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Sample records for brinell hardness

  1. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  2. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  3. Changes in hardness of magnesium alloys due to precipitation hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oršulová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of changes in hardness of magnesium alloys during precipitation hardening that are nowadays widely used in different fields of industry. It focuses exactly on AZ31, AZ61 and AZ91 alloys. Observing material hardness changes serves as an effective tool for determining precipitation hardening parameters, such as temperature and time. Brinell hardness measurement was chosen based on experimental needs. There was also necessary to make chemical composition analysis and to observe the microstructures of tested materials. The obtained results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Superelastic Ball Bearings: Materials and Design to Avoid Mounting and Dismounting Brinell Damage in an Inaccessible Press-Fit Application-. I ; Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam

    2015-01-01

    Ball bearings require proper fit and installation into machinery structures (onto shafts and into bearing housings) to ensure optimal performance. For some applications, both the inner and outer race must be mounted with an interference fit and care must be taken during assembly and disassembly to avoid placing heavy static loads between the balls and races otherwise Brinell dent type damage can occur. In this paper, a highly dent resistant superelastic alloy, 60NiTi, is considered for rolling element bearing applications that encounter excessive static axial loading during assembly or disassembly. A small (R8) ball bearing is designed for an application in which access to the bearing races to apply disassembly tools is precluded. First Principles analyses show that by careful selection of materials, raceway curvature and land geometry, a bearing can be designed that allows blind assembly and disassembly without incurring raceway damage due to ball denting. Though such blind assembly applications are uncommon, the availability of bearings with unusually high static load capability may enable more such applications with additional benefits, especially for miniature bearings.

  5. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  6. Theoretical Conversions of Different Hardness and Tensile Strength for Ductile Materials Based on Stress-Strain Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cai, Li-Xun

    2018-04-01

    Based on the power-law stress-strain relation and equivalent energy principle, theoretical equations for converting between Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HR), and Vickers hardness (HV) were established. Combining the pre-existing relation between the tensile strength ( σ b ) and Hollomon parameters ( K, N), theoretical conversions between hardness (HB/HR/HV) and tensile strength ( σ b ) were obtained as well. In addition, to confirm the pre-existing σ b -( K, N) relation, a large number of uniaxial tensile tests were conducted in various ductile materials. Finally, to verify the theoretical conversions, plenty of statistical data listed in ASTM and ISO standards were adopted to test the robustness of the converting equations with various hardness and tensile strength. The results show that both hardness conversions and hardness-strength conversions calculated from the theoretical equations accord well with the standard data.

  7. Superelastic Ball Bearings: Materials and Design to Avoid Mounting and Dismounting Brinell Damage in an Inaccessible Press-fit Application-. II; Detailed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. Adam; Dellacorte, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Rolling element bearings utilized in precision rotating machines require proper alignment, preload, and interference fits to ensure overall optimum performance. Hence, careful attention must be given to bearing installation and disassembly procedures to ensure the above conditions are met. Usually, machines are designed in such a way that bearings can be pressed into housings or onto shafts through the races without loading the rolling elements. However, in some instances, either due to limited size or access, a bearing must be installed or removed in such a way that the load path travels through the rolling elements. This can cause high contact stresses between the rolling elements and the races and introduces the potential for Brinell denting of the races. This paper is a companion to the Part I paper by the authors that discusses material selection and the general design philosophy for the bearing. Here, a more in-depth treatment is given to the design of a dent-resistant bearing utilizing a superelastic alloy, 60NiTi, for the races. A common bearing analysis tool based on rigid body dynamics is used in combination with finite element simulations to design the superelastic bearing. The primary design constraints are prevention of denting and avoiding the balls riding over the edge of the race groove during a blind disassembly process where the load passes through the rolling elements. Through an iterative process, the resulting bearing geometry is tailored to improve axial static load capability compared to a deep-groove ball bearing of the same size. The results suggest that careful selection of materials and bearing geometry can enable blind disassembly without damage to the raceways, which is necessary in the current application (a compressor in the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System), and results in potential design flexibility for other applications, especially small machines with miniature bearings.

  8. Estimation of the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Steel from Its HB and HV Hardness Numbers and Coercive Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandomirskii, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    A formula is derived to accurately describe the tabulated relation between the Brinell ( HB) and Vickers ( HV) hardnesses of steel over the entire range of their possible variation. This formula and the formulas describing the relation between the HB hardness of chromium-molybdenum and chromium-nickel steels and their ultimate tensile strength σu are used to analyze the change in σu of 38KhNM steel upon quenching and tempering. The data that reveal a relation between σu of 38KhNM steel and its coercive force are obtained.

  9. Influence exothermical mixtures contents Na or B on elongation and hardness AlSi12 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on alloy AlSi12, following a factor design 23 for 3 independent variables. Mixtures composed of NaNO3, Na2B4O7, and Mg were used for alloy treatment. The amount of a reducing agent (Mg necessary to carry out the process was calculated on the basis of chemical reactions. The mass fraction (weight in weight concentration of individual variables is presented in Table 1. Results of study present by graphical forms. Figures 2-8 present until elongation (A5 and Brinell hardness (HB for each variable, at extreme (lower or higher levels of the other two.

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Hardness of the subchondral bone of the patella in the normal state, in chondromalacia, and in osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkström, S; Goldie, I F

    1982-06-01

    The hardness of bone is its property of withstanding the impact of a penetrating agent. It has been found that articular degenerative changes in, for example, the tibia (knee) are combined with a decrease in the hardness of the subchondral bone. In this investigation the hardness of subchondral bone in chondromalacia and osteoarthrosis of the patella has been analysed and compared with normal subchondral bone. Using an indentation method originally described by Brinell the hardness of the subchondral bone was evaluated in 7 normal patellae, in 20 with chondromalacia and in 33 with osteoarthrosis. A microscopic and microradiographic study of the subchondral bone was carried out simultaneously. Hardness was lowest in the normal material. The mean hardness value beneath the degenerated cartilage differed only slightly from that of the normal material, but the variation of values was increased. The hardness in bone in the chondromalacia area was lower than the hardness in bone covered by surrounding normal cartilage. The mean hardness value in bone beneath normal parts of cartilage in specimens with chondromalacia was higher than the mean hardness value of the normal material. In the microscopic and microradiographic examination it became evident that there was a relationship between trabecular structure and subchondral bone hardness; high values: coarse and solid structure; low values: slender and less regular structure.

  12. Experimental investigation of hardness of FSW and TIG joints of Aluminium alloys of AA7075 and AA6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports hardness testing conducted on welded butt joints by FSW and TIG welding process on similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. FSW joints were produced for similar alloys of AA7075T651 and dissimilar alloys of AA7075T651- AA6061T6. The Friction stir welds of AA7075 & AA6061 aluminium alloy were produced at different tool rotational speeds of 650,700, 800, 900, 1000 and transverse speed of 30, 35, 40 mm/min. TIG welding was conducted along the rolling direction of similar and dissimilar aluminium plates. The Brinell hardness testing techniques were employed to conduct the tests; these tests were conducted on the welds to ascertain the joint integrity before characterization to have an idea of the quality of the welds

  13. Experimental investigation on hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using cemented coated carbide insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Kumar, J.; Kishore, K. P.; Ranjith Kumar, M.; Saran Karthick, K. R.; Vishnu Gowtham, S.

    2018-02-01

    Hard turning is a developing technology that offers many potential advantages compared to grinding, which remains the standard finishing process for critical hardened surfaces. In this work, an attempt has been made to experimentally investigate hard turning of AISI 4340 steel under wet and dry condition using cemented coated carbide insert. Hardness of the workpiece material is tested using Brinell and Rockwell hardness testers. CNC LATHE and cemented coated carbide inserts of designation CNMG 120408 are used for conducting experimental trials. Significant cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are considered as controllable input parameters and surface roughness (Ra), tool wear are considered as output response parameters. Design of experiments is carried out with the help of Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Results of response parameters like surface roughness and tool wear under wet and dry condition are analysed. It is found that surface roughness and tool wear are higher under dry machining condition when compared to wet machining condition. Feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness followed by cutting speed. Depth of cut significantly influences the tool wear followed by cutting speed.

