of the 20th century is outlined. UC CEIN's streamlined approach, premised on predictive hazard and exposure assessment methods, high-throughput discovery platforms and environmental decision-making tools that consider a wide range of nano/bio interfaces in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, demonstrates the implementation of a 21st-century approach to the safe implementation of nanotechnology in the environment. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Complex organic pollutant mixtures originating from industrial and municipal emissions in surface waters of the megacity Jakarta-an example of a water pollution problem in emerging economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Hagemann, Lukas; Dwiyitno; Ariyani, Farida; Irianto, Hari Eko; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2017-09-19

    During the last decades, the global industrial production partly shifted from industrialized nations to emerging and developing countries. In these upcoming economies, the newly developed industrial centers are generally located in densely populated areas, resulting in the discharge of often only partially treated industrial and municipal wastewaters into the surface waters. There is a huge gap of knowledge about the composition of the complex organic pollutant mixtures occurring in such heavily impacted areas. Therefore, we applied a non-target screening to comprehensively assess river pollution in a large industrial area located in the megacity Jakarta. More than 100 structurally diverse organic contaminants were identified, some of which were reported here for the first time as environmental contaminants. The concentrations of paper manufacturing chemicals in river water-for example, of the endocrine-disrupting compound bisphenol A (50-8000 ng L-1)-were as high as in pure untreated paper industry wastewaters. The non-target screening approach is the adequate tool for the identification of water contaminants in the new global centers of industrial manufacturing-as the first crucial step towards the evaluation of as yet unrecognized environmental risks.

  2. Managing bullying problems in Nigerian secondary schools: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bullying problem has remained pervasive and a going concern for all stakeholders of education who desire to make school climate a safe haven. This paper is moved by this desire, by bringing into context the meaning of bullying and prevalence of bullying around the globe. The paper further brings into perspective bullying ...

  3. A multiscale problem in thermal science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casenave Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiscale heat problem in civil aviation: determine the temperature field in a plane in flying conditions, with air conditioning. Ventilated electronic components in the bay bring a heat source, introducing a second scale in the problem. First, we present three levels of modelling for the physical phenomena, which are applied to the two sub-problems: the plane and the electronic component. Then, having reduced the complexity of the problem to a linear non-symmetric coercive PDE, we will use the reduced basis method for the electronic component problem. Nous considérons un problème multi-échelle d’aérothermie en aviation civile. Nous souhai- tons déterminer le champ de température dans un avion en conditions de vol, avec présence d’une climatisation. Des composants électroniques ventilés sont présents dans la soute, et constituent une source de chaleur, introduisant une deuxième échelle dans notre problème. Dans un premier temps, nous présentons trois niveaux de modélisation pour le phénomène d’aérothermie, que nous appliquerons aux deux sous-problèmes : l’avion et le composant électronique. Ensuite, nous appliquons la méthode des bases réduites au problème du composant électronique, en considérant des simplifications de modélisation amenant à la résolution numérique d’une EDP elliptique linéaire coercive non-symétrique.

  4. The Napping Company: bringing science to the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, William A; Anthony, Camille W

    2005-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is currently being given to the importance of bringing knowledge gained from science into places where people live and work, in order to increase the impact science has on the general public's quality of life. Scientific findings about the positive impact of napping on mood and performance are an example of research generated knowledge that needs to be brought to the workplace. A major goal of the Napping Company (www.napping.com) is to bring the science of napping to the workers and the workplace so that employees and employers can act on this knowledge and change worker napping behavior and employer napping policies. The present paper overviews the challenges inherent in making scientific knowledge useful to how we live our lives. The Napping Company is guided by five principles of knowledge transfer in the company's attempts to disseminate and increase utilization of napping research. Examples are given to illustrate how the Napping Company has used these principles to bridge the gap between napping science and nap behavior and policies in the workplace.

  5. A Review of Bring Your Own Device on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olalere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile computing has supplanted internet computing because of the proliferation of cloud-based applications and mobile devices (such as smartphones, palmtops, and tablets. As a result of this, workers bring their mobile devices to the workplace and use them for enterprise work. The policy of allowing the employees to work with their own personal mobile devices is called Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD. In this article, we discuss BYOD’s background, prevalence, benefits, challenges, and possible security attacks. We then review contributions of academic researchers on BYOD. The Universiti Putra Malaysia online databases (such as IEEE Xplore digital library, Elsevier, Springer, ACM digital library were used to search for peer-reviewed academic publications and other relevant publications on BYOD. The Google Scholar search engine was also used. Our thorough review shows that security issues comprise the most significant challenge confronting BYOD policy and that very little has been done to tackle this security challenge. It is our hope that this review will provide a theoretical background for future research and enable researchers to identify researchable areas of BYOD.

  6. Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Dingyu

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.

  7. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Did you begin to ...

