WorldWideScience

Sample records for brines

  1. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  2. Brine Shrimp Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Brynja; Swank, Rebecca; Haefner, Jim; Powell, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Young brine shrimp movements within a petri dish are tracked by students. Students are challenged to determine and verify whether the brine shrimp move in a random walk. From this exercise students gain greater understanding of PDE models, diffusion and parameter estimation.

  3. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  4. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  5. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  6. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  7. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  8. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  9. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  10. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  11. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  12. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  13. Brine, Terry oral history interview

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Brine, Terry; Interviewer: La, Michelle; Interviewer: Garden, Bailey; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Terry Brine was born in New Westminster and grew up in Burnaby. He studied education at the university and upon graduation joined the successful family business. He was the third manager of this family business after his father and grandfather. The store existed for more than 100 years at its origin location. Terry shares his experience about the success, decline and revitalization of Columbia Street from its heyday as the “Miracle Mile” of the region until today. The interview provides infor...

  14. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  15. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  16. Study of brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Available information pertinent to the treatment of geothermal brines was collected by literature search and then evaluated and summarized for use by the electric utility and geothermal industries. The information was screened from the geothermal, oil and gas, wastewater disposal, and boiler water treatment industries. The current state of knowledge and methodology concerning the treatment of geothermal brines to control scaling and corrosion in geothermal electric power production was assessed. Currently, geothermal scale in pipes and wells is removed by physical or chemical methods. There is a growing effort on developing methods to control scale formation for both fresh and spent brines, including pH adjustment and application of an electrical potential for fresh fluids, and coagulation to treat spent fluids. Current methods of corrosion control center around planned replacement of piping and other plant components, with efforts focused primarily on development of materials with improved corrosion resistance. Recommendations for additional work to improve brine treatment include the following: (1) chemical and physical characterization of brine and scale compositions, (2) basic data on the mechanism of scale formation and the effects of inhibitors, (3) development of instrumentation to monitor geothermal brine constituents, (4) correlation of laboratory results with field test data, and (5) screening of currently available commercial inhibitors for application to geothermal brines. An annotated bibliography of the reference material used in this study is included.

  17. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  18. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  19. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  20. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  1. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures Mars surface conditions. Therefore, jarosite-bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  2. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  3. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  4. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  5. Brine Effluents: Characteristics, Environmental Impacts, and Their Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Ariono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brine discharge is one of the largest sources of wastewater from industrial processes. Because of the environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of brine discharge and more rigorous regulations of pollution control, industries have started to focus on waste minimization and improving the process of wastewater treatment. Several approaches have been proposed to provide a strategy for brine handling by recovering both brine and water or to remove pollutant components so it complies with environmental regulations when discharged. One of the most promising alternatives to brine disposal is reusing the brine, which results in reduction of pollution, minimizing waste volume and salt recovery. The brine may also contain valuable components that could be recovered for profitable use. Also, water recovery from brine effluent is generally performed to save water. In the case of rejected brine from desalination plants, water recovery from higher brine concentrations has huge potential for salt production. This paper gives an overview of different types of brine effluents, their sources and characteristics. Also discussed are impacts of brine on the environment and management options related to their characteristics.

  6. Evaluation of Degreasers as Brine Curing Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The length of time needed for brine curing of raw hides and skins, a minimum of 18 h, is a time-consuming and expensive process. In this paper we initially report the results of an investigation of the stratigraphic distribution of sodium chloride and water in fleshed hides cured for varying interv...

  7. Effect of calcium in brine on salt diffusion and water distribution of Mozzarella cheese during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Pan, T; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2013-02-01

    A soft, pasty, high-moisture surface defect occurs with progressive brining of Mozzarella cheese. Addition of calcium is traditionally used to prevent this defect but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Mozzarella cheese was formed into a cylinder inside brine on its plane surface to ensure semi-infinite, unidirectional mass transfer and placed into brine containing 0, 0.1, or 0.25% (wt/wt) calcium chloride. To monitor the effect on cheese composition of calcium in brine, we measured calcium and water contents of the cheese during brining. The extent of calcium loss from the cheese decreased significantly with the addition of calcium. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% decreased the loss of calcium from 94.13 to 18.22% from the outside region of the cheese after 30 d, and the water content of the cheese was decreased from 67.8 to 48.8%. To further elucidate the effect of calcium in brine, the Boltzmann method was used to determine the effective diffusion coefficient value, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the cheese transversal relaxation time. The migration of calcium interfered with salt diffusion. At the end of brining, the amount of water bound to the protein of the cheese significantly increased. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% diminished the proportion of bound water by 20.96%. In conclusion, addition of calcium hinders the diffusion of sodium and modifies the distribution of water in Mozzarella cheese during brining. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  10. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor...... the replacement of pre-wetted salt so the process was adjusted to the ordinary plan for reinvestments in new spreading material....

  11. Retracing the Text: Francisco Brines' Poemas excluidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Nantell

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available In 198S Francisco Brines published Poemas excluidos [Excluded Poems] . In this work he included, ironically and paradoxically (considering the title, various poems that had been excluded from his previously published collections of poetry. This essay investigates the critical activity of reconstructing the text within the included-excluded intertextual context of Brines' poetic production. In particular, as will be shown, Poemas excluidos demonstrates the play of texts and play of meaning that constitute the complex object the literary critic seeks to describe. One aspect of the play of texts evident in this work is that the poem is a symbiont not only of other poems of the collection but also of earlier and later poems of Brines' other collections. From this symbiosis arises the interplay of texts and the indeterminacy of meaning of Poemas excluidos . Textual reconstruction yields yet another important result. As critics attempt to untangle the tangle of texts, they become more and more caught up in the snarl of texts, and the play of meaning of the object scrutinized. Critical commentary, then, itself becomes yet one more thread in the intricate intertextual web of Poemas excluidos .

  12. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  13. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  14. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  15. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  16. Correlation between brine shrimp test (BST) and some bioassays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  17. Evaluation of sustainable concrete produced with desalinated reject brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi P. Fattah

    2017-06-01

    With the intent of reducing the carbon footprint of concrete production, a study was carried out to determine the effect of using reject brine as the source of water and the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS as a replacement for cement. Concrete samples having three different cement contents were prepared with normal tap water and reject brine. Results showed that the use of GGBS and reject brine improved the strength of concrete produced by 16.5%. Replacing 50% of the cement with GGBS and using reject brine as the source of water has a potential for reducing 176 kg CO2 and 1.7–3.4 kg of CO2 equivalents per one cubic meter of concrete, respectively. The use of the waste reject brine can potentially save USD 170–340 per cubic meter of concrete produced.

  18. Copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Jafar; Alamdari, Abdolmohammad

    2009-07-30

    The present study aims at investigation of copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation process. The produced brine containing heavy metals is usually returned to the reservoir for water flooding or is discarded to the surroundings. Therefore, surface waters or underground waters may be polluted due to probable contact to these discarded waters. Removal experiments were carried out at room temperature in a bench-scale crystallizer equipped with a draft tube. In order to gain an insight into the influence of soluble compounds in the industrial natural brine on the precipitation process, some comparative experiments were performed both on a sample of natural brine and on a synthetic simulated brine in the absence of natural impurities. A metal removal practice by coprecipitation of copper through CaCO(3) precipitates induced by reaction of Na(2)CO(3) and CaCl(2) reduced the copper concentration (Cu(2+)) from 0.27 ppm in the synthetic brine to 0.06 ppm. This removal of 78% required only 1g of precipitate per 0.15 mg copper metal. Analysis of the experimental results suggested that about 5% of the copper removal from the synthetic brine was through the mechanism of incorporation into the crystal lattice, and around 95% was through the adsorption on the crystal faces.

  19. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  20. Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    The refractive index of freezing brine is important for example in order to estimate oceanic scattering as sea ice develops. Previously, no simple continuous expression was available for estimating the refractive index of brine at subzero temperatures. I show that extrapolation of the empirical...... formula for the refractive index of seawater by Quan and Fry [Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3477-3480 (1995)] provides a good fit to the refractive index of freezing brine for temperatures above -24 degrees celsius and salinities below 180 parts per thousand....

  1. Wellbore flow model for carbon dioxide and brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2008-11-01

    Wellbores have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. In order to quantify the impacts of leakage of CO{sub 2} and brine through wellbores, we have developed a wellbore simulator capable of describing non-isothermal open well flow dynamics of CO{sub 2}-brine mixtures. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission handled semianalytically. This new wellbore simulator can take as input the pressure, saturation, and composition conditions from reservoir simulators and calculate CO{sub 2} and brine fluxes needed to assess impacts to vulnerable resources. This new capability is being incorporated into the Certification Framework (CF) developed for risk assessment of GCS sites.

  2. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  3. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  4. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  5. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  6. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first....... The corresponding density data at the same conditions were also measured. For solubility, two models used in the Eclipse simulator were tested: the correlations of Chang et al. and the Søreide and Whitson equation of state (EoS) model. The latter model was modified to improve its performance for high salinity brine...... of CO2 increases the brine density only if the apparent mass density of CO2 in brine is higher than the brine density at the same conditions....

  7. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher; Daigle, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from 3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of 500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of 330 nm.

  8. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  9. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Christopher, E-mail: cgriffith@utexas.edu; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from ~3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of ~500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of ~330 nm.

  10. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  11. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic and

  12. [History evolution of salt production and processing with brine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Cai-Yun; Le, Zhi-Yong; Dong, Jing-Jing; Bai, Zong-Li

    2017-10-01

    Salt is an important excipient for Chinese medicine salt. The standardization of its quality is conducive to ensuring the quality of Chinese medicine pieces. In this paper, the processing with brine and the processing auxiliary salt were studied from three aspects: the history evolution of salt, the history evolution of processing with brine, and the modern research of processing with brine. It has been found that salt plays an important role in the history of China. It has a long history and a wide variety. The salt used in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine mainly includes three categories: common salt, halitum and white salt. The quality of salt is closely related to its origin and processing, mainly based on the color and the place of origin. In ancient times, the varieties of salt used in the production of different Chinese herbal medicines were different, which might be related to the nature of drugs. The primary purpose of processing with brine is to increase the efficacy of drugs. At present, there are many reports on optimizing the preparation technology of processing with brine, but the evaluation indexes are quite different, and its scientific nature is to be discussed. The processing method with brine and its processing auxiliary materials are lacking of relevant evaluation standards and quality standards, which is not conducive to the healthy development of Chinese herbal pieces. In this paper, the relevant literature was studied in order to provide reference for the establishment of standards for salt processing excipient in traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    that the salt will run from the high level of the road to the lower level”. In the test the salt moved 1 meter in 3 hours. The knowledge gained from the measurements in the county of Funen - brine spread with nozzles, spreading salt to high level of the road and using GPS controlled spreading – was implemented......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  14. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

    2017-02-01

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  15. 9 CFR 96.14 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with saturated brine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... saturated brine solution. 96.14 Section 96.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... § 96.14 Uncertified casings; disinfection with saturated brine solution. Foreign animal casings offered... acid as at present or if preferred may be submerged in a saturated brine solution at a temperature not...

  16. Influence of cultivar, soak treatment and brine composition on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cultivar, soak treatment and brine composition on physico-chemical and sensory properties of unpeeled whole canned tomatoes was investigated with a view to understanding the influence of these process conditions on the canned product characteristics. Two tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum Var.

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION Antimicrobial and brine shrimp activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    plants is significant, given the amount of poverty that exists among these remotely located communities. The current study, therefore, aims to demonstrate presence of antimicrobial activity in root extracts which has not been reported before and in addition through the brine shrimp test to obtain preliminary indication of safety ...

  19. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27. 75 - 36.27 x 103 during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64) The volumes of brine as well as those of bitterns...

  20. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  1. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  2. Water and brine chillers using the refrigerant R717

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, A.P.R. [Sabroe Refrigeration A/S, Aarhus, (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    When the Montreal Protocol was revised in Copenhagen in November 1992, a phase-out program for R22 was adopted. Subsequently a number of countries have advanced their local phase-out deadlines. R22 has been an important refrigerant in water and brine chillers and it has thus become of utmost importance to find an alternative refrigerant. R717 is a natural choice and this paper concentrates on the application of R717 in water and brine chillers with either flooded or dry expansion unit design. Description of the individual unit designs, oil selection and coefficients of performance are included. Most experience on water/brine refrigeration systems operating with R717 as refrigerant has been accumulated with flooded plate heat exchanger designs. These systems have been operating for years and they have proved to have the advantages of great reliability, small R717 charge, low operating costs, and low maintenance costs. It is concluded that the natural substitute for HCFC and HFC is already here, and the technical unit designs for brine/water cooling with R717 have long ago passed the prototype stage and recovered from teething troubles. (author). 2 tabs., 8 figs., 2 refs.

  3. Brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial studies on the seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia kola (Family, Guttiferae) is employed in a variety of therapies ranging from skin, gastrointestinal, chest to tumour problems. Preparations of the stem and roots are used as antitumour in traditional medicine but the potential of the seeds as antitumour had not yet been investigated hence the brine-shrimp lethality and ...

  4. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  5. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  6. Marine Origin Of Nigerian Brines – A Contribution From Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace element analyses which employ the X – ray fluorescence (XRF) and pelletisation have been carried out on 17 salt samples extracted from Nigerian brines. Results of the analyses reveal that these samples, from the Albian – Turonian formations in the middle Benue and Anambra basins, have Sr values of between ...

  7. Brine Shrimp Lethality of Alkaloids from Croton sylvaticus Hoechst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae) and evaluated for their brine shrimp lethality. Julocrotine, a glutarimide alkaloid, was very toxic in vitro with a LC50 (95% confidence interval) value of 0.074 (0.052-0.105) μg/ml. Lupeol and penduliflaworosin were not toxic. The structures ...

  8. [Experimental interaction of halophilic prokaryotes and opportunistic bacteria in brine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, E A; Nemtseva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Study the effect of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on preservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine. 17 strains of moderately halophilic bacteria and 2 strains of extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from continental hypersaline lake Razval of Sol-Iletsk area of Orenburg Region. Identification of pure cultures of prokaryotes was carried out taking into account their phenotype properties and based on determination of 16S RNA gene sequence. The effect of halophilic prokaryote on elimination of Escherichia coli from brine was evaluated during co-cultivation. Antagonistic activity of cell extracts of the studied microorganisms was evaluated by photometric method. A more prolonged preservation of an E. coli strain in brine in the presence of live cells of extremely halophilic archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and moderately halophilic bacteria Marinococcus halophilus was established. Extracts of cells of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on the contrary displayed antagonistic activity. The protective effect of live cells of halophilic prokaryotes and antagonistic activity of their cell extracts change the period of conservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine that regulates inter-microbial interactions and changes the period of self-purification that reflects the sanitary condition of a hypersaline water body.

  9. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  10. Insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antifungal and nitric oxide free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extract and various fractions derived from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana were screened in vitro for possible insecticidal, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities. Low insecticidal activity (20 %) was shown by chloroform (CHCl3) and aqueous fractions ...

  11. Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality tests of Magonia glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Machado, Luciana L; Souza, João S N; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Maia, Juliana L; Pessoa, Otilia D L

    2006-09-01

    The ethanolic extract of the fruit bark from Magonia glabrata yielded shikimic acid, scopoletin, sitosterol glycoside and 2-O-methyl-l-inositol. Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality activities were observed in this extract. The major constituent, 2-O-methyl-l-inositol, was found to be inactive in two assays but showed moderate activity as a radical scavenger.

  12. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    function relationships of cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 60-69. Pavia M, Trujillo AJ, Guamis B, Ferragut V (2000). Ripening control of salt-reduced Manchego-type cheese obtained by brine vacuum- impregnation. Food Chem. 70: 155-162.

  13. Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

    2010-10-01

    Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD

  14. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  15. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  16. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  17. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  18. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  19. Physical properties of NaCl-free cucumber fermentation cover brine containing calcium chloride and glycerin, and apparent freezing injury of the brined fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of glycerin (2-20%) as a food-grade antifreeze agent and calcium chloride (1.1-20%), to reduce the freezing point and improve quality of cold-stored fermented cucumbers brined without sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored. Temperature and cover brine composition did not significantly affect th...

  20. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  1. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  2. Comparative Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Withenia somnifera and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lethality test at serial dilutions of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ ml and 10 μg/ml. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for each extract was determined. Both plant extracts were found to be toxic to brine shrimp with LC50 of 110.3 μg/ml and 106.6 μg/ml for W. somnifera and C. cinerarieafolium respectively. Kenya Veterinarian Vol.

  3. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different brine concentrations on some properties of Turkish white cheese. Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out ...

  4. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 degrees C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not

  5. Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

  6. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  8. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  10. Constraints on Upward Migration of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid and Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Samuel A; Sharma, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to aid extraction of oil and gas from black shales have raised concerns regarding potential environmental effects associated with predictions of upward migration of HF fluid and brine. Some recent studies have suggested that such upward migration can be large and that timescales for migration can be as short as a few years. In this article, we discuss the physical constraints on upward fluid migration from black shales (e.g., the Marcellus, Bakken, and Eagle Ford) to shallow aquifers, taking into account the potential changes to the subsurface brought about by HF. Our review of the literature indicates that HF affects a very limited portion of the entire thickness of the overlying bedrock and therefore, is unable to create direct hydraulic communication between black shales and shallow aquifers via induced fractures. As a result, upward migration of HF fluid and brine is controlled by preexisting hydraulic gradients and bedrock permeability. We show that in cases where there is an upward gradient, permeability is low, upward flow rates are low, and mean travel times are long (often >106 years). Consequently, the recently proposed rapid upward migration of brine and HF fluid, predicted to occur as a result of increased HF activity, does not appear to be physically plausible. Unrealistically high estimates of upward flow are the result of invalid assumptions about HF and the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins. PMID:23895673

  11. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2003-02-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with shrimp growth rather than an arsenic effect. This study represents one of the few full life cycle toxicity tests conducted with brine shrimp.

  12. Biological denitrification of reverse osmosis brine concentrates: I. Batch reactor and chemostat studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ersever, Ilknur; Ravindran, Varadarajan; Pirbazari, Massoud

    2007-01-01

    A major technological concern with reverse osmosis in water purification, wastewater treatment, and water reclamation or recycling is the production of brine concentrates high in ammonia or nitrogen...

  13. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  14. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Alessia; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  15. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.berti@unibs.it [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, 22060 Novedrate, CO (Italy); Bochicchio, Ivana, E-mail: ibochicchio@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universitá degli Studi di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Fabrizio, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.fabrizio@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bologna, Piazza di Porta S. Donato, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  16. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  17. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  18. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  19. Application Status of Rubidium, Cesium and Research Situation of its Separation from Brine with Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Du, Xuemin; Wang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yafei; Deng, Tianlong

    2017-12-01

    Rubidium, cesium and its compounds play an important role in traditional and high-tech fields. This paper focuses on the research status of separation rubidium and cesium in brine using solvent extraction, and briefly introduced the characteristics of this method, which can be used to realize industrial production of rubidium and cesium from brine.

  20. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  1. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m−2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  2. Selection of a Brine Processor Technology for NASA Manned Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Gleich, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The current ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) reclaims water from crew urine, humidity condensate, and Sabatier product water. Urine is initially processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which recovers 75% of the urine as distillate. The remainder of the water is present in the waste brine which is currently disposed of as trash on ISS. For future missions this additional water must be reclaimed due to the significant resupply penalty for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA has pursued various technology development programs for a brine processor in the past several years. This effort has culminated in a technology down-select to identify the optimum technology for future manned missions. The technology selection is based on various criteria, including mass, power, reliability, maintainability, and safety. Beginning in 2016 the selected technology will be transitioned to a flight hardware program for demonstration on ISS. This paper summarizes the technology selection process, the competing technologies, and the rationale for the technology selected for future manned missions.

  3. Solubility of Calcium Phosphate in Concentrated Dairy Effluent Brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezia, K; Lee, J; Zisu, B; Chen, G Q; Gras, S L; Kentish, S E

    2017-05-24

    The solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy brine streams is important in understanding mineral scaling on equipment, such as membrane modules, evaporators, and heat exchangers, and in brine pond operation. In this study, the solubility of calcium phosphate has been assessed in the presence of up to 300 g/L sodium chloride as well as lactose, organic acids, and anions at 10, 30, and 50 °C. As a neutral molecule, lactose has a marginal but still detectable effect upon calcium solubility. However, additions of sodium chloride up to 100 g/L result in a much greater increase in calcium solubility. Beyond this point, the concentrations of ions in the solution decrease significantly. These changes in calcium solubility can readily be explained through changes in the activity coefficients. There is little difference in calcium phosphate speciation between 10 and 30 °C. However, at 50 °C, the ratio of calcium to phosphate in the solution is lower than at the other temperatures and varies less with ionic strength. While the addition of sodium lactate has less effect upon calcium solubility than sodium citrate, it still has a greater effect than sodium chloride at an equivalent ionic strength. Conversely, when these organic anions are present in the solution in the acid form, the effect of pH dominates and results in much higher solubility and a calcium/phosphate ratio close to one, indicative of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as the dominant solid phase.

  4. BELL PEPPER CULTIVATION WITH BRINE FROM BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE MOURA ARRUDA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and pollutant water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing crops since it is carefully monitored. In order to test this hypothesis, bell pepper plants, cv. 'Margarita', were grown in coconut fiber substrate under greenhouse and were irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap water, brine from desalination plant, and its dilution with tap water at 75, 50 and 25%, giving a range of electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (ECs of 2.6, 3.1, 6.6, 10.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 after the dilutions and fertilizers addition. Completely randomized blocks design was used with 5 treatments (salinity levels of the nutrient solutions and six replications. Leaf area, number of marketable fruit, total and marketable yield were reduced with ECs increase. The marketable yield of bell pepper 'Margarita' reduced 6.3% for each unitary increase of ECs above 2.6 dS m-1 (threshold salinity and the results suggest that in hydroponic system, the reduction of marketable yield with increasing ECs is promoted by reduction of the number of fruits per plant instead of a reduction of fruit mean weight.

  5. Design, construction and operation of a brine pipeline: the longest FRP brine pipeline of Germany; Planung, Bau und Betrieb einer Soleleitung: die laengste GFK-Soleleitung Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, B. [TUEV Industrie Service, TUEV Sued Gruppe, Inst. fuer Kunststoffe, Muenchen (Germany); Westendorff, K. [Ingenieurbuero Dr.-Ing. Klaus Westendorff, Neuehuette (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The design, the authority management and the fabrication of a FRP brine pipeline make respectively high demands of planners, suppliers, fabricators and authorities. These requests only can be fulfilled if a general, inter-disciplinary quality management is imported and sustained. In the report the current stand of the sets of rules, the technical requirements on a brine pipeline and the examination is represented. Current examining methods are described and new valuation methods shown for pressure tests on long buried FRP pipes. (orig.)

  6. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  7. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  8. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  9. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  10. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    -, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation...... mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions....... During emulsion formation the relative interactions at the oil-water interface are proved to follow the Hofmeister series: K+

  11. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  12. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  13. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Adel, Mustafa

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  14. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  15. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  16. Modeling brine inflow to Room Q: A numerical investigation of flow mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, G.A. [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1997-04-01

    A hydrologic modeling study was performed to gain insight into the flow mechanisms around Room Q. A summary of hydrologic and structural data and of predictive fluid flow models from Room Q are provided. Six years of measured data are available from the time of excavation. No brine accumulation in Room Q was measured in the first two years following excavation. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with this early-time data due to inadequate sealing of the room. Brine may have been lost to evaporation or it may have flowed into newly created disturbed rock zone (DRZ) porosity resulting from excavation. Non-zero brine accumulation rates were measured from 2--5 years, but brine accumulation within the room dropped to zero after 5.5 years. A conceptual model for brine inflow to Room Q was developed which assumes far-field Darcy flow combined with an increasing DRZ pore volume. Numerical simulations employed TOUGH28W and used predictive DRZ porosity increase with time from SPECTROM-32 rock deformation simulations. Simulated brine inflow showed good agreement with measured brine accumulation rates for the first five years. Two important conclusions were drawn from the simulation results: (1) early-time brine inflow to the room can be reduced to zero if the DRZ pore volume increases with time, and (2) brine accumulation (inflow) rates from 2 to 5 years suggest a far-field permeability of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}22} m{sup 2} with a bulk rock compressibility of 5.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} Pa{sup {minus}1}.

  17. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  18. Numerical simulation of surface-downhole geoelectrical measurements in order to detect brine plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, María Victoria; Grünhut, Vivian; Osella, Ana; Tichno, Adrián

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the world are in the secondary recovery stage and improving this step in the exploitation of these reservoirs would greatly benefit the oil industry. Secondary recovery involves injecting brine in some wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. The injected water moves mainly through the channels with higher permeability of the reservoir rock. The identification of these channels would allow the development of technical strategies to close them. In this context, the ability to detect brine flow pathways after injection is a goal of this work. Given the high electrical conductivity of brine, the use of geoelectrical methods can be useful to detect and monitor flow evolution. The limitations in the application of this method are due to the characteristics of the target: a very conductive fluid is usually contained in paths with dimensions that are much smaller than the depth at which it is located. Therefore, our objective is to overcome these constraints in order to find the strategies required to successfully detect and eventually monitor the movement of brine flowing from injection wells. In this work, we studied the feasibility of detecting brine in an oil reservoir with surface-downhole electrical measurements. To achieve this, we designed an electrical model of the reservoir from well data and numerically simulated the forward geoelectrical response to determine the conditions under which the anomaly, i.e., the accumulation of brine, can be identified. Our results show that once the initial location of the brine is known, by installing potential electrodes in a single well the direction of brine migration can be determined, even in unfavorable conditions with relatively few surface measurements. In the case of a well equipped with permanent electrodes, this could be an efficient method to monitor the evolution of the brine plume.

  19. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  20. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  1. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product.

  2. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kidney and lung tissues of the rats. Histopathological examination also did not reveal any toxicity ... Keywords: Mentha spicata, Acute toxicity, Brine shrimp, Histopathology, Haematological. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ... rheumatism, toothache, muscle pain. Mint possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant.

  3. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  4. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus...... conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic. citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations...

  5. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  6. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  7. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nildo da Silva Dias; Francisco Aécio de Lima; Claudio Ricardo da Silva; Osvaldo Nogueira de Sousa Neto; Hans Raj Gheyi

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11...

  8. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  9. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  10. Utilization of Brine Sludge in Nonstructural Building Components: A Sustainable Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and influence of brine sludge on the properties of cement-fly ash-sludge binders are presented. The reaction products formed during the hydration of binder provide an interlocking framework to physically encapsulate the waste particles and are responsible for the development of strength. The utilization of brine sludge in making paver blocks and bricks and the effect of sludge concentration on the engineering properties of these products are also discussed. These results clearly exhibited that brine sludge up to 35 and 25% can safely be utilized for making paver blocks and bricks, respectively. The leachability studies confirm that the metals ions and impurities in the sludge are substantially fixed in the matrix and do not readily leach from there. The utilization of brine sludge in construction materials could serve as an alternative solution to disposal and reduce pollution.

  11. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  12. Observations of Brine Pool Surface Characteristics and Internal Structure Through Remote Acoustic and Structured Light Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the surface characteristics and internal structure of deep-sea brine pools are currently limited to discrete in-situ observations. Complementary acoustic and structured light imaging sensors mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) have demonstrated the ability systematically detect variations in surface characteristics of a brine pool, reveal internal stratification and detect areas of active hydrocarbon activity. The presented visual and acoustic sensors combined with a stereo camera pair are mounted on the 4000m rated ROV Hercules (Ocean Exploration Trust). These three independent sensors operate simultaneously from a typical 3m altitude resulting in visual and bathymetric maps with sub-centimeter resolution. Applying this imaging technology to 2014 and 2015 brine pool surveys in the Gulf of Mexico revealed acoustic and visual anomalies due to the density changes inherent in the brine. Such distinct changes in acoustic impedance allowed the high frequency 1350KHz multibeam sonar to detect multiple interfaces. For instance, distinct acoustic reflections were observed at 3m and 5.5m below the vehicle. Subsequent verification using a CDT and lead line indicated the acoustic return from the brine surface was the signal at 3m, while a thicker muddy and more saline interface occurred at 5.5m, the bottom of the brine pool was not located but is assumed to be deeper than 15m. The multibeam is also capable of remotely detecting emitted gas bubbles within the brine pool, indicative of active hydrocarbon seeps. Bubbles associated with these seeps were not consistently visible above the brine while using the HD camera on the ROV. Additionally, while imaging the surface of brine pool the structured light sheet laser became diffuse, refracting across the main interface. Analysis of this refraction combined with varying acoustic returns allow for systematic and remote detection of the density, stratification and activity levels within and

  13. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  14. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman S. Mazahreh; Jihad M. Quasem; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Ibrahim A. Afaneh; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Jihad M. Quasem; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Ibrahim A. Afaneh

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese) is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year) without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%). Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be poss...

  15. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into ... using size exclusion chromatography. All samples were analysed for protein, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. Protein-enriched samples were pooled (P1, P2 and P3) and analysed for phenolic acids, total amino acids and peptide/protein sequence using advanced mass spectrometry. All...

  16. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  17. Corrosion of N80 and Cr13 steels in brine and CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zhan, H.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of the N80 casing and Cr13 steels was studied in a brine-CO2 mixture in autoclaves using electrochemical measurements and mass loss test. The brine solution contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2, representative for formation waters in North Sea wells. The

  18. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    NODA, FUMIO; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  19. CO2 Mineralization Using Brine Discharged from a Seawater Desalination Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hwan Bang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 mineralization is a method of sequestering CO2 in the form of carbonated minerals. Brine discharged from seawater desalination is a potential source of Mg and Ca, which can precipitate CO2 as forms of their carbonate minerals. The concentration of Mg and Ca in brine are twice those in the seawater influent to desalination process. This study used a cycle for CO2 mineralization that involves an increase in the pH of the brine, followed by CO2 bubbling, and, finally, filtration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that non-synthesized brine from a seawater desalination plant has been used for CO2 mineralization. The resulting precipitates were CaCO3 (calcite, Mg5(CO34(OH2·4H2O (hydromagnesite, and NaCl (halite with these materials being identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and thermo gravimetric-differentail thermal Analysis (TGA-DTA. Despite the presence of Ca with Mg in brine being unfavorable for the precipitation of Mg carbonate, Mg reacted with CO2 to form hydromagnesite at a yield of 86%. Most of the Ca formed calcite, at 99% yield. This study empirically demonstrates that brine from seawater desalination plants can be used for CO2 mineralization.

  20. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  1. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  2. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

    1995-04-01

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

  3. Detecting supercritical CO2 in brine at sequestration pressure with an optical fiber sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bo; Melo, Luis; Davies, Benjamin; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David; Wild, Peter

    2013-01-02

    Monitoring of sequestered carbon is essential to establishing the environmental safety and the efficacy of geological carbon sequestration. Sequestration in saline aquifers requires the detection of supercritical CO(2) and CO(2)-saturated brine as distinct from the native reservoir brine. Here we demonstrate an all-optical approach to detect both supercritical CO(2), and saturated brine under sequestration conditions. The method employs a long-period grating written on an optical fiber with a resonance wavelength that is sensitive to local refractive index within a pressure- and temperature-controlled apparatus at 40 °C and 1400 psi (9.65 MPa). The supercritical CO(2) and brine are clearly distinguished by a wavelength shift of 1.149 nm (refractive index difference of 0.2371). The CO(2)-saturated brine is also detectable relative to brine, with a resonance wavelength shift of 0.192 nm (refractive index difference of 0.0396). Importantly, these findings indicate the potential for distributed, all-optical monitoring of CO(2) sequestration in saline aquifers.

  4. Concentrated Brine Treatment using New Energy in Coal Mine Evaporation Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-12-01

    Recently, more and more coal mine water is being advanced treated and reused in China. The concentrated brine that results from advanced treatment methods can only be evaporated in an evaporation pond. Because of limited treatment capabilities and winter freezing, evaporation ponds often overflow, causing environment contamination. In this paper, based on analysis of brine water quality and economic-technical feasibility, we present a suitable treatment method for brine in evaporation ponds as electrodialysis using solar energy. In addition, we propose a new system to treat brine in coal mine evaporation ponds, which is powered by solar and wind. The operating efficiency of this treatment system proposed in this paper can meet the concentrated brine treatment demands in most coal mines in western mining areas of China and it places the photovoltaic power generation plates on the surface of the evaporation pond on a fixed floating island, which reduces any risk associated with land acquisition. This system can enhance brine treatment efficiency, requires a reduced evaporation pond area, increases the utilization of coal mine water, and minimizes the risk of environment contamination.

  5. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected gymnosperm and angiosperm species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković Peđa T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of selected species of flowering plants Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia (Asteraceae, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica, M. juliana, Thymus tosevii (Lamiaceae and conifers - Abies alba, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii (Pinaceae and Taxus baccata (Taxaceae, as well as diethyl ether extracts of ten species Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica and M. juliana from two flowering plant families (Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were tested for general bioactivity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality test. Lethal concentration (LC50 and 95% confidence intervals were determined by computer program LdP line. Out of fifteen tested methanol extracts, three possessed cytotoxic effect. Taxus baccata methanol extract showed the highest effect (LC50 = 18.60 μg/ml, while Thymus tosevii methanol extract expressed the lowest (LC50 = 842.50 μg/ml. All other analyzed species did not express significant cytotoxicity. Also, diethyl ether extracts of all tested species did not show significant cytotoxicity. The obtained results for methanol extracts which show certain cytotoxic effect could be guide for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  6. Fermentation Cover Brine Reformulation for Cucumber Processing with Low Salt to Reduce Bloater Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Y; Pérez-Díaz, I M

    2017-12-01

    Reformulation of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2 ), sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the indigenous carbon dioxide (CO2 )- producing microbiota, and decrease the solubility of the gas. The influence of the cover brine formulations tested, on the cucumber fermentation microbiota, biochemistry, CO2 production, and bloating defect was studied using metagenetics, HPLC analysis, a portable gas analyzer and bloater index, respectively. Cover brine supplementation with Ca(OH)2 and acetic acid resulted in complete fermentations with final pH values 0.5 units higher than the un-supplemented control. Lactic acid production increased by approximately 22%, possibly inducing the observed reduction in the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae by 92%. Ca(OH)2 supplementation also resulted in an increased relative abundance of Leuconostocaceae by 7%, which likely contributed to the observed increment in CO2 levels by 25%. A 50% reduction on acetic acid formation was detected when cover brines were supplemented with Ca(OH)2 and 690 mM (4%) NaCl. No significant difference was observed in bloater index as the result of Ca(OH)2 or NaCl supplementation in cover brines, given that the CO2 levels remained at above the 20 mg/100 mL needed to induce the defect. It is concluded that the modified cover brine formulation containing Ca(OH)2 and NaCl enables the complete conversion of sugars, decreases production of CO2 and levels of Enterobacteriaceae, but insignificantly reduces bloater index. A cucumber fermentation cover brine containing Ca(OH)2 , 0.26% CaCl2 , 345 mM (2%) NaCl, and acetic acid to pH 4.7 has a functional combination of ingredients enabling a complete conversion of sugars to lactic acid with reduced production of acetic acid and CO2 . It

  7. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of white brined cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Energy Budgets of Eared Grebes on the Great Salt Lake and Implications for Harvest of Brine Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Michael R.; Caudell, Joe N.