  14. Effects of solution heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness of Mg-5Li-3Al-2Zn-2Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jiqing; An Jiangmin; Qu Zhikun [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology (Harbin Engineering University), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu Ruizhi, E-mail: Ruizhiwu2006@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology (Harbin Engineering University), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Jinghuai; Zhang Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology (Harbin Engineering University), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The microstructure and hardness of Mg-5Li-3Al-2Zn-2Cu alloy were investigated both in the as-cast condition and after solution heat treatment at 330-390 deg. C for 5 h. The as-cast alloy contains a microstructure consisting of {alpha}-Mg matrix, AlLi phase, AlCuMg phase and Al{sub 2}Cu phase. After the solution heat treament, the AlLi phase was dissolved into the matrix, however, the AlCuMg and Al{sub 2}Cu phases were not dissolved. With the increase of solution temperature, almost all the AlLi phase was dissolved, and the effects of solution strengthening of Al and Li atoms in the alloy increase, which results in the gradual increase of the Brinell hardness of the solution-treated alloy.

  15. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  16. Correlation between yield stress and hardness of nickel–silicon–boron-based alloys by nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Codrean, Cosmin; Vodă, Mircea; Chicot, Didier; Decoopman, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Based on the relation proposed by Tabor in 1951, which connects the ultimate tensile strength and the yield stress of classical materials to the Brinell or Vickers hardness numbers by a simple factor of proportionality, we propose an extended analytical model for the determination of the yield stress of brittle materials using nanoindentation data. This model considers the nanoindentation hardness calculated from the projected actual contact area between the indenter and the material which is representative of the real mean pressure exerted by the indenter compared to classical hardness numbers. A coefficient is introduced in the model to integrate the extent of the elastic recovery of the indented material occurring after the withdrawal of the indenter. This is possible by using the criterion defined by the residual to maximum indenter displacements ratio, this criterion being already related to the deformation mode under indentation. Indeed, this criterion allows identifying the piling-up deformation observed for complete or fully plastic deformation materials or the sinking-in deformation for purely elastic materials. The proposed model thus allows a good estimation of the yield stress of brittle materials for which classical tensile tests are not applicable. The model is validated on a variety of amorphous nickel–silicon-based alloy ribbons, i.e., Ni 89 Si 9 B 2 , Ni 78 Si 9 B 13 and Ni 68 Fe 3 Cr 7 Si 8 B 14 on which both nanoindentation tests and tensile experiments have been performed

  17. A study on hardness behavior of geopolymer paste in different condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Farah Farhana; Hussin, Kamarudin; Rahmat, Azmi; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam

    2016-07-01

    This study has been conducted to understand the hardness behavior of geopolymer paste in different conditions; with and without being immersed in water. Geopolymer paste has been used nowadays as an alternative way to reduce global warming pollution by carbon dioxide (CO2) released to the air caused from the production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Geopolymer has many advantages such as high compressive strength, lower water absorption and lower porosity. Geopolymer paste in this study was made from a mixture of fly ash and alkaline activators. The alkaline activators that have been used were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution. Then the mixture was allowed to harden for 24hrs at ambient temperature and then placed in the oven for 24hrs with 60°C for the curing process. The hardness testing was conducted after a few months when the samples already achieved the optimum design. The samples were divided to two conditions; without immersion which was placed at ambient temperature (S1) and immersed in water for one week (S2). The samples then are divided into two at the center and testing was conducted into 4 parts which are part 1, part 2, part 3 and part 4. Various methods of non-destructively testing concrete and mortar have been in use for many years such as Vickers hardness test, Rockwell hardness test, Brinell hardness test and many more. The Rockwell hardness test method as defined in ASTM E-18 is the most commonly used hardness test method which is also used in this study. From the results, S1 has higher hardness value than S2 for all parts with the maximum value of S1 is 118.6 and the minimum value is 71.8. The maximum value of S2 is 114.4 and the minimum value is 0. The central part of the geopolymer paste also showed greater hardness values than the edge area of the samples.

  18. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  19. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  20. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  1. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  2. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  3. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  4. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  5. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  6. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  7. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  8. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  9. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  10. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  11. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  12. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  13. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  14. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  15. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  16. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  17. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  18. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  19. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  20. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  1. On scale dependence of hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorshorov, M.Kh.; Alekhin, V.P.; Bulychev, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of hardness as a structure-sensitive characteristic of a material is considered. It is shown that in conditions of a decreasing stress field under the inventor the hardness function is determined by the average distance, Lsub(a), between the stops (fixed and sessile dislocations, segregation particles, etc.). In the general case, Lsub(a) depends on the size of the impression and explains the great diversity of hardness functions. The concept of average true deformation rate on depression is introduced

  2. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  4. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  5. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  7. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  8. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  9. Chemical hardness and density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    RALPH G PEARSON. Chemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Abstract. The concept of chemical hardness is reviewed from a personal point of view. Keywords. Hardness; softness; hard & soft acids bases (HSAB); principle of maximum hardness. (PMH) density functional theory (DFT) ...

  10. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  11. Hard equality constrained integer knapsacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardal, K.I.; Lenstra, A.K.; Cook, W.J.; Schulz, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the following integer feasibility problem: "Given positive integer numbers a 0, a 1,..., a n, with gcd(a 1,..., a n) = 1 and a = (a 1,..., a n), does there exist a nonnegative integer vector x satisfying ax = a 0?" Some instances of this type have been found to be extremely hard to solve

  12. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  13. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  14. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  15. Pushing hard on the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    The quest for new techniques to drive future generations of particle accelerators has been pushed hard in recent years, efforts having been highlighted by workshops in Europe, organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, and in the US. The latest ECFA Workshop on New Developments in Particle Acceleration Techniques, held at Orsay from 29 June to 4 July, showed how the initial frantic search for innovation is now maturing.

  16. CMS results on hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  17. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  18. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  19. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  20. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  1. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  2. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  3. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  4. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  5. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  6. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.; Blackburn, R.

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro

  7. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  8. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  9. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  13. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  14. Development of a hard microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measel, P.R.; Sivo, L.L.; Quilitz, W.E.; Davidson, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of commercially available microprocessors to certain systems requiring radiation survival was assessed. A microcontroller was designed and built to perform a monitor and control function of military operational ground equipment, and demonstrated to exceed the radiation hardness goal. The preparation of the microcontroller module required hardware and software design, selection of LSI and other piece part types, development of piece part and module electrical and radiation test techniques, and the performance of radiation tests on the LSI piece parts and the completed module. The microcontroller has a 16-bit central processor unit, a 4096 word read only memory, and a 256 word read-write memory. The module has circumvention circuitry, including a PIN diode radiation detector. The processor device used was the MMI 6701 T 2 L Schottky bipolar 4-bit slice. Electrical exerciser circuits were developed for in-situ electrical testing of microprocessors and memories during irradiation. A test program was developed for a Terradyne J283 microcircuit tester for more complete electrical characterization of the MMI 6701 microprocessor. A simple self-test algorithm was used in the microcontroller for performance testing during irradiation. For the operational demonstration of the microcontroller a TI 960A minicomputer was used to provide the required complex inputs to the module and verify the module outputs

  15. Complex technique for materials hardness measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krashchenko, V P; Oksametnaya, O B

    1984-01-01

    A review of existing methods of measurement of material hardness in national and foreign practice has been made. A necessity of improving the technique of material hardness measurement in a wide temperature range and insuring load change with indenting, continuity of imprint application, smooth changing of temperatures along a sample length, and deformation rate control has been noted.