  8. Urination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Do you have pain ...

  9. Knee Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Did your knee pain ...

  10. Problems over Information Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The problems of estimation of the minimum average time complexity of decision trees and design of efficient algorithms are complex in general case. The upper bounds described in Chap. 2.4.3 can not be applied directly due to large computational complexity of the parameter M(z). Under reasonable assumptions about the relation of P and NP, there are no polynomial time algorithms with good approximation ratio [12, 32]. One of the possible solutions is to consider particular classes of problems and improve the existing results using characteristics of the considered classes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  11. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Speech Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Speech Problems Print A A ... form speech sounds into words. What Causes Speech Problems? Normal speech might seem effortless, but it's actually ...

  12. Bringing ideas back in to historical institutionalism to explain endogenous institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Schmidt, Vivien

    The problem of how to theorize endogenous institutional change remains the ‘holy grail’ of historical institutionalism. Particularly important advances have been made within scholarship on gradual institutional transformation th at has deployed concepts like institutional ambiguity...... and interpretation to show how actors are able to circumvent and significantly change institutions over the long term or even at crisis moments. Despite the centrality of interpretive processes for this line of argument, historical institutionalists focused on long-term institutional transformation have largely...... shied a way from employing ideas as a central explanatory analytical category. The paper suggests that to endogenize change, historical institutionalists will need to bring ideas back in, and that such engagement with ideational and discursive institutionalist scholarship may be particularly fruitful...

  13. Bringing inorganic chemistry to life with inspiration from R. J. P. Williams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H Allen O; Sadler, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Our appreciation of the scholarly ideas and thinking of Bob Williams is illustrated here by a few of the areas in which he inspired us. His journey to bring inorganic chemistry to life began with an early interest in analytical chemistry, rationalising the relative stabilities of metal coordination complexes (The Irving-Williams Series), and elucidating the organometallic redox chemistry of vitamin B12. He (and Vallee) recognised that metal ions are in energised (entatic) states in proteins and enzymes, which themselves are dynamic structures of rods and springs. He played a key role in helping Rosenberg to pave the road toward the clinic for the anticancer drug cisplatin. He believed that evolution is not just dependent on DNA, but also on the metallome. Organisms and the environment are one system: does DNA code directly for all the essential elements of life?

  14. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    to traditional Copperbelt rhetoric, have enforced a role as minority middlemen upon the Chinese investors. This further segregates Chinese investors from other investors and has been a driving force in the anti-Chinese campaign in Zambia. To curb the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy......Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  15. Archaeopteryx: Bringing the Dino-Bird to Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2011-01-25

    Some 150 million years ago, a strange creature died in a tropical lagoon that today is located in Bavaria, Germany. In 1861, a single feather of this creature was discovered. Not long afterward, a complete fossil was found with the same bird-like feathers but dinosaur-like anatomical features. Darwin had just published 'On the Origin of Species'; could this be the missing link that Darwin's supporters hoped to find? Recently, two of the now eleven discovered Archaeopteryx fossils, and that first feather, were brought to SLAC, where, using the intense X-ray beam, researchers searched for the chemical remains of the original living creatures. Please join us for this lecture, which will explain how the studies attempt to bring the original dino-bird back to life.

  16. Bringing the power of dynamic languages to hardware control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caicedo, J M; Neufeld, N

    2009-01-01

    Hardware control systems are normally programmed using high-performance languages like C or C++ and increasingly also Java. All these languages are strongly typed and compiled which brings usually good performance but at the cost of a longer development and testing cycle and the need for more programming expertise. Dynamic languages which were long thought to be too slow and not powerful enough for control purposes are, thanks to modern powerful computers and advanced implementation techniques, fast enough for many of these tasks. We present examples from the LHCb Experiment Control System (ECS), which is based on a commercial SCADA software. We have successfully used Python to integrate hardware devices into the ECS. We present the necessary lightweight middle-ware we have developed, including examples for controlling hardware and software devices. We also discuss the development cycle, tools used and compare the effort to traditional solutions.

  17. [Multimedia (visual collaboration) brings true nature of human life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, N

    2000-03-01

    Videoconferencing system, high-quality visual collaboration, is bringing Multimedia into a society. Multimedia, high quality media such as TV broadcast, looks expensive because it requires broadband network with 100-200 Mpbs bandwidth or 3,700 analog telephone lines. However, thanks to the existing digital-line called N-ISDN (Narrow Integrated Service Digital Network) and PictureTel's audio/video compression technologies, it becomes far less expensive. N-ISDN provides 128 Kbps bandwidth, over twice wider than analog line. PictureTel's technology instantly compress audio/video signal into 1/1,000 in size. This means, with ISDN and PictureTel technology. Multimedia is materialized over even single ISDN line. This will allow doctor to remotely meet face-to-face with a medical specialist or patients to interview, conduct physical examinations, review records, and prescribe treatments. Bonding multiple ISDN lines will further improve video quality that enables remote surgery. Surgeon can perform an operation on internal organ by projecting motion video from Endoscope's CCD camera to large display monitor. Also, PictureTel provides advanced technologies of eliminating background noise generated by surgical knives or scalpels during surgery. This will allow sound of the breath or heartbeat be clearly transmitted to the remote site. Thus, Multimedia eliminates the barrier of distance, enabling people to be just at home, to be anywhere in the world, to undergo up-to-date medical treatment by expertise. This will reduce medical cost and allow people to live in the suburbs, in less pollution, closer to the nature. People will foster more open and collaborative environment by participating in local activities. Such community-oriented life-style will atone for mass consumption, materialistic economy in the past, then bring true happiness and welfare into our life after all.