    2009-01-01

    About 1.5-million eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis), representing half of the North American population, stage on Utah's Great Salt Lake, USA (GSL) during autumn migration to forage on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Indirectly competing with birds for brine shrimp are commercial harvesters who annually collect >1 million kg (dry wt) of shrimp cysts (i.e., hardened eggs), an amount that during some years equals up to half of all brine shrimp cysts produced annually on the GSL. No inform...

  9. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  10. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  11. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni

    2017-11-01

    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.

  12. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winslow, C D

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  13. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  14. Using Brine Shrimps as Food and Premix for Domestic Birds, and Issues of the Prophylactics of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Volf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea: Anostraca: Artemiidae is widely used in the poultry farming as the food and premix of domestic birds. In salt lakes many wild bird species are vectors of infectious and parasitic diseases, and the feeding of farming birds with brine shrimp species of Artemia has potential danger of certain diseases. Using the brine shrimps of the genus Artemia in the poultry farming requires measures of disinfection of the raw materials and equipment. The brine shrimps, Artemia may be serving as potential intermediate hosts of the tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum , and one of the sources of the infectious diseases of game birds.

  15. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...... traditional barrel-salted herring TSa) were used without any pre-treatment or with a previous pH adjustment, and tested either as coating agents (glazing) for frozen herring or additives in fresh mince herring, in order to prevent oxidation. TSa and TSp were the most effective glazing agents, retarding lipid...

  16. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  17. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  18. Cytotoxic activities of some mono and bis Mannich bases derived from acetophenone in brine shrimp bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Halise Inci; Gul, Mustafa; Hänninen, Osmo

    2002-01-01

    Some mono Mannich bases (1-phenyl-3-amino-1-propanone salts) and bis Mannich bases (1-phenyl-3-amino-2-amino-methyl-1-propanone salts) derived from acetophenone and a few representative quaternary derivatives were synthesised and their cytotoxicity was tested using the brine shrimp bioassay. This assay may serve as an intermediate test before further in vivo animal experiments in large scale, since brine shrimp nauplii as whole organisms were used in this test. Mono Mannich bases were generally more cytotoxic than their corresponding bis Mannich bases. Mannich bases synthesised were cytotoxic in both brine shrimp bioassay in this study and cell culture tests using Jurkat and Renca cells in a previous study. However, the order of the cytotoxic potency of the compounds were reverse, which may result from faster deamination of bis derivatives than optimal level, and different species and test media used in the two test systems. Faster deamination of bis derivatives might have led to elimination of active metabolites before reaching its target. The cytotoxicity of the compounds might have been altered by amino acids and proteins present in cell culture medium but not in sea water used in brine shrimp bioassay affecting their transport through the cell membrane and metabolism in the cell by binding with the compounds. With higher cytotoxic activity compared with 5-fluorouracil (CAS 51-21-8) in brine shrimp bioassay, mono Mannich base 1 and its quaternary derivative 4 and quaternary bis derivative 8 seem to be candidate compounds for further drug design.

  19. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  20. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  1. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  2. Imaged brine inclusions in young sea ice—Shape, distribution and formation timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galley, R.J.; Else, B.G.T.; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Liquid inclusions in sea ice are variable and dependent on the myriad of physical conditions of the atmosphere– sea ice environment in which the sea ice was grown, and whether or not melting processes affected the sea ice. In that light, there exist relatively few observations and resultant...... quantification of the morphology and vertical dis- tribution of brine inclusions in sea ice. Using a magnetic (3.0 T) resonance (MR) imager using constructive inter- ference steady state gradient echo sequence, we show that it is possible to image brine channels and pockets in an 18.5 cm young sea ice core...... prior to sea ice growth through the sampling date, and observe its physical characteristics. We illustrate that brine drain- age channels may be established concurrently with ice growth, and indicate the amount and location of vertical and horizontal fluid connectivity in the young sea ice sample...

  3. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophilic lactic acid bacteria on the growth of osmophilic yeasts was investigated. It was recognized that osmophilic shoyu yeasts such as Saccharomyces rouxii and Torulopsis versatilis were inhibited by a metabolite produced by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria (belonging to Pediococcus halophilus) in brine fermentation of shoyu. The primary inhibitor was considered to be acetic acid, although lactic acid was slightly inhibitory. PMID:16345625

  4. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  5. Salinity fluctuation of the brine discharge affects growth and survival of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote-Moreno, A; Fernández-Torquemada, Y; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2014-04-15

    The increase of seawater desalination plants may affect seagrasses as a result of its hypersaline effluents. There are some studies on the salinity tolerance of seagrasses under controlled laboratory conditions, but few have been done in situ. To this end, Cymodocea nodosa shoots were placed during one month at four localities: two close to a brine discharge; and the other two not affected by the discharge, and this experiment was repeated four times. The results obtained showed a decrease in growth and an increased mortality at the localities affected by the brine discharge. An increase was detected in the percentage of horizontal shoots in respect to vertical shoots at the impacted localities. It is probably that not only the average salinity, but also the constant salinity fluctuations and slightly higher temperatures associated with the brine that may have caused physiological stress thus reducing C. nodosa growth and survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rubidium extraction from seawater brine by an integrated membrane distillation-selective sorption system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Gayathri; Jeong, Sanghyun; Johir, Md Abu Hasan; Fane, Anthony G; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2017-10-15

    The ultimate goal of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine management is to achieve minimal liquid discharge while recovering valuable resources. The suitability of an integrated system of membrane distillation (MD) with sorption for the recovery of rubidium (Rb + ) and simultaneous SWRO brine volume reduction has been evaluated for the first time. Polymer encapsulated potassium copper hexacyanoferrate (KCuFC(PAN)) sorbent exhibited a good selectivity for Rb + sorption with 10-15% increment at 55 °C (Langmuir Q max  = 125.11 ± 0.20 mg/g) compared to at 25 °C (Langmuir Q max  = 108.71 ± 0.20 mg/g). The integrated MD-KCuFC(PAN) system with periodic membrane cleaning, enabled concentration of SWRO brine to a volume concentration factor (VCF) of 2.9 (65% water recovery). A stable MD permeate flux was achieved with good quality permeate (conductivity of 15-20 μS/cm). Repeated cycles of MD-KCuFC(PAN) sorption with SWRO brine enabled the extraction of 2.26 mg Rb + from 12 L of brine (equivalent to 1.9 kg of Rb/day, or 0.7 tonne/yr from a plant producing 10,000 m 3 /day brine). KCuFC(PAN) showed a high regeneration and reuse capacity. NH 4 Cl air stripping followed by resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) resin filtration enabled to recover Rb + from the desorbed solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Widespread legacy brine contamination from oil production reduces survival of chorus frog larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Puglis, Holly J.; Battaglin, William A.; Anderson, Chauncey; Honeycutt, Richard; Smalling, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Advances in drilling techniques have facilitated a rapid increase in hydrocarbon extraction from energy shales, including the Williston Basin in central North America. This area overlaps with the Prairie Pothole Region, a region densely populated with wetlands that provide numerous ecosystem services. Historical (legacy) disposal practices often released saline co-produced waters (brines) with high chloride concentrations, affecting wetland water quality directly or persisting in sediments. Despite the potential threat of brine contamination to aquatic habitats, there has been little research into its ecological effects. We capitalized on a gradient of legacy brine-contaminated wetlands in northeast Montana to conduct laboratory experiments to assess variation in survival of larval Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) reared on sediments from 3 local wetlands and a control source. To help provide environmental context for the experiment, we also measured chloride concentrations in 6 brine-contaminated wetlands in our study area, including the 2 contaminated sites used for sediment exposures. Survival of frog larvae during 46- and 55-day experiments differed by up to 88% among sediment sources (Site Model) and was negatively correlated with potential chloride exposure (Chloride Model). Five of the 6 contaminated wetlands exceeded the U.S. EPA acute benchmark for chloride in freshwater (860 mg/L) and all exceeded the chronic benchmark (230 mg/L). However, the Wetland Site model explained more variation in survival than the Chloride Model, suggesting that chloride concentration alone does not fully reflect the threat of contamination to aquatic species. Because the profiles of brine-contaminated sediments are complex, further surveys and experiments are needed across a broad range of conditions, especially where restoration or remediation actions have reduced brine-contamination. Information provided by this study can help quantify potential ecological threats

  8. Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Brine assemblages of ultrasmall microbial cells within the ice cover of Lake Vida, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Emanuele; Ichimura, Andrew S; Peng, Vivian; Fritsen, Christian H; Trubl, Gareth; Doran, Peter T; Murray, Alison E

    2014-06-01

    The anoxic and freezing brine that permeates Lake Vida's perennial ice below 16 m contains an abundance of very small (≤0.2-μm) particles mixed with a less abundant population of microbial cells ranging from >0.2 to 1.5 μm in length. Fluorescent DNA staining, electron microscopy (EM) observations, elemental analysis, and extraction of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA indicated that a significant portion of these ultrasmall particles are cells. A continuous electron-dense layer surrounding a less electron-dense region was observed by EM, indicating the presence of a biological membrane surrounding a cytoplasm. The ultrasmall cells are 0.192 ± 0.065 μm, with morphology characteristic of coccoid and diplococcic bacterial cells, often surrounded by iron-rich capsular structures. EM observations also detected the presence of smaller unidentified nanoparticles of 0.020 to 0.140 μm among the brine cells. A 16S rRNA gene clone library from the brine 0.1- to 0.2-μm-size fraction revealed a relatively low-diversity assemblage of Bacteria sequences distinct from the previously reported >0.2-μm-cell-size Lake Vida brine assemblage. The brine 0.1- to 0.2-μm-size fraction was dominated by the Proteobacteria-affiliated genera Herbaspirillum, Pseudoalteromonas, and Marinobacter. Cultivation efforts of the 0.1- to 0.2-μm-size fraction led to the isolation of Actinobacteria-affiliated genera Microbacterium and Kocuria. Based on phylogenetic relatedness and microscopic observations, we hypothesize that the ultrasmall cells in Lake Vida brine are ultramicrocells that are likely in a reduced size state as a result of environmental stress or life cycle-related conditions.

  10. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-01-01

    H in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None......The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus...... concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of p...

  11. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.; Byrne, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and

  12. Ice Generation and the Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena of Introducing Water to a Cold Bath of Brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiao; Quarini, Giuseppe L

    2017-03-13

    We demonstrate a method for the study of the heat and mass transfer and of the freezing phenomena in a subcooled brine environment. Our experiment showed that, under the proper conditions, ice can be produced when water is introduced to a bath of cold brine. To make ice form, in addition to having the brine and water mix, the rate of heat transfer must bypass that of mass transfer. When water is introduced in the form of tiny droplets to the brine surface, the mode of heat and mass transfer is by diffusion. The buoyancy stops water from mixing with the brine underneath, but as the ice grows thicker, it slows down the rate of heat transfer, making ice more difficult to grow as a result. When water is introduced inside the brine in the form of a flow, a number of factors are found to influence how much ice can form. Brine temperature and concentration, which are the driving forces of heat and mass transfer, respectively, can affect the water-to-ice conversion ratio; lower bath temperatures and brine concentrations encourage more ice to form. The flow rheology, which can directly affect both the heat and mass transfer coefficients, is also a key factor. In addition, the flow rheology changes the area of contact of the flow with the bulk fluid.

  13. Diverse methane concentrations in anoxic brines and underlying sediments, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    in the overlying water (2}3nM). De Lange et al. (1990) observed a double-layered brine in this basin: the upper brine (from 3278 to 3425m) 2002 S.M. Karisiddaiah / Deep-Sea Research I 47 (2000) 1999}2008 Fig. 2. Vertical pro"les of dissolved oxygen (O 2 in l... for constructive, thought provoking and valuable suggestions. This is N.I.O.’s contribution No. 3533. References Blanc, G., Boulegue, J., Charlou, J.L., 1990. Pro"les d’hydrocarbures legers dans l’eau de mer, les saumures et les eaux interstielles de la fosse...

  14. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring....

  15. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  16. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  17. Application of quantitative XRD on the precipitation of struvite from Brine Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraldy, E.; Rahmawati, F.; Heryanto; Putra, D. P.

    2017-02-01

    The present studies have been conducted to quantify the varied phases in struvite formation from brine water as the magnesium source. The quantitative X-ray Diffraction (QXRD) method was performed to quantitatively determine the crystal phases and amorphous content of struvite samples. Substantial phase samples were employed quantitative analysis to calibrate against known phase composition information by Rietveld refinement on powder XRD data. The results showed that brine water could be considered as magnesium source the formation of struvite products. The study demonstrated that in general, the high N:P molar ratio (both pH 9 and 10) might lead to the significant formation of struvite.

  18. Diffusive leakage of brine from aquifers during CO2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejam, Morteza; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The area of investigation in this study is designed around an improved understanding of fundamentals of the diffusive leakage of brine from a storage aquifer into overlying and underlying low permeability layers during geosequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) through development of a theoretical model. Here, we consider a two-dimensional domain in cylindrical coordinates, comprised of an aquifer and an overburden, where the interaction between the two media is handled by imposing the continuities of pressures and fluid fluxes at the aquifer-overburden interface. This coupled problem is solved by successive implementation of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. The developed solutions can be used to analyze diffusive leakage of brine from the aquifer into overburden and generate type curves for average pressures in the aquifer and overburden during injection and post injection periods. The results show that the leakage rate at early times is scaled with t1/2 while it remains constant at late times. It is also shown that the average pressure in the aquifer is scaled with t for short and long times. Moreover, the average pressure in the overburden is scaled with t at late times while it is scaled with t3/2 at early times. In addition, the results reveal that factors affecting diffusive leakage rate through intact overburden during CO2 storage are, in decreasing order of significance, thickness of overburden, thickness of aquifer, aquifer to overburden permeability ratio, and aquifer to overburden porosity ratio. However, thickness of aquifer has minimal effect on diffusive leakage of brine within post injection period. To evaluate the theoretical model, case studies for two potential sites in United Kingdom, one in Lincolnshire and the other one in the Firth of Forth, are conducted. The field studies show that the diffusive leakage from the aquifer into the overburden diminishes ∼40 years after the injection has ceased for Lincolnshire while it stops after

  19. The possibility of using underground chloride sodium brines in the territory of the Central Federal District to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power equipment of TPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A. Y.; Burakov, I. A.; Verkhovsky, A. E.; Nikitina, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term use of ground sodium chloride brine at power plants of “Mosenergo” for the purposes of regeneration Na-cation unit of water treatment plants chemical plants provides the preconditions for operation of underground brines and other power systems of our country. Underground sodium chloride brines used in “Mosenergo” since 1979, when the first wells for the extraction of brines in the territory of TPP-22 was drilled. Currently production brines are well in 13 TPP of PJSC “Mosenergo”. Underground sodium chloride brines can be used to regenerate the sodium cation filters under the following conditions: salinity brines should be not less than 100 g/dm3; the ratio of sodium ion content (in mg-Eq/dm3) to the total rigidity brine (in mg-Eq/dm3) should not be less than 3.5. Performed zoning district on the possibility of using underground brine for regeneration of the sodium-cation filters On the basis of these requirements. The analysis of the possibility of using underground brine directly to the location of CHP stations in the northern part of the Central Federal District on the basis of geological and hydrogeological data. Particular attention is drawn to the area of large cities, where the use of underground brines most effectively. The conclusion about the possibility of using sodium chloride brines underground in most parts of the Central Federal District for energy purposes.

  20. Isolation and identification of oxidation products of guaiacol from brines and heated meat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the formation of the oxidation products of guaiacol in brines and heated meat matrix: 6-nitrosoguaiacol, 4-nitroguaiacol and 6-nitroguaiacol. For this purpose we applied a newly developed HPLC-UV and LC-MS method. For the first time, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined in brine and meat (containing guaiacol and sodium nitrite), which had been heated to 80°C and subsequently subjected to simulated digestion. Application of 500mg/L ascorbic acid to the brines reduced guaiacol degradation at pH3 and simultaneously inhibited the formation of 6-nitrosoguaiacol compared to brines containing only 100mg/L of ASC. The oxidation products were isolated with a new extraction method from meat samples containing 400mg/kg sodium nitrite at pH3.6 following simulated digestion. When oxygen was added, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined even at legally allowed levels (150mg/kg) of the curing agent. Finally, we developed a new LC-MS method for the separation and qualitative determination of the four main smoke methoxyphenols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Rehab Z.

    2014-09-23

    Abdallah RZ, Adel M, Ouf A, Sayed A, Ghazy MA, Alam I, Essack M, Lafi FF, Bajic VB, El-Dorry H and Siam R (2014) Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface. Front. Microbiol. 5:487. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00487

  2. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  3. Radiolysis and corrosion of Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Radiolysis and corrosion of. 238. Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine. M KELM* and E BOHNERT. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung, Postfach. 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany e-mail: kelm@ine.f3k.de. Abstract. Deaerated 5 M NaCl solution is irradiated in the presence of UO2 pellets.

  4. Novel thermostable antibiotic resistance enzymes from the Atlantis II Deep Red Sea brine pool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elbehery, Ali H. A; Leak, David J; Siam, Rania

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, we used sequence‐based metagenomics to identify two antibiotic resistance enzymes from the secluded, lower convective layer of Atlantis II Deep Red Sea brine pool (68°C, ~2200 m depth and 250‰ salinity). We assembled > 4 000...

  5. Bioencapsulation of Two Different Vibrio Species in Nauplii of the Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Herrera-Vega, Maria A.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Roque, Ana

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of nauplii from the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) were enriched with different bacteria, and the dynamics of bacterial uptake by the nauplii were observed. This study showed that the efficiency of Artemia nauplii in bioencapsulating bacteria strongly depends on the type of bacteria used, time of exposure, and status (live or dead) of the bacteria. PMID:9603861

  6. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional...

  7. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brine shrimp (genus Artemia) are small (8 to 12 mm long) cosmopolitan crustaceans (Anostraca) found predominately in hypersaline water bodies such as inland salt lakes and pans, coastal lagoons, and salt works at salinity levels above 40 g·ℓ-1. They have been extensively studied due to their high monetary value as ...

  8. In-vitro anti-microbial and brine-shrimp lethality potential of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The brine-shrimp lethality assay analyzed using the Finney probit method showed that the crude ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stem displayed LD50 values at 192 ppm and 182 ppm respectively. These findings indicate the potential of the plant as panacea for infectious diseases and also reveal a novel potential in the ...

  9. Origin of brine in the Kangan gasfield: isotopic and hydrogeochemical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, R.; Nadri, A.; Raeisi, E.; Kazemi, G.A.; Eggenkamp, H.G.M.; Montaseri, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kangan Permo-Triassic brine aquifer and the overlying gas reservoir in the southern Iran are located in Kangan and Dalan Formations, consisting dominantly of limestone, dolomite, and to a lesser extent, shale and anhydrite. The gasfield, 2,900 m in depth and is exploited by 36 wells, some of

  10. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette M. Karchesy; Rick G. Kelsey; George Constantine; Joseph J. Karchesy

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 μg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta...

  11. Grain Size Data from the Brine Disposal Program, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the Brine Disposal Program funded by NOAA in the US Gulf of Mexico, compiled by NOAA/CEAS and partially conducted by R. W. Hann of Texas A and...

  12. Microbial colonization of naturally black olives during fermentation and associated biochemical activities in the cover brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, G-J E; Panagou, E Z; Parker, M L; Waldron, K W; Tassou, C C

    2002-01-01

    To establish the site of microbial growth on naturally black fermented table olives, and to monitor the population dynamics of yeasts and selected micro-organisms together with the changes in organic acid profile and pH in the cover brine during fermentation. During fermentation, the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. in the brine decreased whilst lactic acid bacteria and yeast populations increased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a yeast-rich biofilm developed on the epicuticular wax of the olive skin during fermentation. Yeasts also predominated in the stomatal openings, but bacteria were more numerous in intercellular spaces in the sub-stomatal flesh. Citric, malic and tartaric acids were the major organic acids accumulating in the brine during fermentation. Micro-organisms associated with the skin, stomata and flesh in fermenting black olives may experience different local conditions to those prevailing in the cover brine. These are the first observations of the micro-organisms associated with the fruit of naturally fermented black olives and of the accumulation of specific organic acids during fermentation.

  13. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cucumber fermentation brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidt, Frederick; Caldwell, Jane M

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial pathogens have been reported on fresh cucumbers and other vegetables used for commercial fermentation. The Food and Drug Administration currently has a 5-log reduction standard for E. coli O157:H7 and other vegetative pathogens in acidified pickle products. For fermented vegetables, which are acid foods, there is little data documenting the conditions needed to kill acid resistant pathogens. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained 10 different cucumber fermentation brines at different stages of fermentation from 5 domestic commercial plants. Cucumber brines were used to represent vegetable fermentations because cabbage and other vegetables may have inhibitory compounds that may affect survival. The 5-log reduction times for E. coli O157:H7 strains in the commercial brines were found to be positively correlated with brine pH, and ranged from 3 to 24 d for pH values of 3.2 to 4.6, respectively. In a laboratory cucumber juice medium that had been previously fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum or Leuconostoc mesenteroides (pH 3.9), a 5-log reduction was achieved within 1 to 16 d depending on pH, acid concentration, and temperature. During competitive growth at 30 °C in the presence of L. plantarum or L. mesenteroides in cucumber juice, E. coli O157:H7 cell numbers were reduced to below the level of detection within 2 to 3 d. These data may be used to aid manufacturers of fermented vegetable products determine safe production practices based on fermentation pH and temperature.   Disease causing strains of the bacterium E. coli may be present on fresh vegetables. Our investigation determined the time needed to kill E. coli in cucumber fermentation brines and how E. coli strains are killed in competition with naturally present lactic acid bacteria. Our results showed how brine pH and other brine conditions affected the killing of E. coli strains. These data can be used by producers of fermented vegetable

  14. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  15. Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2-brine displacement during geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basirat, Farzad; Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli

    2017-11-01

    Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can vary significantly, and they strongly influence geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers, during which CO2 is supposed to displace the resident brine and to become permanently trapped. Fundamental understanding of the effect of wettability on CO2-brine displacement is thus important for improving storage efficiency and security. In this study, we investigate the influence of wetting properties on two-phase flow of CO2 and brine at the pore scale. A numerical model based on the phase field method is implemented to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2-brine in a realistic pore geometry. Our focus is to study the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantify the effect of wettability on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and specific interfacial area. Our simulation results confirm that both the trapped wetting phase saturation and the normalized interfacial area increase with decreasing contact angle. However, the wetting condition does not appear to influence the CO2 breakthrough time and saturation. We also show that the macroscopic capillary pressures based on the pressure difference between inlet and outlet can differ significantly from the phase averaging capillary pressures for all contact angles when the capillary number is high (log Ca > -5). This indicates that the inlet-outlet pressure difference may not be a good measure of the continuum-scale capillary pressure. In addition, the results show that the relative permeability of CO2 can be significantly lower in strongly water-wet conditions than in the intermediate-wet conditions.

  16. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yafan

    2017-10-03

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general decrease in the interfacial tension (IFT) values of the CH4–brine system with pressure and temperature is similar to that obtained for the corresponding CH4–water system. The IFT of methane and brine is a linearly increasing function of salt concentration, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the pressure. A similar behavior as methane is observed for such systems containing CO2 and CO2–CH4 mixture. The IFT of CO2 and brine increases linearly with increasing salt content; however, the resulting slopes are independent of pressure. The simulations show that the presence of CO2 decreases the IFT values of the CH4–water and CH4–brine systems, but the degree of reduction depends on the amount of CO2 in each sample, which is consistent with experimental evidence. These IFT values show a linear correlation with the amount of CO2, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the temperature and pressure. Furthermore, our results for the mole fractions of the different species in the CO2–CH4–water system at 323 K and 9 MPa are in agreement with those of experiments. The mole fractions of methane and CO2 in the water-rich phase decrease with increasing salt concentration, whereas that of H2O in the methane- or CO2-rich phases remains almost unaffected in all of the studied cases. Our results could be useful because of the importance of carbon dioxide sequestration and shale gas production.

  18. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A. F.; Fernandes, Tainá; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Nascimento, Silvia M.

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments) and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs. PMID:28388672

  19. Advances in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closed-loop water recovery systems, enabling long-duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment, are under development. These brine water recovery concepts aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy-induced effects. In this work, a microgravity-compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly, thereby creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a terrestrial-like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions; e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling, and analysis of the system.

  20. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A F Neves

    Full Text Available Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs.

  1. Review of the impacts of leaking CO 2 gas and brine on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bacon, Diana H.; Zheng, Liange; Kyle, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher F.

    2017-06-01

    This review paper provides a synthetic view of the existing knowledge and summarizes data and findings of the recent literature on the subject of the potential leaking of CO2 from the deep subsurface storage reservoirs and the effects on aquifer quality. New ideas and concepts are developed and insights are also provided. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present and discuss potential risks for groundwater degradation due to CO2 gas and brine exposure; 2) identify the set of geochemical data required to assess and predict aquifer responses to CO2 and brine leakage. Specifically, this paper will discuss the following issues: 1) Aquifer responses (such as changes in aqueous phase/groundwater chemical composition; changes in solid phase chemistry and mineralogy; changes in the extent and rate of reactions and processes and possible establishment of a new network of reactions and processes affecting or controlling overall mobility of major, minor, and trace elements; development of conceptual and reduced order models (ROMs) to describe and predict aquifer responses); 2) The degree of impact such as significant or insignificant changes in pH and major, minor, and trace element release that depend on the following controlling variables; the effect of leaking plume characteristics (gas composition, pure CO2 and/or CO2 -CH4 -H2S mixtures and brine concentration and composition (trace metals); aquifer properties [such as initial aqueous phase conditions and mineralogy: minerals controlling sediments’ response (e.g., calcite, Si bearing minerals, etc.)]; overview of relevant hydrogeological and geochemical processes related to the impact of CO2 gas and brine on groundwater quality; the fate of the elements released from sediments or transported with brine (such as precipitation/incorporation into minerals (calcite and other minerals), adsorption, electron transfer reactions, the role of natural attenuation; whether or not the release of metals following exposure to

  2. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  3. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  4. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  5. Experimental biological effects assessment associated with on-shore brine discharge from the creation of gas storage caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa; Ré, Ana

    2008-09-01

    Most of the studies on biological and ecological effects associated with brine discharge into the marine environment are related to the operation of desalination plants, for the production of freshwater. In this study we analysed the biological effects of a brine effluent from a completely different source, produced from the lixiviation of rock salt caves, for the creation of natural gas storage caverns. Lethal and sub-lethal endpoints following exposure to the brine were studied in a range of macrofauna species characteristic of the soft and hard bottom habitats in the vicinity of the discharge area, namely the isopod Eurydice pulchra, the annelids Sabellaria alveolata and Ophelia radiata, the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. In a first series of experiments, brine, with salinity above 300, was diluted in distilled water to a salinity value close to that of the seawater in the discharge area (salinity 36) and, surprisingly, none of the exposed species was able to survive or develop into viable larvae. A second series of experiments exposed the species to brine diluted with seawater, simulating more realistic discharge circumstances. All the tested species at all the measured endpoints (adult survival, larval abnormal development, sperm fertilization success) showed negative biological effects in brine solutes always at a lower salinity than that of a salinity control obtained with concentrated seawater. The sub-lethal experiments with larval development of P. lividus, S. alveolata and M. galloprovincialis, and the fertilization success of P. lividus gave EC 50 values for the brine solute with salinity in the range of 40.9-43.5, whereas the EC 50 values for the concentrated seawater were in the range of salinity 44.2-49.0. It is hypothesised that differences in the ionic composition of the brine cause the inability of the species to tolerate the exposure to brine.

  6. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper describes changes in chemical and δ37Cl signatures observed in a 1750 h isothermal evaporation experiment on hyperacid (pH 0.1) sulphate-chloride brine water from the active lake of Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Although gypsum was the only evaporite mineral identified in the evolving brine, decreasing Si concentrations may ultimately result in amorphous silica precipitation. Geochemical simulations predict the additional formation of elemental sulphur at lower water activities (aH2O ≤ 0.65) that were not reached in the experiment. Absence of other sulphates and halides despite the high load of dissolved elements (initial TDS ca. 100 g/kg) can be attributed to increased solubility of metals, promoted by extensive formation of complexes between the variety of cations and the major anions (HSO4-, Cl-, F-) present. Chlorine deviations from a conservative behaviour point to losses of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl(g)) and consequently an increase in Br/Cl ratios. Chlorine isotope fractionation that accompanied the escape of HCl(g) showed a marked change in sign and magnitude in the course of progressive evaporation of the brine. The calculated factor of fractionation between HCl(g) and dissolved Cl for the initial interval (before 500 h) is positive (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = + 1.55 ± 0.49‰to + 3.37 ± 1.11‰), indicating that, at first, the escaping HCl(g) was isotopically heavier than the dissolved Cl remaining in the brine. Conversely, fractionation shifted to the opposite direction in the subsequent interval (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = 5.67 ± 0.17‰to - 5.64 ± 0.08‰), in agreement with values reported in literature. It is proposed that Cl isotopic fractionation in

  7. Diversity within Italian Cheesemaking Brine-Associated Bacterial Communities Evidenced by Massive Parallel 16S rRNA Gene Tag Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Marino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the bacterial diversity of brines used for cheesemaking in Italy, as well as their physicochemical characteristics. In this context, 19 brines used to salt soft, semi-hard, and hard Italian cheeses were collected in 14 commercial cheese plants and analyzed using a culture-independent amplicon sequencing approach in order to describe their bacterial microbiota. Large NaCl concentration variations were observed among the selected brines, with hard cheese brines exhibiting the highest values. Acidity values showed a great variability too, probably in relation to the brine use prior to sampling. Despite their high salt content, brine microbial loads ranged from 2.11 to 6.51 log CFU/mL for the total mesophilic count. Microbial community profiling assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that these ecosystems were dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Cheese type and brine salinity seem to be the main parameters accountable for brine microbial diversity. On the contrary, brine pH, acidity and protein concentration, correlated to cheese brine age, did not have any selective effect on the microbiota composition. Nine major genera were present in all analyzed brines, indicating that they might compose the core microbiome of cheese brines. Staphylococcus aureus was occasionally detected in brines using selective culture media. Interestingly, bacterial genera associated with a functional and technological use were frequently detected. Indeed Bifidobacteriaceae, which might be valuable probiotic candidates, and specific microbial genera such as Tetragenococcus, Corynebacterium and non-pathogenic Staphylococcus, which can contribute to sensorial properties of ripened cheeses, were widespread within brines.

  8. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-06-15

    The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of pH in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results

  9. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  10. Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlou, J. L.; Donval, J. P.; Zitter, T.; Roy, N.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Foucher, J. P.; Woodside, J.; Medinaut Scientific Party

    2003-08-01

    As a part of the Dutch-French MEDINAUT diving expedition in 1998, cold seeps and mud volcanoes were studied and sampled in two distinctive tectonic settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The first setting was the Olimpi Mud Volcano field (OMV area), including Napoli, Milano, Maidstone and Moscow mud volcanoes, south of Crete on the Mediterranean ridge. The second setting was the Anaximander Mountains (AM area), southwestern Turkey, where Amsterdam, Kazan and Kula mud volcanoes were explored. Large methane concentrations (45-892 nmol/kg) were measured in the water column not only above mud volcanoes but also in seeps and vents along related fault systems, indicating intense degassing related to fluid circulation in sediments. The tracer results show that there is considerable variability in terms of gas seepage and matter flux between these mud volcanoes. Brine accumulations found as shallow pools on Napoli or associated with deep faults (Nadir Lake) outside mud volcanoes exhibit variable chlorinity, mineral and gas composition. The brines are significantly enriched in δ18O relative to ambient seawater and are consistent with evaporated seawater. In the Nadir Brine Lake, the level of methane is as high as 5.93 mmol/kg, lower than the methane saturation level of 120 mmol/kg theoretically found at the salinity (120), pressure (200 bar), and temperature (13.6°C) conditions of Nadir lake. In contrast, the shallow brine pools on Napoli mud volcano (also OMV area) have methane levels of only 4.45 μmol/kg. In all brines, helium data show a clear radiogenic isotopic ratio ( R=0.06× Ra), in excellent agreement with recently published data for the Urania basin. Methane to ethane ratios (>1000) and δ13C(CH 4) values (-65.6‰PDB) indicate that the CH 4 is microbially produced. Unlike mid-ocean ridges, where abiogenic methane and helium have a common origin in the brines, the large variation in the CH 4/He ratio indicates that CH 4 and helium sources are unrelated, a

  11. The Formation of Frost and Liquid Brines on Spacecraft Materials at Mars Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Erik; Martinez, German; Neamati, Daniel; Renno, Nilton O.

    2017-10-01

    There is evidence that frost formed on the camera calibration target of the Opportunity Rover [1], and that frozen brine splashed on the struts of the Phoenix lander during landing melted, producing droplets of liquid brine [2]. Moreover, there is evidence that tiny amounts of frost might have formed at the MSL landing site, early in the morning during the coldest winter sols [3].The Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC) is capable of simulating temperatures ranging from ~90 to 500 K, atmospheric pressures ranging from ~10-3 to 105 Pa, and relative humidity ranging from less than 1% to 100%. The MMEC is also capable of simulating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the Mars polar, mid-latitudes, and equatorial regions (including Mars Special Regions). Moreover, the MMEC is equipped with instruments to study the formation of frost and liquid brines [4,5].We use the MMEC to study the formation of frost and brine droplets on spacecraft materials. Our laboratory experiments indicate that frost forms on spacecraft materials at Mars environmental conditions. They also indicate that small amounts of liquid brine could form on spacecraft surfaces if salts are present (e.g., deposited with dust aerosols or splashed during landing) when frost forms. These results have important implications for planetary protection.Our main goal is to identify the spacecraft materials on which frost and liquid brines are most likely and least likely to form at the environmental conditions created by a Mars lander. This will improve our understanding of forward contamination so that standards for spacecraft fabrication and operations can be refined in order to minimize planetary contamination.References:[1] Landis, G. A. (2007). Lunar Planet. Sci. Conference 38, 2423.[2] Rennó, N. O., et al. (2009). J. Geophys. Res.: Planets (1991-2012), 114(E1).[3] Martínez, G. M., et al. (2016). Icarus, 280, 93-102.[4] Fischer, E., et al. (2014). Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(13), 4456-4462.[5] Fischer, E

  12. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA); Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  13. NASA TechPort Entry for Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) CL IR&D Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable solution to brine water recovery. The heart of CoBRA is an evaporator that produces water vapor from brine. This evaporator leverages a novel design that enables passive transport of brine from place to place within the system. While it will be necessary to build or modify a system for testing the CoBRA concept, the emphasis of this project will be on developing the evaporator itself. This project will utilize a “test early, test often” approach, building at least one trial evaporator to guide the design of the final product.

  14. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  15. Regional‐scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive dynamics of CO2 and brine leakage through faults and wellbores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Na‐Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Han, Kyungdoe; Park, Eungyu

    2015-01-01

    Regional‐scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive transport dynamics of CO 2 and brine within a natural analogue in the northern Paradox Basin, Utah, were explored by integrating numerical simulations...