  16. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  17. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  18. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  19. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  20. Correlating particle hardness with powder compaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Morganti, Mikayla; Hancock, Bruno C; Masterson, Victoria M

    2010-10-01

    Assessing particle mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials quickly and with little material can be very important to early stages of pharmaceutical research. In this study, a wide range of pharmaceutical materials were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. A significant amount of particle hardness and elastic modulus data were provided. Moreover, powder compact mechanical properties of these materials were investigated in order to build correlation between the particle hardness and powder compaction performance. It was found that the materials with very low or high particle hardness most likely exhibit poor compaction performance while the materials with medium particle hardness usually have good compaction behavior. Additionally, the results from this study enriched Hiestand's special case concept on particle hardness and powder compaction performance. This study suggests that the use of AFM nanoindentation can help to screen mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials at early development stages of pharmaceutical research.

  1. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  2. Selection of Nepalese Timber for Small Wind Turbine Blade Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Acharya, Parash; Freere, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , weathering effect on coatings, price, growth and availability of the timber. Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus of elasticity, breaking strength, breaking strain and Brinell's hardness of selected Nepalese timbers are presented. The effects of weathering on timbers without coating...

  3. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  4. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  5. Methane in German hard coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P.N.; Den Drijver, J.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, hard coal mining is being carried out at ever increasing depth, and has, therefore, to cope with correspondingly increasing methane emissions are caused by coal mining. Beside carbon dioxide, chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides, methane is one of the most significant 'greenhouse' gases. It is mainly through the release of such trace gases that the greenhouse effect is brought about. Reducing methane emissions is therefore an important problem to be solved by the coal mining industry. This paper begins by highlighting some of the fundamental principles of methane in hard coal mining. The methane problem in German hard coal mining and the industry's efforts to reduce methane emissions are presented. The future development in German hard coal mining is illustrated by an example which shows how large methane volumes can be managed, while still maintaining high outputs at increasing depth. (author). 7 tabs., 10 figs., 20 refs

  6. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  7. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard ... hotline to help you or a loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread. ...

  8. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  9. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  10. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  11. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without the drug. This video from NIDA ... Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to ...

  12. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower ...

  13. A theoretical overview on single hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the Pomeron structure function and its application in Single Hard Diffraction at hadron colliders and in diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering is critically reviewed. Some alternative approaches are briefly surveyed with a focus on QCD inspired models

  14. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  15. Hard scattering and gauge/string duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, Joseph; Strassler, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider high-energy fixed-angle scattering of glueballs in confining gauge theories that have supergravity duals. Although the effective description is in terms of the scattering of strings, we find that the amplitudes are hard (power law). This is a consequence of the warped geometry of the dual theory, which has the effect that in an inertial frame the string process is never in the soft regime. At small angle we find hard and Regge behaviors in different kinematic regions

  16. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  17. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  18. Radiation-Hard Quartz Cerenkov Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Onel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    New generation hadron colliders are going to reach unprecedented energies and radiation levels. Quartz has been identified as a radiation-hard material that can be used for Cerenkov calorimeters of the future experiments. We report from the radiation hardness tests performed on quartz fibers, as well as the characteristics of the quartz fiber and plate Cerenkov calorimeters that have been built, designed, and proposed for the CMS experiment

  19. Radiation hard memory cell and array thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunckel, T.L. II; Rovell, A.; Nielsen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A memory cell configuration that is implemented to be relatively hard to the adverse effects of a nuclear event is discussed. The presently disclosed memory cell can be interconnected with other like memory cells to form a high speed radiation hard register file. Information is selectively written into and read out of a memory cell comprising the register file, which memory cell preserves previously stored data without alteration in the event of exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation

  20. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  1. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  2. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

  3. Structure, production and properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard materials and hard metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-07-01

    The report contains contributions by various authors to the research project on the production, structure, and physical properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard metals and hard materials), in particular WC-, TaC-, and MoC-base materials. (GSCH) [de

  4. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  5. Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-29

    Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual Report 1993 for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are carried out in parallel. As of December 1993, 2760 m of the tunnel had been excavated to a depth of 370 m below the surface. An important and integral part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments to be conducted after the end of the construction work. Eight organizations from seven countries are now participating in the work at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and are contributing in different ways to the results being achieved

  7. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  8. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  9. Liquid agents for dispersion of hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putintseva, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of dispersant properties on granulometric, chemical, and phase composition of the products of WC hard alloy electroerosion are considered. It is established that an increase of liquid dispersant permittivity results in enhanced powder dispersity, and an increase of boiling temperature and kinematic viscosity of a hydrocarbon liquid promotes a carbon loss from WC and intensifies pyrolysis of the liquid.On electroerosion of WC base hard alloy in oil a powder particle consists of b-WC+W 2 C phases, in kerosine - of a-WC+b-WC, in distilled water - of W+W 2 C. The viscosity of liquid dispersants practically has no effect on powder particle size [ru

  10. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD-process is......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD...

  11. Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Möller, A; Onel, Y

    2006-01-01

    Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungstenmetal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ˇCerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operatingwith a suitable atmosphericpressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

  12. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  13. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  14. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  15. Radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Peng, K.C.; Huang, H.C.; Wang, C.H.; Chang, Y.H.; Hou, W.S.; Ueno, K.; Chou, F.I.; Wei, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation hardness of undoped BGO crystals from two different manufacturers. Such crystals are proposed to be used in a small-angle calorimeter of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Transparency and scintillation light output of the crystals were monitored to see the effect of radiation damage. The crystals show considerable radiation hardness up to 10.2 Mrad equivalent dose, which is much higher than the maximum expected dosage of 500 krad per year of running at BELLE. (orig.)

  16. Hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, W.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds of metals with non-metals such as C, N, and B show different hardness. Wagner's interaction parameter characterizes manner and extent of the interaction between the atoms of the substance dissolved and the additional elements in metallic mixed phases. An attempt has been made to correlate the hardness of carbides, nitrides, and borides (data taken from literature) with certain interaction parameters and associated thermodynamic quantities (ΔH, ΔG). For some metals of periods 4, 5, and 6 corresponding relations were found between microhardness, interaction parameters, heat of formation, and atomic number

  17. Diffusion corrections to the hard pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Müller, A H; Ciafaloni, Marcello; Taiuti, Martina

    2001-01-01

    The high-energy behaviour of two-scale hard processes is investigated in the framework of small-x models with running coupling, having the Airy diffusion model as prototype. We show that, in some intermediate high-energy regime, the perturbative hard Pomeron exponent determines the energy dependence, and we prove that diffusion corrections have the form hinted at before in particular cases. We also discuss the breakdown of such regime at very large energies, and the onset of the non-perturbative Pomeron behaviour.

  18. Analysis of the development and performance of hard disks

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of new technologies in the field of hard drives we can witness a significant increase of surface density and transfer rate of interfaces which, as a result, enables greater performance and reliability of hard disks. The reason for this are increasing needs for higher capacities and data transfer rate to or from the hard disk. This thesis presents the structure of hard drives, features, performance and reliability of hard drives and alternative data storage technologies. Par...

  19. Possible connections between hard and soft processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1977-10-01

    Three topics in constituent hadron models are reviewed: the connection between fixed angle and Regge behavior, the validity of the hard scattering expansion and restrictions on the effects of the transverse momentum of constituents, and the x distribution in the fragmentation region at low transverse momentum. 6 figures

  20. Parallel Narrative Structure in Paul Harding's "Tinkers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirakli, Mustafa Zeki

    2014-01-01

    The present paper explores the implications of parallel narrative structure in Paul Harding's "Tinkers" (2009). Besides primarily recounting the two sets of parallel narratives, "Tinkers" also comprises of seemingly unrelated fragments such as excerpts from clock repair manuals and diaries. The main stories, however, told…

  1. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  2. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  3. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load ... The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. .... Experimental. Pure lithium ... the index of d strikes at this simple and meaningful defini-.