  18. Designing health innovation networks using complexity science and systems thinking: the CoNEKTR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Cameron D; Charnaw-Burger, Jill; Yip, Andrea L; Saad, Sam; Lombardo, Charlotte

    2010-10-01

    Complex problems require strategies to engage diverse perspectives in a focused, flexible manner, yet few options exist that fit with the current health care and public health system constraints. The Complex Network Electronic Knowledge Translation Research model (CoNEKTR) brings together complexity science, design thinking, social learning theories, systems thinking and eHealth technologies together to support a sustained engagement strategy for social innovation support and enhancing knowledge integration. The CoNEKTR model adapts elements of other face-to-face social organizing methods and combines it with social media and electronic networking tools to create a strategy for idea generation, refinement and social action. Drawing on complexity science, a series of networking and dialogue-enhancing activities are employed to bring diverse groups together, facilitate dialogue and create networks of networks. Ten steps and five core processes informed by complexity science have been developed through this model. Concepts such as emergence, attractors and feedback play an important role in facilitating networking among participants in the model. Using a constrained, focused approach informed by complexity science and using information technology, the CoNEKTR model holds promise as a means to enhance system capacity for knowledge generation, learning and action while working within the limitations faced by busy health professionals. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  20. Bringing Curriculum to Life. Enacting Project-Based Learning in Music Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.; Campbell, Mark Robin; Greco, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    At its core, project-based learning is based on the idea that real-life problems capture student interest, provoke critical thinking, and develop skills as they engage in and complete complex undertakings that typically result in a realistic product, event, or presentation to an audience. This article offers a starting point for music teachers who…

  1. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  2. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  3. On the Chern Yamabe Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angella, Daniele; Calamai, Simone; Spotti, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    We undertake the study of an analogue of the Yamabe problem for complex manifolds. More precisely, for any conformal Hermitian structure on a compact complex manifold, we are concerned in the existence of metrics with constant Chern scalar curvature. In this note, we set the problem and we provide......, in general, of uniqueness of the solution....

  4. On the Chern Yamabe Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spotti, Cristiano; Angella, Daniele; Calamai, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We undertake the study of an analogue of the Yamabe problem for complex manifolds. More precisely, for any conformal Hermitian structure on a compact complex manifold, we are concerned in the existence of metrics with constant Chern scalar curvature. In this note, we set the problem and we provid...

  5. EarthObserver: Bringing the world to your fingertips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. B.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Coplan, J.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Chan, S.; Bonczkowski, J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Morton, J. J.; McLain, K.; Weissel, R.

    2011-12-01

    EarthObserver (http://www.earth-observer.org/), developed by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, brings a wealth of geoscience data to Apple iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices. Built around an easy-to-use interface, EarthObserver allows users to explore and visualise a wide range of data sets superimposed upon a detailed base map of land elevations and ocean depths - tapping the screen will instantly return the height or depth at that point. A simple transparency function allows direct comparison of built-in content. Data sets include high-resolution coastal bathymetry of bays, sounds, estuaries, harbors and rivers; geological maps of the US states and world - tapping the screen displays the rock type, and full legends can be viewed; US Topo sheets; and, geophysical content including seafloor crustal age and sediment thickness, earthquake and volcano data, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and plate boundary descriptions. The names of physiographic features are automatically displayed. NASA Visible Earth images along with ocean temperature, salinity and productivity maps and precipitation information expose data sets of interest to the atmospheric, oceanic and biological communities. Natural hazard maps, population information and political boundaries allow users to explore impacts upon society. EarthObserver, so far downloaded by more than 55,000 users, offers myriad ways for educators at all levels to bring research-quality geoscience data into the learning environment, whether for use as an in-class illustration or for extensive exploration of earth sciences data. By using cutting-edge mobile app technology, EarthObserver boosts access to relevant earth science content. The EarthObserver base map is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography digital elevation model (GMRT; http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt/), also developed at LDEO and updated regularly. It provides land elevations with horizontal resolution as high as 10m for

  6. Atoms for Peace Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    CERN and JINR are providing safeguards on peaceful use of the potential of the Russian military and industrial complex by implementing scientific projects of the International Science and Technology Centre (ISTC).