  16. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment. PMID:23823802

  17. Valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products from mining and seawater desalination brines for water treatment applications

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Gibert Agulló, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDBrines from the drainage of potash mine tailings and from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination were previously evaluated as sources of NaCl for the chlor-alkali industry. Valorisation of NaCl as raw material is required to meet the membrane electrolysis specifications of NaCl saturation and control of interferences (Ca, Mg and sulphate). Brines concentration in NaCl was previously achieved for SWRO brines using electrodialysis (ED). In this work, valorisation of Ca and Mg by...

  18. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Qurie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The reverse osmosis (RO brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012. At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC, PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.

  19. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijf, Johan; De Baar, Hein J. W.; Millero, Frank J.

    1995-08-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and comparable only to REE concentrations at depth in the porewaters of reducing sediments. Below the seawater-brine interface, throughout the upper of two chemically distinct brine layers, REE concentrations decrease with depth as a result of scavenging, while shale-normalized REE patterns are characterized by little or no fractionation between the light REEs (LREEs) and the heavy REEs (HREEs) and by a positive Ce anomaly. Throughout the lower of the two brine layers REE concentrations are constant, while REE patterns are characterized by the same lack of LREE or HREE enrichment, as well as by the absence of any Ce anomaly. A pronounced REE minimum at the interface between the two brine layers is apparently caused by uptake into dolomite that is formed through in situ recrystallization of Ca carbonate, a process that was previously reported to cause similar minima for Mn and Fe. Calculations of REE speciation, incorporated into a model of REE scavenging (developed by Byrne and Kim, 1990), which uses REE complexation by monocarboxylic acids to represent REE adsorption onto particulate matter, are surprisingly successful at reproducing the unusual shape of REE patterns in the brine. This suggests that this shape, although very different from that of REE patterns in the overlying seawater due to the very high ionic strength of the brine, is the result of much the same processes that constitute REE scavenging in the open ocean.

  20. The Synthesis of Calcium Salt from Brine Water by Partial Evaporation and Chemical Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasari, L. H.; Widowati, M. K.; Natasha, N. C.; Sulistiyono, E.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    In this study would be investigated the effects of partial evaporation and chemical precipitation in the formation of calcium salt from brine water resources. The chemical reagents used in the study was oxalate acid (C2H2O4), ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) with reagent concentration of 2 N, respectively. The procedure was 10 liters brine water evaporated until 20% volume and continued with filtration process to separate brine water filtrate from residue (salt). Salt resulted from evaporation process was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Filtrate then was reacted with C2H2O4, (NH4)2CO3 and NH4OH reagents to get salt products in atmospheric condition and variation ratio volume brine water/chemicals (v/v) [10/1; 10/5; 10/10; 10/20; 10/30; 10:50; 20/1; 20/5; 20/10; 20/20; 20/30; 20:50]. The salt product than were filtered, dried, measured weights and finally characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. The result of experiment showed the chemical composition of brine water from Tirta Sanita, Bogor was 28.87% Na, 9.17% Mg, 2.94% Ca, 22.33% O, 0.71% Sr, 30.02% Cl, 1.51% Si, 1.23% K, 0.55% S, 1.31% Al. The chemical composition of salt resulted by partial evaporation was 53.02% Ca, 28.93%O, 9.50% Na, 2.10% Mg, 1.53% Sr, 1.20% Cl, 1.10% Si, 0.63% K, 0.40% S, 0.39% Al. The salt resulted by total evaporation was indicated namely as NaCl. Whereas salt resulted by partial evaporation was CaCO3 with a purity of 90 % from High Score Plus analysis. In the experiment by chemical precipitation was reported that the reagents of ammonium carbonate were more reactive for synthesizing calcium salt from brine water compared to reagents of oxalate acid and ammonium hydroxide. The salts precipitated by NH4OH, (NH4)2CO3, and H2C2O4 reagents were indicated as NaCl, CaCO3 and CaC2O4.H2O, respectively. The techniques of partial evaporation until 20% volume sample of brine water and

  1. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  2. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  3. Bacterial use of choline to tolerate salinity shifts in sea-ice brines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firth, E.; Carpenter, S. D.; Sørensen, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    of starting salinities, when salinity was increased, 14C-solute (choline or derivatives) was preferentially retained as an intracellular osmolyte; when salinity was decreased, 14C-choline was preferentially respired to 14CO2. Additional experiments with cold-adapted bacteria in culture indicated......Bacteria within the brine network of sea ice experience temperature-driven fluctuations in salinity on both short and long temporal scales, yet their means of osmoprotection against such fluctuations is poorly understood. One mechanism used to withstand the ion fluxes caused by salinity shifts...... brines drained from sea ice in Kanajorsuit Bay (2013) and Kobbefjord (2014), Greenland, we measured the utilization of 14C-choline (precursor to glycine betaine, a common compatible solute) at -1°C upon salinity shifts to double and to half the starting salinity. In all cases and across a range...

  4. TOXICITY TESTING OF RESTORATIVE DENTAL MATERIALS USING BRINE SHRIMP LARVAE (ARTEMIA SALINA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhem, Manar M.; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S.; Darmani, Homa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability) followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively). One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (pbrine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites. PMID:19089264

  5. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:21808570

  6. Short-lived brine infiltration during upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the continental collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Fumiko; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Grantham, Geoffrey; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2017-04-01

    The importance of brine is increasingly recognized because of its role on mass transportation at the mid- to lower-crustal pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions (e.g., Newton & Manning, 2010). However, the passage and residence times of brine are not well understood. This study deals with garnet-hornblende (Grt-Hbl) veins, discordantly cutting the gneissose structure of garnet-orthopyroxene-hornblende gneiss from the central Sør Rondane Mountains (SRM), East Antarctica. The Cl contents of hornblende and biotite, K content of hornblende, and the thickness of Na-richer rims of plagioclase decreased with distance from the Grt-Hbl vein. The P-T conditions of the vein formation were estimated to be 680 °C, 0.69 GPa (Higashino et al., under review). In the wall rock in the vicinity of the vein, addition of Li, Cu, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U, which tend to be mobile in brines rather than in melts is observed, using Zr as an immobile element (Higashino et al., 2015). This indicates that the Grt-Hbl vein was formed by the infiltration of NaCl-KCl brine. Trace element concentrations in the wall rock minerals decrease with distance from the vein, and in most cases show concave up/down profiles. Distances where these concentrations in each mineral species become constant are dependent on elements, and not on mineral species. These profiles can be best modelled by diffusion equations, suggesting that the diffusion is the major process transferring the trace elements perpendicular to the vein. Although plagioclase does not show significant trace element zoning within each single grain, the discontinuous drop of anorthite content at rims is preserved. Thin brine films in grain boundaries presumably caused dissolution-reprecipitation (e.g., Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014), and lattice diffusion in plagioclase would have followed this to form homogeneous trace element zonings. Therefore, the main process of brine infiltration into the wall rock is possibly grain boundary diffusion in wet

  7. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-05-30

    Summary: The Red Sea harbours approximately 25 deep-sea anoxic brine pools. They constitute extremely unique and complex habitats with the conjugation of several extreme physicochemical parameters rendering them some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us with a first glimpse on the enormous biodiversity of the local microbial communities, the identification of several new taxonomic groups, and the isolation of novel extremophiles that thrive in these environments. This review presents a general overview of these unusual biotopes and compares them with other similar environments in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on their microbial ecology. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  9. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  10. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Stingl, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    The Red Sea harbours approximately 25 deep-sea anoxic brine pools. They constitute extremely unique and complex habitats with the conjugation of several extreme physicochemical parameters rendering them some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us with a first glimpse on the enormous biodiversity of the local microbial communities, the identification of several new taxonomic groups, and the isolation of novel extremophiles that thrive in these environments. This review presents a general overview of these unusual biotopes and compares them with other similar environments in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on their microbial ecology. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  12. Density-driven free-convection model for isotopically fractionated geogenic nitrate in sabkha brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-01-01

    Subsurface brines with high nitrate (NO3−) concentration are common in desert environments as atmospheric nitrogen is concentrated by the evaporation of precipitation and little nitrogen uptake. However, in addition to having an elevated mean concentration of ∼525 mg/L (as N), NO3− in the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi is enriched in 15N (mean δ15N ∼17‰), which is an enigma. A NO3− solute mass balance analysis of the sabkha aquifer system suggests that more than 90% of the nitrogen is from local atmospheric deposition and the remainder from ascending brine. In contrast, isotopic mass balances based on Δ17O, δ15N, and δ18O data suggest approximately 80 to 90% of the NO3− could be from ascending brine. As the sabkha has essentially no soil, no vegetation, and no anthropogenic land or water use, we propose to resolve this apparent contradiction with a density-driven free-convection transport model. In this conceptual model, the density of rain is increased by solution of surface salts, transporting near-surface oxygenated NO3− bearing water downward where it encounters reducing conditions and mixes with oxygen-free ascending geologic brines. In this environment, NO3− is partially reduced to nitrogen gas (N2), thus enriching the remaining NO3− in heavy isotopes. The isotopically fractionated NO3− and nitrogen gas return to the near-surface oxidizing environment on the upward displacement leg of the free-convection cycle, where the nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and new NO3− is added to the system from atmospheric deposition. This recharge/recycling process has operated over many cycles in the 8000-year history of the shallow aquifer, progressively concentrating and isotopically fractionating the NO3−.

  13. Formation of magmatic brine lenses via focussed fluid-flow beneath volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Blundy, Jon; Melnik, Oleg; Sparks, Steve

    2018-03-01

    Many active or dormant volcanoes show regions of high electrical conductivity at depths of a few kilometres beneath the edifice. We explore the possibility that these regions represent lenses of high-salinity brine separated from a single-phase magmatic fluid containing H2O and NaCl. Since chloride-bearing fluids are highly conductive and have an exceptional capacity to transport metals, these regions can be an indication of an active hydrothermal ore-formation beneath volcanoes. To investigate this possibility we have performed hydrodynamic simulations of magma degassing into permeable rock. In our models the magma source is located at 7 km depth and the fluid salinity approximates that expected for fluids released from typical arc magmas. Our model differs from previous models of a similar process because it is (a) axisymmetric and (b) includes a static high-permeability pathway that links the magma source to the surface. This pathway simulates the presence of a volcanic conduit and/or plexus of feeder dykes that are typical of most volcanic systems. The presence of the conduit leads to a number of important hydrodynamic consequences, not observed in previous models. Importantly, we show that an annular brine lens capped by crystallised halite is likely to form above an actively degassing sub-volcanic magma body and can persist for more than 250 kyr after degassing ceases. Parametric analysis shows that brine lenses are more prevalent when the fluid is released at temperatures above the wet granite solidus, when magmatic fluid salinity is high, and when the high-permeability pathway is narrow. The calculated depth, form and electrical conductivity of our modelled system shares many features with published magnetotelluric images of volcano subsurfaces. The formation and persistence of sub-volcanic brine lenses has implications for geothermal systems and hydrothermal ore formation, although these features are not explored in the presented model.

  14. Thermodynamic modeling of phases equilibrium in aqueous systems to recover potassium chloride from natural brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruberlan Gomes da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizers, such as potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and other chemical products like sodium hydroxide and soda ash are produced from electrolyte solutions or brines with a high content of soluble salts. Some of these products are manufactured by fractional crystallization, when several salts are separated as solid phases with high purity (>90%. Due to the large global demand for potassium fertilizers, a good knowledge about the compositions of salts and brines is helpful to design an effective process. A thermodynamic model based on Pitzer and Harvie's model was used to predict the composition of crystallized salts after water removal by forced evaporation and cooling from multicomponent solutions or brines. Initially, the salts’ solubilities in binary systems (NaCl–H2O, KCl–H2O and MgCl2–H2O and ternary system (KCl–MgCl2–H2O were calculated at 20 °C and compared with literature data. Next, the model was compared to our experimental data on the quinary system NaCl–KCl–MgCl2–CaCl2–H2O system at 20 °C. The Pitzer and Harvie's model represented well both the binary and ternary systems. Besides, for the quinary system the fit was good for brine densities up to 1350 kg/m3. The models were used to estimate the chemical composition of the solutions and salts produced by fractional crystallization and in association with material balance to respond to issues related to the production rates in a solar pond containing several salts dissolved, for instance, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2.

  15. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  16. Lined 10'' butterfly valve outlasts competitive valves in brine filter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, A.

    1982-03-01

    One of the world's largest chlorine production units located in the Gulf Coast area has an extensive brine piping system with a large number of valves. Some of the valves performed well but many failed to meet the service requirements, especially in the brine filtering system with the salt solution at ambient temperatures and pressures about 100 psi. One of these was a 10'' valve. Various types of gear-operated butterfly valves, with an elastomer lining to withstand the somewhat corrosive solution, had been tried but developed leaks and had to be repaired or replaced after 4 to 6 months. The valves became difficult or impossible to operate in some cases when brine leaking past the stem seal attacked the inner surface of the metal valve body and the liner was dislodged by the movement of the disc. In September 1980, a 10'' butterfly valve specifically designed for bubble-tight shut off and zero stem leakage was installed in the brine filter line on a trial basis. The valve has a 1-piece, epoxy-coated ductile iron body with a molded one-piece liner of Hypalon rubber, and a stainless steel stem and disc with splines instead of pins to provide a trouble-free connection. The stem is positively sealed against leakage by a patented spherical machining process on both the disc and the liner. The valve was furnished with a variable ratio gear actuator that has higher torque output when the disc begins to make contact with the seat to assure a bubble-tight shutoff with minimum input torque. The butterfly valve has provided leaktight performance since it was installed in September 1980 and is still easy to open and close by the geared actuator.

  17. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    on recovery of high value biomolecules such as proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD5) as well as total suspended solids (TSS) were also measured to follow the performance of the ultrafiltration. The retentates contained 75-82% (95% TSS...... that ceramic ultrafiltration can recover biomolecules from marinated herring brines although pre-filtration optimization is still needed....

  18. Magnesium salts as compounds of the preparation of magnesium oxide from Tunisian natural brines

    OpenAIRE

    Behij Souheil; Hammi Halim; Hamzaoui Hichem Ahmed; M’nif Adel

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium oxide is one of the most important magnesium compounds used in industry. The production of MgO is often done from calcined magnesium carbonate or from natural magnesium saline solutions (sea water and brines). In the case of these solutions, magnesium oxide is precipitated after the addition of a strong base (eg. Ammonia). Magnesium hydroxide is calcined after its separation from the excess resulting from the strong base through filtration. Thus, magnesia qualities may differ ...

  19. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  20. Mobility of elements during K-metasomatism of volcanic rocks by alkaline, saline brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, C.E. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Silicic ignimbrites and interbedded mafic lavas of Oligocene age were altered by alkaline, saline brines in the Popotosa basin of the Rio Grande rift near Socorro, New Mexico. Alteration was toward a fine-grained assemblage of adularia + hematite [+-] quartz irrespective of initial rock composition. Elevated [delta][sup 18]O and the occurrence of zeolites, gypsum, and salt casts in overlying play a deposits indicates that the altering fluids were basin brines. Preliminary analysis of secondary inclusions in fractured quartz phenocrysts indicates temperatures near 100 C and salinities near 20 wt. % NaCl equivalent. To test element mobility, pairs of fresh and altered samples from each of 7 ignimbrite units plus 4 samples of interbedded mafic lavas were analyzed by XRF, INAA, and AA. The elements showing the greatest mobility during alteration of ignimbrites are listed below along with their enrichment factors (altered rock/fresh rock). Ignimbrites: enriched--K[sub 2]O 1.99, Rb 1.89, Ba 1.43, As 12.14, Sb 18.30, Pb 1.23; depleted--Na[sub 2]O 0.25, MgO 0.57, CaO 0.27, MnO 0.50, P[sub 2]O[sub 5] 0.75, Sr 0.54, Li 0.57, U 0.78, Br 0.67, Cu 0.90, Zn 0.69. The dramatic enrichment of As and Sb in both ignimbrites and mafic lavas indicates that these elements are highly mobile in oxidizing basin brine systems. K-metasomatism is a common type of alteration in rift basins, detachment terranes, aquifers through which brines have migrated.

  1. Bacterial use of choline to tolerate salinity shifts in sea-ice brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Firth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteria within the brine network of sea ice experience temperature-driven fluctuations in salinity on both short and long temporal scales, yet their means of osmoprotection against such fluctuations is poorly understood. One mechanism used to withstand the ion fluxes caused by salinity shifts, well-known in mesophilic bacteria, is the import and export of low molecular weight organic solutes that are compatible with intracellular functions. Working with the marine psychrophilic gammaproteobacterium, Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, and with natural microbial assemblages present in sackhole brines drained from sea ice in Kanajorsuit Bay (2013 and Kobbefjord (2014, Greenland, we measured the utilization of 14C-choline (precursor to glycine betaine, a common compatible solute at −1°C upon salinity shifts to double and to half the starting salinity. In all cases and across a range of starting salinities, when salinity was increased, 14C-solute (choline or derivatives was preferentially retained as an intracellular osmolyte; when salinity was decreased, 14C-choline was preferentially respired to 14CO2. Additional experiments with cold-adapted bacteria in culture indicated that an abrupt downshift in salinity prompted rapid (subsecond expulsion of retained 14C-solute, but that uptake of 14C-choline and solute retention resumed when salinity was returned to starting value. Overall, the results indicate that bacteria in sea-ice brines use compatible solutes for osmoprotection, transporting, storing and cycling these molecules as needed to withstand naturally occurring salinity shifts and persist through the seasons. Because choline and many commonly used compatible solutes contain nitrogen, we suggest that when brines freshen and bacteria respire such compatible solutes, the corresponding regeneration of ammonium may enhance specific biogeochemical processes in the ice, possibly algal productivity but particularly nitrification. Measurements

  2. Thermogalvanic effects on the corrosion of copper in heavy brine LiBr solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José

    2012-01-01

    Thermogalvanic corrosion of copper in heavy brine LiBr solutions has been investigated using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA). The temperature gradients between copper electrodes immersed in the same LiBr solution result in the formation of thermogalvanic cells with hot anodes, leading to high and sustained thermogalvanic currents. Copper loss rates, calculated using Faraday's law, substantially exceed 0.025mmyear -1, a value regarded as the threshold of low corrosion rates. The effects of the...

  3. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  4. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  5. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  6. Genomic and Transcriptomic Evidence for Carbohydrate Consumption among Microorganisms in a Cold Seep Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2016-11-15

    The detailed lifestyle of microorganisms in deep-sea brine environments remains largely unexplored. Using a carefully calibrated genome binning approach, we reconstructed partial to nearly-complete genomes of 51 microorganisms in biofilms from the Thuwal cold seep brine pool of the Red Sea. The recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belong to six different phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidatus Cloacimonetes, Candidatus Marinimicrobia, Bathyarchaeota, and Thaumarchaeota. By comparison with close relatives of these microorganisms, we identified a number of unique genes associated with organic carbon metabolism and energy generation. These genes included various glycoside hydrolases, nitrate and sulfate reductases, putative bacterial microcompartment biosynthetic clusters (BMC), and F420H2 dehydrogenases. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the acquisition of these genes probably occurred through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Metatranscriptomics illustrated that glycoside hydrolases are among the most highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that the microbial inhabitants are well adapted to this brine environment, and anaerobic carbohydrate consumption mediated by glycoside hydrolases and electron transport systems (ETSs) is a dominant process performed by microorganisms from various phyla within this ecosystem.

  7. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. Results We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH)3. Conclusions Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface. PMID:22078161

  8. Effects of in-situ conditions on relative permeability characteristics of CO2-brine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, Stefan; Bennion, Brant

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCGS) is an emerging technology that is increasingly being considered for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers provide a very large capacity for CO2 storage and, unlike hydrocarbon reservoirs and coal beds, are immediately accessible and are found in all sedimentary basins. Proper understanding of the displacement character of CO2-brine systems at in-situ conditions is essential in ascertaining CO2 injectivity, migration and trapping in the pore space as a residual gas or supercritical fluid, and in assessing the suitability and safety of prospective CO2 storage sites. Because of lack of published data, the authors conducted a program of measuring the relative permeability and other displacement characteristics of CO2-brine systems for sandstone, carbonate and shale formations in central Alberta in western Canada. The tested formations are representative of the in-situ characteristics of deep saline aquifers in compacted on-shore North American sedimentary basins. The results show that the capillary pressure, interfacial tension, relative permeability and other displacements characteristics of CO2-brine systems depend on the in-situ conditions of pressure, temperature and water salinity, and on the pore size distribution of the sedimentary rock. This paper presents a synthesis and interpretation of the results.

  9. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Noura A; Ortiz-Medina, Juan F; Katuri, Krishna P; Hari, Ananda Rao; Amy, Gary; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-09-01

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8±2.1A/m2-anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  11. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NILDO DA SILVA DIAS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11'S, 37º20'O and 18m above sea. Two lettuce cultivars ('Verônica' and 'Babá de verão' were cultivated with a basic nutrient solution with 1.1 dS m-1 (control during the crop cycle (1-28 days after transplanting - DAT - T0 and with basic nutrient solution containing 50% of the reject water from desalinization with 4.8 dS m-1 exposed during 1-7, 21-28, 7-14 e 1-28 DAT (T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The addition of 50% of brine reject from desalination into the hydroponic nutrient solution allows grow only 'Verônica' lettuce with no reduction in fresh biomass. This lettuce cultivar shows to be more tolerant to salinity for all exposure time with reject brine in the nutrition solution, despite the fact that 'Babá de Verão' cultivar is more productive.

  12. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  13. Downstream processing of reverse osmosis brine: Characterisation of potential scaling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Masuduz; Birkett, Greg; Pratt, Christopher; Stuart, Bruce; Pratt, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) brine produced at a full-scale coal seam gas (CSG) water treatment facility was characterized with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques. A number of potential scalants including silica, calcium, magnesium, sulphates and carbonates, all of which were present in dissolved and non-dissolved forms, were characterized. The presence of spherical particles with a size range of 10-1000 nm and aggregates of 1-10 microns was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Those particulates contained the following metals in decreasing order: K, Si, Sr, Ca, B, Ba, Mg, P, and S. Characterization showed that nearly one-third of the total silicon in the brine was present in the particulates. Further, analysis of the RO brine suggested supersaturation and precipitation of metal carbonates and sulphates during the RO process should take place and could be responsible for subsequently capturing silica in the solid phase. However, the precipitation of crystalline carbonates and sulphates are complex. X-ray diffraction analysis did not confirm the presence of common calcium carbonates or sulphates but instead showed the presence of a suite of complex minerals, to which amorphous silica and/or silica rich compounds could have adhered. A filtration study showed that majority of the siliceous particles were less than 220 nm in size, but could still be potentially captured using a low molecular weight ultrafiltration membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2017-05-03

    Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6.8 ± 2.1 A/m2-anode in MECs operated at a set anode potential of +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl (+0.405 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). These results show that exoelectrogens are present in these extreme environments and can be used to startup MEC under thermophilic and hypersaline conditions. Bacteroides was enriched on the anode of the Valdivia MEC, but it was not detected in the open circuit voltage reactor seeded with the Valdivia brine pool.

  15. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  16. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of

  17. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  18. Accessible reactive surface area and abiotic redox reactivity of iron oxyhydroxides in acidic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, Jennifer H.; Toner, Brandy M.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in low pH and high ionic strength solutions was quantified to assess abiotic contributions to oxidation-reduction chemistry in acidic brine environments, such as mine groundwater seepage, lakes in Western Australia, and acid mine drainage settings, which are of global interest for their environmental impacts and unique geomicrobiology. Factors expected to influence accessible and reactive surface area, including Fe(II) adsorption and aggregate size, were measured as a function of pH and CaCl2 concentration and related to the kinetics of redox reactions in aqueous suspensions of synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), and ferrihydrite (Fe10O14(OH)2) nanoparticles. Aqueous conditions and iron oxyhydroxides were chosen based on characterization of natural iron-rich mine microbial mats located in Soudan Underground Mine State Park, Minnesota, USA. Quinone species were used as redox sensors because they are well-defined probes and are present in natural organic matter. Fe(II) adsorption to the iron oxyhydroxide mineral surfaces from aqueous solution was measurable only at pH values above 4 and either decreased or was not affected by CaCl2 concentration. Concentrations at or above 0.020 M CaCl2 in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) induced particle aggregation. Assessment of Fe(II) adsorption and particle aggregation in acidic brine suggested that accessible reactive surface area may be limited in acidic brines. This was supported by observations of decreasing benzoquinone reduction rate by adsorbed Fe(II) at high CaCl2 concentration. In contrast, the hydroquinone oxidation rate increased at high CaCl2 concentrations, which may be due to suppressed adsorption of Fe(II) generated by the reaction. Results suggest that iron geochemical cycling in acidic brine environments will be substantially different than for iron oxyhydroxides in low-saline waters with circumneutral pH. These findings have implications for acidic

  19. Origin of CaCl2 brines by basalt-seawater interaction: Insights provided by some simple mass balance calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Lawrence A.

    1983-06-01

    Modern rift zone hydrothermal brines are typically CaCl2-bearing brines, an unusual chemical signature they share with certain oil field brines, fluid inclusions in ore minerals and a few uncommon saline lakes. Many origins have been suggested for such CaCl2 brines but in the Reykjanes, Iceland, geothermal system a strong empirical case can be made for a basalt-seawater interaction origin. To examine this mechanism of CaCl2 brine evolution some simple mass balance calculations were carried out. Average Reykjanes olivine tholeiite was “reacted” with average North Atlantic seawater to make an albite-chlorite-epidotesphene rock using Al2O3 as the conservative rock component and Cl as the conservative fluid component. The excess components released by the basalt to the fluid were “precipitated” at 275° C as quartz, calcite, anhydrite, magnetite and pyrite to complete the conversion to greenstone. The resulting fluid was a CaCl2 brine of seawater chlorinity with a composition remarkably similar to the actual Reykjanes brine at 1750 m depth. Thus, the calculations strongly support the idea that the Reykjanes CaCl2 brines result from “closed system” oceanic basalt-seawater interaction (albitization — chloritization mechanism) at greenschist facies temperatures. The calculation gives a seawater: basalt mass ratio of 3∶1 to 4∶1 (vol. ratio of 9∶1 to 12∶1), in keeping with experimental results, submarine vent data and with ocean crust cooling calculations. The brine becomes anoxic because there is insufficient dissolved or combined oxygen to balance all the Fe released from the basalt during alteration. Large excesses of Ca are released to the fluid and precipitate out in the form of anhydrite which essentially sweeps the brine free of sulfate leaving an elevated Ca concentration. The calculated rock-water interaction basically involves Na + Mg + SO4 ⇌ Ca + K, simulating chemical differences observed between oceanic basalts and greenstones from many

  20. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  1. The enigmatic nitrogen biogeochemistry of Lake Vida, Antarctica: an isolated brine cryoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N. E.; Murray, A.; Trubl, G. G.; Kuhn, E.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Vida, located in Victoria Valley, East Antarctica, harbors ice-entrained brine (20 % salt, > 6 times seawater) that has been isolated from the surface for more than 2,800 years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, temperature of -13.4 °C, lack of O2, and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. As an example, the brine contains the highest concentrations of N2O reported for any aquatic ecosystem (86.6 μM) and exceptionally high levels of NH4+ (3.6 mM), NO3- (1.1 mM) and NO2- (27.3 μM). Though this cryoecosystem appears to be relatively inhospitable, microbial life is abundant (>10^7 cell-like particles per mL), is capable of protein production at in situ temperatures, and harbors an assemblage of bacterial phylotypes spanning at least eight phyla. To assess present and past microbial activity in situ and test hypotheses concerning energy generation in the brine cryoecosystem, the stable isotope signatures of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen have been characterized in liquid and dissolved gas phases. The isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ15N = -7.9 ‰, δ18O = 31.7 ‰), ammonium (δ15N = -4.8 ‰) and dinitrogen (δ15N = 0.3 ‰) are all consistent with an atmospheric origin. Given that nearly all non-atmospheric sources of nitrate lack a 17O anomaly, a Δ17O value of nitrate in Lake Vida of 15.9 ‰ suggests that approximately half of the nitrate present is derived from atmospheric deposition. A 17O anomaly was not observed in N2O indicating that this gas was likely formed in the lake. While the bulk δ15N (-22.2 ‰) and site preference (SP; -3.6 ‰) values for N2O are consistent with a microbial origin, the δ18O value (3.0 ‰) is markedly depleted in 18O relative to the vast majority of published values. The soils surrounding Don Juan Pond, which is in a neighboring valley, have been shown to produce N2O with variable δ15N, δ18O and SP values of -45.4 to -34.5 ‰, 50.5 to 76.7 ‰, and -45.2 to 4.1 ‰, respectively, that may reflect

  2. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  3. Reactive-transport modeling of fly ash-wate-brines interactions from laboratory-scale column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, John M.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Kindness, Andrew; Demlie, Molla

    Dynamic leaching tests are important studies that provide more insights into time-dependent leaching mechanisms of any given solid waste. Hydrogeochemical modeling using PHREEQC was applied for column modeling of two ash recipes and brines generated from South African coal utility plants, Sasol and Eskom. The modeling results were part of a larger ash-brine study aimed at acquiring knowledge on (i) quantification and characterization of the products formed when ash is in contact with wate-brines in different scenarios, (ii) the mineralogical changes associated with wate-brine-ash interactions over time, (iii) species concentration, and (iv) leaching and transport controlling factors. The column modeling was successfully identified and quantified as important reactive mineralogical phases controlling major, minor and trace elements' release. The pH of the solution was found to be a very important controlling factor in leaching chemistry. The highest mineralogical transformation took place in the first 10 days of ash contact with either water or brines, and within 0.1 m from the column inflow. Many of the major and trace elements Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, S(VI), Fe, are leached easily into water systems and their concentration fronts were high at the beginning (within 0.1 m from the column inflow and within the first 10 days) upon contact with the liquid phase. However, their concentration decreased with time until a steady state was reached. Modeling results also revealed that geochemical reactions taking place during ash-wate-brine interactions does affect the porosity of the ash, whereas the leaching processes lead to increased porosity. Besides supporting experimental data, modeling results gave predictive insights on leaching of elements which may directly impact on the environment, particularly ground water. These predictions will help develop scenarios and offer potential guide for future sustainable waste management practices as a way of addressing the co

  4. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  5. Stable Isotopic Signatures in the Isolated Brine Cyroecosystem of Lake Vida Reveal Evidence of both Abiotic and Biotic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Ostrom, N. E.; Glazer, B. T.; McKay, C.; Kenig, F.; Loeffler, F. E.; Fritsen, C. H.; Doran, P. T.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Vida in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica harbors ice-entrained brine that has been isolated from surface processes for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, temperature of -13.4 °C, lack of oxygen, and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. As an example, the brine contains excessive quantities of both reduced and oxidized nitrogen in nearly all forms, which in several cases are the highest levels found among natural ecosystems on Earth. Though this cryoecosystem appears to be relatively inhospitable, we have evidence that microbial life persists in abundance (cell levels over 107 cells per mL), is capable of protein production at in situ temperatures, and harbors a unique, but not necessarily novel, assemblage of bacterial phylotypes spanning at least eight phyla. In order to assess in situ microbial activities occurring today and in the past, and test hypotheses concerning energy generation in the brine cryoecosystem, the stable isotope signatures of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen have been characterized in liquid and dissolved gas phases of the brine. The data provide evidence for both biotic and potentially abiotic formation of different fractions. The site preference of 15N-nitrous oxide (-3.64) suggests that the primary source of this dissolved gas, which is found at levels as high as 86 μM, is biologically produced by denitrification pathways. This appears to be consistent with detection of Marinobacter and Psychrobacter-related bacterial rRNA gene sequences and isolates in the brine microbial community. On the other hand, dissolved hydrogen present in the brine harbors an δH-H2 isotope signature suggesting that abiotic (potentially via serpentinization) or biotic production is equivocal based on the significant levels of fractionation observed. We postulate however, that a serpentinization production route is more favorable in this system that lies in a basin comprised of Ferrar dolerite sills and granite

  6. Experimental testing of a direct contact heat exchanger for geothermal brine. Final report, July 1, 1978-February 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, M.W.

    1979-12-01

    A series of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX) experiments were conducted at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site during the period July 1, 1978 to February 1, 1979. The purpose of these tests was to provide additional data necessary to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the DCHX binary cycle loop components that may be used to extract energy from geothermal brines. Isobutane and Isopentane were tested as secondary working fluids. The analytical and experimental efforts were directed at the problems of working fluid loss in the effluent brine, carryover of water vapor with the vaporized secondary fluid and the free CO/sub 2/ content of the feed brine. The tests aimed at evaluating the heat transfer performance of various type tubes installed in vertical shell-and-tube secondary fluid condensers. Data was collected while operating a low temperature isopentane cycle with brine preflashed to 210 to 212/sup 0/F; the objective being to gain insight to waste heat recovery applications such as the Arkansas Power and Light project. Possible alternatives for isobutane recovery from the spent brine were investigated. A system was designed and the economic aspects studied.

  7. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  9. Review: Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Leland M

    2017-03-08

    When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine concentrate stream is produced. Management of the brine stream can be problematic, particularly in inland regions. An alternative to brine disposal is recovery of water and possibly salts from the concentrate. This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. Due to the high osmotic pressures of the brine concentrates, reverse osmosis, the most common desalination technology, is impractical. Mechanical vapor compression which, like reverse osmosis, utilizes mechanical work to operate, is reported to have the highest thermodynamic efficiency of the desalination technologies for treatment of salt-saturated brines. Thermally-driven processes, such as flash evaporation and distillation, are technically able to process saturated salt solutions, but suffer from low thermodynamic efficiencies. This inefficiency could be offset if an inexpensive source of waste or renewable heat could be used. Overarching issues posed by high salinity solutions include corrosion and the formation of scales/precipitates. These issues limit the materials, conditions, and unit operation designs that can be used.

  10. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E; Martínez, G M; Rennó, N O

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability. Key Words: Mars-Ice-Perchlorates-Brine-Water-Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology 16, 937-948.

  11. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  12. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Noack, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  13. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  14. Use of Drying Technologies for Resource Recovery from Solid Wastes and Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Alba, Ric; Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John A.; Polonsky, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Long term storage of unprocessed biological wastes and human wastes can present major health issues and a loss of potential resources. Space vehicles and planetary habitats are typically resource-scarce or resource-limited environments for long-term human habitation. To-date, most of the resources will need to be supplied from Earth, but this may not be possible for long duration human exploration. Based on present knowledge, there is only very limited in-situ resources on planetary habitats. Hence, the opportunity to "live off the land" in a planetary habitat is limited. However, if we assume that wastes generated by human explorers are viewed as resources, there is great potential to utilize and recycle them, thereby reducing the requirements for supply Earth and enabling the "live off the land" exploration scenario. Technologies used for the recovery of resources from wastes should be reliable, safe, easy to operate, fail-proof, modular, automated and preferably multifunctional in being capable of handling mixed solid and liquid wastes. For a lunar habitat, energy does not appear to be the major driving factor amongst the technologies studied. Instead, reliability appears to be more important[1] . This paper reports studies to date on drying technologies to remove water from solid wastes and brines. Experimental performance data obtained for recovery water from wastes and brine are presented. Simplicity of operation of hardware and energy efficiency are discussed. Some improvements and modifications to hardware were performed. Hopefully, this information will assist in future efforts in the "downselection" of technologies for recovery of water and resources from solid wastes and brines.