  4. "Work smart, wear your hard hat"

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Falling objects and collisions are frequent occurrences in work sites and hazardous areas. Hard hats can help prevent many types of accident and can even save lives. Just imagine an 800 g spanner falling from a 13 m high scaffold onto the head of someone standing below - a nightmare scenario! The impact to the head is equivalent to that of a 5 kg weight falling from 2 metres. That is just what happened to Gerd Fetchenhauer when he was working on the UA1 experiment. Fortunately, he was wearing a hard hat at the time. "That hat saved my life," he explains. "It punched a hole right through the hat and I was a bit dazed for a couple of hours but otherwise I was OK." Since that day, Gerd Fetchenhauer, now working on CMS, is never seen on a work site without his hard hat on. Work sites have proliferated at CERN with the construction of the LHC and its detectors, and the wearing of hard hats is compulsory (not to mention life-saving). In the underground caverns and experiment halls, where gantry cranes and other h...

  5. Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T; Rystedt, I

    1983-03-01

    Hard metal contains about 10% cobalt. 853 hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with substances from their environment. Initial patch tests with 1% cobalt chloride showed 62 positive reactions. By means of secondary serial dilution tests, allergic reactions to cobalt were reproduced in 9 men and 30 women. Weak reactions could not normally be reproduced. A history of hand eczema was found in 36 of the 39 individuals with reproducible positive test reactions to cobalt, while 21 of 23 with a positive initial patch test but negative serial dilution test had never had any skin problems. Hand etching and hand grinding, mainly female activities and traumatic to the hands, were found to involve the greatest risk of cobalt sensitization. 24 individuals had an isolated cobalt allergy. They had probably been sensitized by hard metal work, while the individuals, all women, who had simultaneous nickel allergy had probably been sensitized to nickel before their employment and then became sensitized to cobalt by hard metal work. A traumatic occupation, which causes irritant contact dermatitis and/or a previous contact allergy or atopy is probably a prerequisite for the development of cobalt allergy.

  6. Sustaining Transformation: "Resiliency in Hard Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarasci, Richard; Lieberman, Devorah

    2009-01-01

    The strategic, systemic, and encompassing evolution of a college or university spans a number of years, and the vagaries of economic cycles inevitably catch transforming institutions in mid-voyage. "Sustaining Transformation: Resiliency in Hard Times" presents a study of Wagner College as it moves into its second decade of purposeful…

  7. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, K.; Kessler, O.; Hoffann, F.; Mayr, P. [Stiftung Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The properties of hard coatings deposited using CVD processes are usually excellent. However, high deposition temperatures negatively influence the substrate properties, especially in the case of low alloyed steels. Therefore, a subsequent heat treatment is necessary to restore the properties of steel substrates. Here, induction surface hardening is used as a method of heat treatment after the deposition of TiN hard coatings on AISI 4140 (DIN42CrMo4) substrates. The influences of the heat treatment on both the coating and the substrate properties are discussed in relation to the parameters of induction heating. Thereby, the heating time, heating atmosphere and the power input into the coating-substrate compounds are varied. As a result of induction surface hardening, the properties of the substrates are improved without losing good coating properties. High hardness values in the substrate near the interface allow the AISI 4140 substrates to support TiN hard coatings very well. Consequently, higher critical loads are measured in scratch tests after the heat treatment. Also, compressive residual stresses in the substrate are generated. In addition, only a very low distortion appears. (orig.)

  8. Hard scattering in γp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.

    1992-10-01

    We report on the investigation of the final state in interactions of quasi-real photons with protons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. Evidence for hard interactions is seen in both single particle spectra and jet formation. The data can best be described by inclusion of resolved photon processes as predicted by QCD. (orig.)

  9. Soft gluon contributions to hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciafaloni, M.

    1981-10-01

    The main concern of this paper is in trying to elucidate the origin of large QCD perturbative corrections and explain how to deal with them to all orders. They come essentially from the phase space regions close to the kinematical boundary of a hard process, in which one or many gluons become soft

  10. Hard Pseudocompact Spaces | Ghosh | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which was absent in the literature. Finally, under smallness restrictions on hyper-real remainder of the Stone Cech compactification of a Tychonoff space we have achieved in producing a representation for hard pseudocompact space. Keywords: Compactification, Hewitt realcompactification, pseudocompact, realcompact

  11. Diffractive hard scattering and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Events in high energy hadron collisions are discussed that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 12 refs., 6 figs

  12. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, O; Bishop, B; McCall, W

    1986-06-01

    Chewing rhythms are set by a putative central pattern generator whose output is influenced by sensory feedback. In this study we assessed how an altered feedback imposed by changing the hardness of a gum bolus modifies the timing of chewing, the maximal gape, and the activity in the masseter muscle on the chewing side. Ten adult subjects with no orofacial dysfunction chewed a standard piece of soft or hard gum for at least 3 min in random order. Vertical jaw movements were recorded with a kinesiograph and activity of the masseter muscle was recorded and integrated from surface EMG electrodes. The subjects sat in a dental chair and viewed a video lecture to distract their attention from chewing; they were instructed to chew on the right molars. Cycle-by-cycle analysis showed that 9 of the 10 subjects chewed the hard gum more slowly than the soft with no significant change in gape. The increases in cycle duration were due to changes in the duration of the opening and occlusal phases. The duration of closing was not significantly changed even though the duration and level of masseter activity were both significantly increased. We conclude that gum hardness by altering proprioceptive feedback modifies the output of the masticatory central pattern generator in such a way that the temporal aspects of chewing and the output of the masseteric motor pool are affected.

  13. Decision-theoretic troubleshooting: Hardness of approximation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lín, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2014), s. 977-988 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decision-theoretic troubleshooting * Hardness of approximation * NP-completeness Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2014

  14. Remember Hard but Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushu Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness, biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between hard and rigid and between soft and flexible in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affected cognitive functions requiring either rigidity (memory or flexibility (creativity. In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition than a cushioned one (the soft condition. In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity and flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations could be grounded via metaphorical association in bodily states.

  15. Hard Distraction and Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BJORKEN, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes- 'shadow physics' - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word 'diffraction' is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. So I here begin by defining what I mean by the term: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the 'lego' phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing sub energy Δη, but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼ logs. The term 'hard diffraction' shall simply refer to those diffractive processes which have jets in the final-state phase-space. We may also distinguish, if desired, two subclasses, as suggested by Ingelman i) Diffractive hard processes have jets on only one side of the rapidity gap. ii) Hard diffractive processes have jets on both sides of the rapidity gap

  16. Thermodynamic perturbation theory for fused hard-sphere and hard-disk chain fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Stell, G.