  7. A bilinear programming solution to the quadratic assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Kaashoek (Johan); J.H.P. Paelinck (Jean)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe quadratic assignment problem (QAP) or maximum acyclical graph problem is well documented (see e.g. Pardalos and Wolkowicz, 1994). One of the authors has published some material, in which it was tried, by structuring the problem additionally, to bring it as closely as possible in the

  8. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  9. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Light-Emitting Diodes: Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide readers with the description of experiments and the pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper provided…

  11. Complex Systems: Control and Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-23

    ные ограничения. о центра CREGI (Centre de Recherches et d’Etudes en gestion Indu фического описания дискретных процессов, ориентированного на их ими...субъектов права, а отсутствие у них persona , необходимого для участия в гражданском обороте, прирав- нивало их к неодушевленным вещам или животным. Так...латинский термин persona (лицо) первоначально означал ни что иное как театральную маску. С позиции права все лица - это всего лишь маски с неко- торым

  12. 'The one truly serious philosophical problem': Ethical aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad M; Mian, Ayesha I

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a major global public health problem with an estimated one million deaths every year. It is one of the most personal yet one of the most complex acts anyone can perform, as it goes to the very core of the concept of human existence and the meaning of life. The philosophical debate on suicide has spanned centuries with no clear answers. Juxtaposed within the various perspectives that suicide can be studied from is the ethical perspective that brings into sharp focus the conflict between personal autonomy and societal responsibility towards suicidal individuals. Mental health professionals find themselves in the midst of this conflict as they are assumed to have the responsibility to prevent suicide in their patients, while patients' responsibility towards themselves is frequently overlooked. Mental health professionals need to be aware of the ethical concerns that arise in the care of suicidal patients.

  13. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  14. Childbirth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mother, baby, or both. Possible complications include Preterm (premature) labor, when labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with the position of the baby, such as breech, in which ...

  15. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Foot Problems Basic Facts & Information Foot pain and foot disorders ... keep you active and independent. What are Foot Problems? Decades of standing changes your feet. Much of ...

  16. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense exercise. ... Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia Problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  17. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  18. Using Augmented Reality to Bring interactivity to Metabolism Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galembeck E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A glycolysis paper puzzle designed to introduce students to theprinciples of metabolic pathways have being used for several years, and it seems to helpstudents to learn the topic. We noticed that both the number of instructors and the timethey spend with the students, plays a major role in the success of the activity. Aninsufficient number of instructors do not permit adequate contact with all the students,which frustrate and discourage them. OBJECTIVES: In order to bring this activity to largeraudiences with a few instructors, we added a technological tool called augmented reality tothe paper puzzle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The app was developed using Unity, and3D molecules obtained from Protein Data Bank. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Using thisapp the students were able to check their achievements as they progress through theactivity. The augmented reality also allowed the addition of more information to the cardslike answers to frequently asked questions and information via flashcards. The virtualflashcards displayed on the tablet screens show information such as the molecular 3Dstructure, and clues for assembling the puzzle. CONCLUSIONS: The above-mentionedtechnological improvement has enabled its use in larger classrooms with fewer instructorssince the students are able to have access to clues and discuss with the peers. Thus, thepaper puzzle is still the way students interact with each other, but the technological supportgives them more autonomy to solve the proposed exercises.

  19. Bringing the Science of JWST to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background, particularly in the area of spectroscopy. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. Webbtelescope.org, the public hub for scientific information related to JWST, is now open. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; partnering with musicians and artists to link science and art. Augmented reality apps showcase NASA’s telescopes in a format usable by anyone with a smartphone, and visuals from increasingly affordable 3D VR technologies.

  20. Using Multimedia to Bring Science News to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, C.; Stein, B.; Lorditch, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Creative partnerships between scientists and journalists open new opportunities to bring the excitement of scientific discoveries to wider audiences. Research tells us that the majority of the general public now gets more science and technology news from the Internet than from TV sources (2014 NSF Science and Engineering Indicators). In order to reach these audiences news organizations must embrace multiple forms of multimedia. We will review recent research on how the new multimedia landscape is changing the way that science news is consumed and how news organizations are changing the way they deliver news. News programs like Inside Science, and other examples of new partnerships that deliver research news to journalists, teachers, students, and the general public will be examined. We will describe examples of successful collaborations including an article by a former Newsweek science reporter entitled "My 1975 'Cooling World' Story Doesn't Make Today's Climate Scientists Wrong," which got reprinted in Slate, RealClearScience, and mentioned in Factcheck.org and USA Today.

  1. Bringing gender sensitivity into healthcare practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Halime; Lagro-Janssen, Toine A L M; Widdershoven, Guy G A M; Abma, Tineke A

    2011-08-01

    Despite the body of literature on gender dimensions and disparities between the sexes in health, practical improvements will not be realized effectively as long as we lack an overview of the ways how to implement these ideas. This systematic review provides a content analysis of literature on the implementation of gender sensitivity in health care. Literature was identified from CINAHL, PsycINFO, Medline, EBSCO and Cochrane (1998-2008) and the reference lists of relevant articles. The quality and relevance of 752 articles were assessed and finally 11 original studies were included. Our results demonstrate that the implementation of gender sensitivity includes tailoring opportunities and barriers related to the professional, organizational and the policy level. As gender disparities are embedded in healthcare, a multiple track approach to implement gender sensitivity is needed to change gendered healthcare systems. Conventional approaches, taking into account one barrier and/or opportunity, fail to prevent gender inequality in health care. For gender-sensitive health care we need to change systems and structures, but also to enhance understanding, raise awareness and develop skills among health professionals. To bring gender sensitivity into healthcare practice, interventions should address a range of factors. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Bringing solar light to the bottom of the pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, S. [SGA Energy Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation described the efforts in bringing solar light to areas of Rwanda, Uganda and the Congo that are currently unserved by electricity. In particular, it highlighted the contributions made by Light Up the World Foundation (LUTW) and the International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP) to improve the quality of life in periphery villages by introducing solar LED lighting in 6 pilot villages. Efficient, long-lasting white LED lamps combined with solar can provide a low cost alternative to the current light source, which is kerosene, diesel and candles. It was noted that the technology exists, but the challenge lies in reaching the market and making a sustainable intervention. The operating parameters of solar panels, LED lamps and batteries were listed with reference to output power, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and capacity. The service life of these devices was also listed along with estimates of their operating costs. The project needs were also identified. It was emphasized that financial support of IGCP and LUTW is needed to support private sector development and market expansion to other areas of Africa. figs.