  15. Heat pump for purification of geothermal brines; Bomba de calor para purificacion de salmuera geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo-Gutierrez, S; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Holland, F.A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx

    2007-01-15

    Integrated use of geothermal resources is one of the most important goals for the future. Presently geothermal heat pumps offer two benefits: using heat from residual brines and converting these brines into very pure water. Designs and descriptions are presented of an experimental system to purify geothermal brines integrated to an adsorption heat-pump. The system was constructed and tested in the IIE (Institute for Electrical Research) facilities. During the experimental stage, pure water was obtained. Maximum capacity for pure water was 4.3 kg per hour, presenting an Actual Coefficient of Performance (COP)A of 1.4. The results are encouraging to project units at an industrial level for operating with geothermal and/or solar heat. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento integral de los recursos geotermicos en todas sus formas es una de las metas importantes a lograr en los proximos anos. Hoy en dia, el uso de las bombas de calor en la geotermia ofrece un doble beneficio: aprovechan el calor de los fluidos de desecho y tienen la capacidad de transformar la salmuera geotermica en agua de alta pureza. Se presenta el diseno y descripcion de un sistema experimental para purificacion de salmuera geotermica integrado a una bomba de calor por absorcion, el cual fue construido y probado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En toda la etapa de experimentacion se obtuvo agua pura. La capacidad maxima alcanzada de produccion de agua pura de este sistema fue de 4.3 kg por hora, mostrando un rendimiento en terminos del Coeficiente Real de Rendimiento (COP)A de 1.4. Estos resultados se consideran alentadores para la proyeccion de unidades a escala industrial que puedan ser operadas con calor geotermico y/o solar.

  16. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  17. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  18. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  19. A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José Luis; Hernández-Inda, Zaira L; Pérez, Pilar; García-Grávalos, María D

    2002-01-01

    Background The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity. Material and Methods The bioactivity of the isopropanolic (2-PrOH) extracts of 14 species of marine invertebrates and 6 species of macroalgae was evaluated with the shrimp lethality assay (lethality assay), as well as with another assay based on the inhibition of hatching of the cyst (hatchability assay). The extracts were also assayed for cytotoxicity against two human cell lines, lung carcinoma A-549 and colon carcinoma HT-29, in order to assess the sensitivity of the shrimp assays to detect cytotoxic activity. Results Two sponges (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp.), two gorgonians (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp.), one tunicate (Polyclinum laxum), and three echinoderms (Holothuria impatiens, Pseudoconus californica and Pharia pyramidata) showed a strong cytostatic (growth inhibition) and cytotoxic effect. The hatchability assay showed a strong activity in 4 of the species active against the two human cell lines tested (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp., Pacifigorgia adamsii and Muricea sp.), and the lethality assay also showed a high lethality in 4 of them (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp., Polyclinum laxum, and Pharia pyramidata). Each bioassay detected activity in 50% of the species that were considered active against the two human cell lines tested. However, the simultaneous use of both bioassays increased the percentage to 75%. Conclusions Our results seem consistent with the correlation previously established between cytotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality in plant extracts. We suggest using both bioassays simultaneously to test natural marine products for pharmacological

  20. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Moshi, Mainen J; Masimba, Pax J; Kapingu, Modest C; Nondo, Ramadhani SO

    2007-01-01

    Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1), methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml), while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15) μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles. PMID:17394672

  1. Origin of Boron and Brine Evolution in Saline Springs in the Nangqen Basin, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-long Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nangqen Basin is a typical shearing-extensional basin situated in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. It contains abundant saline spring resources and abnormal trace element enrichments. The hydrochemical molar ratios (Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl, H-O isotopes, and B isotopes of the saline spring were systematically measured to describe the evolution of brines and the origin of the boron. The sodium chloride coefficient of the water samples in this area is around 1.0 or slightly greater, which is characteristic of leached brines; the highest B/Cl value is 4.25 (greater than that of seawater. The Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl values of the springs are clear indicators of a crustal origin. The δ18O values of the spring waters range from −12.88‰ to −16.05‰, and the δD values range from −100.91‰ to −132.98‰. Meanwhile the B content and B isotopes in the saline springs are in the ranges of 1.00 to 575.56 ppm and +3.55‰ to +29.59‰, respectively. It has been proven that the saline springs in the Nangqen Basin are a type of leached brine, suggesting that the saline springs have a terrestrial origin. The δ11B-B characteristics of the springs are similar to those observed in the Tibetan geothermal area, indicating that these two places have the same B source. Moreover, they have a crustal origin (marine carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks instead of a deep mantle source.

  2. Terrestrial Testing of the CapiBRIC, a Microgravity Optimized Brine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Callahan, Michael R.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing geometry based static phase separation exhibited in the radial vaned capillary drying tray, a system was conceived to recover water from brine. This technology has been named the Capillary BRIC; abbreviated CapiBRIC. The CapiBRIC utilizes a capillary drying tray within a drying chamber. Water is recovered from clean water vapor evaporating from the free surface leaving waste brine solids behind. A novel approach of optimizing the containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation provides the opportunity for a low power system that is not as susceptible to fouling as membranes or other technologies employing physical barriers across the free brine surface to achieve phase separation in microgravity. Having been optimized for operation in microgravity, full-scale testing of the CapiBRIC as designed cannot be performed on the ground as the force of gravity would dominate over the capillary forces. However, subscale units relevant to full-scale design were used to characterize fill rates, containment stability, and interaction with a variable volume reservoir in the PSU Dryden Drop Tower (DDT) facility. PSU also using tested units scaled such that capillary forces dominated in a 1-g environment to characterize evaporation from a free-surface in 1-g upward, sideways and downward orientations. In order to augment the subscale testing performed by PSU, a full scale 1-g analogue of the CapiBRIC drying unit was initiated to help validate performance predictions regarding expected water recovery ratio, estimated processing time, and interface definitions for inlets, outlets, and internal processes, including vent gas composition. This paper describes the design, development and test of the terrestrial CapiBRIC prototypes.

  3. Life and survival in a magnesium chloride brine: the biology of the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    1998-07-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline terminal desert lake. Its water contains about 340 g/l total dissolved salts. Divalent cations dominate in the brine, which presently contains about 1.89 M magnesium and 0.44 M calcium, n addition to about 1.6 M sodium and 0.2 M potassium. The main anions are chloride and bromide. The pH of the brine is about 6.0, and its water activity was estimated at about 0.66. The lake is saturated with respect to sodium chloride. The negative water balance in recent years caused a mass precipitation of halite, with a concomitant increase in the relative concentrations of divalent cations. In spite of the fact that molar concentrations of divalent cations are strongly inhibitory to most halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms, the Dead Sea is inhabited by a variety of microorganisms. These include halophilic Archaea, well adapted to growth at high magnesium concentrations, unicellular green algae and a few species of halophilic Bacteria. Dunaliella, being the sole primary producer in the lake, does not grow in undiluted Dead Sea water. However, when the upper water layers become diluted by more than 10 percent as a result of winter rain floods, mass blooms may develop, followed by mass development of red halophilic Archaea, which thrive on the organic material produced by the algae. During the often prolonged periods between the bloom events, during which the salinity of the brines is high and halite precipitates, a small community of Archaea remained present in a state of little activity, but ready to resume growth as soon as a suitable source of organic material becomes available.

  4. The 36C1 ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Aaron; Margaritz, Mordeckai; Paul, Michael; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Hollos, George; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Taieb, Maurice

    1990-10-01

    The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the 36Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a 36C1/C1 ratio of 2.5 × 10 -14, in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower 36C1/C1 ratios (salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with the time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower 18O and 2H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The 36C1/C1 ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of 36C1 production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total 36C1 present in the lake.

  5. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  6. Biological denitrification of brines from membrane treatment processes using an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliavski, M; Meerovich, I; Tarre, S; Green, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates denitrification of brines originating from membrane treatment of groundwater in an upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor, a biofilm reactor without carrier. A simulated brine wastewater was prepared from tap water and contained a nitrate concentration of 125 mg/l as N and a total salt concentration of about 1%. In order to select for a suitable energy source for denitrification, two electron donors were compared: one promoting precipitation of calcium compounds (ethanol), while the other (acetic acid), no precipitation was expected. After extended operation to reach steady state, the sludge from the two reactors showed very different mineral contents. The VSS/TSS ratio in the ethanol fed reactor was 0.2, i.e., 80% mineral content, while the VSS/TSS ratio in the acetic acid fed reactor was 0.9, i.e., 10% mineral content. In spite of the low mineral content, the sludge from the acetic acid fed reactor showed remarkably excellent granulation and settling characteristics. Although the denitrification performance of the acetic acid fed reactor was similar to that of the ethanol fed reactor, there was a huge difference in the sludge production due to mineral precipitation, with the corresponding negative aspects including increased costs of sludge treatment and disposal and moreover, instability and difficulties in reactor operation (channeling). These arguments make acetic acid a much more suitable candidate for brine denitrification, despite previous findings observed in groundwater denitrification regarding the essential role of a relatively high sludge mineral fraction for stable and effective USB reactor operation. Based on a comparison between two denitrification reactors with and without salt addition and using acetic acid as the electron donor, it was concluded that the reason for the excellent sludge settling characteristics found in the acetic acid fed reactor is the positive effects of higher salinity on granular sludge formation.

  7. Electric power generation using geothermal brine resources for a proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A report is given of the initial phase of a proof-of-concept project to establish the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of utilizing hot brine resources for electric energy production and other industrial applications. Included in the report are the following: summary, conclusions, and recommendations; site selection; Heber site description; development of design bases for an experimental facility and a 10 MWe(Net) generating unit; description of facilities; safety analysis; environmental considerations; implementation plan and schedule; and conceptual capital cost estimate.

  8. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  9. Characterization of dissolved organic material in the interstitial brine of Lake Vida, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Kaelin M.; Murray, Alison E.; Doran, Peter T.; Kenig, Fabien; Stubbins, Aron; Chen, Hongmei; Hatcher, Patrick G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2016-06-01

    Lake Vida (LV) is located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Victoria Valley, East Antarctica) and has no inflows, outflows, or connectivity to the atmosphere due to a thick (16 m), turbid ice surface and cold (salinity about seven times that of seawater and is entrained in ice and sediment below the ice cap. This subzero (-13.4 °C), anoxic brine supports a microbial community, which has low levels of activity and has been isolated from the atmosphere for at least 2800 14C years before present. The brine has high dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC; 580 mg-C L-1 or greater); the study of which provides a unique opportunity to better understand biological and/or abiotic processes taking place in an isolated saline ecosystem with no external inputs. We isolated two sub-fractions of LV dissolved organic matter (DOM) by chemical separation using XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in series. This separation was followed by physical separation using ultrafiltration to isolate a higher molecular weight (HMW) fraction that was retained by the membrane and a salty, dilute low molecular weight fraction. This analytical path resulted in three, low salt sub-fractions and allowed comparison to other Antarctic lake DOM samples isolated using similar procedures. Compared to other Antarctic lakes, a lower portion of the DOC was retained by XAD-8 (∼10% vs. 16-24%) resin, while the portions retained by XAD-4 (∼8%) resin and the 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (∼50%) were similar. The 14C radiocarbon ages of the XAD-8 (mean 3940 ybp), XAD-4 (mean 4048 ybp) and HMW (mean 3270 ybp) fractions are all older than the apparent age of ice-cover formation (2800 ybp). Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry showed that compounds with two and three nitrogen atoms in the molecular formulas were common in both the LV-XAD8 and LV-XAD4 fractions, consistent with microbial production and processing. The long-term oxidation of LVBr DOM by abiotic oxidants including perchlorate and chlorate may explain the

  10. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  11. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at simulated in-situ conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słomski, Piotr; Lutyński, Marcin; Mastalerz, Maria; Szczepański, Jacek; Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Topór, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep formations (e.g. saline aquifers, oil and gas reservoirs and coalbeds) is one of the most promising options for reducing concentration of this anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. CO2 injected into the rock formations can be trapped by several mechanisms including structural and stratigraphic trapping, capillary CO2 trapping, dissolution trapping and mineral trapping. During dissolution trapping, CO2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks in the reservoir as the CO2-enriched brine has an increased density. In comparison, in mineral trapping, CO2 is bound by precipitating new carbonate minerals. The latter two mechanisms depend on the temperature, pressure, and the mineralogy of the reservoir rock and the chemical composition of the brine. This study discusses laboratory scale alterations of Ordovician and Silurian shale rocks from potential CO2 sequestration site B1 in the Baltic Basin. In the reported experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO2 pressure of 30-35 MPa for 30-45 days at temperature of 80 oC. Shale samples were analyzed in terms of mineral composition and mesopore surface area and volume, before and after experiments, by means of X-ray diffraction and N2 low-pressure adsorption, respectively, for possible CO2 induced changes. Comparison of mineral composition before and after experiments demonstrated subtle mineral changes. The most conspicuous was a release of Fe in the form of Fe-oxyhydroxides, most probably related to the decomposition of Fe-bearing minerals like pyrite, chlorite and, less frequently, ankerite. With regard to porosity, interestingly, the most significant increase in mesopore surface area and mesopore volume was observed in samples with the largest drop of chlorite amount. The less significant mineral changes were associated with formation of kaolinite related to breakdown of feldspars and dissolution of carbonate

  12. Assessment of brine migration risks along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, 'renewable' methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas and coal. Additionally, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the subsurface causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. In this work we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale the spatial scale required for this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, as the regional hydrogeology has to be considered. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt domes are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence has to be taken into account. We put the focus of our investigations on the latter type of scenario, since there is still a poor understanding of the role that salt diapirs would play in CO2 storage projects. As there is hardly any field data available on this scale, we compare different levels of model complexity in order to identify the relevant processes for brine displacement and simplify the modeling process wherever possible, for example brine injection vs. CO2 injection, simplified geometries vs. the complex formation geometry and the role of salt induced density differences on flow. Further we investigate the impact of the

  13. Yeast heterogeneity during spontaneous fermentation of black Conservolea olives in different brine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisiotou, A A; Chorianopoulos, N; Nychas, G-J E; Panagou, E Z

    2010-02-01

    To assess the yeast community structure and dynamics during Greek-style processing of natural black Conservolea olives in different brine solutions. Black olives were subjected to spontaneous fermentation in 6% (w/v) NaCl brine solution or brine supplemented with (i) 0.5% (w/v) glucose, (ii) 0.2% (v/v) lactic acid and (iii) both glucose and lactic acid. Yeast species diversity was evaluated at the early (2 days), middle (17 days) and final (35 days) stages of fermentation by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions of isolates. Analysis revealed a relatively broad range of biodiversity composed of 10 genera and 17 species. In all treatments, yeasts were the main micro-organisms involved in fermentation together with lactic acid bacteria that coexisted throughout the processes. Metschnikowia pulcherrima was the dominant yeast species at the onset of fermentation, followed by Debaryomyces hansenii and Aureobasidium pullulans. Species heterogeneity changed as fermentations proceeded and Pichia membranifaciens along with Pichia anomala evolved as the main yeasts of olive elaboration, prevailing at 17 and 35 days of the process. Molecular techniques allowed for the identification of five yeast species, namely A. pullulans, Candida sp., Candida silvae, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and M. pulcherrima, which have not been reported previously in black olive fermentation. By using molecular techniques, a rich yeast community was identified from Conservolea black olive fermentations. Metschnikowia pulcherrima was reported for the first time to dominate in different brines at the onset of fermentation, whereas Pichia anomala and P. membranifaciens evolved during the course. The addition of glucose and/or lactic acid perturbed yeast succession and dominance during fermentation. Yeasts have an important role in black olive fermentation and contribute to the development of the

  14. Parametric investigation of a brine lens formation above degassing magma chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Melnik, Oleg; Utkin, Ivan; Tsvetkova, Yulia

    2017-04-01

    Formation of porphyry-type ore deposits is associated with degassing of crustal magma chambers. Saline, metal-rich magmatic fluid penetrates into a shallow region saturated with cold meteoric water where the metals concentrate in brine lenses. The formation of the lenses and, thus, of the deposits occurs due to phase transitions [1]. The evaporation of H2O results in enrichment of residual fluid in NaCl. At a depth of 1-2 km precipitation of solid halite blocks the pore space and facilitates formation of concentrated brine lenses. In order to investigate lens formation, we developed an extension of our multiphase simulator MUFITS [2] for NaCl-H2O mixture flows. We applied the code in a simple axisymmetric scenario with a high permeability zone in the central part of the domain surrounded by low permeable rocks. The high permeability zone simulates a volcanic conduit above a magma body. The degassing of magma is simulated with a point source of hot supercritical fluid that ascends rapidly up the conduit, undergoing phase transitions en route. Evaporation and rapid ascend of vapor results in increasing from bottom to top salinity of the fluid. As temperature and pressure decline closer to the surface, solid halite precipitates blocking the conduit. Convection of meteoric water in surrounding rocks favors compact location of the brine lens beneath the region of precipitation. Typical temperature in the lens is 450-550°C and overpressure above lithostatic is a few MPa. We conducted a parametric analysis, investigating the influence of model parameters on accumulation of halite and metals. We found that a higher permeability in the conduit, a smaller permeability in the surrounding rocks and a higher salinity of magmatic fluid favor larger lenses. A smaller magmatic fluid temperature T , i.e. temperature in the chamber, results in a smaller lens that disappears abruptly at a threshold value Ta≈ 650˚ C, and it does not form at T Ta the lens parameters are most

  15. Precipitation of halite from supersaline brine from Tønder formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arturi, Kasia; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    of NaCl as a result of cooling. Neither the heat exchanger nor the system were afflicted by scaling problems, formation of coating or clogging. The were no problems with the flow of brine in the plant whatsoever. The absence of precipitation was confirmed by both concentration measurements (titration...... and ICP), conductivity measurements, and filtration experiments. It is possible that the precipitation takes place in the system, yet it can not be traced analytically, partially because of the relatively small amounts of salt to precipitate, and in part because of the large natural variation...

  16. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Pandan Wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui toksisitas dari ekstrak daun pandan wangimenggunakan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Ekstrak dibuat dengan cara maserasimenggunakan tiga macam pelarut, yaitu butanol, etil asetat, dan petroleum eter. Uji toksisitasdilakukan dengan menggunakan larva udang Artemia salina Leach yang berumur 48 jam. Efektoksik masing-masing ekstrak diidentifikasi dengan presentase kematian larva udangmenggunakan analisis probit (LC50. Ekstrak aktif kemudian diuji kandungan fitokimianya dansenyawa bioaktif yang terkandung di dalamnya dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasilnyamenunjukkan ekstrak etil asetat bersifat toksik (LC50 : 288,4 ppm. Senyawa yang terkandungdalam ekstrak etil asetat adalah senyawa terpenoid dan steroid.

  17. Investigation into the Production of Carbonates and Oxides from Synthetic Brine through Carbon Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The cement industry contributes around 5-7% of man-made CO2 emissions globally because of the Portland Cement (PC) production. Therefore, innovative reactive magnesia cement, with significant sustainable and technical advantages, has been proposed by blending reactive MgO and hydraulic binders in various proportions. MgO is currently produced from the calcination of magnesite (MgCO3), emitting more CO2 than the production of PC, or from seawater/brine which is also extremely energy intensive....

  18. Passive and transpassive behaviour of Alloy 31 in a heavy brine LiBr solution

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José

    2013-01-01

    The passive and transpassive behaviour of Alloy 31, a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), has been investigated in a LiBr heavy brine solution (400 g/l) at 25 °C using potentiostatic polarisation combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott–Schottky analysis. The passive film formed on Alloy 31 has been found to be p-type and/or n-type in electronic character, depending on the film formation potential. The thickness of the film formed at potentials within ...

  19. Antimicrobial effect of ammonium hydroxide when used as an alkaline agent in the formulation of injection brine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruto-Noya, C A; Goad, C L; DeWitt, C A Mireles

    2011-03-01

    Paired U.S. Department of Agriculture Select strip loins were injected with either a conventional brine (4.5% potassium and sodium polyphosphate blend [Brifisol 750], 3.6% NaCl, 1% Herbalox seasoning HT-S, and 90.9% ice water) or an ammonium hydroxide (AH) brine (1% AH, 3.6% NaCl, 1% Herbalox seasoning HT-S, and 94.4% ice water). The steaks were sliced, high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaged, placed at 5°C in dark storage for 5 days, and then transferred to a retail display at 5°C for another 14 days. Steaks injected with AH brine appeared to have lower counts of psychrotrophic, mesophilic, and gram-negative bacteria. Immediately after injection, there was ∼1 log CFU/g difference between treatments in gram-negative bacterial counts. No differences in coliform and lactic acid bacterial counts were found.

  20. Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, June 1975--July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratt, W.B.; Hart, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The object of the work reported herein was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of preheating and evaporating a secondary fluid via direct contact with hot geothermal brine. The work covered a period of 12 months and included the design, construction, and testing of a unit which heats and vaporizes 10 gpm of isobutane by direct contact with 325/sup 0/F brine. The analytical and experimental efforts explored design and economic characteristics, including anticipated problem areas such as working fluid loss in the brine, production of a stable dispersion of the working fluid in brine, fluids separation, axial mixing and carry-over of water vapor with the working fluid. Isobutane was selected as the working fluid for tests primarily because of the favorable amount of net work produced per pound of geothermal brine and the low amount and cost of working fluid lost in the heat exchange process. The Elgin Spray Tower concept was selected for the preheater and boiler. The test apparatus includes a separate boiler and a separate preheater, each 6'' diameter by 6' high. Brine enters the top of each vessel and leaves the bottom. Isobutane enters the bottom of the preheater through a distributor plate to produce 0.15 inch diameter drops. The experimental unit operated with no major problems and demonstrated its hydraulic and thermal capabilities. Volumetric heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged up to 4000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of as high as 17,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/ were obtained with a design value of 10,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Amount of isobutane in a 21 percent NaCl solution leaving the preheater was less than 40 ppM. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for a direct contact heat exchange system sized for a 50 MW power plant.

  1. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  2. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, Daan R.; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304546313; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the

  3. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, Daan R.; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the

  4. Chemical and isotopic changes in Williston Basin brines during long-term oil production: An example from the Poplar dome, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell; Thamke, Joanna N.

    2016-01-01

    Brine samples were collected from 30 conventional oil wells producing mostly from the Charles Formation of the Madison Group in the East and Northwest Poplar oil fields on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana. Dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace metals, Sr isotopes, and stable isotopes (oxygen and hydrogen) were analyzed to compare with a brine contaminant that affected groundwater northeast of the town of Poplar. Two groups of brine compositions, designated group I and group II, are identified on the basis of chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The solute chemistry and Sr isotopic composition of group I brines are consistent with long-term residency in Mississippian carbonate rocks, and brines similar to these contaminated the groundwater. Group II brines probably resided in clastic rocks younger than the Mississippian limestones before moving into the Poplar dome to replenish the long-term fluid extraction from the Charles Formation. Collapse of strata at the crest of the Poplar dome resulting from dissolution of Charles salt in the early Paleogene probably developed pathways for the ingress of group II brines from overlying clastic aquifers into the Charles reservoir. Such changes in brine chemistry associated with long-term oil production may be a widespread phenomenon in the Williston Basin.

  5. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  6. {sup 222}Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for {sup 222}Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. {sup 214}Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for {sup 222}Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  7. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Exoelectrogenic Bacterial Communities Present in Different Brine Pools of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Medina, Juan F.

    2014-05-01

    One contemporary issue experienced worldwide is the climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Microbial Electrochemical Systems pose as an alternative for energy generation. In this technology, microorganisms are primarily responsible for electricity production. To improve the performance it is reasonable to think that bacteria from diverse environments, such as the brine pools of the Red Sea, can be utilized in these systems. Samples from three brine pools: Atlantis II, Valdivia, and Kebrit Deeps, were analyzed using Microbial Electrochemical Cells, with a poised potential at +0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and acetate as electron donor, to evaluate the exoelectrogenic activity by the present microorganisms. Only samples from Valdivia Deep were able to produce a noticeable current of 6 A/m2. This result, along with acetate consumption and changes on the redox activity measured with cyclic voltammetry, provides arguments to con rm the presence of exoelectrogenic bacteria in this environment. Further characterization using microscopy and molecular biology techniques is required, to obtain the most amount of information about these microorganisms and their potential use in bioelectrochemical technologies.

  9. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  10. Demonstration of a rotary separator for two-phase brine and steam flows. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of a two-phase rotary separator for geothermal energy conversion was demonstrated. Laboratory tests were conducted with clean water and steam at Biphase Energy Systems, Inc., Santa Monica, California. Field tests were conducted at the Union Oil Co., Tow No. 1 wellsite near Brawley, California. The system tested consisted of the major components of a total flow rotary separator/turbine conversion system. A nozzle converted the brine wellhead enthalpy to two-phase flow kinetic by impinging the nozzle flow tangentially on the inside of the separator. The flow was therefore subjected to the high centrifugal force field in the separator. This caused the liquid phase to collect as a film on the separator drum with very little energy loss. The steam was allowed to flow radially inward to the central steam discharge. Potable water was obtained by condensing the steam exhaust. The brine collection system converted the liquid film kinetic energy to static pressure head. The system was operated for 116 hours in a high salinity environment (115,000 ppM TDS). The system operated properly with no adverse effects from solids precipitation or scale buildup. The rotary separator produced separate flows of pure liquid and steam of greater than 99.5% quality.

  11. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  12. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalia, Yogesh; Vaghasiya, Yogeshkumar; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers was tested using Artemia salina (Brine shrimp) bioassay. Two doses (400 and 600 mg/Kg) were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity against the carrageenan, histamine, dextran, serotonin and formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and formaldehyde-induced analgesia in rats. In cytotoxicity study, extract caused 73% mortality of Brine shrimp larvae after 24 h at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. The results of the anti-inflammatory study showed that the extract produced significant (p < 0.05) decrease in paw volume in different models of paw edema. The extract also inhibited the formation of granuloma in cotton pellet-induced granuloma and reduced the frequency of formaldehyde-induced paw licking. These results showed that the methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers have weak cytotoxic and potent anti-inflammatory compounds and justifies the traditional uses for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. PMID:24250512

  14. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  15. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  16. Microbiological and chemical profiles of naturally fermented table olives and brines from different Italian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Schirone, Maria; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Angelozzi, Giovanni; Suzzi, Giovanna; Corsetti, Aldo

    2012-06-01

    Six naturally fermented (Greek-style) table olives of cultivars Itrana, Peranzana, Cellina di Nardò, Nocellara del Belice and Bella di Cerignola, as well as their corresponding brines, were studied by a combined strategy consisting of chemical, microbiological and molecular analyses. In particular, organic acids, sugars, polyphenols, fatty acids, biogenic amines and cultivable microbiota were detected by standard methods. Moreover, tyramine and histamine producing bacteria were evaluated by an original approach consisting of Reverse-Transcription (RT)-qPCR. At the end of the fermentation process, mesophilic lactobacilli and yeasts in brine represented the dominating biota, ranging from 6.25 to 7.84 log CFU/ml and from 6.5 to 7.56 log CFU/ml, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae and pathogens were undetectable in all the samples. In general, table olive preparations differed in chemical composition. In particular, C16:0 and C18:2c9,12 concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 18.8 % and from 5.4 to 15.4 % of total fatty acids, respectively. The main fatty acid detected was C18:1c9 while CLAc9, t11 was present only in traces. Polyphenol concentrations greatly differentiated the final product, depending on the cultivar. A low quantity of biogenic amines was found in some samples and biogenic amines producing bacteria were rapidly detectable by RT-qPCR.

  17. CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL OF SPECIFIC IONS IN SOIL TREATED WITH REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDLER MILTON PAIVA DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percolation columns constructed in the Laboratory can predict the degree of contamination in soil due to reject brine disposal and can be a tool for reducing environmental impacts. This study aim to evaluate the mobilization of ions in reject brine from desalination process by reverse osmosis. The mobilization of the contaminant ions in the saline waste was studied in glass percolation columns, which were filled with soil of contrasting textures (eutrophic CAMBISOL, typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, ENTISOL Quartzipsamment. Experiments ware repeated three times each, and the initial and final concentrations of the ion contaminants were analyzed. The pollution potential of this wastewater was determined by the retardation factor and dispersion-diffusion coefficient of K+, Cl- and Na+ for each studied soil. The differences in the displacement curves of the ions present in the saline waste among various soil types were analyzed. The Entisol Quartzipsamment showed a higher forward speed of the ions K+ and Cl- (greater retardation factor, i.e., greater power of the subsurface contamination for these ions. In typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, the ions move with greater ease and therefore produced greater groundwater contamination. In eutrophic CAMBISOL, the low coefficient of diffusion-dispersion in all ions was evaluated (i.e., reduced ion mobility is directly influenced by their exchangeable levels.

  18. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  19. Metabolic traits of an uncultured archaeal lineage -MSBL1- from brine pools of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mwirichia, Romano

    2016-01-13

    The candidate Division MSBL1 (Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes 1) comprises a monophyletic group of uncultured archaea found in different hypersaline environments. Previous studies propose methanogenesis as the main metabolism. Here, we describe a metabolic reconstruction of MSBL1 based on 32 single-cell amplified genomes from Brine Pools of the Red Sea (Atlantis II, Discovery, Nereus, Erba and Kebrit). Phylogeny based on rRNA genes as well as conserved single copy genes delineates the group as a putative novel lineage of archaea. Our analysis shows that MSBL1 may ferment glucose via the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway. However, in the absence of organic carbon, carbon dioxide may be fixed via the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or reductive TCA cycle. Therefore, based on the occurrence of genes for glycolysis, absence of the core genes found in genomes of all sequenced methanogens and the phylogenetic position, we hypothesize that the MSBL1 are not methanogens, but probably sugar-fermenting organisms capable of autotrophic growth. Such a mixotrophic lifestyle would confer survival advantage (or possibly provide a unique narrow niche) when glucose and other fermentable sugars are not available.

  20. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  1. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  2. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  3. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract. Results LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is

  4. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dafni Vavourakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first ‘metagenomic snapshots’ of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter and Rhodobaca and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a

  5. Characteristics of spontaneously formed nanoemulsions in octane/AOT/brine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Gautam C; Biswal, Sibani Lisa; Wong, Michael S; Miller, Clarence A

    2012-11-01

    Nanoemulsions were formed spontaneously by diluting water-in-oil (W/O) or brine-in-oil (B/O) microemulsions of a hydrocarbon (octane), anionic surfactant (Aerosol-OT or AOT) and water or NaCl brine in varying levels of excess brine. The water-continuous nanoemulsions were characterized by interfacial tension, dynamic light scattering, electrophoresis, optical microscopy and phase-behavior studies. The mechanism of emulsification was local supersaturation and resulting nucleation of oil during inversion. For nanoemulsions formed at low salinities with Winsor I phase behavior, octane drops grew from initial diameters of 150-250 nm to 480-1000 nm over 24h, depending on salinity. Growth was caused by mass transfer but seemed to approach the asymptotic stage of Ostwald ripening described by the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory only for dilution with salt-free water. Near the higher cross-over salinity (Winsor III), the nanoemulsions showed much slower growth with droplet size consistently remaining below 200 nm over 24h and reaching 250 nm after 1 week. Birefringence indicated the presence of liquid crystal for these conditions, which could have contributed to the slow growth rate. At even higher salinity levels in the Winsor II domain, W/O/W multiple emulsions having drops greater than 1 μm in diameter were consistently recorded for the first 5-7h, after which size decreased to values below 1 μm. The number and size of internal water droplets in multiple emulsion drops was found to decrease over time, suggesting coalescence of internal droplets with the continuous water phase and mass transfer of water from internal droplets to continuous phase as possible mechanisms of the observed drop shrinkage. Electrophoresis studies showed the nanoemulsions to be highly negatively charged (zeta potentials of -60 mV to -120 mV). The high charge on octane droplets helped assure stability to flocculation and coalescence, thereby allowing mass transfer to control growth in the

  6. Analysis of Pressure Data As CO2/Brine Leak Diagnostic in Shallow Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor Guitton, W.; Mansoor, K.; Sun, Y.; Carroll, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure is a promising signal for detecting CO2leakage from deep, geologic storage reservoirs to shallow groundwater sources. Pressure signals should faster than other physical indications (i.e. electrical or geochemical changes) thus allowing for a timely leak diagnosis and mitigation. We explore the effectiveness of pressure as a detection tool. A simulation-based approach is used to diagnose a CO2/brine leak using pressure data from monitoring wells and to assess the influence of 3 principal uncertainties: distances between the source leak and the monitoring well, heterogeneity of the aquifer flow properties, and CO2 and brine leakage rates. Specifically, five parameters are sampled: the correlation lengths of the vertical and horizontal permeability for the aquifer (2), the sand proportion for each model (1), and the CO2 and brine leakage flux magnitude (2). Areal model dimensions and grid cell dimensions allow for sampling distances of 25 m to 990 m from the leaking well to the monitoring well. We generate 500 simulations by sampling each parameter within an appropriate range predefined by site-specific values. Pressure transducers in monitoring wells will only be accurate at measuring changes on the order of 0.1 to 0.3 PSI. These pressure thresholds are used to establish which simulations are classified as leaks at the leaking location and which locations away from the leak would constitute a signal. We observe 3 conclusions from the results: vertical flow barriers (heterogeneity) creates complicated pressure signals by forcing convoluted flow paths false positives (Pr( No Leak | Signal)) do not occur with our sample simulations false negatives (Pr( Leak | No signal)) dominate after 200 days even when considering only potential monitoring wells within 100m of the leaking well. We use these posteriors to calculate the value of information (VOI) from above zone pressure data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by

  7. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψw) and osmotic potential (Ψπ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψp) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K+ and Ca2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2015-10-31

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine-seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  9. Detecting the Depth of a Subsurface Brine Layer in Lop Nur Lake Basin Using Polarimetric L-Band SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-An Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lop Nur once was a huge lake located in northwestern China. At present, there is no surface water in Lop Nur Lake basin and on SAR images it looks like an “Ear.” The objective of this paper is to retrieve the depth of subsurface brine layer in Lop Nur by copolarized phase difference of surface scattering. Based on field investigation and analysis of sample properties, a two-layer scattering structure was proposed with detailed explanations of scattering mechanisms. The relationship between copolarized phase difference and the brine layer depth in the region of Lop Nur were studied. The copolarized phase difference of surface scattering was extracted by model-based polarimetric decomposition method. A good linear correlation between measured subsurface brine layer depth and copolarized phase difference with R2 reaching 0.82 was found. Furthermore, the subsurface brine layer depth of the entire lake area was analyzed. According to the retrieved maps, some interesting phenomena were found, and several hypotheses about the past water withdrawal process and the environmental evolution had been proposed to theoretically explain these phenomena. Based on the penetration capability of SAR the reconstruction of historical evolution process of Lop Nur will be an interesting topic for future research.