    1995-01-01

    We find that first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1) which incorporates the reference monomer fluid used in the generalized Flory--AB (GF--AB) theory yields an equation of state for fused hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids that has accuracy comparable to the GF--AB and GF--dimer--AC theories. The new TPT1 equation of state is significantly more accurate than other extensions of the TPT1 theory to FHS chain fluids. The TPT1 is also extended to two-dimensional fused hard-disk chain fluids. For the fused hard-disk dimer fluid, the extended TPT1 equation of state is found to be more accurate than the Boublik hard-disk dimer equation of state. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Hard diffraction and small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, phrases such as ''small-x evolution'', ''the BFKL Pomeron'', ''deep-inelastic rapiditygap events'' and ''hard-diffraction'' do not generate the same intensity of discussion amongst high-energy physicists that they do in Europe. However, for three days in the fall such discussion filled the air at Fermilab. The ''2nd Workshop on Small-x and Diffractive Physics at the Tevatron'' was a review of the rapid theoretical and experimental progress taking place in this field. Although Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) has been established as the theory of strong interactions for twenty years, as yet neither perturbative high-energy calculations nor low-energy non-perturbative techniques have been successfully extended to the mixture of high energy and low transverse momenta which characterize traditional ''soft'' diffractive processes. The simplest soft diffractive process is elastic scattering. In this case it is easiest to accept that there is an exchanged ''pomeron'', which can be pictured as a virtual entity with no electric charge or strong charge (colour), perhaps like an excitation of the vacuum. The same pomeron is expected to appear in all diffractive processes. Understanding the pomeron in QCD is a fundamental theoretical and experimental challenge. In the last two or three years the ''frontier'' in this challenging area of QCD has been pushed back significantly in both theory and experiment. Progress has been achieved by studying the evolution of hard collisions to relatively smaller constituent momenta (small x) and by studying ''hard'' diffractive collisions containing simultaneous signatures of diffraction and hard perturbative processes. The hard processes have included high transverse momentum jet production, deep inelastic lepton scattering, and (most recently) W

  18. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  19. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  20. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between “hard” and “rigid” and between “soft” and “flexible” in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations. PMID:27672373

  1. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal.

  2. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  3. Nanoindentation hardness of banded Australian sedimentary opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P S; Smallwood, A S; Ray, A S [Department of Chemistry, Material and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Briscoe, B J; Parsonage, D [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: paul.thomas@uts.edu.au

    2008-04-07

    Nanoindentation hardness data in continuous stiffness mode are reported for banded potch and play of colour opals sourced from Lightning Ridge in New South Wales and Andamooka in South Australia. Despite the significant visible heterogeneities observed and the significant differences in origin and microstructures, as observed by SEM, and subtle differences in the elemental distributions between bands within specimens, little difference was observed in the mechanical properties. Specimens were found to be mechanically homogeneous and values of the hardness and moduli were found to be similar between samples. The creep behaviour of the specimens was also observed to be similar. It was concluded that the similarities in mechanical properties were due to the similarities in the silica morphology of the specimens, formed in similar geological environments, as differences in microstructure and trace element distribution were found not to significantly influence the observed bulk mechanical properties.

  4. The underlying event in hard scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p T > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data

  5. Biological and ecological aspects of hard ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Nayibe Polanco Echeverry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of Ixodidae family. These mites have been always considered disrupting agents of livestock systems, where they are recognized as the cause of economic and production losses. However, their ecological role is important for the dynamic equilibrium of the production systems bovine meat or milk. Knowing their biolog y and ecolog y can shed light on the sanitary decisions made in relation to these organisms. This review article presents issues related to classification, characteristics, and life cycle of hard ticks and relations vector-parasite-host. In addition, it addresses the control of ectoparasites on conventional livestock systems and the implica-tions that these models of intervention might have on agro-ecosystem.

  6. Fixed target electroweak and hard scattering physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.; Brown, C.N.; Montgomery, H.E.; Corcoran, M.D.

    1990-02-01

    The possibilities for future physics and experiments involving weak and electromagnetic interactions, neutrino oscillations, general hard scattering and experiments involving nuclear targets were explored. The studies were limited to the physics accessible using fixed target experimentation. While some of the avenues explored turn out to be relatively unrewarding in the light of competition elsewhere in the world, there are a number of positive conclusions reached about experimentation in the energy range available to the Main Injector and Tevatron. Some of the experiments would benefit from the increased intensity available from the Tevatron utilizing the Main Injector, while some require this increase. Finally, some of the experiments would use the Main Injector low energy, high intensity extracted beams directly. A program of electroweak and hard scattering experiments at fixed target energies retains the potential for important contributions to physics. The key to major parts of this program would appear to be the existence of the Main Injector. 115 refs, 17 figs

  7. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  8. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Aespoe hard rock laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual report 1992 for the Aespoe hard rock laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are being carried out in parallel. December 1992 1925 m of the tunnel has been excavated to a depth of 255 m below surface. An important and integrated part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. This work is carried out in cooperation with seven organizations from six countries that participate in the project. (25 refs.)

  9. Hard Spheres on the Primitive Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently hierarchical structures associated with the gyroid in several soft-matter systems have been reported. One of fundamental questions is regular arrangement or tiling on minimal surfaces. We have found certain numbers of hard spheres per unit cell on the gyroid surface are entropically self-organized. Here, new results for the primitive surface are presented. 56/64/72 per unit cell on the primitive minimal surface are entropically self-organized. Numerical evidences for the fluid-solid transition as a function of hard sphere radius are obtained in terms of the acceptance ratio of Monte Carlo moves and order parameters. These arrangements, which are the extensions of the hexagonal arrangement on a flat surface, can be viewed as hyperbolic tiling on the Poincaré disk with a negative Gaussian curvature.

  10. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  11. Anomalous structural transition of confined hard squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    Structural transitions are examined in quasi-one-dimensional systems of freely rotating hard squares, which are confined between two parallel walls. We find two competing phases: one is a fluid where the squares have two sides parallel to the walls, while the second one is a solidlike structure with a zigzag arrangement of the squares. Using transfer matrix method we show that the configuration space consists of subspaces of fluidlike and solidlike phases, which are connected with low probability microstates of mixed structures. The existence of these connecting states makes the thermodynamic quantities continuous and precludes the possibility of a true phase transition. However, thermodynamic functions indicate strong tendency for the phase transition and our replica exchange Monte Carlo simulation study detects several important markers of the first order phase transition. The distinction of a phase transition from a structural change is practically impossible with simulations and experiments in such systems like the confined hard squares.

  12. The hardness test: a real mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhanlou, R.

    1993-02-01

    During the service life, the mechanical properties of the PWR components change. It is necessary to determine precisely this evolution, but it is not always possible to draw a sample with the adequate size for the characterization. For this latter case we intend to calculate the stress-strain curve of a material from a hardness test results, because it is appropriate for testing on site and do not need any particular sample shape. This paper is the first bibliographical part of a larger study on the relation between the values measured during a hardness test (applied load, indentation diameter) and the mechanical properties of a solid obtained by a traction test. We have treated the problem within the general setting of two solids in contact. Thus, we expose general elastic, elasto-plastic and plastic models describing the indentation of a solid by a rigid indenter

  13. Magnetic hyperthermia with hard-magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashevsky, Bronislav E., E-mail: bekas@itmo.by [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashevsky, Sergey B.; Korenkov, Victor S. [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Istomin, Yuri P. [N. N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus, Lesnoy-2, Minsk 223040 (Belarus); Terpinskaya, Tatyana I.; Ulashchik, Vladimir S. [Institute of Physiology, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str. 28, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2015-04-15

    Recent clinical trials of magnetic hyperthermia have proved, and even hardened, the Ankinson-Brezovich restriction as upon magnetic field conditions applicable to any site of human body. Subject to this restriction, which is harshly violated in numerous laboratory and small animal studies, magnetic hyperthermia can relay on rather moderate heat source, so that optimization of the whole hyperthermia system remains, after all, the basic problem predetermining its clinical perspectives. We present short account of our complex (theoretical, laboratory and small animal) studies to demonstrate that such perspectives should be related with the hyperthermia system based on hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlfarth type) nanoparticles and strong low-frequency fields rather than with superparamagnetic (Brownian or Neél) nanoparticles and weak high-frequency fields. This conclusion is backed by an analytical evaluation of the maximum absorption rates possible under the field restriction in the ideal hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlarth) and the ideal superparamagnetic (single relaxation time) systems, by theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamic magnetic hysteresis in suspensions of movable hard-magnetic particles, by producing nanoparticles with adjusted coercivity and suspensions of such particles capable of effective energy absorption and intratumoral penetration, and finally, by successful treatment of a mice model tumor under field conditions acceptable for whole human body. - Highlights: • Hard-magnetic nanoparticles are shown superior for hyperthetmia to superparamagnetic. • Optimal system parameters are found from magnetic reversal model in movable particle. • Penetrating suspension of HM particles with aggregation-independent SAR is developed. • For the first time, mice with tumors are healed in AC field acceptable for human body.