  3. Vector Addition System Reversible Reachability Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The reachability problem for vector addition systems is a central problem of net theory. This problem is known to be decidable but the complexity is still unknown. Whereas the problem is EXPSPACE-hard, no elementary upper bounds complexity are known. In this paper we consider the reversible reachability problem. This problem consists to decide if two configurations are reachable one from each other, or equivalently if they are in the same strongly connected component o...

  4. Problems of Forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Kucharavy, Dmitry; De Guio, Roland

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The ability to foresee future technology is a key task of Innovative Design. The paper focuses on the obstacles to reliable prediction of technological evolution for the purpose of Innovative Design. First, a brief analysis of problems for existing forecasting methods is presented. The causes for the complexity of technology prediction are discussed in the context of reduction of the forecast errors. Second, using a contradiction analysis, a set of problems related to ...

  5. Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…

  6. CERN@school: bringing CERN into the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Cook, J.; Coupe, A.; Fickling, R. L.; Parker, B.; Shearer, N.

    2016-04-01

    CERN@school brings technology from CERN into the classroom to aid with the teaching of particle physics. It also aims to inspire the next generation of physicists and engineers by giving participants the opportunity to be part of a national collaboration of students, teachers and academics, analysing data obtained from detectors based on the ground and in space to make new, curiosity-driven discoveries at school. CERN@school is based around the Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector developed by the Medipix 2 Collaboration, which features a 300 μm thick silicon sensor bump-bonded to a Timepix readout ASIC. This defines a 256-by-256 grid of pixels with a pitch of 55 μm, the data from which can be used to visualise ionising radiation in a very accessible way. Broadly speaking, CERN@school consists of a web portal that allows access to data collected by the Langton Ultimate Cosmic ray Intensity Detector (LUCID) experiment in space and the student-operated Timepix detectors on the ground; a number of Timepix detector kits for ground-based experiments, to be made available to schools for both teaching and research purposes; and educational resources for teachers to use with LUCID data and detector kits in the classroom. By providing access to cutting-edge research equipment, raw data from ground and space-based experiments, CERN@school hopes to provide the foundation for a programme that meets the many of the aims and objectives of CERN and the project's supporting academic and industrial partners. The work presented here provides an update on the status of the programme as supported by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. This includes recent results from work with the GridPP Collaboration on using grid resources with schools to run GEANT4 simulations of CERN@school experiments.

  7. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G

    2002-01-01

    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation.

  8. Equity and what secondary science teachers bring to the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Barbara Anne

    The demographics of people working in science-based careers do not match the demographics of the larger society. In particular, people who self-identify as Hispanic are underrepresented among working scientists. One reason may be the influence of formal schooling and more specifically, the behaviors of teachers in secondary science classrooms. This study looks at the practices of eight secondary science teachers at two schools at which 62% of the enrolled students declare their ethnicity as Hispanic. All of the teachers have at least three years of experience. Through interviews with the teachers, classroom observation, and interviews with other faculty, this research elucidates typical behaviors and attitudes surrounding teaching science in these settings. In spite of having a deficit view of their students, they all express interest in and concern about the students they teach. Their characterizations of teaching practices and classroom behaviors do not incorporate strategies designed to promote content learning through culturally relevant curriculum. Instead, they use mainstream-situated approaches that develop science content knowledge, vocabulary, procedures, and skills targeted toward high achievement on state and district standardized tests leading toward graduation or success in college. These approaches are consistent with a view of equity that increases the participation of underrepresented groups in science based careers in that it gives students the skills and knowledge they will need in order to successfully pursue these careers. Additionally, they behave in ways that are consistent with equitable strategies such as using inquiry based teaching, serving as role models, and providing a structured learning environment. This research informs the literature base for instructional systems designers by identifying what that teachers situated in culturally diverse classrooms bring to professional development programs targeted toward making secondary science

  9. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  10. Oscar's Physics Phaire: A Collection of Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bolina, Oscar

    1999-01-01

    You will find here a number of (mostly) elementary physics problems dealing mainly with uniform motion kinematics. In preparing this collection I have tried to create original situations that could help bring motivation to an introductory course. You are welcome to suggest improvements and ... provide solutions!