  10. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2013-02-06

    High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes inhabiting bacteria interesting candidates for the search of novel bioactive molecules.

  11. Genome sequence of Halorhabdus tiamatea, the first archaeon isolated from a deep-sea anoxic brine lake.

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-09-01

    We present the draft genome of Halorhabdus tiamatea, the first member of the Archaea ever isolated from a deep-sea anoxic brine. Genome comparison with Halorhabdus utahensis revealed some striking differences, including a marked increase in genes associated with transmembrane transport and putative genes for a trehalose synthase and a lactate dehydrogenase.

  12. Hydrological and Chemical Assessment of Groundwater Flow and Quality in Costal Brine Aquifers of Laizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Hu, Bill X.; Miao, Jinjie

    2016-04-01

    In geological time, seawater had been intruded groundwater several times since Late Pleistocene in the coastal area of Laizhou Bay, china. This unique phenomenon caused freshwater and brine water interbedded each other in the aquifers and forged Laizhou Bay became a multiple sources dynamic coastal area. In the last two decades, massive exploitation of fresh groundwater and brine water has significantly increased seawater intrusion and strengthened mixture of brine water and freshwater in the coastal area, which threatens local groundwater resources and severely impacts local ecological geo-environment. In this study, the hydrological and chemical (HC) process was studied according to the monitoring wells and chemical ionic constituents. The groundwater level continuously decreasing rather than showing a typical seasonal variation in areas close to the depression cone. A groundwater divide was formed along Yingli-Houzhen-Yangzi accounted for the exploitation of fresh water in the south and brine extraction in the north. This divide prevented the saltwater intrusion to fresh groundwater further south in study area. The results also showed that during concentration process, a series of complex reactions including water chemistry metamorphic role and evolution took place, such as mineral precipitation, cation ion exchange, dedolomitization and silicate alteration, etc. This work highlighted hydrological-chemical coupling process and provided a better insight into hydrogeological system.

  13. Diversity and characterization of mercury-resistant bacteria in snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine from the High Artic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Annette K.; Barkay, Tamar; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed Mohamad Abdel F

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that atmospheric deposition transports mercury from lower latitudes to the Arctic. The role of bacteria in the dynamics of the deposited mercury, however, is unknown. We characterized mercury-resistant bacteria from High Arctic snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine. Bacterial ...

  14. Remnants of early Archean hydrothermal methane and brines in pillow-brecia from Isua Greenstone belt, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid inclusions containing high-density methane and saline waters (brines), associated with carbonates, have been found in undeformed, annealed quartz-bearing vesicles from pillow-breccia at Isua (West Greenland). Massive quartz veins cementing the pillow fragments contain the same type of

  15. Neptunium(V) and neptunium(VI) solubilities in synthetic brines of interest to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Silber, H.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The solubility of Np(V) and Np(VI) has been measured in three synthetic Na-K-Mg-Cl brines in the presence of CO{sub 2}(g). Experiments were prepared from oversaturation by adding an excess of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} or NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to the brines and allowing the neptunium solids to precipitate. Vessels were maintained in contact with fixed CO{sub 2}(g) partial pressures at constant pH and 24 {+-} 1 C. Dissolved Np(V) concentrations decreased several orders of magnitude within the first 100 days of the experiment, while dissolved Np(VI) concentrations decreased initially but then remained relatively constant for more than 400 days. The solid phases formed in all experiments were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as KNpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O(s). Steady state concentrations for Np(V) are similar to those observed for Pu(V) in the same brines under the same conditions, where Pu occurs predominantly as Pu(V). Similarly, steady state concentrations for Np(VI), which was not reduced over a two year period, compare well with measured Pu(VI) concentrations in the same brines before the Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(V).

  16. Genome sequence of Haloplasma contractile, an unusual contractile bacterium from a deep-sea anoxic brine lake.

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-09-01

    We present the draft genome of Haloplasma contractile, isolated from a deep-sea brine and representing a new order between Firmicutes and Mollicutes. Its complex morphology with contractile protrusions might be strongly influenced by the presence of seven MreB/Mbl homologs, which appears to be the highest copy number ever reported.

  17. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  18. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems : the Critical Role of Divalent Cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagh, Martinus Everardus Johannes; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting

  19. Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, F. V.; Piscopo, A.; Poiana, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the effects of different brining treatments on mature table olives during natural fermentation were evaluated. The considered olive cultivars are typical of Sicily: Moresca and Giarraffa. They were harvested at pigmented state. The carpological data revealed their good quality as table olives. Natural fermentation was performed with or without acidification up to pH 4, and at 8% and 15% salt concentrations. The physical, chemical and microbiological changes in olives and brines were monitored throughout the processing period. The acidification affected and selected the microbial population and maintained the low pH necessary for the hygienic safety of the product. In fact, in Moresca brines,the lactic acid bacteria totally disappeared after 60 days of fermentation while in Giarraffa they maintained their presence in the brines up to 180 days with a value between 10{sup 4} UFC/mL and 106 UFC/mL, depending on the salt concentration. The microbial population was also affected by the polyphenol content, which was different between the cultivars. The color of olive fruits was greatly influenced by acidification and less by salt concentration. The addition of salt showed a different influence on the studied cultivars, in fact only the chemical analyses of Giarraffa showed a significant difference between the two levels of salt concentration. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. Kinetics of nitrate and perchlorate reduction in ion exchange brine using the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several sources of bacterial inocula were tested for their ability to reduce nitrate and perchlorate in synthetic ion-exchange spent brine (3-4.5% salinity) using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Nitrate and perchlorate removal fluxes reached as high as 5.4 g N ...

  1. Treatment of the Cerro Prieto I brines for use in reinjection. 2. Results of the pilot plant tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado J, R. (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Mexicali, Mexico); Mercado G, S.; Rocha C, E.; Gamino O, H.; Garibaldi P, F.

    1981-01-01

    Silica removal experiments have been carried out both in the laboratory and in pilot scale tests. The results obtained to date are presented, with special emphasis on the pilot tests with or without the use of flocculants. Previous studies on brine treatment are described briefly.

  2. Identification and experimental characterization of an extremophilic brine pool alcohol dehydrogenase from single amplified genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.

    2017-11-30

    Because only 0.01% of prokaryotic genospecies can be cultured and in situ observations are often impracticable, culture-independent methods are required to understand microbial life and harness potential applications of microbes. Here, we report a methodology for the production of proteins with desired functions based on single amplified genomes (SAGs) from unculturable species. We use this method to resurrect an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH/D1) from an uncharacterized halo-thermophilic archaeon collected from a brine pool at the bottom of the Red Sea. Our crystal structure of 5,6-dihydroxy NADPH-bound ADH/D1 combined with biochemical analyses reveal the molecular features of its halo-thermophily, its unique habitat adaptations, and its possible reaction mechanism for atypical oxygen activation. Our strategy offers a general guide for using SAGs as a source for scientific and industrial investigations of ‘microbial dark matter’.

  3. Autotrophic microbe metagenomes and metabolic pathways differentiate adjacent red sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2013-04-29

    In the Red Sea, two neighboring deep-sea brine pools, Atlantis II and Discovery, have been studied extensively, and the results have shown that the temperature and concentrations of metal and methane in Atlantis II have increased over the past decades. Therefore, we investigated changes in the microbial community and metabolic pathways. Here, we compared the metagenomes of the two pools to each other and to those of deep-sea water samples. Archaea were generally absent in the Atlantis II metagenome; Bacteria in the metagenome were typically heterotrophic and depended on aromatic compounds and other extracellular organic carbon compounds as indicated by enrichment of the related metabolic pathways. In contrast, autotrophic Archaea capable of CO2 fixation and methane oxidation were identified in Discovery but not in Atlantis II. Our results suggest that hydrothermal conditions and metal precipitation in the Atlantis II pool have resulted in elimination of the autotrophic community and methanogens.

  4. Optimization of beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis DM28 in fermented radish brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisorn, C; Suntornsuk, W

    2008-05-01

    A face-centered central composite design was applied to optimize a cultivation condition for improved beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis DM28 in a stirred tank reactor using 30 g/l total soluble solid of fermented radish brine as a sole substrate. The experiments were performed with regression models, where temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were considered as variables. Results showed that an optimum condition for beta-carotene production of the yeast was at 30 degrees C, pH 6 and 80% dissolved oxygen. Under this condition, the yeast yielded 2.7 g/l biomass and the maximum beta-carotene of 201 microg/l after 24-h fermentation indicating approximately 15% higher than those under an initial condition (2.3g/l and 178 microg/l, respectively).

  5. Determination in oocytes of the reproductive modes for the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhong-Min; Li, Ran; Dai, Li; Yang, Jin-Shu; Chen, Su; Zeng, Qing-Guo; Yang, Fan; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2011-02-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, reproduces either oviparously, producing encysted embryos (diapause cysts), or ovoviviparously, producing free-swimming nauplii. Environmental factors, such as photoperiod, have been applied to control the reproduction mode of Artemia, but when the determination of a reproductive mode occurs remains unknown. We analysed the differential gene expression between oocytes from oviparous and ovoviviparous Artemia reared under different photoperiods. A total of 692 qualified cDNA clones were obtained by subtractive hybridization, 327 of which matched GenBank® Nucleotide Sequence Database entries. Gene expressions of 44 cDNAs (representing 56 clones) were analysed in oocytes using real-time PCR. Among these genes, 11 (21 clones) were significantly (Plife cycle.

  6. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; DeBell, L.; Hawkins, L.; Metcalf, J.; Guikema, J. A.; Rosowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  7. A brine interface in the Salton Sea Geothermal System, California: Fluid geochemical and isotopic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alan E.; McKibben, Michael A.

    1989-08-01

    Data from 71 geothermal production intervals in 48 wells from the Salton Sea Geothermal System (SSGS) indicate that fluids in that system cluster into two distinct populations in terms of their salinity and their stable isotopic compositions. The distinctive, hot, hypersaline brine (typically >20 wt% total dissolved solids) for which the SSGS is known is overlain by a cooler (barrier to convective heat and mass transfer in the SSGS, isolating the hypersaline reservoir from overlying dilute fluids. A lithologic "cap" implied by previous SSGS models is unnecessary in such a stratified system since heat and mass transfer across the interface must occur by slow conductive, diffusional and interface mixing processes regardless of local permeability.

  8. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J.L.; Orem, W.H.; Eugster, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO3-Cl-SO4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies (13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  9. MN Carbonates in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla: Possible Evidence of Brine Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. V.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of secondary phases in martian meteorites lies in their potential to provide clues about the martian environments responsible for their formation. During this study, we analyzed a number of carbonate-bearing fracture surfaces from the Nakhla meteorite. Here we describe the physical and chemical properties of several manganese-calcium-rich siderites. Additionally, we describe a potential model for the formation and alteration of these carbonates, and we suggest constraints on the conditions responsible for their precipitation. Nakhla is an olivine-bearing clinopyroxenite with minor amounts of feldspar, FeS, and Fe oxides. Secondary mineral assemblages include vein filling clay with embedded iron oxides, a calcium sulfate, amorphous silica, chlorapatite, halite and carbonates. Bridges and Grady suggested that the carbonates in Nakhla formed from brine evaporation. Isotope studies of the Mn rich siderite are also consistent with formation from hydrothermal fluids with an upper T constraint of 170 C.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment: Radionuclide Release Sensitivity to Diminished Brine and Gas Flows to/from Transuranic Waste Disposal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad A. Day

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  11. Waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment: Radionuclide release sensitivity to diminished brine and gas flows to/from transuranic waste disposal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Brad A.; Camphouse, R. C.; Zeitler, Todd R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP) areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  12. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Covi

    Full Text Available While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025-0.5 mg L-1 of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic

  13. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covi, Joseph A; Hutchison, Evan R; Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gunderson, Matthew D

    While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025-0.5 mg L-1) of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic barrier to the entry of

  14. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host–pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  15. Response of Heterogeneous and Fractured Carbonate Samples to CO2-Brine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Mason, H. E.; Hao, Y.; Carroll, S.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate rock units are often considered as candidate sites for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether as stand-alone reservoirs or coupled with enhanced oil recovery efforts. In order to accept injected carbon dioxide, carbonate reservoirs must either possess sufficient preexisting connected void space, or react with CO2-acidified fluids to produce more pore space and improve permeability. However, upward migration of CO2 through barrier zones or seal layers must be minimized for effective safe storage. Therefore, prediction of the changes to porosity and permeability in these systems over time is a key component of reservoir management. Towards this goal, we present the results of several experiments on carbonate core samples from the Wellington, Kansas 1-32 well, conducted under reservoir temperature, pressure, and CO2 conditions. These samples were imaged by X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) and analyzed with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy both prior to and after reaction with CO2-enriched brines. The carbonate samples each displayed distinct responses to CO2 exposure in terms of permeability change with time and relative abundance of calcite versus dolomite dissolution. The measured permeability of each sample was also much lower than that estimated by downhole NMR logging, with samples with larger fractured regions possessing higher permeability values. We present also our modeling approach and preliminary simulation results for a specific sample from the targeted injection zone. The heterogeneous composition as well as the presence of large fractured zones within the rock necessitated the use of a nested three-region approach to represent the range of void space observed via tomography. Currently, the physical response to CO2-brine flow (i.e., pressure declines with time) is reproduced well but the extent of chemical reaction is overestimated by the model.

  16. Long Term Corrosion Potential and Corrosion Rate of Creviced Alloy 22 in Chloride Plus Nitrate Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Etien, R A; Hust, G A; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2005-11-05

    Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions and at anodic potentials, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized attack. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, crevice corrosion may be expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that as Alloy 22 becomes passive in a certain environment, its E{sub corr} increases and its corrosion rate (CR) decreases. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in six different mixtures of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) at 100 C. The effect of immersion time on the value of E{sub crit} was also determined. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT). The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, as the immersion time increases, E{sub corr} increased and the CR decreased. Even for highly concentrated brine solutions at 100 C the CR was < 30 nm/year after more than 250 days immersion. Some of the exposed specimens (mainly the SHT specimens) suffered crevice corrosion at the open circuit potential in the naturally aerated brines. Immersion times of over 250 days did not reduce the resistance of Alloy 22 to localized corrosion.

  17. Magnesium salts as compounds of the preparation of magnesium oxide from Tunisian natural brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behij Souheil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium oxide is one of the most important magnesium compounds used in industry. The production of MgO is often done from calcined magnesium carbonate or from natural magnesium saline solutions (sea water and brines. In the case of these solutions, magnesium oxide is precipitated after the addition of a strong base (eg. Ammonia. Magnesium hydroxide is calcined after its separation from the excess resulting from the strong base through filtration. Thus, magnesia qualities may differ depending on several physical parameters and particularly on the nature of the compound. Consequently, two different compounds were selected: magnesium chloride and magnesium sulphate which can be recovered from Tunisian natural brines. Three physical factors were considered: calcination temperatures, precipitation temperatures and calcination time of Mg(OH2. The decomposition of Mg(OH2 was investigated by DTA/TGA. Mass losses vary in the range (23.0%-29.9%. Starting decomposition temperatures are between 362°C and 385°C. The MgO produced from MgSO4 under 1000°C within 48 hours of calcination time and with 40°C as a reaction temperature for Mg(OH2 shows a good crystallinity and is of a cristallyte size of 86.3 nm and has a specific surface area equal to 16.87 m2g-1. Finally, morphological differences between MgO agglomerates at different temperatures were observed by SEM. Consequently, magnesium sulphate as precursor for preparing MgO is selected.

  18. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of brine plumes in an oil reservoir using the geoelectric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, María Victoria; Osella, Ana; de la Vega, Matías; Tichno, Adrián

    2013-08-01

    During water injection in a reservoir at the secondary recovery phase, oil is replaced by salt water, producing different saturation zones in the formation containing this reservoir. This process could be optimized if the direction of the fluids is monitored. Since there are large contrasts in the electric conductivity between salt water and oil, geoelectrical methods could provide a water saturation map at any given moment of the production. The case we study here corresponds to a rather shallow reservoir (between 500 and 600 m in depth). As the wells are in production, electrodes for borehole measurements cannot be introduced. Hence, our objectives are to determine the possibilities of detecting the channelling direction of saline water between injection and producing wells, and applying the method of placing electrodes on the surface or even burying them, but at depths corresponding to shallow layers. We design an electrical model of the reservoir and then numerically simulate the geoelectrical response in order to determine the conditions under which the anomaly, i.e. the accumulation of brine in a reduced area, can be detected. We find that the channelling of the brine can be detected for the reservoir studied here if the electrodes are placed at 180 m depth. The Wenner configuration using 16 electrodes provides the best resolution. Therefore, monitoring the voltage at a number of electrodes embedded at rather shallow depths (from a technical-logistic point of view) could give information about the direction of the saline channelling even if a quantitative image of the subsoil cannot be obtained due to the reduced number of electrodes used in the study.

  20. Strontium, boron, oxygen, and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of brines from basal strata of the Gulf Coast sedimentary basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovanyi, Eva P.; Walter, Lynn M.; Land, Lynton S.

    1993-05-01

    Significant spatial heterogeneities exist in the stable isotopic composition of saline formation waters from reservoirs of the Smackover Formation (Upper Jurassic). We focused on the southwest Arkansas shelf, a structurally simple portion of one of the interior basins of the northern Gulf Coast sedimentary basin. Here, faulting and facies changes juxtapose dominantly oolitic carbonate strata against basal evaporites, red beds, and siliciclastics, as well as metamorphosed basement rocks. Brines from this area have exceptionally high Br and alkali element concentrations and have spatially heterogeneous hydrogen sulfide concentrations. Strontium, boron, oxygen, and hydrogen isotope compositions exhibit coherent relations with other aspects of brine geochemistry. Sr isotope compositions range from those expected for carbonates and evaporites deposited from Jurassic seawater (0.7071) to radiogenic ratios as high as 0.7107. Generally, most radiogenic Sr isotope values are associated with H 2S-rich waters which also have elevated alkali element (Li, B, K, Rb) concentrations. These alkali element-rich waters are associated with portions of the South Arkansas fault system which reach basement. Boron isotope compositions are similarly heterogeneous, ranging from values of +26 to +50%.. Brines with highest B contents are most depleted in 11B, consistent with boron input from brines generated from high-temperature siliciclastic diagenetic reactions. Normalizing B contents to Br in the brines reveals a reasonable mixing trend between a Dead Sea-type composition and Texas Gulf Coast-type shale/sand reservoir waters. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data exhibit regional variations which are controlled by meteoric water invasion along the northern limb of the southwest Arkansas Fault, which has surface expression. Although oxygen isotope compositions are often near equilibrium with respect to reservoir carbonate, it is more difficult to ascribe trends in δD values to local water

  1. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (chromatography columns with inexpensive, reusable, commercially available resins and wash chemicals. The procedures have been tested

  2. Microbial community of the deep-sea brine Lake Kryos seawater-brine interface is active below the chaotropicity limit of life as revealed by recovery of mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Spada, Gina L; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Messina, Enzo; Smedile, Francesco; Arcadi, Erika; Borghini, Mireno; Ferrer, Manuel; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Cray, Jonathan A; Hallsworth, John E; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Within the complex of deep, hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Mediterranean Ridge, we identified a new, unexplored DHAL and named it 'Lake Kryos' after a nearby depression. This lake is filled with magnesium chloride (MgCl2 )-rich, athalassohaline brine (salinity > 470 practical salinity units), presumably formed by the dissolution of Messinian bischofite. Compared with the DHAL Discovery, it contains elevated concentrations of kosmotropic sodium and sulfate ions, which are capable of reducing the net chaotropicily of MgCl2 -rich solutions. The brine of Lake Kryos may therefore be biologically permissive at MgCl2 concentrations previously considered incompatible with life. We characterized the microbiology of the seawater-Kryos brine interface and managed to recover mRNA from the 2.27-3.03 M MgCl2 layer (equivalent to 0.747-0.631 water activity), thereby expanding the established chaotropicity window-for-life. The primary bacterial taxa present there were Kebrit Deep Bacteria 1 candidate division and DHAL-specific group of organisms, distantly related to Desulfohalobium. Two euryarchaeal candidate divisions, Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes group 1 and halophilic cluster 1, accounted for > 85% of the rRNA-containing archaeal clones derived from the 2.27-3.03 M MgCl2 layer, but were minority community-members in the overlying interface-layers. These findings shed light on the plausibility of life in highly chaotropic environments, geochemical windows for microbial extremophiles, and have implications for habitability elsewhere in the Solar System. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Life cycle assessment of treatment and handling options for a highly saline brine extracted from a potential CO2storage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Hafiz H; Li, Jiaxing; Kaplan, Ruth; Dastgheib, Seyed A

    2017-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) injection in deep saline aquifers is a promising option for CO 2 geological sequestration. However, brine extraction may be necessary to control the anticipated increase in reservoir pressure resulting from CO 2 injection. The extracted brines usually have elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants and require proper handling or treatment. Different options for the handling or treatment of a high-TDS brine extracted from a potential CO 2 sequestration site (Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois, USA) are evaluated here through a life cycle assessment (LCA) study. The objective of this LCA study is to evaluate the environmental impact (EI) of various treatment or disposal options, namely, deep well disposal (Case 1); near-zero liquid discharge (ZLD) treatment followed by disposal of salt and brine by-products (Case 2); and near-ZLD treatment assuming beneficial use of the treatment by-products (Case 3). Results indicate that energy use is the dominant factor determining the overall EI. Because of the high energy consumption, desalination of the pretreated brine (Cases 2 and 3) results in the highest EI. Consequently, the overall EI of desalination cases falls mainly into two EI categories: global warming potential and resources-fossil fuels. Deep well disposal has the least EI when the EI of brine injection into deep formations is not included. The overall freshwater consumption associated with different life cycle stages of the selected disposal or treatment options is 0.6-1.8 m 3 of freshwater for every 1.0 m 3 of brine input. The freshwater consumption balance is 0.6 m 3 for every 1.0 m 3 of brine input for Case 3 when desalination by-products are utilized for beneficial uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of sustainable production in two-phase liquid dominated with steam cap underlying brine reservoir by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2017-12-01

    The main issue in the management of the two-phase liquid-dominated geothermal field is rapid decline pressure in the reservoir so that the supply of steam to the power plant cannot be fulfilled. To understanding that, modelling and numerical simulation used reservoir simulators. The model is developed on liquid-dominated geothermal fields are assessed in various scenarios of production strategies (focusing only steam cap, brine reservoir and a combination) and injection strategies (deep and shallow injection, centered and dispersed injection), with the calculation using separated steam cycle method. The simulation results of the model for sustainable production are production 25% from steam cap + 75% from brine reservoir, dispersed and deep reinjection with make-up wells from steam cap results 9 make-up well number. The implementation of production-injection strategy needs to be planned right from the beginning of exploitation so that the strategy can adapt to changes in reservoir characteristics.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant, thermophilic esterase from a Red Sea Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2013-11-28

    The Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that displays multiple harsh conditions such as high temperature, high salinity and high concentrations of multiple, toxic heavy metals. The survival of microbes in such an environment by utilizing resistant enzymes makes them an excellent source of extremophilic enzymes. We constructed a fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the deepest and most secluded layer of this pool. We report the isolation and biochemical characterization of an unusual esterase: EstATII. EstATII is thermophilic (optimum temperature, 65 C), halotolerant (maintains its activity in up to 4.5â€...M NaCl) and maintains at least 60% of its activity in the presence of a wide spectrum of heavy metals. The combination of biochemical characteristics of the Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool esterase, i.e., halotolerance, thermophilicity and resistance to heavy metals, makes it a potentially useful biocatalyst.

  6. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  7. [Physical and chemical evaluation during refrigeration storage of salted catfish (Pseudoplatystoma sp.) in brine solution, and packed under vacuum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diana; Barrero, Marinela; Kodaira, Makie

    2009-06-01

    Salting fish in the south Venezuelan towns are still the main method of preserving fish including cutt, and salting fish process, storage and commercialization. As the result, salted-dried fish is particularly susceptible to spoilage by a number of factors, including lipid oxidation, browning meat. Packing salted fish product is an alternative increasing storage life time reducing lost of quality and enhancing the storage time. The present study evaluated the physic, chemist, and sensory quality of fish fillet from cat fish (Pseudoplatystoma sp.) from Apure state, Venezuela. Fillet fish were placed in brine solution at 36% of sodium chloride 1:2 fillet: brine solution; after, they were packed under followed conditions: vacuum, vacuum and storage under refrigeration condition, and room temperature. The results showed significant differences (p refrigeration temperature after three moths. The best conditions treatment was vacuum packing and refrigeration at 4 degrees C.

  8. Phytochemical and toxicity evaluation of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl by MCF-7 cell line and brine shrimp lethality bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Kalam Azad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits extracts. Methods: The cytotoxicity test was carried out by in vitro MCF-7 cell line and in vivo brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: The preliminary phytochemical test showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycosides, saponin, terpene, steroids, phenols and flavonoids. The MTT-assay results showed that the highest percentage of cell viability was 106.23% at concentration of 1.25 µL and the lowest percentage was 13.04% at concentration of 10 µL. Conclusions: The MTT-assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay results showed that the extract was non-toxic and it would be consumable as a herbal remedy.

  9. Sensory classification of table olives using an electronic tongue: Analysis of aqueous pastes and brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Ítala; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Pereira, José A; Drunkler, Deisy A; Peres, António M

    2017-01-01

    Table olives are highly appreciated and consumed worldwide. Different aspects are used for trade category classification being the sensory assessment of negative defects present in the olives and brines one of the most important. The trade category quality classification must follow the International Olive Council directives, requiring the organoleptic assessment of defects by a trained sensory panel. However, the training process is a hard, complex and sometimes subjective task, being the low number of samples that can be evaluated per day a major drawback considering the real needs of the olive industry. In this context, the development of electronic tongues as taste sensors for defects' sensory evaluation is of utmost relevance. So, an electronic tongue was used for table olives classification according to the presence and intensity of negative defects. Linear discrimination models were established based on sub-sets of sensor signals selected by a simulated annealing algorithm. The predictive potential of the novel approach was first demonstrated for standard solutions of chemical compounds that mimic butyric, putrid and zapateria defects (≥93% for cross-validation procedures). Then its applicability was verified; using reference table olives/brine solutions samples identified with a single intense negative attribute, namely butyric, musty, putrid, zapateria or winey-vinegary defects (≥93% cross-validation procedures). Finally, the E-tongue coupled with the same chemometric approach was applied to classify table olive samples according to the trade commercial categories (extra, 1 st choice, 2 nd choice and unsuitable for consumption) and an additional quality category (extra free of defects), established based on sensory analysis data. Despite the heterogeneity of the samples studied and number of different sensory defects perceived, the predictive linear discriminant model established showed sensitivities greater than 86%. So, the overall performance

  10. Sandstone/Shale-Brine-CO2 interactions: Implications for Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Liu, F.; Fu, Q.; Seyfried, W. E.; Hedges, S.; Griffith, C.; Soong, Y.; Zhu, C.

    2009-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is presently being considered as an option for greenhouse gas mitigation. However, significant amount of CO2-water-rock interactions brings uncertainties to this potential option because these interactions may either enhance or decrease the potential storage capacity of the reservoirs by dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary clays. In addition, these reactions may enhance or compromise the mechanical properties of the seals or cap rocks. A series of Sandstone/Shale-Brine-CO2 hydrothermal experiments have been performed at 200 oC, with the addition of CO2 (PCO2 up to 300 bars). Navajo sandstone samples were collected from Black Mesa, Arizona. The Jurassic Navajo/Nugget Sandstone is identified as regionally extensive in the western U.S. and selected as the target for one of the large-volume injection tests by the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Shale chips were obtained from the basal Eau Claire Formation in Southwest of Indiana. Eau Claire Shale overlies Mt. Simon Sandstone which is recognized as a highly promising host reservoir targeted for carbon sequestration by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). Experiments of Navajo sandstones show that silicate minerals in the sandstone display dissolution textures. The formation of carbonate minerals (mineral trapping) is thermodynamically favored and experimentally observed. The chemical reactions likely increase the porosity of the sandstone due to silicate dissolution. However, allophane and illite/smectite cements fill voids of sandstone grains. There is no evidence that suggests the removal of clay coating due to chemical reactions. It is uncertain whether the mechanical forces near in the injection well would mobilize the smectite and allophane and cause pore clogging. In contrast, for CO2-brine-shale system, only minor dissolution of K-feldspar and anhydrite was observed. However, precipitation of pore-filling and

  11. The stoichiometric dissociation constants of carbonic acid in seawater brines from 298 to 267 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Stathys; Loucaides, Socratis; Rérolle, Victoire M. C.; Kennedy, Paul; Achterberg, Eric P.; Dickson, Andrew G.; Mowlem, Matthew; Kennedy, Hilary

    2018-01-01

    The stoichiometric dissociation constants of carbonic acid (K1C∗ and K2C∗) were determined by measurement of all four measurable parameters of the carbonate system (total alkalinity, total dissolved inorganic carbon, pH on the total proton scale, and CO2 fugacity) in natural seawater and seawater-derived brines, with a major ion composition equivalent to that of Reference Seawater, to practical salinity (SP) 100 and from 25 °C to the freezing point of these solutions and -6 °C temperature minimum. These values, reported in the total proton scale, provide the first such determinations at below-zero temperatures and for SP > 50. The temperature (T, in Kelvin) and SP dependence of the current pK1C∗ and pK2C∗ (as negative common logarithms) within the salinity and temperature ranges of this study (33 ≤ SP ≤ 100, -6 °C ≤ t ≤ 25 °C) is described by the following best-fit equations: pK1C∗ = -176.48 + 6.14528 SP0.5 - 0.127714 SP + 7.396 × 10-5SP2 + (9914.37 - 622.886 SP0.5 + 29.714 SP) T-1 + (26.05129 - 0.666812 SP0.5) lnT (σ = 0.011, n = 62), and pK2C∗ = -323.52692 + 27.557655 SP0.5 + 0.154922 SP - 2.48396 × 10-4 SP2 + (14763.287 - 1014.819 SP0.5 - 14.35223 SP) T-1 + (50.385807 - 4.4630415 SP0.5) lnT (σ = 0.020, n = 62). These functions are suitable for application to investigations of the carbonate system of internal sea ice brines with a conservative major ion composition relative to that of Reference Seawater and within the temperature and salinity ranges of this study.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Brine Formation and Serpentinization at the Rainbow Hydrothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, P.; Lowell, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal field on the Mid Atlantic Ridge is a high-temperature hydrothermal system hosted in peridotite. The vent fluids are rich in methane and hydrogen suggesting that serpentinization is occurring at depth in the system. Vent temperature of ~365°C, salinity of ~4.5 wt%, and heat output of ~500 MW suggest that Rainbow field is driven by a magmatic heat source and that phase separation is occurring at depth. To understand the origin of high salinity in the Rainbow hydrothermal fluid, we construct a 2D numerical model of two-phase hydrothermal circulation using the numerical simulator FISHES. This code uses the finite volume method to solve the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and salt equations in a NaCl-H2O fluid. We simulate convection in an open top 2D box at a surface pressure of 23 MPa and seawater temperature of 10oC. The bottom and sides of the box are insulated and impermeable, and a fixed temperature distribution is maintained at the base to ensure phase separation. We first consider a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and system depths of 2 and 1 km, respectively. The brine-derived fluid from the deeper system barely exceeds seawater, whereas the shallower system produces a short pulse of 9.0 wt% for 5 years. We then consider 1 km deep systems with a high permeability discharge zone of 5x10-13 m2 that corresponds to a fault zone, surrounded by recharge zones of 10-13, 10-14 and 10-15 m2, respectively. The model with recharge permeability of 10-14 m2 yields stable plumes that vent brine-derived fluid of 4.2 wt% for 150 years. Using the quasi- steady state of this model as a base, we estimate the rate of serpentinization along the fluid flow paths, and evolution of porosity and permeability. This analysis will indicate the extent to which serpentinization will affect the dynamics of the system and will provide insight into methane flux in the Rainbow vent field.

  13. Effects of Brine Salinity on Clumped Isotopes and Implications for Applications to Carbonate Diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, T.; John, C. M.; Jourdan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry relies on the overabundance of 13C-18O bonds in the crystal lattice compared to a stochastic distribution and was calibrated in laboratory experiments using carbonates precipitated from (mainly) de-ionized water that was supersaturated with calcium carbonate (Ghosh et al., 2006). However, the clumped isotope method has also been applied to carbonates that precipitated in the marine and subsurface environments from fluids with significant salt concentrations. These saline fluids differ markedly from the solution used for laboratory calibration. Variations in the electro-chemical potential due to changes in the ion composition and concentration of the solution could influence the physical properties of the clumped isotope bonding and lead to deviations from the commonly used temperature calibration. Consequently, calibrations at high salinities and high temperatures are needed to confidently extend the application of clumped isotopes to diagenetic processes. We investigated the effect of salinity on clumping by precipitating carbonates (mainly calcite) in the laboratory between 23 and 90 °C using a setup analogous to the experiments of Ghosh et al. (2006). A first subset of experiments was performed at low salinities, while during a second subset of experiments we saturated the solution with NaCl (about 35 g/100 ml) in order to mimic a highly saline brine. Since the same experimental procedures were used for both sub-sets (same temperatures of precipitation and rates of nitrogen gas bubbling), we can directly compare clumped isotope values in highly saline versus low-salinity solutions. The initial clumped isotope results obtained from the brine solution agree within uncertainty with results from carbonates precipitated from a NaCl-free solution at the same temperatures. This suggests that clumped isotopes can be applied to carbonates precipitated under highly saline conditions. We acknowledge the financial support of QCCSRC

  14. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  15. Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity, Total Phenolic Content, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, Thrombolytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Tagetes patula L.

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ruhul Kuddus; Mirza Sonia Alam; Sharmin Reza Chowdhury; Farhana Rumi; Md. Al Amin Sikder; Rashid, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    The methanol extract of leaf of Tagetes patula L. as well as its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates were subjected to screening for total phenolic content, brine shrimp lethality, membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activity. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by hypotonic solution-and heat-induced methods and was compared with acetyl salicylic acid. In the present studies, the n-hexane soluble fraction demonstrated strong...

  16. Evaluation of Brine Migration Risks Due to CO2 Injection - an Integrated Natural and Social Science Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, V.; Kissinger, A.; Class, H.; Knopf, S.; Konrad, W.; Scheer, D.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of possible risks for shallow groundwater systems caused by brine displacement due to CO2 injection requires an investigation of possible vertical pathways in regional-scale structural settings. The project CO2BRIM investigates this crucial issue in collaboration with external stakeholders to integrate expert feedback on migration scenarios. To evaluate possible brine displacement scenarios we construct a regional-scale 3D structural model based on data which represent a typical geological setting of the North German Basin. The model has a horizontal size of 39 km times 58 km and includes 11 geological layers from the Permian Zechstein salt up to the Quaternary. It comprises an anticlinal structure on top of a salt pillow and an elongated salt wall that dissect the overburden. For the risk scenarios we include discontinuities in the regionally important Rupelian aquitard (Tertiary) and a transition zone along the salt flank as such discontinuities are supposed to provide permeable pathways for brines which could reach shallow drinking water horizons. Based on this model we develop scenarios in which we vary for example hydro-geological parameters of the geological discontinuities, the injection rate and the initial state of the system in terms of the salinity distribution. Furthermore we compare different levels of model complexity with regard to the physical processes considered and their effects on our results. During the process of scenario development, external experts were invited to participate and share knowledge and concerns on both brine migration risks and possible migration paths and mechanisms. The results may help in site selection as they provide improved knowledge of pressure build-up in the reservoir and the overburden for such complex geological systems. Additionally, we want to identify the level of model complexity which is sufficient for this kind of setting with regard to the limited data availability at hand for the far field.