  14. Mining technology development for hard rock excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustrulid, W.; Cudnick, R.; Trent, R.; Holmberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    A research facility has been established in the granitic gneiss of the CSM Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado, for the purpose of evaluating/developing mining, geologic and geotechnical procedures appropriate for use in establishing nuclear waste repositories in hard rock. An experimental room has been excavated using careful blasting procedures. The extent and magnitude of blast damage is being evaluated. Structural geology is being mapped to assess continuity

  15. Hard-tip, soft-spring lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wooyoung; Braunschweig, Adam B; Liao, Xing; Chai, Jinan; Lim, Jong Kuk; Zheng, Gengfeng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-27

    Nanofabrication strategies are becoming increasingly expensive and equipment-intensive, and consequently less accessible to researchers. As an alternative, scanning probe lithography has become a popular means of preparing nanoscale structures, in part owing to its relatively low cost and high resolution, and a registration accuracy that exceeds most existing technologies. However, increasing the throughput of cantilever-based scanning probe systems while maintaining their resolution and registration advantages has from the outset been a significant challenge. Even with impressive recent advances in cantilever array design, such arrays tend to be highly specialized for a given application, expensive, and often difficult to implement. It is therefore difficult to imagine commercially viable production methods based on scanning probe systems that rely on conventional cantilevers. Here we describe a low-cost and scalable cantilever-free tip-based nanopatterning method that uses an array of hard silicon tips mounted onto an elastomeric backing. This method-which we term hard-tip, soft-spring lithography-overcomes the throughput problems of cantilever-based scanning probe systems and the resolution limits imposed by the use of elastomeric stamps and tips: it is capable of delivering materials or energy to a surface to create arbitrary patterns of features with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas. We argue that hard-tip, soft-spring lithography is a versatile nanolithography strategy that should be widely adopted by academic and industrial researchers for rapid prototyping applications.

  16. Hard Diffraction - from Blois 1985 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnar, Ingelman [Uppsala Univ., High Energy Physics (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The idea of diffractive processes with a hard scale involved, to resolve the underlying parton dynamics, was presented at the first Blois conference in 1985 and experimentally verified a few years later. Today hard diffraction is an attractive research field with high-quality data and new theoretical models. The trend from Regge-based pomeron models to QCD-based parton level models has given insights on QCD dynamics involving perturbative gluon exchange mechanisms. In the new QCD-based models, the pomeron is not part of the proton wave function, but diffraction is an effect of the scattering process. Models based on interactions with a colour background field provide an interesting approach which avoids conceptual problems of pomeron-based models, such as the pomeron flux, and provide a basis for common theoretical framework for all final states, diffractive gap events as well as non-diffractive events. Finally, the new process of gaps between jets provides strong evidence for the BFKL dynamics as predicted since long by QCD, but so far hard to establish experimentally.

  17. Hard diffraction and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes - shadow physics - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word diffraction is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. The author defines this term to mean: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the open-quotes legoclose quotes phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing subenergy s=e Δη , but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼log(s). The term hard diffraction shall simply refer to those diffractive process which have jets in the final-state phase-space

  18. Hard and soft acids and bases: atoms and atomic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James L

    2008-07-07

    The structural origin of hard-soft behavior in atomic acids and bases has been explored using a simple orbital model. The Pearson principle of hard and soft acids and bases has been taken to be the defining statement about hard-soft behavior and as a definition of chemical hardness. There are a number of conditions that are imposed on any candidate structure and associated property by the Pearson principle, which have been exploited. The Pearson principle itself has been used to generate a thermodynamically based scale of relative hardness and softness for acids and bases (operational chemical hardness), and a modified Slater model has been used to discern the electronic origin of hard-soft behavior. Whereas chemical hardness is a chemical property of an acid or base and the operational chemical hardness is an experimental measure of it, the absolute hardness is a physical property of an atom or molecule. A critical examination of chemical hardness, which has been based on a more rigorous application of the Pearson principle and the availability of quantitative measures of chemical hardness, suggests that the origin of hard-soft behavior for both acids and bases resides in the relaxation of the electrons not undergoing transfer during the acid-base interaction. Furthermore, the results suggest that the absolute hardness should not be taken as synonymous with chemical hardness but that the relationship is somewhat more complex. Finally, this work provides additional groundwork for a better understanding of chemical hardness that will inform the understanding of hardness in molecules.

  19. Visual inspection technology in the hard disc drive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn

    2015-01-01

    A presentation of the use of computer vision systems to control manufacturing processes and product quality in the hard disk drive industry. Visual Inspection Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Industry is an application-oriented book borne out of collaborative research with the world's leading hard disk drive companies. It covers the latest developments and important topics in computer vision technology in hard disk drive manufacturing, as well as offering a glimpse of future technologies.

  20. Determining the Effect of Material Hardness During the Hard Turning of AISI4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambagowni, Venkatasubbaiah; Chitla, Raju; Challa, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    In the present manufacturing industries hardened steels are most widely used in the applications like tool design and mould design. It enhances the application range of hard turning of hardened steels in manufacturing industries. This study discusses the impact of workpiece hardness, feed and depth of cut on Arithmetic mean roughness (Ra), root mean square roughness (Rq), mean depth of roughness (Rz) and total roughness (Rt) during the hard turning. Experiments have been planned according to the Box-Behnken design and conducted on hardened AISI4340 steel at 45, 50 and 55 HRC with wiper ceramic cutting inserts. Cutting speed is kept constant during this study. The analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of the machining parameters. 3-D response surface plots drawn based on RSM were utilized to set up the input-output relationships. The results indicated that the feed rate has the most significant parameter for Ra, Rq and Rz and hardness has the most critical parameter for the Rt. Further, hardness shows its influence over all the surface roughness characteristics.

  1. Development of method for evaluating cell hardness and correlation between bacterial spore hardness and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi Koichi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of conventional devices for making single-cell manipulations, determining the hardness of a single cell remains difficult. Here, we consider the cell to be a linear elastic body and apply Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity, which is defined as the ratio of the repulsive force (stress in response to the applied strain. In this new method, a scanning probe microscope (SPM is operated with a cantilever in the “contact-and-push” mode, and the cantilever is applied to the cell surface over a set distance (applied strain. Results We determined the hardness of the following bacterial cells: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and five Bacillus spp. In log phase, these strains had a similar Young’s modulus, but Bacillus spp. spores were significantly harder than the corresponding vegetative cells. There was a positive, linear correlation between the hardness of bacterial spores and heat or ultraviolet (UV resistance. Conclusions Using this technique, the hardness of a single vegetative bacterial cell or spore could be determined based on Young’s modulus. As an application of this technique, we demonstrated that the hardness of individual bacterial spores was directly proportional to heat and UV resistance, which are the conventional measures of physical durability. This technique allows the rapid and direct determination of spore durability and provides a valuable and innovative method for the evaluation of physical properties in the field of microbiology.

  2. Determination of Formula for Vickers Hardness Measurements Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purba, Asli

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of formula determination is to obtain the formula of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The approach to determine the formula: influenced parameters identification, creating a cause and effect diagram, determination of sensitivity, determination of standard uncertainty and determination of formula for Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. The results is a formula for determination of Vickers hardness measurements uncertainty. (author)

  3. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  4. Exact sampling hardness of Ising spin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, B.; Foss-Feig, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of exact classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

  5. Seismic loads in modularized and unmodularized large pools located on hard or intermediate hard sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R G [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1977-12-01

    To augment the present capacity of pools for storing spent nuclear fuel elements, pools larger than those in current use are being planned. These pools may or may not be modularized into cells. Because of the large size of the pools, seismic loads are of significant interest. In particular, the effects of modularization and site hardness are of concern. The study presented in this paper reveals that modularization is generally unfavourable, because it creates the option of leaving one or more cells empty which in turn results in higher structural loads. The wall which separates a filled cell from an empty cell, or the wall which bears against earth on one side and faces an empty cell on the other, becomes very highly stressed. For the particular pool geometries examined, a hard site is generally preferred over an intermediate hard site in terms of structural loads.