  11. Bringing the "Folk" into Applied Linguistics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Antje; Stegu, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As applied linguistics is mainly concerned with solving the language-related problems of laypeople, the examination of folk views constitutes an important research field and its relevance is illustrated in this issue of the AILA review. In this introductory article, we address some of the more general aspects that need to be considered in the…

  12. "Diving in Deeper": Bringing Basic Writers' Thinking to the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cheryl Hogue

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the problem of defining critical thinking and demonstrates how critical thinking is less a determinable process or set of procedures than a constellation of attitudes, habits of mind, role relations, and participation motives. It demonstrates further why college instruction in critical thinking in composition…

  13. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  14. Bringing Outdoor Challenge Education Inside the Business Communication Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Sharbrough, William; Clipson, Tim; McCall, Miles

    1999-01-01

    Describes present-day outdoor challenge education and briefly notes its history. Argues that it provides a framework for organizations to improve teamwork, problem solving, risk-taking, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication. Describes how advantages of outdoor education can be maintained when a program goes indoors. Notes advantages of…

  15. Boron brings big benefits to bio-based blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solution to the problems with bio-based lubrication can be approached by a combination of blending and additive strategies. However, many additives do not show efficacy when used in bio-based lubricants. Additive addition also lowers the bio-based content of the blend, which in turn limits the a...

  16. Bringing the Digital Camera to the Physics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how compressed images created by modern digital cameras can lead to even severe problems in the quantitative analysis of experiments based on such images. Difficulties result from the nonlinear treatment of lighting intensity values stored in compressed files. To overcome such troubles, one has to adopt noncompressed, native formats, as…

  17. Bringing organizational factors to the fore of human error management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embrey, D. (Human Reliability Associates Ltd., Parbold (United Kingdom))

    1991-10-01

    Human performance problems account for more than half of all significant events at nuclear power plants, even when these did not necessarily lead to severe accidents. In dealing with the management of human error, both technical and organizational factors need to be taken into account. Most important, a long-term commitment from senior management is needed. (author).

  18. Atoms for Peace Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    "Atoms for Peace", this old slogan is gaining a new meaning today. Rejecting confrontation, mankind looks for new ways to unite the world. Political and economic integration makes it possible to use the great potential and high technologies of the military-industrial complex for constructing new scientific facilities.

  19. Dewey on Educating Vocation: Bringing Adult Learning to the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitges, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Dewey's complex notion of vocation--particularly his idea of multiple vocational activities--and relates it to educating for vocation in colleges and universities. The author argues that higher educators can best respect a student's autonomy as a chooser--with multiple potential vocations--by giving him or her multiple…

  20. Beyond the Central Dogma: Bringing Epigenetics into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Malone, Molly; Barber, Nicola C.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of how external factors and internal cellular signals can lead to changes in the packaging and processing of DNA sequences, thereby altering the expression of genes and traits. Exploring the epigenome introduces students to environmental influences on our genes and the complexities of gene expression. A supplemental…

  1. CERN's Mighty Machines Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Laboratory's tools, particle accelerators and detectors, are amongst the world's largest and most complex sci-entific instruments. Built at the leading edge of technology, they are some of the finest monuments of 20th centu-ry science. Nobel prizes have been awarded to CERN physicists for developments in both.

  2. Bringing Internet-based education and intervention into mental health practice: afterdeployment.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef I. Ruzek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet-facilitated interventions may offer numerous advantages in reaching the large numbers of military service men and women exposed to traumatic events. The Internet is now a primary source of health-related information for consumers and research has shown the effectiveness of web-based interventions in addressing a range of mental health problems.Clinicians can learn how to bring Internet education and intervention into routine care, to help clients better understand mental health issues and learn skills for self-management of problems.The Afterdeployment.org (AD Internet site can be used by health care professionals serving U.S. military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, and their families. The site currently addresses 18 key domains of functioning, including post-traumatic stress, sleep, anger, alcohol and drugs, and military sexual trauma. It provides an extensive amount of client and family education that is suitable for immediate use by clients and providers, as well as the kinds of interactive workshop content and self-assessment tools that have been shown to be helpful in other treatment contexts. AD can be utilized in clinical practice in a variety of ways: as an adjunct to treatment for PTSD, to supplement existing treatments for a range of post-deployment problems, or as the primary focus of treatment for a client.AD represents a kind of service that is likely to become increasingly available in coming years and that is important for mental health providers to actively explore as a tool for extending their reach, improving their efficiency, and improving quality of care.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  3. ISSLIVE! Bringing the Space Station to Every Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Severance, Mark; Blue, Regina; Khan, Ahmed; Healy, Matthew D.; Ehlinger, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    traditional education system, ISSLive! provides a single, interactive, and engaging experience to learn about the ISS and its role in space exploration, international collaboration, and science. While traditional students are using ISSLive! in the classroom, their parents, grandparents, and friends are using it at home. ISSLive! truly brings the daily operations of the ISS into the daily lives of the public from every generation.