  17. Studies on antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of crude samples of six different species of puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masilamani Mohan Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality activity of six different species of puffer fishes, including Cyclichthys orbicularis, Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster solandri, Arthron hispidus, A. inermis and Lagocephalua inermis (L. inermis. Methodology: The puffer fishes were collected from Annangkovil Fish Landing Centre (Lattitude 11°30.47' N; Longitude 79°47.02' E, Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India during summer season because of availability. Fresh tissue samples were collected from the clearly washed specimens, extracted with methanol at 37 °C for 3 days and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The solvents such as methanol and ethanol were concentrated by using rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The dark brown gummy mass was stored at 4 °C for further analysis. Prepared crude samples were analysed with human pathogens to assess the antibacterial activity and this was carried out by using standard disc diffusion method. The brine shrimp lethality was calculated as the percentage of mortality which was firstly calculated by dividing the number of dead larvae by the total number and then multiplied to 100%. Results: The antibacterial activity of crude extract of puffer fishes were exhibited against 10 different human bacterial pathogens. Among the ten human pathogens, Arthron hispidus showed maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm against Staphylococcus aureus while L. inermis showed minimum activity (1 mm against Proteus mirabilis and no zone of inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus. Brine shrimp lethality was examined with six puffer fish extracts. Cyclichthys orbicularis showed maximum mortalities as 100% and L. inermis showed minimum mortalities as 70% at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study showed the preliminary investigation of crude extracts of puffer fishes about the prominent activity against human bacterial pathogens. The extracts had

  18. Vertical, horizontal, and temporal changes in temperature in the Atlantis II and Discovery hot brine pools, Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Swift, Stephen A.

    2012-06-01

    In October 2008, we measured temperature and salinity in hot, hypersaline brine filling the Atlantis II and Discovery Deeps on the Red Sea spreading center west of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In agreement with previous observations in the Atlantis II Deep, we found a stack of four convective layers with vertically uniform temperature profiles separated by thin interfaces with high vertical temperature gradients. Temperature in the thick lower convective layer in the Atlantis II Deep continued to slowly increase at 0.1 °C/year since the last observations in 1997. Previously published data show that the temperature of all four convective layers increased since the 1960s at the same rate, from which we infer that diffusive vertical heat flux between convective layers is rapid on time scales of 3-5 years and, thus, heat is lost from the brine pools to overlying Red Sea Deep Water. Heat budgets suggest that the heat flux from hydrothermal venting has decreased from 0.54. GW to 0.18. GW since 1966. A tow-yo survey found that temperature in the upper convective layers changes about 0.2 °C over 5-6. km but the temperature in the lower brine layer remains constant. Temperature in the lower convective layer in the Discovery Deep remains unchanged at 48 °C. To explain these results, we hypothesize that heat flux from a hydrothermal vent in the floor of the Discovery Deep has been stable for 40 years, whereas temperature of the brine in the Atlantis II Deep is adjusting to the change in hydrothermal heat flux from the vent in the Southwest Basin. We found no changes in the upper transition layer at 1900-1990. m depth that appeared between 1976 and 1992 and suggest that this layer originated from the seafloor elsewhere in the rift. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Unique prokaryotic consortia in geochemically distinct sediments from Red Sea Atlantis II and discovery deep brine pools.

    KAUST Repository

    Siam, Rania

    2012-08-20

    The seafloor is a unique environment, which allows insights into how geochemical processes affect the diversity of biological life. Among its diverse ecosystems are deep-sea brine pools - water bodies characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions. The \\'polyextremophiles\\' that constitute the microbial assemblage of these deep hot brines have not been comprehensively studied. We report a comparative taxonomic analysis of the prokaryotic communities of the sediments directly below the Red Sea brine pools, namely, Atlantis II, Discovery, Chain Deep, and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Analyses of sediment samples and high-throughput pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified environmental 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that one sulfur (S)-rich Atlantis II and one nitrogen (N)-rich Discovery Deep section contained distinct microbial populations that differed from those found in the other sediment samples examined. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal phyla in both the S- and N-rich sections. Relative abundance-based hierarchical clustering of the 16S rDNA pyrotags assigned to major taxonomic groups allowed us to categorize the archaeal and bacterial communities into three major and distinct groups; group I was unique to the S-rich Atlantis II section (ATII-1), group II was characteristic for the N-rich Discovery sample (DD-1), and group III reflected the composition of the remaining sediments. Many of the groups detected in the S-rich Atlantis II section are likely to play a dominant role in the cycling of methane and sulfur due to their phylogenetic affiliations with bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction.

  20. Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicia M. Wilson

    2009-11-30

    Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

  1. Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.; Frailey, Scott [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.; Dastgheib, Seyed [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.

    2017-06-14

    The overall goal of the this project is to develop and validate pressure management and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume control strategies that can address technical and economic barriers to commercial deployment of CO2 storage technologies, based on computational and field demonstration work at the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) facility where the Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) and the Illinois-Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (IL-ICCS) projects are located. To accomplish the overall goal, the ISGS designed a brine extraction storage test (BEST) that could be completed in two phases. The goal of BEST Phase I was to evaluate the feasibilities of extraction well(s) placement, the brine extraction to CO2 injection rate ratio, extraction well completion, and brine treatment and handling. The goal of BEST Phase II would be to validate the brine extraction and treatment options deemed feasible in Phase I by (1) demonstrating the efficacy of brine extraction (BE) in managing pressure (i.e., formation) and the CO2 plume, and (2) demonstrating treatment of extracted brine with high total dissolved solids (TDS; >200,000 mg/L) using multiple advanced treatment technologies. This report details work done in Phase I. Several brine extraction and treatment scenarios were tested, simulated, and analyzed for their effectiveness in extracting brine. Initially a vertical well was studied; however, geologic modeling, reservoir modeling, and the existing facility and wellbore infrastructure dictated that the location of a vertical brine extraction well was limited to an area with no existing monitoring wells and where the well would be in relative proximity to an existing CO2 plume. Consequently, a vertical well was excluded, and a horizontal brine extraction well placed above the existing CO2 plume near two existing wells was studied. The horizontal well option allows the project to leverage the

  2. Comparison of Artemia-bacteria associations in brines, laboratory cultures and the gut environment: a study based on Chilean hypersaline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Mauricio; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Gajardo, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea) and a diversity of halophilic microorganisms coexist in natural brines, salterns and laboratory cultures; part of such environmental microbial diversity is represented in the gut of Artemia individuals. Bacterial diversity in these environments was assessed by 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting. Eight natural locations in Chile, where A. franciscana or A. persimilis occur, were sampled for analysis of free-living and gut-associated bacteria in water from nature and laboratory cultures. The highest ecological diversity (Shannon's index, H') was found in brines, it decreased in the gut of wild and laboratory animals, and in laboratory water. Significant differences in H' existed between brines and laboratory water, and between brines and gut of wild animals. The greatest similarity of bacterial community composition was between brines and the gut of field animals, suggesting a transient state of the gut microbiota. Sequences retrieved from DGGE patterns (n = 83) exhibited an average of 97.8% identity with 41 bacterial genera from the phyla Proteobacteria (55.4% of sequences match), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.9%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Environment-exclusive genera distribution was seen in Sphingomonas and Paenibacillus (gut of field animals), Amaricoccus and Ornithinimicrobium (gut of laboratory animals), and Hydrogenophaga (water of laboratory cultures). The reported ecological and physiological capabilities of such bacteria can help to understand Artemia adaptation to natural and laboratory conditions.

  3. Diversity and distribution of eukaryotic microbes in and around a brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2014-02-04

    A hypoxic/suboxic brine pool at a depth of about 850 m was discovered near the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. Filled with high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, such a brine pool might limit the spread of eukaryotic organisms. Here, we compared the communities of the eukaryotic microbes in a microbial mat, sediments and water samples distributed in 7 sites within and adjacent to the brine pool. Taxonomic classification of the pyrosequenced 18S rRNA amplicon reads showed that fungi highly similar to the species identified along the Arabic coast were almost ubiquitous in the water and sediment samples, supporting their wide distribution in various environments. The microbial mat displayed the highest species diversity and contained grazers and a considerable percentage of unclassified species. Phylogeny-based methods revealed novel lineages representing a majority of the reads from the interface between the sea water and brine pool. Phylogenetic relationships with more reference sequences suggest that the lineages were affiliated with novel Alveolata and Euglenozoa inhabiting the interface where chemosynthetic prokaryotes are highly proliferative due to the strong chemocline and halocline. The brine sediments harbored abundant species highly similar to invertebrate gregarine parasites identified in different oxygen-depleted sediments. Therefore, the present findings support the uniqueness of some microbial eukaryotic groups in this cold seep brine system. 2014 Wang, Zhang, Cao, Shek, Tian, Wong, Batang, Al-suwailem and Qian.

  4. Enhanced Flux and Electrochemical Cleaning of Silicate Scaling on Carbon Nanotube-Coated Membrane Distillation Membranes Treating Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Li [Department; Iddya, Arpita [Department; Zhu, Xiaobo [Department; Dudchenko, Alexander V. [Department; Duan, Wenyan [Department; Turchi, Craig [Department; Vanneste, Johann [Department; Cath, Tzahi Y. [Department; Jassby, David [Department

    2017-10-24

    The desalination of inland brackish groundwater offers the opportunity to provide potable drinking water to residents and industrial cooling water to industries located in arid regions. Geothermal brines are used to generate electricity, but often contain high concentrations of dissolved salt. Here, we demonstrate how the residual heat left in spent geothermal brines can be used to drive a membrane distillation (MD) process and recover desalinated water. Porous polypropylene membranes were coated with a carbon nanotube (CNT)/poly(vinyl alcohol) layer, resulting in composite membranes having a binary structure that combines the hydrophobic properties critical for MD with the hydrophilic and conductive properties of the CNTs. We demonstrate that the addition of the CNT layer increases membrane flux due to enhanced heat transport from the bulk feed to the membrane surface, a result of CNT's high thermal transport properties. Furthermore, we show how hydroxide ion generation, driven by water electrolysis on the electrically conducting membrane surface, can be used to efficiently dissolve silicate scaling that developed during the process of desalinating the geothermal brine, negating the need for chemical cleaning.

  5. Osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis using seawater brine as the draw solution and wastewater retentate as the feed

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chunfeng

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to produce clean and sustainable osmotic energy from salinity gradient. Fresh water is of scarcity in Singapore; however, alternative sources of feed solutions and draw solutions are well explored. For the first time, seawater brine from the TuaSpring desalination plant and wastewater retentate from the NEWater plant were used in a state-of-the-art TFC-PES hollow fiber membrane PRO process. The highest power densities obtained with 1 M NaCl solution and seawater brine were 27.0 W/m2 and 21.1 W/m2 at 20bar, respectively, when deionized (DI) water was used as the feed solution. However, the highest power density dropped to 4.6W/m2 when wastewater retentate was used as the feed solution. Fouling on the porous substrate induced by the wastewater retentate was identified as the main cause of the reduction in the power densities, while the negative effects of seawater brine on the PRO performances were negligible. Both ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment were employed to mitigate fouling from the wastewater retentate, and the power densities were boosted to 6.6W/m2 and 8.9W/m2, respectively, beyond the power density of 5W/m2 proposed by Statkraft for the PRO process to be economical.

  6. Chemical and mechanical properties of wellbore cement altered by CO₂-rich brine using a multianalytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Harris E; Du Frane, Wyatt L; Walsh, Stuart D C; Dai, Zurong; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Carroll, Susan A

    2013-02-05

    Defining chemical and mechanical alteration of wellbore cement by CO(2)-rich brines is important for predicting the long-term integrity of wellbores in geologic CO(2) environments. We reacted CO(2)-rich brines along a cement-caprock boundary at 60 °C and pCO(2) = 3 MPa using flow-through experiments. The results show that distinct reaction zones form in response to reactions with the brine over the 8-day experiment. Detailed characterization of the crystalline and amorphous phases, and the solution chemistry show that the zones can be modeled as preferential portlandite dissolution in the depleted layer, concurrent calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) alteration to an amorphous zeolite and Ca-carbonate precipitation in the carbonate layer, and carbonate dissolution in the amorphous layer. Chemical reaction altered the mechanical properties of the core lowering the average Young's moduli in the depleted, carbonate, and amorphous layers to approximately 75, 64, and 34% of the unaltered cement, respectively. The decreased elastic modulus of the altered cement reflects an increase in pore space through mineral dissolution and different moduli of the reaction products.

  7. Steric stabilization of nanoparticles with grafted low molecular weight ligands in highly concentrated brines including divalent ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Andrew J; Tran, Vu; Cornell, Kevin A; Truskett, Thomas M; Johnston, Keith P

    2016-02-21

    Whereas numerous studies of stabilization of nanoparticles (NPs) in electrolytes have examined biological fluids, the interest has grown recently in media with much higher ionic strengths including seawater and brines relevant to environmental science and subsurface oil and gas reservoirs. Given that electrostatic repulsion is limited at extremely high ionic strengths due to charge screening, we have identified ligands that are well solvated in concentrated brine containing divalent cations and thus provide steric stabilization of silica nanoparticles. Specifically, the hydrodynamic diameter of silica nanoparticles with grafted low molecular weight ligands, a diol ether, [3-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)propyl]-trimethoxysilane, and a zwitterionic sulfobetaine, 3-([dimethyl(3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonio)propane-1-sulfonate, is shown with dynamic light scattering to remain essentially constant, indicating lack of aggregation, at room temperature and up to 80 °C for over 30 days. An extended DLVO model signifies that steric stabilization is strongly dominant against van der Waals attraction for ∼10 nm particles given that these ligands are well solvated even in highly concentrated brine. In contrast, polyethylene glycol oligomers do not provide steric stabilization at elevated temperatures, even at conditions where the ligands are soluble, indicating complicating factors including bridging of the ether oxygens by divalent cations.

  8. Antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality effect of marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. CAS72 against human pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Vijayanand, Packiyaraj; Sivakumar, Kannan; Sugesh, Shanmugam; Poongodi, Subramaniam; Maharani, Viswanathan; Vijayalakshmi, Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the marine actinobacterium. Methods Forty six marine actinobacterial strains were isolated from sediment samples of Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, India. Preliminary screening was done by cross-streak method and the potential strain was identified by morphological, chemotaxonomical and molecular methods. Fermentation was done and the metabolite was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and purified by silica gel (100-200 mesh) column chromatography. The purified metabolite was tested for antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Among the forty six strains, CAS72 was found effective against human pathogenic bacteria. The strain CAS72 was identified as Streptomyces sp. The purified metabolite exhibited a significant in vitro antibacterial activity. The MIC value was also determined against human pathogenic bacteria and a strong cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay was observed and the LC50 value was 23.5 µg/mL. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that the marine actinobacteria are well obtainable in Uppanar estuary environment and it can provide a definite source for novel bioactive metabolites.

  9. Fundamental study of the effect of high-salinity brines on the friction and wear properties of stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsall, K.J.; Govin, G.; Eliezer, Z.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Friction and corrosive wear experiments were performed in a geothermal-geopressured brine and in a 3% NaCl solution in a friction and wear electrolytic cell. The formation of a passive film on 304 stainless steel has a beneficial effect on the magnitude of the coefficient of friction. When pits are electrochemically introduced in the passive film, the friction coefficient becomes even lower than the passive coefficient of friction in the 3% NaCl, but does not significantly change for the brine. The effect of corrosive wear on the surface film is more difficult to assess. Auger spectroscopy was performed on wear surfaces (subjected to both electrochemical and mechanical action) and non-wear surfaces (subjected only to electrochemical action). The surface films formed in 3% NaCl in the non-wear and wear areas including pits consisted of Cr, Fe and Ni in ratios consistent to the bulk material plus 0. In brine the surface film consists of the same elements as above; however, the surface film associated with the non-wear area and the wear area pit show a Cr depletion. Yet, the wear area film is consistent with bulk as in the case of the 3% NaCl.

  10. Evaluation of antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum (Lamiacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Kafeel; Khalil, Ali Talha; Khan, Jangrez; Khan, Yusra Ali; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Umar, Muhamad Naveed; Ahmad, Hilal

    2015-06-01

    To collect and screen for ethnopharmacological properties (antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine lethality assays) of medicinal plan Ocimum basilicum from Peshawar region (34.008 latitude and 71.57 altitudes). In the present study a general antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica strair was carried out. The antibacterial potential of the plant was performed against 06 gram positiv and 06 gram negative bacteria. Brine shrimp cyto- toxicity assay at different concentrations were investigated. The anti-promastigotes profile of the plant showed good antileishmanial activity exhibited LC50 value 21.67 µg/mL. The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O. basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from 20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86 ± 0.80 for Clostridium perfringens type C and Bacillus subtitilis, respectively, as compared to the gentamycin (27.36 ± 0.55 and 21.80 ± 0.72, respectively). For gram negative bacteria good activity was observed. A highest zone of inhibition was recorded for Pseudomonas aeroginosa (28.83 ± 0.28) at the highest concentration (10 mg/ mL). The LC50 value obtained for brine shrimp lethality assay was 91.56 µg/mL. The herb basil possesses effective cidal activities which make this plant a good candidate for the isolation of antiprotozoal and antibacterial compounds which may lead to the development of novel drug.

  11. Perchlorate-Coupled Carbon Monoxide (CO Oxidation: Evidence for a Plausible Microbe-Mediated Reaction in Martian Brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa R. Myers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hydrated salts on Mars indicates that some regions of its surface might be habitable if suitable metabolizable substrates are available. However, several lines of evidence have shown that Mars’ regolith contains only trace levels of the organic matter needed to support heterotrophic microbes. Due to the scarcity of organic carbon, carbon monoxide (CO at a concentration of about 700 parts per million (about 0.4 Pa might be the single most abundant readily available substrate that could support near-surface bacterial activity. Although a variety of electron acceptors can be coupled to CO oxidation, perchlorate is likely the most abundant potential oxidant in Mars’ brines. Whether perchlorate, a potent chaotrope, can support microbial CO oxidation has not been previously documented. We report here the first evidence for perchlorate-coupled CO oxidation based on assays with two distinct euryarchaeal extreme halophiles. CO oxidation occurred readily in 3.8 M NaCl brines with perchlorate concentrations from 0.01 to 1 M. Both isolates were able to couple CO with perchlorate or chlorate under anaerobic conditions with or without nitrate as an inducer for nitrate reductase, which serves as a perchlorate reductase in extreme halophiles. In the presence of perchlorate, CO concentrations were reduced to levels well below those found in Mars’ atmosphere. This indicates that CO could contribute to the survival of microbial populations in hydrated salt formations or brines if water activities are suitably permissive.

  12. Synchronized dynamics of bacterial niche-specific functions during biofilm development in a cold seep brine pool

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2015-07-14

    The biology of biofilm in deep-sea environments is barely being explored. Here, biofilms were developed at the brine pool (characterized by limited carbon sources) and the normal bottom water adjacent to Thuwal cold seeps. Comparative metagenomics based on 50 Gb datasets identified polysaccharide degradation, nitrate reduction, and proteolysis as enriched functional categories for brine biofilms. The genomes of two dominant species: a novel deltaproteobacterium and a novel epsilonproteobacterium in the brine biofilms were reconstructed. Despite rather small genome sizes, the deltaproteobacterium possessed enhanced polysaccharide fermentation pathways, whereas the epsilonproteobacterium was a versatile nitrogen reactor possessing nar, nap and nif gene clusters. These metabolic functions, together with specific regulatory and hypersaline-tolerant genes, made the two bacteria unique compared with their close relatives including those from hydrothermal vents. Moreover, these functions were regulated by biofilm development, as both the abundance and the expression level of key functional genes were higher in later-stage biofilms, and co-occurrences between the two dominant bacteria were demonstrated. Collectively, unique mechanisms were revealed: i) polysaccharides fermentation, proteolysis interacted with nitrogen cycling to form a complex chain for energy generation; ii) remarkably, exploiting and organizing niche-specific functions would be an important strategy for biofilm-dependent adaptation to the extreme conditions.

  13. The impact of different starter cultures on fat content, pН and SH dynamics in white brined cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Makarijoski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White brined cheese is a specific dairy product for Balkan Peninsula countries, Mediterranean, North Africa, Eastern Europe and some parts of Asia. The survey was conducted in 2016 at a dairy industry laboratory in R. of Macedonia. In this research work the influence of three different starter cultures of three white brined cheese variants (A, B, C has been examined regarding the fat content dynamics. The starter culture in variant А (SMCH-5 contained following bacteria strains: Lb. bulgaricus, Str. thermophilus and Lb. acidophilus. In the variant B (Choozit Feta A the follow bacteria strains were included: Lac. lactis ssp. lactis, Lac. lactis ssp. cremoris, Str. thermophilus, Lb. bulgaricus and Lb. helveticus. The variant C (MOTC 092 EE was a combination of the strains: Lac. lactis ssp. lactis, Str. thermophilus, Lb. bulgaricus, Lb. helveticus and Lb. casei. The impact of the above mentioned three different starter cultures was determined over the fat content, рН and SH during the process of ripening of the white brined cheese.

  14. Enhanced Flux and Electrochemical Cleaning of Silicate Scaling on Carbon Nanotube-Coated Membrane Distillation Membranes Treating Geothermal Brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Iddya, Arpita; Zhu, Xiaobo; Dudchenko, Alexander V; Duan, Wenyan; Turchi, Craig; Vanneste, Johann; Cath, Tzahi Y; Jassby, David

    2017-11-08

    The desalination of inland brackish groundwater offers the opportunity to provide potable drinking water to residents and industrial cooling water to industries located in arid regions. Geothermal brines are used to generate electricity, but often contain high concentrations of dissolved salt. Here, we demonstrate how the residual heat left in spent geothermal brines can be used to drive a membrane distillation (MD) process and recover desalinated water. Porous polypropylene membranes were coated with a carbon nanotube (CNT)/poly(vinyl alcohol) layer, resulting in composite membranes having a binary structure that combines the hydrophobic properties critical for MD with the hydrophilic and conductive properties of the CNTs. We demonstrate that the addition of the CNT layer increases membrane flux due to enhanced heat transport from the bulk feed to the membrane surface, a result of CNT's high thermal transport properties. Furthermore, we show how hydroxide ion generation, driven by water electrolysis on the electrically conducting membrane surface, can be used to efficiently dissolve silicate scaling that developed during the process of desalinating the geothermal brine, negating the need for chemical cleaning.

  15. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrabsky, Jason E.; Hand, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  16. Brine shrimp bioassay of some species of Solanum from Northestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria S. Silva

    Full Text Available The methanolic extracts of 13 Specieis of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae have been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina. The extracts investigated were prepared from various parts (aerial parts, roots and fruits of S. asperum, S. capsicoides, S. palinacantum, S. paludosum, S. paniculatum, S. paraibanum, S. sisymbriifolium, S. crinitum, S. diamantinense, S. megalonyx, S. torvum, S. asterophorum and S. stipulaceum. The lethal concentrations were determined for the extracts and among thirteen plants tested, four appear to be inactive. The extracts of the fruits of S. asperum (LC50 = 420.5 µg/mL and S. paludosum (LC50 = 548.0 µg/mL, aerial parts of S. diamantinense (LC50 = 481.0 µg/mL and S. sisymbrifolium (LC50 = 382.7 µg/mL, and the roots of S. asperum (LC50 = 593.4 µg/mL and S. stipulaceum (LC50 = 823.1 µg/mL, all of which previously showed molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata were also found to be active in the present study with brine shrimp.

  17. Partition behaviour of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under subsurface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S. R.

    1997-10-01

    Partition of organic solutes between oils and water in the subsurface is an important geochemical process occurring during petroleum migration and reservoiring, during water washing, and during petroleum production. Currently no data exists on the quantitative aspects of the partition process at subsurface conditions for solutes such as phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons which are major components of both oils and waters. We have constructed an equilibration device for oils and waters based on flow injection analysis principles to measure partition coefficients of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under reservoir conditions. Concentrations of C 0C 2 alkylphenols in waters and solid phase extracts of crude oils produced in the device were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-ED), partition coefficients being measured as a function of pressure (25-340 bar), temperature (25-150°C), and water salinity (0-100,000 mg/L sodium chloride) for a variety of oils. Partition coefficients for all compounds decreased with increasing temperature, increased with water salinity and crude oil bulk NSO content, and showed little change with varying pressure. These laboratory measurements, determined under conditions close to those typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, suggest temperature, water salinity, and crude oil bulk NSO content will have important influence on oil-water partition processes in the subsurface during migration and water washing.

  18. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the “survival of the fattest” principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur. PMID:26938743

  19. Influence of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive mode in the Brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Ziro; Tanaka, Shin; Nambu, Fumiko

    2004-06-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia, exhibit two modes of reproduction: oviparity (diapause cyst production) and ovoviviparity (live larvae release). Environmental conditions determining these developmental routes are poorly understood, so we investigated the effects of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive mode. Nauplii of A. franciscana were hatched from cysts produced in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, and raised in 2% natural sea salt water under photoperiods of 24, 14, 12, or 10 h at 28 degrees or 20 degrees C. Mating pairs of mature shrimp were isolated and reared continuously under those conditions. The mode of reproduction shown by each pair was determined daily throughout their life span, and found to be greatly affected by photoperiod, and less influenced by temperature. The relative degree of oviparity increased as the photoperiod became shorter at both temperatures. In contrast, the degree of ovoviviparity was higher as the photoperiod became longer at both temperatures. The critical photoperiod appears to be between 12 and 14 h. For all photoperiods examined, the degree of oviparity was higher at 28 degrees C than at 20 degrees C, whereas the degree of ovoviviparity was greater at 20 degrees C than at 28 degrees C. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Pons, Inès; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J

    2016-03-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  2. In vitro antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality of Allophylus cobbe L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Torequl; Noor, Md. Abdun; Karon, Bijoy; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Plants are rich source of pharmacologically active agents, which could be explored in disease management. Methanol, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the whole plant of Allophylus cobbe L. were evaluated for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity by disk diffusion method was conducted against four Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi. In the antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity tests, growth inhibition was found to be within the range of 10.0–17.67 mm. Strong zone of inhibition by the ethanol extract of A. cobbe (EEAC) was found against Trichophyton spp. With some exceptions, a mild to strong antimicrobial activity was observed in this study. Significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 15.625 μg/ml) was found against Trichophyton spp. Other detected MICs were within the range of 31.25–125 μg/ml. The petroleum ether extract of the plant exhibited strong cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay test. PMID:23559808

  3. Changes in microbial diversity of brined green asparagus upon treatment with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-04

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 600MPa, 8 min) on brined green asparagus and the changes in bacterial diversity after treatments and during storage at 4 °C (30 days) or 22 °C (10 days) were studied. HHP treatments reduced viable cell counts by 3.6 log cycles. The residual surviving population did not increase during storage at 4 °C. However, bacterial counts significantly increased at 22 °C by day 3, leading to rapid spoilage. The microbiota of green asparagus was composed mainly by Proteobacteria (mainly Pantoea and Pseudomonas), followed by Firmicutes (mainly Lactococcus and Enterococcus) and to a less extent Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. During chill storage of untreated asparagus, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria as well as Enterococcus and Lactococcus decreased while Lactobacillus increased. During storage of untreated asparagus at 22 °C, the abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased while Proteobacteria increased during late storage. The HHP treatment determined a reduction of the Proteobacteria both early after treatment and during chill storage. In the HHP treated samples stored at 22 °C, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas rapidly decreased at day 1, with an increase of Bacteroidetes. This was followed by a marked increase in Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia) simultaneously with increase in viable counts and spoilage. Results from the study indicate that the effect of HHP treatments on the viability ofmicrobial populations in foods also has an impact on the dynamics of microbial populations during the storage of the treated foods.

  4. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ismail

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. Methods The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent. Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Results Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD50 value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4 mg/ml. Similarly, EC50 value for brine shrimp

  5. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Ahmed, Ghayour; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ghias, Mehreen; Khan, Imran

    2011-10-24

    Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic) activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml) three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent). Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM) -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD(50) value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4) mg/ml. Similarly, EC(50) value for brine shrimp cytotoxicity is 65.5 ± 7.28 (60.8- 69.4, n

  6. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic) activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. Methods The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml) three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent). Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM) -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Results Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD50 value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4) mg/ml. Similarly, EC50 value for brine shrimp cytotoxicity is 65.5

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from brined white cheese in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Taha, Mohammad H; Al-Holy, Murad A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Rousan, Walid M; Shaker, Reyad R

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from different dairy food products. Several foodborne outbreaks of listeriosis have been associated with consumption of cheese. The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in brined white cheese (BWC) sold in Jordan, and to determine the susceptibility of isolated L. monocytogenes to antimicrobials. Three hundred and fifty samples of 5 different types of BWC (akkawi, boiled, halloumi, pasteurized, and shellal) were collected from a local market in Jordan. The ISO (11290-1) procedure was followed for isolation and identification of Listeria spp. from cheese samples and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for confirmation of L. monocytogenes isolates. The VITEK2 automated system was used for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. in cheese sample was 27.1%. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 39 (11.1%) samples. Other isolated species were L. grayi (6.9%), L. innocua (2%), L. ivanovii (4%), L. seeligeri (2%), and L. welshimeri (0.3%). The pH values and salt concentrations of L. monocytogenes positive cheese samples ranged from 5.10 to 6.32 and 5.64 to 13.16, respectively. L. monocytogenes isolates were sensitive or intermediate susceptible to imipenem, gentamicin, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to fosfomycin, oxacillin, and clindamycin. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50 and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  9. Optimisation of Fenton's reagent usage as a pre-treatment for fermentation brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Francisco J; Beltrán, Fernando J; Gimeno, Olga; Alvarez, Pedro

    2003-01-31

    Pre-treatment of fermentation brines from green olives has been carried out by the Fe(II)/Fe(III)/H(2)O(2) system. Reagent concentration exerted a positive influence on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Hydrogen peroxide uptake showed values in the range 0.3-1.6mol of COD eliminated per mol of H(2)O(2) consumed depending on operating conditions. The optimum working pH was found to be in the interval 2.0-3.5. Reaction temperature increased the COD degradation rate, although similar COD conversion values were obtained after 5h of treatment regardless of the value of this parameter. An analysis of the biodegradability of this type of effluent demonstrated the beneficial effect of the chemical pre-oxidation. According to the experimental results, it is suggested that there is an inhibitory effect of the wastewater due to its COD content and nature rather than attributable to the presence of high amounts of sodium chloride. Biodegradation efficiency increased as temperature was raised up to 30 degrees C. A further increase of this parameter up to 40 degrees C resulted in the death of the microorganisms.

  10. Character of Mg(ClO4)2 Brines Under Mars Regolith Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, A. P.; Sizemore, H. G.; Rempel, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Elsewhere, we report on our investigation of the initiation and growth of ice lenses under Mars like conditions. In that work, we assume that the soil-water-ice system is gas and solute free. We conclude that initiation of lens initiation - the unloading of particle-particle contacts by thermomolecular forces at a given soil horizon - may be a common process in the shallow Martian regolith, and that the dominant property controlling the rate of lens growth is the freezing point depression (Delta-T(sub f)) associated with the interfacial forces of the soil. Lens growth is thus favored in clay-sized soils over silt soils due to the greater Delta-T(sub f), but segregated ice was observed at the Phoenix site, where soils were predominantly siltsized.. Perchlorate salts were also observed at the Phoenix site, and will strongly affect some of the properties associated with potential ice lens growth, over and above increases to Delta-T(sub f),. Here, we investigate the nature of Mg(ClO4)2 brines under Mars-like conditions, with particular emphasis on those aspects that might influence the in situ segregation of residual liquids during phase change, potentially leading to the formation of subsurface excess ice. We also discuss cyclic variations in the water activity (a(sub w)) that might affect the habitability of solutions in the shallow regolith.

  11. Evaluation of the toxicity of Araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum using brine Shrimp test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos de Sá Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the dawn of medicine, man has used natural products for the treatment of disease. There has been a recent increase in studies of the therapeutic characteristics plants in popular use in many places of the world. In this context, the species Centrolobium tomentosum, Fabaceae, known popularly as Araribá or Araruva, is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an astringent for wound treatment and bruises due to the large amount of tannins contained in the bark. This work used toxicity tests to assess the biological activity of ethanolic extracts from C. tomentosum with the specific objectives of obtaining concentrated extracts from the bark and wood of this species and determining the total phenols and tannins present in these extracts. We collected araribá samples in order to obtain ethanolic extracts through the percolation process. We then made a qualitative chemical identification of hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. We used the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the phenols quantification and the casein precipitation method for the tannins determination. The toxicity of extracts was evaluated using the brine shrimp bioassay (Artemia salina, in which the C. tomentosum bark extract showed moderate toxicity, with estimated LC50 = 416 μg.ml-1, whereas the leaves and wood extracts of this species showed low toxicity with LC50 = 537 μg.ml-1 and 826 μg.ml-1, respectively.

  12. Stress tolerance during diapause and quiescence of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Oviparously developing embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia, arrest at gastrulation and are released from females as cysts before entering diapause, a state of dormancy and stress tolerance. Diapause is terminated by an external signal, and growth resumes if conditions are permissible. However, if circumstances are unfavorable, cysts enter quiescence, a dormant stage that continues as long as adverse conditions persist. Artemia embryos in diapause and quiescence are remarkably resistant to environmental and physiological stressors, withstanding desiccation, cold, heat, oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, and years of anoxia at ambient temperature when fully hydrated. Cysts have adapted to stress in several ways; they are surrounded by a rigid cell wall impermeable to most chemical compounds and which functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Artemia cysts contain large amounts of trehalose, a non-reducing sugar thought to preserve membranes and proteins during desiccation by replacing water molecules and/or contributing to vitrification. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins similar to those in seeds and other anhydrobiotic organisms are found in cysts, and they safeguard cell organelles and proteins during desiccation. Artemia cysts contain abundant amounts of p26, a small heat shock protein, and artemin, a ferritin homologue, both ATP-independent molecular chaperones important in stress tolerance. The evidence provided in this review supports the conclusion that it is the interplay of these protective elements that make Artemia one of the most stress tolerant of all metazoan organisms.