  6. Hard production of exotic hybrid mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.; Teryaev, O.V. [Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pire, B.; Anikin, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, I. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Anikin, I.; Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    Exotic hybrid mesons H, with quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} may be copiously produced in the hard exclusive processes {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2}){gamma} {yields} H and {gamma}{sup *}(Q{sup 2})P(p) {yields} HP(p') because they have a leading twist distribution amplitude with a sizable coupling constant f{sub H}, which may be estimated through QCD sum rules. The reaction rates scale in the same way as the corresponding rates for usual mesons. (authors)

  7. Hardness and Approximation for Network Flow Interdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chestnut, Stephen R.; Zenklusen, Rico

    2015-01-01

    In the Network Flow Interdiction problem an adversary attacks a network in order to minimize the maximum s-t-flow. Very little is known about the approximatibility of this problem despite decades of interest in it. We present the first approximation hardness, showing that Network Flow Interdiction and several of its variants cannot be much easier to approximate than Densest k-Subgraph. In particular, any $n^{o(1)}$-approximation algorithm for Network Flow Interdiction would imply an $n^{o(1)}...

  8. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  9. Hard target LIDAR calibration for SO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available calibration for SO2 A du Plessis, DE Roberts CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Project background • Las-R-MAP: Laser – Remote – Measurement of Atmospheric Pollutants • Mobile laser system....csir.co.za Hard target backscatter ∫ = − R dRRn p e R RcE RS 0 )(2 2 )()( λσ λ β S R Slide 10 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Las-R-MAP hardware: laser system Slide 11 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Las-R...

  10. Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented

  11. Design of Vickers Hardness Loading Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Vickers testing needs manual works, as a result, it will induce low precision and automatization. So this paper design a new type of loading controlling system, it is based on single chip computer 89S52, used PZT as the force generator in micro Vickers hardness testing. It primarily includes the designing of hardware, software of collecting data and PZT signals by AD667. This article has given the sketch of electrical circuit and controlling software, it also offers the experiment data. The experiments have showed that using this system can exactly control the loading results, and the average tolerance is less than 0.43 %.

  12. Hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A relation between hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron is discussed. A model, which takes into account unitarity effects is developed for interaction of high-energy virtual photons with nucleons. It is shown that this model gives a good description of HERA data on both total γ* p total cross section and diffractive dissociation of virtual photons in a broad region of Q 2 . It is shown how to describe the CDF data on diffractive jet production at Tevatron using an information on distribution of partons in the Pomeron from HERA experiments

  13. Sorption of radionuclides on hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Methods for measuring sorption on hard rocks, particularly of strontium, caesium, neptunium and americium on Darley Dale sandstone and Welsh slate have been investigated. The methods tried included batch tests with crushed rock and tests of simultaneous diffusion and convection with sorption on intact rock. High pressures (800m H 2 O) were used in the convective tests to pump water quickly through the rock samples and to measure high sorptivities in times shorter than those needed in the diffusive methods with intact samples. (author)

  14. Burning actinides in very hard spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Shirley, G.W.; Prichard, A.W.; Trapp, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    The major unresolved problem in the nuclear industry is the ultimate disposition of the waste products of light water reactors. The study demonstrates the feasibility of designing a very hard spectrum actinide burner reactor (ABR). A 1100 MW/sub t/ ABR design fueled entirely with actinides reprocessed from light water reactor (LWR) wastes is proposed as both an ultimate disposal mechanism for actinides and a means of concurrently producing usable power. Actinides from discharged ABR fuel are recycled to the ABR while fission products are routed to a permanent repository. As an integral part of a large energy park, each such ABR would dispose of the waste actinides from 2 LWRs

  15. Studying Hardness Meter Spring Strength to Understand Hardness Distribution on Body Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yoshitaka

    2017-10-01

    For developing a hardness multipoint measurement system for understanding hardness distribution on biological body surfaces, we investigated the spring strength of the contact portion main axis of a biological tissue hardness meter (product name: PEK). We measured the hardness of three-layered sheets of six types of gel sheets (90 mm × 60 mm × 6 mm) constituting the acupuncture practice pads, with PEK measurements of 1.96 N, 2.94 N, 3.92 N, 4.90 N, 5.88 N, 6.86 N, 7.84 N, 8.82 N, and 9.81 N of the main axis spring strength. We obtained measurements 10 times for the gel sheets and simultaneously measured the load using a digital scale. We measured the hardness distribution of induration embedded and breast cancer palpation models, with a main axis with 1.96 N, 4.90 N, and 9.81 N spring strengths, to create a two-dimensional Contour Fill Chart. Using 4.90 N spring strength, we could obtain measurement loads of ≤3.0 N, and the mean hardness was 5.14 mm. This was close to the median of the total measurement range 0.0-10.0 mm, making the measurement range the largest for this spring strength. We could image the induration of the induration-embedded model regardless of the spring strength. Overall, 4.90 N spring strength was best suited for imaging cancer in the breast cancer palpation model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  17. Study of Cu-Al-Zn alloys hardness temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmanova, D.T.; Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of studies for the Cu-Al-Zn ternary alloys hardness temperature dependence are presented. The method of 'hot hardness' has been used during study of the solid state phase transformations and under determination of the hot stability boundaries. Due to the samples brittleness a hardness temperature dependence definition is possible only from 350-400 deg. C. Sensitivity of the 'hot hardness' method is decreasing within high plasticity range, so the measurements have been carried out only up to 700-800 deg. C. It is shown, that the alloys hardness dependence character from temperature is close to exponential one within the certain structure modification existence domain

  18. Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomeit Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hard and soft QCD results using proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported. Charged-particle distributions and forward-backward correlations have been studied in low-luminosity minimum bias data taken at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. Recent measurements on underlying event characteristics using charged-particle jets are also presented. The results are tested against various phenomenological soft QCD models implemented in Monte-Carlo generators. A summary of hard QCD measurements involving high transverse momentum jets is also given. Inclusive jet and dijet cross-sections have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and are compared to expectations based on NLO pQCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects as well as to NLO Monte Carlo predictions. Recent studies exploiting jet substructure techniques to identify hadronic decays of boosted massive particles are reported.

  19. Hard processes in photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchovni, E.

    1985-03-01

    In this thesis, the existence of hard component in two-photon collisions is investigated. Due to the relative simplicity of the photon, such processes can be exactly calculated in QCD. Untagged (low Q 2 ) two-photon events are used. This leads to relatively high statistics, but to severe background problem due mainly to e + e - annihilation. The background contamination is reduced to a tolerable level using a special set of cuts. Moreover, the remaining contamination is shown to be calculable with a small systematic error. A large number of events of the hard ''γγ'' type is found. An attempt to explain these events using the simplest QCD diagram (the Born term) is done. This process is found to be capable of explaining only a 1/4 of the data. Other options like the constituent intercharge model, integer charged quarks, and higher order diagrams are therefore also discussed. The large cross-section for the production of ρ 0 ρ 0 pairs in ''γγ'' collisions has not been understood yet. Inorder to look at closely related processes, a search for φρ 0 and φφ was initiated. The cross-section for θπ + π - was found to be sizeable. Only upper limits for the production of φρ 0 and φφ are obtained

  20. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC =1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e., as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the nonvanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy-momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in α S and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a πη meson pair. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of π and η mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very high energy, in the diffractive limit where a QCD Odderon exchange mechanism should dominate. The conclusion of our study is that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular, at JLAB, HERA (HERMES), or CERN (Compass)

  1. [Computer-assisted phacoemulsification for hard cataracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, M; Papadatu, Adriana-Camelia; Sîrbu, Laura-Nicoleta; Avram, Corina

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the efficiency of new torsional phacoemulsification software (Ozil IP system) in hard nucleus cataract extraction. 45 eyes with hard senile cataract (degree III and IV) underwent phacoemulsification performed by the same surgeon, using the same technique (stop and chop). Infiniti (Alcon) platform was used, with Ozil IP software and Kelman phaco tip miniflared, 45 degrees. The nucleus was split into two and after that the first half was phacoemulsificated with IP-on (group 1) and the second half with IP-off (group 2). For every group we measured: cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), numbers of tip closure that needed manual desobstruction the amount of BSS used. The mean CDE was the same in group 1 and in group 2 (between 6.2 and 14.9). The incidence of occlusion that needed manual desobstruction was lower in group 1 (5 times) than in group 2 (13 times). Group 2 used more BSS compared to group 1. The new torsional software (IP system) significantly decreased occlusion time and balanced salt solution use over standard torsional software, particularly with denser cataracts.