  4. Kaiserschnitten Wien - Let's bring the forest in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Primožič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The location is part of the Vienna River Valley, known as "Wiental", one of the most dissonant, incongruous, and contested areas of Vienna. Depending on one’s perspective, the Vienna River Valley can be viewed as a transit corridor, an unresolved urban area, an urban interface, an inter- zone, an infrastructure bundle, an ugly wound in the urban landscape, a socially charged boundary, etc. We started the project with urban pattern analyses on different scales: the scale of the city, the scale of Wiental (from Schönbrunn to Hofburg and on a minor scale, i.e. the scale of the project.The analysis showed that Wiental constitutes the main connection between the city centre and suburbia and the countryside in the background of the city. With its clear morphological importance, it could become a green axis of the city, a pleasant place for people, rather than having only an infrastructural role. Our concept is to bring new character to Wiental by making it a pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly green axis. Our initial goal was to reduce car traffic. We proposed introducing a park-and-ride system, which would become a point of transfer where car traffic is replaced by public transport and cycle traffic. Through the afforestation of Wiental, the area could become a park or recreational route, and the quality of life in the area would improve.An important aspect of the project was dealing with the Danube. We proposed to manage the flood peaks by introducing a dam, and after the point of regulation, we arranged the River into two levels: an ambient upper flow and infrastructural lower flow in the existing channel. Also, by rearranging "Naschmarkt" with the Danube uncovered, we predicted an extension of tourism from the city centre to Schönbrunn by bicycle or on foot, which could be followed by an expansion of the public programme. We wanted to show that the Danube, with an appropriate environment, could become a significant element of the city structure.

  5. Global Warming Will Bring New Fungal Diseases for Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Solache, Monica A.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmenta...

  6. Bilinear Inverse Problems: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shuyang

    We will discuss how several important real-world signal processing problems, such as self-calibration and blind deconvolution, can be modeled as bilinear inverse problems and solved by convex and nonconvex optimization approaches. In Chapter 2, we bring together three seemingly unrelated concepts, self-calibration, compressive sensing and biconvex optimization. We show how several self-calibration problems can be treated efficiently within the framework of biconvex compressive sensing via a new method called SparseLift. More specifically, we consider a linear system of equations y = DAx, where the diagonal matrix D (which models the calibration error) is unknown and x is an unknown sparse signal. By "lifting" this biconvex inverse problem and exploiting sparsity in this model, we derive explicit theoretical guarantees under which both x and D can be recovered exactly, robustly, and numerically efficiently. In Chapter 3, we study the question of the joint blind deconvolution and blind demixing, i.e., extracting a sequence of functions [special characters omitted] from observing only the sum of their convolutions [special characters omitted]. In particular, for the special case s = 1, it becomes the well-known blind deconvolution problem. We present a non-convex algorithm which guarantees exact recovery under conditions that are competitive with convex optimization methods, with the additional advantage of being computationally much more efficient. We discuss several applications of the proposed framework in image processing and wireless communications in connection with the Internet-of-Things. In Chapter 4, we consider three different self-calibration models of practical relevance. We show how their corresponding bilinear inverse problems can be solved by both the simple linear least squares approach and the SVD-based approach. As a consequence, the proposed algorithms are numerically extremely efficient, thus allowing for real-time deployment. Explicit theoretical

  7. Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibian, Sevag; Huang, Yichen; Landau, Zeph; Shin, Seung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a central pillar of modern computational complexity theory. This survey provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity, which includes the study of quantum constraint satisfaction problems. Over the past decade and a half, this field has witnessed fundamental breakthroughs, ranging from the establishment of a "Quantum Cook-Levin Theorem" to deep insights into the structure of 1D low-temperature quantum systems via s...

  8. COMPLEXITY, REFLEXIVITY AND AUTOETHNOGRAPHY. THE POSSIBILITIES OF NARRATIVE RESEARCH IN IMPROVING PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Montagud-Mayor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since some years its clear the increasing difficulty of the social services to join in situations that arise in the context of multiplicity and instability. This reality, traditionally conceived as an expression of the complexity of society can also be observed from a particular approach and little known social problems: the wicked problems, that brings us to another way of understanding them. His qualities lead us to reflect on the possibility of the coexistence of certain limits on the ability of organizations and professionals to achieve outcomes which significantly improve the situations they face. At the same time we see in those limits the opportunity to expand and improve our capabilities and skills through the use of a little known research strategy: autoethnography. With it we can scrutinize the memory of our expertise to identify the problems we deal and develop the talent that many social workers possess.

  9. Popular Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  10. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  11. Eating for performance: bringing science to the training table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonci, Leslie J

    2011-07-01

    Despite many advances in nutritional knowledge and dietary practices, sports nutrition-associated issues, such as fatigue, loss of strength and stamina, loss of speed, and problems with weight management and inadequate energy intake, are common. Sound nutritional practices and well-designed patterns of eating are not awarded the same priority as training and many athletes fail to recognize that poor eating habits or suboptimal hydration choices may detract from athletic performance. Those who care for athletes and active individuals must take an active role in their nutritional well-being. This article reviews the present generally accepted principles for nutritional management in sport. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Once Upon a Time ... Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    In 1956, a year and a half after the establishment of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, the states of the "socialist bloc" signed an agreement establishing a similar international centre for the study of fundamental problems in physics: the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR. The seat of the Institute was chosen to be the town of Dubna, 120 km north of Moscow. Though the establish-ment of JINR was clearly a political response, during the Cold War, to the establishment of CERN, from the very beginning the Institute's activities were aimed solely at investigating the fundamental properties of matter and using scientific discoveries for peaceful purposes.