  13. Molecular approaches for improving desiccation tolerance: insights from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    We have evaluated the endogenous expression and molecular properties of selected Group 3 LEA proteins from Artemia franciscana , and the capacity of selected Groups 1 and 3 proteins transfected into various desiccation-sensitive cell lines to improve tolerance to drying. Organisms inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems frequently are confronted with the problem of water loss for multiple reasons--exposure to hypersalinity, evaporative water loss, and restriction of intracellular water due to freezing of extracellular fluids. Seasonal desiccation can become severe and lead to the production of tolerant propagules and entry into the state of anhydrobiosis at various stages of the life cycle. Such is the case for gastrula-stage embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Physiological and biochemical responses to desiccation are central for survival and are multifaceted. This review will evaluate the impact of multiple late embryogenesis abundant proteins originating from A. franciscana, together with the non-reducing sugar trehalose, on prevention of desiccation damage at multiple levels of biological organization. Survivorship of desiccation-sensitive cells during water stress can be improved by use of the above protective agents, coupled to metabolic preconditioning and rapid cell drying. However, obtaining long-term stability of cells in the dried state at room temperature has not been accomplished and will require continued efforts on both the physicochemical and biological fronts.

  14. Permeability of Wellbore-Cement Fractures Following Degradation by Carbonated Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stuart D. C.; Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Mason, Harris E.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-05-01

    Fractures in wellbore cement and along wellbore-cement/host-rock interfaces have been identified as potential leakage pathways from long-term carbon sequestration sites. When exposed to carbon-dioxide-rich brines, the alkaline cement undergoes a series of reactions that form distinctive fronts adjacent to the cement surface. However, quantifying the effect of these reactions on fracture permeability is not solely a question of geochemistry, as the reaction zones also change the cement's mechanical properties, modifying the fracture geometry as a result.This paper describes how these geochemical and geomechanical processes affect fracture permeability in wellbore cement. These competing influences are discussed in light of data from a core-flood experiment conducted under carbon sequestration conditions: reaction chemistry, fracture permeability evolution over time, and comparative analysis of X-ray tomography of unreacted and reacted cement samples. These results are also compared to predictions by a complementary numerical study that couples geochemical, geomechanical and hydrodynamic simulations to model the formation of reaction fronts within the cement and their effect on fracture permeability.

  15. The evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr in the Dead Sea brine: from the Sedom lagoon to Sahara dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai

    2016-04-01

    The history of water-bodies in the Dead Sea brines commenced with the intrusion of the Sedom lagoon, possibly in the late Neogene and continued with the development of hypersaline and freshwater lakes (e.g. the modern Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee). 87Sr/86Sr ratios in these water-bodies decreased over the past ~ 5-6 Ma from 0.7087-0.7084 in salts deposited in the Sedom lagoon to ~ 0.7080 in modern Dead Sea brine. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the salts deposited from Sedom lagoon are significantly lower than those of the contemporaneous late Miocene seawater (~0.709). This difference was attributed to modification of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Sedom lagoon solution by influx of Ca-chloride brines. The brines, in turn were formed by dolomitization of marine limestones of the DSR Cretaceous wall rocks (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7075) by the ingressing evaporated seawaters (Stein et al., 2000). After the disconnection of the Sedom lagoon from the open sea freshwater filled the lakes that occupied the Dead Sea basin. The freshwater influx modified the strontium isotope and chemical composition of the brine and provided bicarbonate and sulfate to the lake that led the precipitation of primary aragonite and gypsum. Freshwater that currently enter the lake are characterize by 87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7081, significantly higher than the Cretaceous carbonates. Settled dust that deposits on the Judea Mountains is composed of calcite and quartz grains and is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ~ 0.7084. It appears that significant amounts of the strontium that entered the lakes with the freshwater originated from dissolution of the dust calcites. Large amounts of dust were transported from the Sahara desert to the Dead Sea watershed during glacial periods when the Sahara was dry and sea-level was low. The source of the detrital calcites however, is not known. They could be derived from dry paleo-lakes in the Sahara that were previously filled by waters that retained the required strontium isotope

  16. Microbial Diversity and Ecology in the Interfaces of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brine Pools in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hikmawan, Tyas I.

    2015-05-01

    Deep-sea anoxic brine pools are one of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, which are characterized by drastic changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen concentration. The interface between the brine and overlaying seawater represents a boundary of oxic-anoxic layer and a steep gradient of redox potential that would initiate favorable conditions for divergent metabolic activities, mainly methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. This study aimed to investigate the diversity of Bacteria, particularly sulfate-reducing communities, and their ecological roles in the interfaces of five geochemically distinct brine pools in the Red Sea. Performing a comprehensive study would enable us to understand the significant role of the microbial groups in local geochemical cycles. Therefore, we combined culture-dependent approach and molecular methods, such as 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene, phylogenetic analysis of functional marker gene encoding for the alpha subunits of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA), and single-cell genomic analysis to address these issues. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated high bacterial diversity and domination of Bacteria over Archaea in most locations. In the hot and multilayered Atlantis II Deep, the bacterial communities were stratified and hardly overlapped. Meanwhile in the colder brine pools, sulfatereducing Deltaproteobacteria were the most prominent bacterial groups inhabiting the interfaces. Corresponding to the bacterial community profile, the analysis of dsrA gene sequences revealed collectively high diversity of sulfate-reducing communities. Desulfatiglans-like dsrA was the prevalent group and conserved across the Red Sea brine pools. In addition to the molecular studies, more than thirty bacterial strains were successfully isolated and remarkably were found to be cytotoxic against the cancer cell lines. However, none of them were sulfate reducers. Thus, a single-cell genomic analysis was used to study

  17. (abstract) A Polarimetric Model for Effects of Brine Infiltrated Snow Cover and Frost Flowers on Sea Ice Backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A polarimetric scattering model is developed to study effects of snow cover and frost flowers with brine infiltration on thin sea ice. Leads containing thin sea ice in the Artic icepack are important to heat exchange with the atmosphere and salt flux into the upper ocean. Surface characteristics of thin sea ice in leads are dominated by the formation of frost flowers with high salinity. In many cases, the thin sea ice layer is covered by snow, which wicks up brine from sea ice due to capillary force. Snow and frost flowers have a significant impact on polarimetric signatures of thin ice, which needs to be studied for accessing the retrieval of geophysical parameters such as ice thickness. Frost flowers or snow layer is modeled with a heterogeneous mixture consisting of randomly oriented ellipsoids and brine infiltration in an air background. Ice crystals are characterized with three different axial lengths to depict the nonspherical shape. Under the covering multispecies medium, the columinar sea-ice layer is an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium composed of ellipsoidal brine inclusions preferentially oriented in the vertical direction in an ice background. The underlying medium is homogeneous sea water. This configuration is described with layered inhomogeneous media containing multiple species of scatterers. The species are allowed to have different size, shape, and permittivity. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is extended to account for the multispecies in the derivation of effective permittivities with distributions of scatterer orientations characterized by Eulerian rotation angles. Polarimetric backscattering coefficients are obtained consistently with the same physical description used in the effective permittivity calculation. The mulitspecies model allows the inclusion of high-permittivity species to study effects of brine infiltrated snow cover and frost flowers on thin ice. The results suggest that the frost cover with a rough interface

  18. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  19. Anoxic Corrosion of Steel and Lead in Na - Cl ± Mg-Dominated Brines in Atmospheres Containing CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, G. T.; Johnsen, S.; Allen, C.; Roselle, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in bedded salt (Permian Salado Fm.). In order to minimize radionuclide release from the repository it is desirable to maintain these species in their least-soluble form (i.e., low oxidation states). Post-closure conditions in the WIPP will control the speciation and solubility of radionuclides in the waste. Microbially-produced CO2 from cellulosic, plastic and rubber materials in the waste may acidify any brine present and increase the actinide solubilities. Thus, the DOE emplaces MgO in the repository to buffer fCO2 and pH within ranges favoring lower actinide solubilities. Large quantities of low-C steel and Pb present in the WIPP may also consume CO2. We present initial results from a series of multiyear experiments investigating the corrosion of steel and Pb alloys under WIPP-relevant conditions. The objective is to determine the extent to which these alloys consume CO2 via the formation of carbonates or other phases, potentially supporting MgO in CO2 sequestration. In these experiments steel and Pb coupons are immersed in brines under WIPP-relevant conditions using a continuous gas flow-through system. The experimental apparatus maintains the following conditions: pO2 Energy Research and Development Administration WIPP Well 6 (ERDA-6), a predominately Na-Cl brine; GWB with organic ligands (EDTA, acetate, citrate, and oxalate); and ERDA-6 with the same organic ligands. Steel coupons removed after 6 months show formation of several phases dependent on the pCO2. SEM analysis with EDS shows the presence of a green Fe (±Mg)-chlori-hydroxide phase at pCO2 values 350 ppm. Multiple cleaning cycles were used to remove all corrosion products from the coupons, which were then weighed to determine corrosive mass loss. These data are used to calculate average corrosion rates for each experimental condition. The

  20. Brine delineation and monitoring with electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetic borehole logging at the Fort Knox well field near West Point, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rory; Unthank, Michael D.; Zettwoch, Douglas D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The potable water system at Fort Knox is threatened by brine contamination from improperly abandoned natural gas exploration wells. The Fort Knox well field is located near the town of West Point, Kentucky, in the flood plain of the Ohio River. At the site, unconsolidated sediments approximately 30 – 40 m thick, overlie shale and porous limestone. Brine is believed to flow vertically from the underlying formations to the unconsolidated aquifer through damaged or leaky well casings under a high hydraulic gradient from the artificially pressurized porous limestone, which is utilized for natural gas storage by a regional energy company. Upon reaching the unconsolidated aquifer, brinecontaminated groundwater enters water supply production wells under the pumping‐induced gradient. As part of the Fort Knox remediation strategy to reduce the impact of brine contamination, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and borehole electromagnetic (EM) logs are being collected annually to detect gross changes in subsurface conductivity. The 2009 ERT data show areas of high conductivity on the western (contaminated) side of the site with conductivities more than an order of magnitude higher than on the eastern (uncontaminated) side of the site. The areas of high conductivity are interpreted as brine contamination, consistent with known regions of brine contamination. Conductivities from the EM logs are consistent with the results from the ERT inversions. The EM logs show little change between 2008 and 2009, except for some small changes in the brine distribution in well PZ1. Yearly ERT surveys will be continued to detect new areas of brine contamination and monitor the remediation effort.

  1. Brine migrations in the Athabasca Basin platform, alteration and associated fluid-rock exchanges; Migrations de saumures dans le socle du bassin de l'Athabasca, alteration et echanges fluide-roche associes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercadier, J.; Cathelineau, M.; Richard, A.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M. [G2R, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Milesi, J.P. [AREVA, BU Mines, Tour Areva, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)

    2009-07-01

    Uranium deposits of Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) are considered as the richest in the world. They result from massive percolation of basin brines in the underlying platform. The authors describe the brine movements and how structures and micro-fractures promoted this percolation until very important depths (hundreds of meters under the discordance), and their chemical modifications as they interacted with platform rocks, thus promoting the transformation of an initially sodic brine into a uranium-enriched calcic brine which is essential to the formation of discordance-type deposit

  2. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  3. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Misty R; Baxter, Bonnie K; Avery, Brian J

    2013-03-08

    Prior research on the microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, has mainly been limited to culture-based identification techniques or feeding studies for aquaculture. Our objective was to identify bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia adults and encysted embryos to understand the role of microbes in the Artemia life cycle and, therefore, their importance in a hypersaline food chain. We used small subunit (SSU) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to identify bacteria and archaea associated with adults and encysted Artemia embryos from one of their natural environments - Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA. We found that bacterial sequences most closely related to the genera Halomonas and Vibrio were commonly extracted from GSL adult Artemia, while bacterial sequences most similar to the genera Halomonas, Psychroflexus and Alkalilimnicola dominate in GSL water. Encysted embryos (cysts) yielded bacterial sequences from the genera Idiomarina and Salinivibrio, which were absent from adults and water. Common archaeal sequences in adults were most closely related to the genera Haloterrigena and Haloarcula, while all of the archaeal sequences from GSL water were most similar to the genus Halogeometricum. Cyst derived archaeal sequences were most closely related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. In addition to identifying microbial rRNA sequences that are specific to different stages of the Artemia life cycle, we observed striking differences in the sequences associated with the adult Artemia population in samples collected from GSL at different times and locations. While our study was limited in scope and the sample was small, our findings provide a foundation for future research into how the bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia influence the Artemia life cycle, and GSL food web.

  4. Larval helminths in the invasive American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana throughout its annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Angelov, Aleksandar; Vasileva, Gergana P; Sánchez, Marta I; Hortas, Francisco; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Pankov, Plamen; Green, Andy J

    2014-09-01

    One of the best examples of rapid displacement of native species by an invader is the eradication of native Artemia salina and A. parthenogenetica in the Mediterranean by the introduced American A. franciscana. Previous studies based on sampling from limited time periods suggest that the success of the American species as a competitor may be due partly to different parasite burden, since native Artemia spp. have high cestode infection rates regulating their density. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the helminth infection in A. franciscana in its invasive range is low throughout its annual life cycle. Samples of A. franciscana were collected every second month from La Tapa saltern (Andalusia) during one year. Five helminth species were recorded: cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides, F. flamingo, Gynandrotaenia stammeri (all flamingo parasites), Eurycestus avoceti (a shorebird parasite) and larval spirurids of the Acuariinae (the first record of nematodes in Artemia). The overall infection rate was low, with total prevalence 5.9% and prevalence of individual parasite species between 0.2 and 3.2%. The mean abundance of helminths was 0.005-0.155 (av. 0.068), 5-13 times lower than in native congeners. Waterbird counts indicate that the low infection rates cannot be explained by lack of definitive hosts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that helminths have no regulating effect on the invasive brine shrimp in the Mediterranean. The replacement of the native populations by the invader can be partially explained by a competition mediated by parasites/predators through a differential impact on host fitness.

  5. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  6. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Desalination Brine and Sulfate-Dominated Saltwater in a Euryhaline Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsco, Allison; Sikder, Rafid; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Desalination is a promising sustainable solution to meet growing water needs of cities across the United States. However, the environmental impacts of the resulting filtrate (brine) discharged to surface water need to be evaluated before large-scale desalination can be successful in the United States. Developing fish are especially sensitive to changes in salinity and varying ionic composition. Limited research is available on the impacts of hypersalinity on chronic vertebrate embryonic development, particularly on sublethal effects. To investigate this, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were treated with: (1) graphite filtered freshwater; (2) artificial seawater [17, 35, 42, 56, and 70 parts per thousand (ppt)]; (3) effluent from a desalination facility at Monterey Bay Aquarium, CA, diluted to 75, 50, and 25% with 35 ppt artificial seawater to simulate mixing (39, 42, 46, and 50 ppt); (4) artificial San Joaquin River water (CA, USA) (9, 13, and 17 ppt); and (5) artificial San Joaquin River water diluted to 75, 50, and 25% with artificial seawater to simulate estuarine mixing in the San Francisco Bay (13, 19, 24, and 30 ppt). Percent hatch, survival post hatch, deformities, swim bladder inflation, and median day to hatch were recorded to calculate EC50 (50% effect concentration) and NOEC (no observable effect concentration) values. No significant difference was observed between artificial seawater and Monterey Bay aquarium effluent (EC50 = 45-55 ppt). However, San Joaquin River water decreased survival post hatch and increased deformities in comparison to artificial seawater and San Joaquin River water mixed with seawater, suggesting that unique ion compositions may play a role in embryo and larval toxicity.

  7. Expression and characterization of the JAK kinase and STAT protein from brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Gen-Der; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Li; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Huang, Fore-Lien; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized both JAK and STAT genes from Artemia, Artemia franciscana. Although AfJAK showed only 19% identity (33% similarity) to the Drosophila Hop protein, AfJAK contained the characteristic JAK homology domain (JH domain) from JH1 to JH7. On the other hand, AfSTAT showed higher identity (30%) to Drosophila STAT (STAT92E). The low identities of AfJAK and AfSTAT to Drosophila Hop and STAT92E suggest that JAK and STAT proteins are unique in each different species of invertebrate. RT-PCR analysis showed that both AfJAK and AfSTAT transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in the embryo, which is similar to the expression patterns of Drosophila Hop and STAT92E mRNAs during development. In addition, we generated a constitutively active form of AfSTAT by fusing the JH1 domain of AfJAK to the C-terminal end of AfSTAT. This fusion protein, AfSTAT-HA-JH1, autophosphorylated on its tyrosine residue and was able to bind to specific DNA motifs including the STAT-binding motifs in the Drosophila Raf promoter. Both AfJAK and AfSTAT proteins elicited the transactivation potential toward the fly Raf promoter in Sf9 cells. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of AfSTAT was not detected, which is consistent with the cellular localization analysis that most AfSTAT proteins were in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrate that both JAK and STAT are present in the genome of Artemia, which can serve as the basis for further investigations to explore the role of the JAK/STAT signal pathway in the development and immune response of brine shrimp. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of hydrophobic clay–alumina based capillary membrane for desalination of brine by membrane distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Das

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clay–alumina compositions of 0, 20, 40 and 55 weight percent (wt% clay and rest alumina were maintained in porous support preparation by extrusion followed by sintering at 1300 °C for 2.5 h to obtain 3 mm/2 mm (outer diameter/inner diameter capillary. 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (97% (C8 was used to modify the capillary surface of all compositions without any intermediate membrane layer to impart hydrophobic characteristics and compared in terms of contact angle produced by the capillaries with water and liquid entry pressure (LEPw. FTIR analysis showed that the hydrophilic surface of the capillary membranes was efficiently modified by the proposed grafting method. Capillary with 55 wt% clay produced a pore size of 1.43 micron and was considered as an ideal candidate for grafting with C8 polymer to impart surface hydrophobicity. The contact angle and LEPw value obtained for this modified membrane (C-55-M were 145° and 1 bar, respectively. The modified capillary membrane was applied for desalination of brine by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD at a feed pressure of 0.85 bar. Maximum flux obtained for C-55-M membrane was 98.66 L/m2 day at a temperature difference of 60 °C with salt rejection of 99.96%. Mass transfer coefficient of C-55-M was 16 × 10−3 mm/s at feed temperature of 70 °C.

  9. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research on the microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, has mainly been limited to culture-based identification techniques or feeding studies for aquaculture. Our objective was to identify bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia adults and encysted embryos to understand the role of microbes in the Artemia life cycle and, therefore, their importance in a hypersaline food chain. Results We used small subunit (SSU) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to identify bacteria and archaea associated with adults and encysted Artemia embryos from one of their natural environments – Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA. We found that bacterial sequences most closely related to the genera Halomonas and Vibrio were commonly extracted from GSL adult Artemia, while bacterial sequences most similar to the genera Halomonas, Psychroflexus and Alkalilimnicola dominate in GSL water. Encysted embryos (cysts) yielded bacterial sequences from the genera Idiomarina and Salinivibrio, which were absent from adults and water. Common archaeal sequences in adults were most closely related to the genera Haloterrigena and Haloarcula, while all of the archaeal sequences from GSL water were most similar to the genus Halogeometricum. Cyst derived archaeal sequences were most closely related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Conclusions In addition to identifying microbial rRNA sequences that are specific to different stages of the Artemia life cycle, we observed striking differences in the sequences associated with the adult Artemia population in samples collected from GSL at different times and locations. While our study was limited in scope and the sample was small, our findings provide a foundation for future research into how the bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia influence the Artemia life cycle, and GSL food web. PMID:23497541

  11. Effect of debonded interfaces on corrosion of mild steel composites in supercritical CO2-saturated brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-07

    The geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2} is a proposed method to limit greenhouse gas emissions and has been the subject of many studies in the last decade. Wellbore systems achieve isolation of the storage reservoir through a combination of steel (generally carbon steel) and Portland cement. CO{sub 2} leakage along the steel-cement interface has the potential to accelerate corrosion. We conduct experiments to assess the corrosion risk at cement-steel interface under in situ wellbore conditions. Wellbore interfaces were simulated by assemblies constructed of J55 mild steel and Portland class G (Epoxy was used in this study to separate) cement and corrosion was investigated in supercritical CO{sub 2} saturated brines, (NaCl = 1 wt%) at T = 50 C, pCO{sub 2} = 1200 psi with interface gap size = 100 {micro}m and {infinity} (open surface). The experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, 1.8 L autoclave. The corrosion kinetics were measured employing electrochemical techniques including linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The corrosion scales were analyzed using secondary electron microscopy, back scattering electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Corrosion rates decreased as time with or without interface gap. In this case corrosion rates are controlled by scale protectivity through the interface gap. Scaled steel corrosion rates were two orders of magnitude less compared with fresh steel. The corrosion scale is pseudo crystalline at the open interface. Well-crystallized scale was observed at interface gap sizes 100 {micro}m. All corrosion scales were composed of iron carbonates.

  12. Geochemical analysis of brine samples for exploration of Borate deposits in the South of Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bemani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mohammad-abad Oryan is the only potential source of borate in the North-east of Iran located in 50 km South of Sabzevar. The area is located in tuff marl, tuffaceous marl, volcanic braccia and tuff braccia structures. Remote sensing techniques, geological studies and integration of this data in GIS were applied in an area of about 600 square kilometers to locate the promising areas of borate mineralization for detailed studies (Bemani, 2012. The aim of this detailed geochemical study is to confine the anomaly areas for exploratory drilling and trenching. Materials and methods Field studies were carried out in 9 geological traverses, mainly in Tonakar and Borje Kharkan area and 126 brine samples were taken from hydrothermal springs and 13 rock samples were taken from trenches. All the samples were analyzed for four elements, including B, K, Li and Mg. In order to determine the threshold quantities of the samples and isolation of anomaly, the data were analyzed using statistical methods including classical statistics, fractal geometry and EDA methods (Bemani, 2012. Result Initial data analysis showed that there were no censored data. Also, by applying statistical hypothesis testing, no significant relation was observed between the elements in the two areas (except for Li. Therefore, all the statistical analyses were carried out separately. After outlier correction, based on the amount of skewedness and histograms and probability plots of different elements, it became clear that none of the elements in the raw data distribution were normal and required to be transformed to be close to normal. In this study, logarithmic and three-parameter logarithm transformation were used in order to normalize the data . Based on the mean values, standard deviation of the normalized data, and background value and threshold, probable and possible anomalies were obtained and geochemical anomaly maps were drawn to identify the promising areas. With the

  13. Capillary pressure-saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in limestone/dolomite sands: implications for geologic carbon sequestration in carbonate reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2015-06-16

    In geologic carbon sequestration, capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw) relations are needed to predict reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been extensively studied in oil-water and gas-water systems, but few measurements have been reported for supercritical (sc) CO2-water. Here, Pc-Sw relations of scCO2 displacing brine (drainage), and brine rewetting (imbibition) were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior under reservoir conditions. Hysteretic drainage and imbibition Pc-Sw curves were measured in limestone sands at 45 °C under elevated pressures (8.5 and 12.0 MPa) for scCO2-brine, and in limestone and dolomite sands at 23 °C (0.1 MPa) for air-brine using a new computer programmed porous plate apparatus. scCO2-brine drainage and imbibition curves shifted to lower Pc relative to predictions based on interfacial tension, and therefore deviated from capillary scaling predictions for hydrophilic interactions. Fitting universal scaled drainage and imbibition curves show that wettability alteration resulted from scCO2 exposure over the course of months-long experiments. Residual trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined at Pc = 0 during imbibition. Amounts of trapped scCO2 were significantly larger than for those for air, and increased with pressure (depth), initial scCO2 saturation, and time. These results have important implications for scCO2 distribution, trapping, and leakage potential.

  14. The behavior of the diffusion coefficients in salting of herring in a fixed brine at subzero temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shumanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of herring brine salting at subzero temperatures, taking into account the positive dynamics of its catching, its reserves, a favorable cooling effect on the suppression of microorganizms activity, improvement of product quality and increasing of storage time are indicated in this paper. Changes in such a significant characteristics as the diffusion coefficient in the process of salting at subzero temperatures were studied. Method of photon correlation spectroscopy, based on the Rayleigh scattering of radiation from the substance was used for the study. The experimental diffusion coefficient dependences on the depth of penetration of the salt in brine, skin and meat of herring at temperatures ranging from -16 ° C to -6 ° C were obtained. They are of wave-like nature. The dependence of the diffusion coefficients on subzero temperature ranging from -18 ° C to 0 ° C, and having a harmonic form was also obtained in the work. The resulting temperature gradient is a source of perturbations, giving rise to thermoconvective waves. According to the theoretical research of Academician A.V. Lykov and chemical processes occurring at the border (skin of phase separation using the basic equation of thermochemistry - Gibbs law, mechanism of thermoconvective waves influencing the diffusion coefficient is explained. A relation between the diffusion coefficients with the size of the diffusing particles, having hyperbolic character in the temperature range from -18 ° C to 0 ° C in the in brine, skin and meat of herring was determined . The possibility of acceleration of salting by means of mechanical impact on the object under study (in particular sound or ultrasound was expressed. The destruction of the diffusing particles, representing the union of Na+ and Cl- with water molecules, increases the diffusion coefficient.

  15. Ekphrasis, Intertextuality and the Role of the Reader in Poems by Francisco Brines and Claudio Rodríguez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Michael Mudrovic

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Ekphrasis, the verbal representation of visual art, affords a singular perspective on a discrepancy between the general conception of intertextuality and its practical application. Francisco Brines's "Museo de la Academia" ("Museum of the Academy" and Claudio Rodríguez's "Hilando" ("Spinning" both contain the description of a painting. Each poet achieves diverse effects with a different handling of the respective paintings, yet both come to surprisingly similar conclusions with regard to the poetic act. Brines's depiction of the martyrdom of St. Sebastian supplies a limited amount of information that dovetails neatly with the use of metaphor and metonymy. Rodríguez's use of synecdoche in conjunction with the description of the dominant figure in Velázquez's The Spinners introduces an overwhelming abundance of allusions that interconnect with one another, weaving the fabric of the text while at the same time unravelling it. Whereas Brines emphatically reminds the reader of the frame separating the participant from the work of art, Rodríguez dissolves it and conflates the world of the text with that of the participant. These variant approaches to the intertextual space correspond to the concept of supplementarity and allow us to deconstruct the commonly-held contradiction between the general and practical acceptations of intertextuality. These two poems also make the metapoetic dimension of the text, the indeterminacy of language, the interrelationship between art and life, and the view of the poem as epistemological and ontological construct—important characteristics of post-Civil War Spanish poetry—stand out in sharp relief. In these poems by major figures of that era ekphrasis leads to the discovery of essential aspects of the reading process and amends our view of intertextuality.

  16. Effect of light and brine shrimp on skeletal δ 13C in the Hawaiian coral Porites compressa: a tank experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2002-06-01

    Previous experimental fieldwork showed that coral skeletal δ13C values decreased when solar intensity was reduced, and increased in the absence of zooplankton. However, actual seasonal changes in solar irradiance levels are typically less pronounced than those used in the previous experiment and the effect of increases in the consumption of zooplankton in the coral diet on skeletal δ13C remains relatively unknown. In the present study, the effects of four different light and heterotrophy regimes on coral skeletal δ13C values were measured. Porites compressa corals were grown in outdoor flow-through tanks under 112%, 100%, 75%, and 50% light conditions at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Hawaii. In addition, corals were fed either zero, low, medium, or high concentrations of brine shrimp. Decreases in light from 100% resulted in significant decreases in δ13C that is most likely due to a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis. Increases in light to 112% also resulted in a decrease in δ13C values. This latter response may be a consequence of photoinhibition. The overall curved response in δ13C values was described by a significant quadratic function. Increases in brine shrimp concentrations resulted in increased skeletal δ13C levels. This unexpected outcome appears to be attributable to enhanced nitrogen supply associated with the brine shrimp diet which led to increased zooxanthellae concentrations, increased photosynthesis rates, and thus increased δ13C values. This result highlights the potential influence of nutrients from heterotrophically acquired carbon in maintaining the zooxanthellae-host symbiosis in balance. In addition, evidence is presented that suggests that coral skeletal growth and δ13C are decoupled. These results increase our knowledge of how light and heterotrophy affects the δ13C of coral skeletons.

  17. Simulating the impact of brine from desalination plants on the salinity of the Persian/Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Ibrahim, H. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle East has an arid climate and very little freshwater from river runoff, which has forced a rapid expansion of desalination plants in the region in order to meet current and future freshwater demand due to rising population. The Gulf is the source of feedwater and sink of concentrated discharge (brine) for plants producing more than half of the world's desalination capacity. Moreover, the Gulf is one of the most saline water bodies in the world due to large evaporation that far exceeds the input of freshwater from precipitation and river runoff. An increase in salinity at the regional scale due to brine discharge may reduce the quality of feedwater to plants and efficiency of desalination, and at the basin scale, a rise in salinity may change the dynamics of water circulation and adversely impact the marine biota. Here we present modeling results from simulating the impact of desalination on the natural Gulf environment using a coupled Gulf-atmosphere regional model (GARM). GARM is the first two-way coupled model developed for the Gulf system. The hydrodynamic component of GARM is the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) and the atmosphere component of GARM is the MIT regional climate model (MRCM), both of which have been widely used in simulating regional ocean and atmospheric dynamics. Desalination activity is incorporated into GARM as a boundary condition and the Gulf system is simulated for a ten-year time period in order to quantify the impact of brine discharge both at regional and basin scales. These results will be useful for desalination plant design and planning for current and future water security in the region.

  18. Legal aspects and technical alternatives for the treatment of reservoir brines at the Activo Luna oilfield, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkle, Peter; Cid Vázquez, Adolfo L; Fong Aguilar, J L

    2005-01-01

    Deep formation water, extracted as an undesired byproduct from on-shore production wells at the Activo Luna oilfield and processed in adjacent oil fields, are highly enriched in salt minerals, especially in sodium chloride (NaCl) (262 000 mg/L), but also in metals and nonmetals, such as strontium (Sr) (2068 mg/L), bromine (Br) (2034 mg/L), boron (B) (396 mg/ L), iodine (I) (43.4 mg/L), selenium (Se) (3.74 mg/L), and arsenic (As) (0.55 mg/L). Direct reinjection of the brine underground is not possible because of elevated pressure conditions within the petroleum reservoir. The disposal into near shore areas of the Gulf of Mexico without treatment must be rejected because of a) elevated concentrations of some toxic elements, such as B, silver (Ag), thallium (Tl), Se and cadmium (Cd), which exceed permissible limits of environmental legislation for surface discharge (Official Mexican norms NOM-001-ECOL-1998 and CE-CCA-001/89), and b) differences in density that could cause the descent of hypersaline fluid to the ocean floor, potentially affecting the diversity and survival of the benthic ecosystem. Conventional treatment techniques, such as microfiltration or reverse osmosis, are not suitable for the Activo Luna brines because of their extreme mineralization, which will cause pressure conditions exceeding 200 bars across the membrane. As an alternative process, the evaporation of the entire brine volume of approximately 200 m3/day by solar ponds or industrial crystallization plants is suggested. The residual precipitated residuals are composed mainly of chlorine (Cl) (9460 tons/year), sodium (Na) (4230 tons/ year), calcium (Ca) (1028 tons/year), potassium (K) (207 tons/year), and magnesium (Mg) (65.8 tons/year). As an alternative to its disposal on a dumpsite, some special minerals (especially NaCl, Mg, Sr, and Br) could be recovered for its economic value.

  19. Brine formation via deliquescence by salts found near Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Laboratory experiments and field observational results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, R. V.; Wong, J.; Dickson, J. L.; Levy, J. S.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The observed darkening of water tracks near Don Juan Pond (DJP) as well as the formation of wet patches elsewhere in the McMurdo Dry Valleys is attributed at least partially to deliquescence, a process by which salts absorb atmospheric water vapor and form brine, coupled with liquid-phase growth when the atmospheric relative humidity exceeds the water activity. Here we perform laboratory experiments to investigate the temperature and relative humidity conditions necessary for deliquescence to occur in calcium chloride-rich sediments collected from the DJP watershed. We use a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell to study both deliquescence and efflorescence (recrystallization) of the soluble salt component of DJP soils between -30 and +15 °C. In this temperature range, we find that the soluble salt component of the DJP sediments begins to deliquesce between 19 and 46% RH, slightly higher than the deliquescence relative humidity of the primary pure component, calcium chloride. We find a limited hysteresis between deliquescence and efflorescence, but much greater supersaturation of the salt brine can occur at temperatures above 0 °C. The relative humidity conditions were varied either slowly (over ∼8 h) to observe near-equilibrium phases or rapidly (over round hydrological cycle of the DJP watershed. Steep-sloped water tracks found near DJP have been suggested as a terrestrial analog for recurring slope lineae on Mars, for which salt deliquescence is a proposed formation mechanism. Therefore, understanding the formation of deliquescent brines in a hyper-arid region on Earth may have relevance to Mars.

  20. Perchlorate and Volatiles of the Brine of Lake Vida (Antarctica): Implication for the in Situ Analysis of Mars Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenig, Fabien; Chou, Luoth; McKay, Christopher P.; Jackson, W. Andrew; Doran, Peter T.; Murray, Alison E.; Fritsen, Christian H.

    2016-01-01

    The cold (-13.4 C), cryoencapsulated, anoxic, interstitial brine of the 27 m-thick ice of Lake Vida (Victoria Valley, Antarctica) contains 49 microgram L-1 of perchlorate and 11 microgram L-1 of chlorate. Lake Vida brine (LVBr) may provide an analog for potential oxychlorine-rich subsurface brine on Mars. LVBr volatiles were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with two different SPME fibers. With the exception of volatile organic sulfur compounds, most other volatiles observed were artifacts produced in the GC injector when the thermal decomposition products of oxychlorines reacted with reduced carbon derived from LVBr and the SPME fiber phases. Analysis of MilliQ water with perchlorate (40 microgram L-1) showed low level of organic artifacts, reflecting carbon limitation. In order to observe sample-derived organic compounds, both in analog samples and on Mars, the molar abundance of reduced carbon in a sample must exceed those of O2 and Cl2 produced during decomposition of oxychlorines. This suggests that the abundance of compounds observed by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments in Sheepbed samples (CB-3, CB5, and CB6) may be controlled by an increase in the reduced-carbon/oxychlorine ratio of these samples. To increase chances of in situ detection of Martian organics during pyrolysis-GC-MS, we propose that the derivatization agents stored on SAM may be used as an external source of reduced carbon, increasing artificially the reduced-carbon to perchlorate ratio during pyrolysis, allowing the expression of more abundant and perhaps more diverse Martian organic matter.

  1. Improved methylene blue two-phase titration method for determining cationic surfactant concentration in high-salinity brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Leyu; Puerto, Maura; López-Salinas, José L; Biswal, Sibani L; Hirasaki, George J

    2014-11-18

    The methylene blue (MB) two-phase titration method is a rapid and efficient method for determining the concentrations of anionic surfactants. The point at which the aqueous and chloroform phases appear equally blue is called Epton's end point. However, many inorganic anions, e.g., Cl(-), NO3(-), Br(-), and I(-), can form ion pairs with MB(+) and interfere with Epton's end point, resulting in the failure of the MB two-phase titration in high-salinity brine. Here we present a method to extend the MB two-phase titration method for determining the concentration of various cationic surfactants in both deionized water and high-salinity brine (22% total dissolved solid). A colorless end point, at which the blue color is completely transferred from the aqueous phase to the chloroform phase, is proposed as titration end point. Light absorbance at the characteristic wavelength of MB is measured using a spectrophotometer. When the absorbance falls below a threshold value of 0.04, the aqueous phase is considered colorless, indicating that the end point has been reached. By using this improved method, the overall error for the titration of a permanent cationic surfactant, e.g., dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, in deionized (DI) water and high-salinity brine is 1.274% and 1.322% with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.149 and 0.215 mM, respectively. Compared to the traditional acid-base titration method, the error of this improved method for a switchable cationic surfactant, e.g., tertiary amine surfactant (Ethomeen C12), is 2.22% in DI water and 0.106% with LOD of 0.369 and 0.439 mM, respectively.