  13. Synthetic real estate: bringing corporate finance to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varwig, D; Smith, J

    1998-01-01

    The changing landscape of health care has caused hospitals, health care systems, and other health care organizations to look for ways to finance expansions and acquisitions without "tainting" their balance sheets. This search has led health care executives to a financing technique that has been already embraced by Fortune 500 companies for most of this decade and more recently adopted by high-tech companies: synthetic real estate. Select case studies provide examples of the more creative financial structures currently being employed to meet rapidly growing and increasingly complex funding needs.

  14. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring.

  15. From the Moon: Bringing Space Science to Diverse Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.; M3 Science; E/PO Team

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Apollo missions held a place in the mindset of many Americans - we dared to go someplace where humans had never set foot, a place unknown and beyond our imaginations. These early NASA missions and discoveries resulted in an enhanced public understanding of the Moon. Now, with the human element so far removed from space exploration, students must rely on textbooks, TV's, and computers to build their understanding of our Moon. However, NASA educational materials about the Moon are stale and out-of-date. In addition, they do not effectively address 21st Century Skills, an essential for today's classrooms. Here, we present a three-part model for developing opportunities in lunar science education professional development that is replicable and sustainable and integrates NASA mission-derived data (e.g., Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1). I) With the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better explore and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the imaging spectrometer are incorporated into the M3 Educator's Guide: Seeing the Moon in a New Light. The guide includes an array of activities and lessons to help educators and students understand how NASA is currently exploring the Moon. The guide integrates NASA maps and data into the interactive lessons, bringing the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into the classroom. II) Utilizing the M3 Educator's Guide as well as educational activities from more current NASA lunar missions, we offer two sustained professional development opportunities for educators to explore the Moon through interactive and creative strategies. 1) Geology of the Moon, an online course offered through Montana State University's National Teacher Enhancement Network, is a 3-credit graduate course. 2) Fly Me to the Moon, offered through the College of Charleston's Office of Professional Development in Education, is a two

  16. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  17. Where humans meet machines innovative solutions for knotty natural-language problems

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Where Humans Meet Machines: Innovative Solutions for Knotty Natural-Language Problems brings humans and machines closer together by showing how linguistic complexities that confound the speech systems of today can be handled effectively by sophisticated natural-language technology. Some of the most vexing natural-language problems that are addressed in this book entail   recognizing and processing idiomatic expressions, understanding metaphors, matching an anaphor correctly with its antecedent, performing word-sense disambiguation, and handling out-of-vocabulary words and phrases. This fourteen-chapter anthology consists of contributions from industry scientists and from academicians working at major universities in North America and Europe. They include researchers who have played a central role in DARPA-funded programs and developers who craft real-world solutions for corporations. These contributing authors analyze the role of natural language technology in the global marketplace; they explore the need f...

  18. Bringing politics back into water planning scenarios in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sara; Bouleau, Gabrielle; Treyer, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    The shift from government to governance in European water policies conveys a pluralist conception of stakeholder participation in planning. This article argues that the current Driving forces-Pressures-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) approach to the planning of natural resource use, developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Environmental Agency (EEA) is at odds with a pluralistic conception. The DPSIR approach consists in constructing a single socio-environmental model to address a specific problem in water management, while paying no attention to the existence of conflicts surrounding the definition of the issue at hand, the social, political and spatial delimitation of that issue, and the translation of stakes in terms of quantitative variables. Scenarios produced in this process therefore explore a limited range of policies, i.e. those defining the problem in the same way, as illustrated here with the case of the Garonne River in France. This article presents an alternative method, combining knowledge in social science and natural determinisms to build contrasting socio-hydrological scenarios that do not share the same hypotheses regarding their respective key issues.

  19. Complex motions and chaos in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together 10 chapters on a new stream of research examining complex phenomena in nonlinear systems—including engineering, physics, and social science. Complex Motions and Chaos in Nonlinear Systems provides readers a particular vantage of the nature and nonlinear phenomena in nonlinear dynamics that can develop the corresponding mathematical theory and apply nonlinear design to practical engineering as well as the study of other complex phenomena including those investigated within social science.

  20. Method for Evaluating Information to Solve Problems of Control, Monitoring and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. A.; Dobrynina, N. V.

    2017-06-01

    The article describes a method for evaluating information to solve problems of control, monitoring and diagnostics. It is necessary for reducing the dimensionality of informational indicators of situations, bringing them to relative units, for calculating generalized information indicators on their basis, ranking them by characteristic levels, for calculating the efficiency criterion of a system functioning in real time. The design of information evaluation system has been developed on its basis that allows analyzing, processing and assessing information about the object. Such object can be a complex technical, economic and social system. The method and the based system thereof can find a wide application in the field of analysis, processing and evaluation of information on the functioning of the systems, regardless of their purpose, goals, tasks and complexity. For example, they can be used to assess the innovation capacities of industrial enterprises and management decisions.