  2. Methane Hydrate Fformation in a Coarse-Grained, Brine-Saturated Sample Through the Induction of a Propagating Gas Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D.

    2016-12-01

    We generate methane hydrate in a coarse-grained, brine-saturated, vertically-oriented sample through gas injection. From 0 - 80 hours, we estimate a hydrate saturation of 0.56 behind the formation front, using mass balance, indicating that hydrate formation is limited by locally-elevated salinity creating three-phase equilibrium conditions. After 80 hours, the hydrate phase saturation drops to 0.50 and the magnitude of the pressure drop-rebound cycles increases, suggesting temporary reductions in permeability and the development of heterogeneous distributions of free gas in the sample. The sample consists of an industrial, fine sand mixed with a 0.5 wt% fraction of natural, smectitic clay from the Eugene Island region in the Gulf of Mexico (5.08cm diameter, 11.79cm length). The sample is initially saturated with a 7 wt% sodium chloride brine, pressurized to 12.24 MPa, and cooled to 1 degree Celsius, to bring the sample into the hydrate stability zone. Syringe pumps filled with methane gas and brine are connected to the top and bottom of the sample, respectively, to control fluid flow. We withdraw from the base of the sample at a rate of 0.0005 mL/min and inject methane to maintain a constant pressure, initiating hydrate formation. We analyze this experiment, as well as a gas flood experiment executed under the same conditions, using computed-tomography scans and an analytical solution to investigate the formation behavior and thermodynamic state of hydrate in gas-rich, coarse-grained reservoirs.

  3. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  4. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E. (eds.)

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analsyis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  5. Perchlorate and Volatiles in the Brine of Lake Vida (antarctica): Implication for the Analysis of Mars Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenig, F. P. H.; Chou, L.; McKay, C.; Jackson, W. A.; Doran, P. T.; Murray, A. E.; Fritsen, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    A cold (-13.4 °C), saline (188 psu) evaporative brine is encapsulated in the thick (> 27 m) ice of Lake Vida (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica). The Lake Vida brine (LVBr), which contains abundant dissolved organic carbon (48.2 mmol/L), support an active but slow microbial community. LVBr contains oxychlorines with 50 μg/L of perchlorate and 11 μg/L of chlorate. The McMurdo Dry Valleys have often been considered as a good Mars analog. The oxychlorine-rich brine of Lake Vida constitutes a potential equivalent to perchlorate-rich preserved saline liquid water on Mars. We report here on the artifacts created by oxychlorines upon analysis of volatiles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of LVBr by direct immersion (DI) and head space (HS) solid phase micro extraction (SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). We compare analytical blanks to a standard containing 40 μg/L of perchlorate and to actual LVBr sample runs. All blanks, perchlorate blanks and samples were analyzed using two types of SPME fibers, CarboxenTM/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and divinylbenzene (DVB)/ PDMS. The similarities and differences between our results and those obtained by the Sample Analysis at Mars instruments of the rover Curiosity are discussed. The volatiles evolved from LVBr upon analysis with DI- and HS-SPME GCMS are dominated by CO2, dichloromethane, HCl, and volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs, such as DMS, DMDS). The volatiles also include oxygenated compounds such as acids and ketones, aromatic compounds, hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds (dominated by dichloromethane). Apart from the VOSCs, short chain hydrocarbons and some functionalized compounds derived from the brine itself, all compounds observed are artifacts formed upon oxychlorine breakdown in the injector of the GCMS. The distribution of aromatic compounds seems to be directly dependant on the type of SPME fiber used. The perchlorate blanks show a clear pattern of carbon limitation, likely affecting the

  6. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). Conclusion These results

  7. Studies on the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bur. (Bignoniaceae) extracts and their main constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Maria Lysete A; Lima, Maria Raquel F; Conserva, Lucia M; Andrade, Vânia S; Rocha, Eliana MM; Lemos, Rosangela PL

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach), we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans). Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm) and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm) growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL) and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL). From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1), 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2), 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3), and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4)] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm) and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm)] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm) and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm)] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm). Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic

  8. Studies on the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur. (Bignoniaceae extracts and their main constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Eliana MM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach, we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans. Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL. From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2, 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3, and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm. Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic

  9. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  10. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E. (eds.)

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analysis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  11. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  12. Anti-icing properties of a superhydrophobic surface in a salt environment: an unexpected increase in freezing delay times for weak brine droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Emelyanenko, Kirill A; Maslakov, Konstantin I

    2016-01-28

    Superhydrophobic coatings on the aluminum alloy were fabricated by intensive nanosecond pulsed laser treatment and chemical surface hydrophobization, which are chemically stable in contact with 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solutions and mechanically durable against stresses arising in the repetitive freezing/thawing of brine. The statistics of the crystallization of ensembles of sessile supercooled droplets deposited on above superhydrophobic coatings indicate considerable anti-icing properties. The comparative analysis of crystallization statistics of deionized water and of brine at a temperature of -20 °C allows detecting a striking increase in freezing delay times for the latter case with freezing delay for brine droplets reaching more than 6 hours. We explain the observed phenomenon based on the structure of the double electric layer in the vicinity of the hydrophobic surface and the solution/air interface and on the concept of structure making/breaking ions.

  13. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  14. The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are

  15. Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO 2 -Acidified Brine Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

    2013-08-15

    Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel

  16. Aqueous Rare Earth Element Patterns and Concentration in Thermal Brines Associated With Oil and Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, Charles [University of Wyoming; Quillinan, Scott Austin [University of Wyoming; Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-13

    This study is part of a joint effort by the University of Wyoming (UW) School of Energy Resources (SER), the UW Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratories (INL), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to describe rare earth element concentrations in oil and gas produced waters and in coal-fired power station ash ponds. In this work we present rare earth element (REE) and trace metal behavior in produced water from four Wyoming oil and gas fields and surface ash pond water from two coal-fired power stations. The concentration of REEs in oil and gas produced waters is largely unknown. For example, of the 150,000 entries in the USGS National Produced Waters Geochemical Database less than 5 include data for REEs. Part of the reason for this scarcity is the analytical challenge of measuring REEs in high salinity, hydrocarbon-bearing waters. The industry standard for water analysis struggles to detect REEs in natural waters under ideal conditions. The detection of REEs in oil and gas field samples becomes all but impossible with the background noise and interferences caused by high concentrations of non-REE ions and residual hydrocarbons. The INL team members have overcome many of these challenges (e.g. McLing, 2014), and continue to develop their methods. Using the methods of the INL team members we measured REEs in high salinity oil and gas produced waters. Our results show that REEs exist as a dissolved species in all waters measured for this project, typically within the parts per trillion range. The samples may be grouped into two broad categories analytically, and these categories match their genesis: Wyoming oil and gas brines contain elevated levels of Europium, and Wyoming industrial pond waters show elevation in heavy REEs (HREEs). While broadly true, important variations exist within both groups. In the same field Europium can vary by more than an order of magnitude, and likewise HREEs in industrial ponds at the same site can vary by more than

  17. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cell lines by the Red Sea brine pool bacterial extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Esau, Luke; Holtermann, Karie; Hikmawan, Tyas; Zhang, Guishan; Stingl, Ulrich; Bajic, Vladimir B; Kaur, Mandeep

    2013-12-05

    Marine microorganisms are considered to be an important source of bioactive molecules against various diseases and have great potential to increase the number of lead molecules in clinical trials. Progress in novel microbial culturing techniques as well as greater accessibility to unique oceanic habitats has placed the marine environment as a new frontier in the field of natural product drug discovery. A total of 24 microbial extracts from deep-sea brine pools in the Red Sea have been evaluated for their anticancer potential against three human cancer cell lines. Downstream analysis of these six most potent extracts was done using various biological assays, such as Caspase-3/7 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), PARP-1 cleavage and expression of γH2Ax, Caspase-8 and -9 using western blotting. In general, most of the microbial extracts were found to be cytotoxic against one or more cancer cell lines with cell line specific activities. Out of the 13 most active microbial extracts, six extracts were able to induce significantly higher apoptosis (>70%) in cancer cells. Mechanism level studies revealed that extracts from Chromohalobacter salexigens (P3-86A and P3-86B(2)) followed the sequence of events of apoptotic pathway involving MMP disruption, caspase-3/7 activity, caspase-8 cleavage, PARP-1 cleavage and Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, whereas another Chromohalobacter salexigens extract (K30) induced caspase-9 mediated apoptosis. The extracts from Halomonas meridiana (P3-37B), Chromohalobacter israelensis (K18) and Idiomarina loihiensis (P3-37C) were unable to induce any change in MMP in HeLa cancer cells, and thus suggested mitochondria-independent apoptosis induction. However, further detection of a PARP-1 cleavage product, and the observed changes in caspase-8 and -9 suggested the involvement of caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways. Altogether, the study offers novel findings regarding the anticancer potential of several halophilic bacterial

  18. Typical aqueous rare earth element behavior in co-produced Brines, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, Charles; Quillinan, Scott [UNIVERSIty of Wyoming; McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Normalization of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) is important to remove the distracting effects of the Oddo–Harkins rule and provide a meaningful baseline. Normalizations for rocks are well developed and include chondritic meteorites, UCC, PM, PAAS, and NASC. However normalizations for aqueous REEs are limited to oceanic regions such as the North Pacific Deep Water or North Atlantic Surface Water. This leaves water in contact with continental lithologies without a suitable normalization. We present a preliminary continental aqueous REE normalization derived from 38 deep basin hydrocarbon brines in Wyoming. The REEs in these waters are seven orders of magnitude more dilute than NASC but with significant europium enrichment. Gromet 1984 reports NASC Eu/Eu* is 0.2179, whereas in the normalization offered here, Eu/Eu* is 3.868. These waters also are free from the distracting reduction-oxidation cerium behavior found in ocean normalizations. Because these samples exhibit both the uniform behavior of NASC and the absolute concentration of seawater, a normalization based upon them offers a unique combination of the advantages of both. We used single-peak gaussian analysis to quantify the mean values for each REE and estimate the distribution variability. Additional sample collection during the last year revealed that the Powder River Basin (PRB) is atypical relative to the other sampled basins of Wyoming. Those other basins are the Wind River Basin (WRB) Green River Basin (GRB) and Wamsutter Area (WA). A pre-normalization gadolinium anomaly (Gd/Gd*) of between 4 and 23 with a mean of 11.5, defines the PRB samples. Other basins in this study range from 1 to 7 with a mean of 2.8. Finally, we present a preliminary model for ligand-based behavior of REEs in these samples. This model identifies bicarbonate, bromide, and chloride as forming significant complexes with REEs contributing to REE solubility. The ligand model explains observed REEs in the sampled Cretaceous and

  19. Effects of CO2 fine bubble injection on reactive crystallization of dolomite from concentrated brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuko; Wada, Yoshinari; Hiaki, Toshihiko; Onoe, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Masakazu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we used the minute gas-liquid interfaces around CO2 fine bubbles as new reaction fields where the crystal nucleation proceeds dominantly and developed a crystallization technique to synthesize dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) with the desired crystal quality. CaMg(CO3)2 has a crystal structure derived from calcite by ordered replacement of the Ca2+ in calcite by Mg2+. To improve the functionality of the crystal for better utilization of the CaMg(CO3)2, an effective method for an approach to a Mg/Ca ratio of 1.0 and downsizing is indispensable in the crystallization process. In the vicinity of the minute gas-liquid interfaces, the accumulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ is caused by the negative electric charge on the fine bubbles surface; thus, CaMg(CO3)2 fine particles with a high Mg/Ca ratio can be expected to crystallize. At a reaction temperature (Tr) of 298 K and CO2 flow rate (FCO2) of 11.9 mmol/(L min), CO2 bubbles with an average bubble diameter (dbbl) of 40-2000 μm were continuously supplied to 300 mL of the concentrated brine coming from salt manufacture discharge and CaMg(CO3)2 crystallized within a reaction time of 120 min. Fine bubbles with dbbl of 40 μm were generated using a self-supporting bubble generator by increasing the impeller shear rate under reduced pressure. For comparison, the bubbles with dbbl of 300 or 2000 μm were obtained using a dispersing-type generator. Moreover, FCO2 and Tr were varied as operating parameters during the reactive crystallization supplying CO2 fine bubbles. Consequently, CO2 fine bubble injection is effective for the high-yield crystallization of CaMg(CO3)2 with a Mg/Ca ratio of 1.0 and downsizing of CaMg(CO3)2 particles owing to the acceleration of crystal nucleation caused by the local increase in the supersaturation at the minute gas-liquid interfaces.

  20. Evaluation of greek-style black table olives in salt varying brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakis, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available hree fermentation processes with black table-olives were tested. Olives were placed in: a 16 %(w/v concentration of NaCl, (traditional treatment, b a buffer of CH3COOH (0.05M and Ca(OH2, (0.025M without any NaCl and initial pH 4.7, and c a buffer of CH3COOH (0.05M and Ca(OH2 (0.025M containing 12.8 % (w/v NaCl, and pH 4.3. Isolation, identification and enumeration of predominant microorganisms from fruits and brines sampled during the fermentation periods as well as color, intensity, texture and sensory evaluation tests of the final products were conducted. The third fermentation process, (c, yielded a product with low salt content no presence of spoilage microflora or other alterations during the fermentation period, with significantly better final texture and color, and higher acceptability among the consumers (PSe han ensayado tres procesos para la elaboración de aceitunas negras de mesa. Los frutos se colocaron en: a una salmuera con una concentración de sal del 16 % (w/w, proceso tradicional; b en una solución tampón compuesta de CH3COOH (0.05M y Ca(OH2 (0.025M , sin NaCl y con un pH inicial de 4.3; c una solución tampón compuesta de CH3COOH (0.05M y Ca(OH2 (0.025M,conteniendo 12.8 % (w/w NaCl y un pH de 4.3. Se realizó el aislamiento, identificación y el recuento de los micoorganismos predominantes, tanto del fruto como de las salmueras, durante la fermentación. Asimismo, se estudió el color, textura y las características organolépticas de los productos finales. El tercer tipo de proceso fermentativo, tipo c, dio lugar a un producto con baja sal, ausencia de microorganismos alterantes o de cualquier otra alteración, dando una textura y un color significativamente mejor y resultando con una mayor aceptación entre los consumidores (p<0.05 en comparación con los otros dos tipos ensayados. Como consecuencia, se propone el mismo como una modificación del proceso tradicional de elaboración de aceitunas negras naturales de mesa.

  1. Spectral induced polarization of the three-phase system CO2 - brine - sand under reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jana H.; Herdegen, Volker; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Spitzer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The spectral complex conductivity of a water-bearing sand during interaction with carbon dioxide (CO2) is influenced by multiple, simultaneous processes. These processes include partial saturation due to the replacement of conductive pore water with CO2 and chemical interaction of the reactive CO2 with the bulk fluid and the grain-water interface. We present a laboratory study on the spectral induced polarization of water-bearing sands during exposure to and flow-through by CO2. Conductivity spectra were measured successfully at pressures up to 30 MPa and 80 °C during active flow and at steady-state conditions concentrating on the frequency range between 0.0014 and 100 Hz. The frequency range between 0.1 and 100 Hz turned out to be most indicative for potential monitoring applications. The presented data show that the impact of CO2 on the electrolytic conductivity may be covered by a model for pore-water conductivity, which depends on salinity, pressure and temperature and has been derived from earlier investigations of the pore-water phase. The new data covering the three-phase system CO2-brine-sand further show that chemical interaction causes a reduction of surface conductivity by almost 20 per cent, which could be related to the low pH-value in the acidic environment due to CO2 dissolution and the dissociation of carbonic acid. The quantification of the total CO2 effect may be used as a correction during monitoring of a sequestration in terms of saturation. We show that this leads to a correct reconstruction of fluid saturation from electrical measurements. In addition, an indicator for changes of the inner surface area, which is related to mineral dissolution or precipitation processes, can be computed from the imaginary part of conductivity. The low frequency range between 0.0014 and 0.1 Hz shows additional characteristics, which deviate from the behaviour at higher frequencies. A Debye decomposition approach is applied to isolate the feature dominating the

  2. EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

    2004-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal

  3. Long-term freshening of the Dead Sea brine revealed by porewater Cl- and δO18 in ICDP Dead Sea deep-drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-08-01

    The geological evolution of the unique Dead Sea Ca-chloride brine has been the focus of many research efforts for several decades. These studies relied on the information obtained from sedimentary exposures of the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, mostly documenting the history of the surface lake brine during its high stands periods. The present study is the first attempt to establish the history of the deepest part of the lake by direct measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids that were extracted from cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) and oxygen isotopes (δO18) in pore brines reveal a substantial decrease in the salinity of the hyper-saline lake during the last glacial and particularly during MIS2 (∼31-17 ka BP). The Cl- concentration of the deep brine in the lake decreased gradually, reaching a minimum of less than 2/3 of its present value while the δO18 increased to maximum of ∼7‰ (3‰ higher than today). The low Cl- indicates significant dilution of the bottom water mass (hypolimnion) of Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea) during its highest stand period. Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δO18 values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δO18 epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). While the increase in δO18 during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan is a result of “normal” evaporation of the less saline epilimnetic brine, the post-glacial δO18 decrease (contemporaneous with salinity increase) is attributed to the “reversed” behavior of δO18 during evaporation of high salinity brine. During the long freshening period the

  4. Long-term freshening of the Dead Sea brine during the last glacial revealed by porewater Cl- and δ18O in ICDP Dead Sea deep-drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Boaz; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yosseph; Levi, Elan; Antler, Gilad; Gavrieli, Ittai; Stein, Mordechai

    2014-05-01

    The geological evolution of the unique Dead Sea Ca-chloride brine has been the focus of many research efforts for several decades. These studies relied on the information obtained from sedimentary exposures of the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, mostly documenting the history of the surface lake brine during its high stands periods. The present study is the first attempt to establish the history of the deepest part of the lake by direct measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids that were extracted from cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in pore brines reveal a substantial decrease in the salinity of the hyper-saline lake during the last glacial and particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). The Cl- concentration of the deep brine in the lake decreased gradually reaching a minimum of less than 2/3 of its present value while the δ18O on the same time increased to maximum of ~7o (3o higher than today). The low Cl- indicates significant dilution of the bottom water mass (hypolimnion) of Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea) during its highest stand period. Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). While the increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan is a result of 'normal' evaporation of the less saline epilimnetic brine, the post-glacial δ18O decrease (contemporaneous with salinity increase) is attributed to the 'backward' behavior of δ18O during evaporation of high salinity brine. During the long freshening period the

  5. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    MAP shrimps were characterized by phenotypic tests and identified as lactic acid bacteria (78 isolates), other Gram-positive bacteria (13 isolates) and Gram-negative bacteria (11 isolates). A selection of 48 LAB isolates were further characterized and identified by phenotypic tests and SDS......Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...

  6. Co-injection of SO2 With CO2 in Geological Sequestration: Potential for Acidification of Formation Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B. R.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce flue gas streams containing 0.02-1.4% SO2 after traditional sulfur scrubbing techniques are employed. Due to the corrosive nature of H2SO4, it will likely be necessary to remove the residual SO2 prior to carbon capture and transport; however, it may still be economically advantageous to reintroduce the SO2 to the injection stream to mitigate the cost of SO2 disposal and/or to get credits for SO2 emissions reduction. This study examines the impact of SO2 co-injection on the pH of formation brine. Using phase equilibrium modeling, it is shown that a CO2 gas stream with 1% SO2 under oxidizing conditions can create extremely acidic conditions (pHH2S. Further modeling considers a time varying, diffusion limited flux of SO2. Relative to the case of instantaneous phase equilibrium, this results in a smaller decrease in pH occurring over a longer duration. Our overall conclusion is that brine acidification due to SO2 co-injection is not likely to be significant over relevant time and spatial scales.

  7. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Esau, Luke; Hikmawan, Tyas; Antunes, Andre; Holtermann, Karie; Stingl, Ulrich; Bajic, Vladimir B; Kaur, Mandeep

    2013-02-06

    High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes inhabiting bacteria interesting candidates for the search of novel bioactive molecules. Total 20 i.e. lipophilic (chloroform) and hydrophilic (70% ethanol) extracts of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea were tested for cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against three human cancer cell lines, i.e. HeLa (cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (Breast Adenocarcinoma) and DU145 (Prostate carcinoma). Among these, twelve extracts were found to be very active after 24 hours of treatment, which were further evaluated for their cytotoxic and apoptotic effects at 48 hr. The extracts from the isolates P1-37B and P3-37A (Halomonas) and P1-17B (Sulfitobacter) have been found to be the most potent against tested cancer cell lines. Overall, bacterial isolates from the Red Sea displayed promising results and can be explored further to find novel drug-like molecules. The cell line specific activity of the extracts may be attributed to the presence of different polarity compounds or the cancer type i.e. biological differences in cell lines and different mechanisms of action of programmed cell death prevalent in different cancer cell lines.

  8. Structural and Hydrogeological Controls on Hydrocarbon and Brine Migration into Drinking Water Aquifers in Southern New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Rebecca L; Darrah, Thomas H; Grove, Benjamin S; Moore, Myles T; Warner, Nathaniel R; Eymold, William K; Whyte, Colin J; Mitra, Gautam; Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Poreda, Robert J

    2018-02-06

    Environmental concerns regarding the potential for drinking water contamination in shallow aquifers have accompanied unconventional energy development in the northern Appalachian Basin. These activities have also raised several critical questions about the hydrogeological parameters that control the naturally occurring presence and migration of hydrocarbon gases in shallow aquifers within petroliferous basins. To interrogate these factors, we analyzed the noble gas, dissolved ion, and hydrocarbon gas (molecular and isotopic composition) geochemistry of 98 groundwater samples from south-central New York. All samples were collected ≫1km from unconventional drilling activities and sample locations were intentionally targeted based on their proximity to various types of documented fault systems. In agreement with studies from other petroliferous basins, our results show significant correlations between elevated levels of radiogenic [ 4 He], thermogenic [CH 4 ], and dissolved ions (e.g., Cl, Br, Sr, Ba). In combination, our data suggest that faults have facilitated the transport of exogenous hydrocarbon-rich brines from Devonian source rocks into overlying Upper Devonian aquifer lithologies over geologic time. These data conflict with previous reports, which conclude that hydrodynamic focusing regulates the occurrence of methane and salt in shallow aquifers and leads to elevated levels of these species in restricted flow zones within valley bottoms. Instead, our data suggest that faults in Paleozoic rocks play a fundamental role in gas and brine transport from depth, regulate the distribution of their occurrence in shallow aquifers, and influence the geochemistry of shallow groundwater in this petroliferous basin. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M. Obayed; Haque, Mahmuda; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Anita, Elichea Synthi; Begum, Momtaj; Hamid, Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. PMID:23570009

  10. Stable isotope record of Holocene climate and ecological change from brine shrimp cyst chitin for the Great Salt Lake, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K. E.; Bowen, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    We present a record of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in brine shrimp cysts from the Great Salt Lake, a terminal lake in the Great Basin, US. Water balance for the region is influenced by strength of the El Niño in Pacific and by the strength of the summer monsoon. Brine shrimp cysts are a novel proxy for isotope reconstruction, and allow reconstruction of water isotopes (oxygen, hydrogen) and ecology (hydrogen). Oxygen isotopes in chitin respond to water, while both diet and growth water contribute to hydrogen isotopes, allowing reconstruction of both environmental and ecological information from a single molecule. Values of δ18O decrease from about +15‰ to about +11‰ over course of the 8000 year record. This may suggest the importance of snow melt increased over the Holocene, or it may suggest lake is larger today than it was in mid-Holocene. Hydrogen isotopes are relatively stable for most of record, fluctuating around -140‰. Modeled hydrogen isotopes in food, also stable in the beginning of the record at about -150‰, become much heavier, shifting toward about -75‰ starting about 5000 ybp. This may suggest a shift from a primarily aquatic diet in the Mid-Holocene to a diet with a greater contribution of terrestrial material later in the Holocene. These observations agree broadly with previous inferences of a warm Mid-Holocene and associated low terrestrial productivity, followed by a more moist, and consequently more productive Late Holocene.

  11. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract and antispasmodic activity of α-amyrin acetate from Tylophora hirsuta Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that aerial parts of Tylophora hirsuta have antispasmodic profile. The current work is an attempt for isolation of pharmacologically active compound(s) that contribute for its antispasmodic activity. Methods Preliminary phytochemical screening for crude methanol extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) is performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract is performed. Column chromatography was used for isolation of compounds. Mass spectroscopy, H1 NMR and C13 NMR were used for structural determination of compounds. α-amyrin acetate was tried for possible spasmolytic activity in rabbit’s jejunal preparations and KCl-induced contractions. Results Th.Cr tested positive for saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids. Compound 1 was isolated as α-amyrin acetate. Compound 2 was heptaeicosanol. Crude methanol extract tested positive for brine shrimp cytotoxicity with LC50 492.33± 8.08 mg/ml. Compound 1 tested positive for antispasmodic activity on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunum preparations with EC50 (60 ± 2) × 10-5M. The compound also tested positive on KCl induced contractions with EC50 (72 ± 3) × 10-5M. Conclusions The present work confirms that α-amyrin acetate is has antispasmodic profile and the relaxant effect may be attributed to α-amyrin acetate which is a major compound. PMID:23773697

  12. Evaporite caprock integrity: an experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan M; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A

    2013-01-02

    We present characterization and geochemical data from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO(2)-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO(2)-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well as porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO(2)-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO(2)-enhanced oil recovery operations.

  13. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMirete

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes involved in salt resistance from the microbial communities of brines and the rhizosphere from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain Escherichia coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. As a result, eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation as a glycerol and a proton pump, whereas others encoded for proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also exhibited salt resistance in this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species where these genes can operate. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment.

  14. POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE-RICH POLYPHENLENESULFIDE BLEND TOP COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN 300 DEGREE CELCIUS BRINE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA, T.; JUNG, D.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated usefulness of a coating system consisting of an underlying polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) layer and top polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-blended PPS layer as low friction, water repellent, anti-corrosion barrier film for carbon steel steam separators in geothermal power plants. The experiments were designed to obtain information on kinetic coefficient of friction, surface free energy, hydrothermal oxidation, alteration of molecular structure, thermal stability, and corrosion protection of the coating after immersing the coated carbon steel coupons for up to 35 days in CO{sub 2}-laden brine at 300 C. The superficial layer of the assembled coating was occupied by PTFE self-segregated from PPS during the melt-flowing process of this blend polymer; it conferred an outstanding slipperiness and water repellent properties because of its low friction and surface free energy. However, PTFE underwent hydrothermal oxidation in hot brine, transforming its molecular structure into an alkylated polyfluorocarboxylate salt complex linked to Na. Although such molecular transformation increased the friction and surface free energy, and also impaired the thermal stability of PTFE, the top PTFE-rich PPS layer significantly contributed to preventing the permeation of moisture and corrosive electrolytes through the coating film, so mitigating the corrosion of carbon steel.

  15. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, May 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bean, J.E. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W.; Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schreiber, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P.N. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and examination of scatterplots are used in conjunction with the BRAGFLO model to examine two phase flow (i.e., gas and brine) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. The analyses consider either a single waste panel or the entire repository in conjunction with the following cases: (1) fully consolidated shaft, (2) system of shaft seals with panel seals, and (3) single shaft seal without panel seals. The purpose of this analysis is to develop insights on factors that are potentially important in showing compliance with applicable regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 40 CFR 191, Subpart B; 40 CFR 268). The primary topics investigated are (1) gas production due to corrosion of steel, (2) gas production due to microbial degradation of cellulosics, (3) gas migration into anhydrite marker beds in the Salado Formation, (4) gas migration through a system of shaft seals to overlying strata, and (5) gas migration through a single shaft seal to overlying strata. Important variables identified in the analyses include initial brine saturation of the waste, stoichiometric terms for corrosion of steel and microbial degradation of cellulosics, gas barrier pressure in the anhydrite marker beds, shaft seal permeability, and panel seal permeability.

  16. Dynamic structure mediates halophilic adaptation of a DNA polymerase from the deep-sea brines of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Masateru

    2018-01-24

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea are remote and unexplored environments characterized by high temperatures, anoxic water, and elevated concentrations of salt and heavy metals. This environment provides a rare system to study the interplay between halophilic and thermophilic adaptation in biologic macromolecules. The present article reports the first DNA polymerase with halophilic and thermophilic features. Biochemical and structural analysis by Raman and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the charge distribution on the protein’s surface mediates the structural balance between stability for thermal adaptation and flexibility for counteracting the salt-induced rigid and nonfunctional hydrophobic packing. Salt bridge interactions via increased negative and positive charges contribute to structural stability. Salt tolerance, conversely, is mediated by a dynamic structure that becomes more fixed and functional with increasing salt concentration. We propose that repulsive forces among excess negative charges, in addition to a high percentage of negatively charged random coils, mediate this structural dynamism. This knowledge enabled us to engineer a halophilic version of KOD DNA polymerase.—Takahashi, M., Takahashi, E., Joudeh, L. I., Marini, M., Das, G., Elshenawy, M. M., Akal, A., Sakashita, K., Alam, I., Tehseen, M., Sobhy, M. A., Stingl, U., Merzaban, J. S., Di Fabrizio, E., Hamdan, S. M. Dynamic structure mediates halophilic adaptation of a DNA polymerase from the deep-sea brines of the Red Sea.

  17. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  18. pH and salinity evolution of Europa's brines: Raman spectroscopy study of fractional precipitation at 1 and 300 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Iglesias, Victoria; Bonales, Laura J; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga

    2013-08-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of salty liquid water below the icy surface of the satellite Europa. Depending on the chemical composition of the original interior brines, minerals that precipitate will be varied as will be the resulting physicochemical parameters of the evolving solutions such as pH and salinity. These parameters are determinants apropos to the study of the possible habitability of the satellite. In this work, experiments of fractional precipitation by cooling of several brines with different chemical composition (acid, alkaline, and neutral) were performed at 1 and 300 bar. The gradual decrease in temperature leads to mineral precipitation and changes in salinity and pH values. During the experiment, Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze quantitatively the variation of the salt concentration in the aqueous solutions. The obtained laboratory data indicate the manner in which cryomagma differentiation might occur on Europa. These endogenous processes of differentiation require planetary energy, which seems to have been plentiful during Europa's geological history. Ultimately, the dissipation of part of that energy is translated to a higher complexity of the cryopetrology in Europa's crust. From the results, we conclude that fractional differentiation processes of briny cryomagmas produce several types of igneous salty mineral suites on icy moons.

  19. Density and distribution of water boatmen and brine shrimp at a major shorebird wintering area in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K.J.; Collazo, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cabo Rojo salt flats are an important wintering area for migratory shorebirds. Their quality is intimately related to prey availability, as prey are needed to meet energetic requirements. Understanding prey dynamics is, therefore, a key element of shorebird conservation plans. To this end, we monitored the density and distribution of water-boatmen (Trichocorixa spp.) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) in relation to water salinity from September to November of 1994 and 1995. Salinity ranged from 4 to 292 ppt, and gradients were related to hydrological alterations (e.g., salt extraction) and connection to the ocean. Brine shrimp were restricted to areas of highest salinity (??? 106 ppt), whereas water-boatmen to areas of lowest salinity ( 100 ppt. Lowering water salinity did not result in osmolal related mortality. Results underscored the sensitivity of water boatmen to high salinity, particularly when the difference in salinity between the 'source' and 'destination' localities widened. Water boatmen density increased in one lagoon as salinity decreased from 65 to 47 ppt. On the basis of our experiments, local adult survivorship improved and immigration and subsequent survival of adults, if any, was not hindered. The density of nymphs also suggested that hatching occurred concurrently. The foraging value of the salt flats can be enhanced by maintaining salinity at salinity concentrations among them.

  20. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antunes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine–seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine–seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  1. Relative permeabilities of supercritical CO2 and brine in carbon sequestration by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian.-Fei.; He, S.; Zu, Y. Q.; Lamy-Chappuis, B.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the migration of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in realistic sandstone rocks under conditions of saline aquifers, with applications to the carbon geological storage, has been investigated by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Firstly the digital images of sandstone rocks were reproduced utilizing the X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT), and high resolutions (up to 2.5 μm) were applied to the pore-scale LBM simulations. For the sake of numerical stability, the digital images were "cleaned" by closing the dead holes and removing the suspended particles in sandstone rocks. In addition, the effect of chemical reactions occurred in the carbonation process on the permeability was taken into account. For the wetting brine and non-wetting supercritical CO2 flows, they were treated as the immiscible fluids and were driven by pressure gradients in sandstone rocks. Relative permeabilities of brine and supercritical CO2 in sandstone rocks were estimated. Particularly the dynamic saturation was applied to improve the reliability of the calculations of the relative permeabilities. Moreover, the effects of the viscosity ratio of the two immiscible fluids and the resolution of digital images on the relative permeability were systematically investigated.

  2. Early warning of freshwater salinization due to upward brine displacement by species transport simulations combined with a hydrochemical genesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a

  3. Potential salinization mechanisms of drinking water due to large-scale flow of brines across faults in the Tiberias Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Guttman, Joseph; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Kühn, Michael; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Lake Tiberias (LT) located in the Kinneret basin is one of the most important freshwater resources for the area. Several hydrothermal springs discharging along the shoreline of LT are the main sources of salinity and thermal pollution of the lake. The pressure and geothermal regime controlling the upward movement of brines along the faults are still debated. Furthermore, the discovery of the buried salt structure of Zemah (e.g. Inbar 2012), located south of LT, raised additional questions as to whether the observed salinities could also be the result of density-driven flow in the vicinity of deep-seated salt bodies. In this respect, faults play an important role as they determine the structural features of the basin and can be either permeable or impermeable to fluid flow. Over the regional scales considered here, rock properties (e.g. porosity, permeability, and diffusivity), fluid properties (i.e. density and viscosity) as well as temperature and solute concentration may vary strongly. Therefore, within the same system, several forces interact and drive groundwater flow. The resulting hydrologic regime can display complex dynamical behavior such as convective cells. In this presentation, numerical models of heat and brine flow are carried out to study the outflow of deep fluids that endanger the LT. The observed thermal springs within the basin are caused by several hydrologic regimes, controlled by faults and hydraulic permeability distribution. Different scenarios are presented. The results indicate that faults enhance upward migration of hot fluids which mix with recharge flow of colder freshwater. These findings are supported by hydrochemical analyses and temperature data used as dataset to calibrate the numerical calculations and to constrain possible fluid migration. The presented study provides an example of the conjoint use of numerical and hydrochemical methods as well as geological and structural studies to infer the mechanisms that link basin

  4. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of rec