  2. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfy ability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named ”locked” constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfy ability.

  3. Recent developments in hard magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asti, G.

    1989-01-01

    Hard magnetic materials find ever-increasing uses in modern technology. Their importance is mainly in the domain of permanent magnets, but a variety of other applications is being offered to this class of materials, especially for what regards the areas of information storage, telecommunications and special electronic devices. These developments are connected to the emphasis that is more and more given to thin films having high magnetic anisotropy. The recent advancement in the field of hard magnetic materials is among the best examples where technology depends to a great extent upon the continuous progress in the scientific knowledge. The research activity is characterized by the introduction of new classes of materials and continuous improvements in the preparation techniques both for what regards industrial processing and method for obtaining high quality materials in form of crystals, films or amorphous specimens. In this respect a special place must be reserved to rare earth transition metal compounds, a class of materials that attracted enormeous attention after the discovery by Hoffer and Strnat in 1966 of the large uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the compound YCo 5 . Beside the so called 1:5 phase, other compositions of technical importance are the 2:17 and the recently discovered Nd 2 Fe 14 B, which is a real new ternary phase having tetragonal crystal structure. Great efforts have been done to gain a better understanding of the magnetic anisotropy and its relationship to the coercivity is of leading importance for a further development in this important area of magnetism. (orig.)

  4. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an non-deterministic polynomial-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal the question we address in the article is: How to recognize if an non-deterministic polynomial-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named 'locked' constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability (Authors)

  5. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdeborová, Lenka

    2009-06-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named "locked" constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability.

  6. Hard-Boiled for Hard Times in Leonardo Padura Fuentes's Detective Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Rosi

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on Leonardo Padura Fuentes's hard-boiled fiction, this essay traces the origin and evolution of the genre in Cuba. Padura Fuentes has challenged the officially sanctioned socialist "literatura policial" that became popular in the 1970s and 1980s. creating a new model of criticism that is not afraid to confront the island's socio-economic…

  7. Optical fiber composition and radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.A.; Loretz, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    Germanium phosphosilicate and germanium borosilicate fibers doped with cerium were fabricated and tested for their responses to steady-state Co-60 radiation at -55 C, +20 C and +125 C. A fiber with germanium, boron and phosphorous in the silicate core and doped with antimony in the core and clad was similarly tested. All of the fibers showed significant improvements in radiation hardness at 20 C compared to undoped fibers of the same base composition. At -55 C, however, all except the cerium doped germanium phosphosilicate were very radiation sensitive and also showed increases in the rate of induced loss at +125 C. The cerium doped germanium phosphosilicate fiber showed virtually no change in radiation sensitivity at the temperature extremes and could prove useful in applications requiring relatively short lengths of fiber

  8. Imaging the hard/soft tissue interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, Alistair; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Grover, Liam M

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between different tissues play an essential role in the biomechanics of native tissues and their recapitulation is now recognized as critical to function. As a consequence, imaging the hard/soft tissue interface has become increasingly important in the area of tissue engineering. Particularly as several biotechnology based products have made it onto the market or are close to human trials and an understanding of their function and development is essential. A range of imaging modalities have been developed that allow a wealth of information on the morphological and physical properties of samples to be obtained non-destructively in vivo or via destructive means. This review summarizes the use of a selection of imaging modalities on interfaces to date considering the strengths and weaknesses of each. We will also consider techniques which have not yet been utilized to their full potential or are likely to play a role in future work in the area.

  9. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below.

  11. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  12. Hard Probes in Heavy-Ion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The aim of ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is to study collectivity and thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) by creating a transient small volume of matter with extreme density and temperature. There is experimental evidence that most of the particles created in such a collision form indeed a thermalized system characterized by collective response to pressure gradients. However, a numerically small subset of high transverse momentum ($P_T$) processes takes place independent of the bulk, with the outgoing partons subsequently propagating through the bulk medium. Understanding the modification of such 'hard probes' by the bulk medium is an important part of the efforts to determine the properties of hot and dense QCD matter. In this paper, current developments are reviewed.

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below

  14. Blazars in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Although blazars are thought to emit most of their luminosity in the γ-ray band, there are subclasses of them very prominent in hard X-rays. These are the best candidates to be studied by Simbol-X. They are at the extremes of the blazar sequence, having very small or very high jet powers. The former are the class of TeV emitting BL Lacs, whose synchrotron emission often peaks at tens of keV or more. The latter are the blazars with the most powerful jets, have high black hole masses accreting at high (i.e. close to Eddington) rates. These sources are predicted to have their high energy peak even below the MeV band, and therefore are very promising candidates to be studied with Simbol-X.

  15. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  16. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  17. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

  18. Shock compression synthesis of hard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.

  19. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  20. Toxicity removal from hard board wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawar, S.S.; El Kamah, H.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid growth of industry in Egypt in recent years has made industrial pollution an important issue. During the past decade fish production in some canals and lakes have virtually ceased due to the discharge of industrial and agricultural wastewater. The alternatives under study include effluent treatment before discharge to receiving water. Highly polluted waste from a hard board mill was treated using the activated sludge process. Factors affecting the efficiency of the treatment were detention time and organic loading rate. The results indicated that BOD and phenol reduction reached 82% and 94% respectively, when the organic loading rate was 0.1 (kg BOD/kg SS). The process proved to be successful in completely eliminating the toxicity effect of the waste on Nile fish (Tilapia nilotica). 14 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  1. Hard exclusive meson production to constrain GPDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbeek, Johannes ter; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Gross, Arne; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Malm, Pasquale; Regali, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Sirtl, Stefan; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The concept of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) combines the two-dimensional spatial information, given by form factors, with the longitudinal momentum information from the PDFs. Thus, GPDs provide a three-dimensional 'tomography' of the nucleon. Furthermore, according to Ji's sum rule, the GPDs H and E enable access to the total angular momenta of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. While H can be approached using electroproduction cross section, hard exclusive meson production off a transversely polarized target can help to constrain the GPD E. At the COMPASS experiment at CERN, two periods of data taking were performed in 2007 and 2010, using a longitudinally polarized 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target. This talk introduces the data analysis of the process μ + p → μ' + p' + V, and recent results are presented.

  2. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  3. Gloss evaluation from soft and hard metrologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihao; Xu, Lihao; Hu, Yu; Mirjalili, Fereshteh; Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) acquisitions have provided a novel approach for appearance measurement and analysis. In particular, since gloss appearance is dependent on the directional reflective properties of surfaces, it is reasonable to leverage the BRDF for gloss evaluation. In this paper, we investigate gloss appearance from both soft metrology and hard metrology. A psychophysical experiment was conducted for the gloss assessment of 47 neutral-color samples. In the evaluation of gloss perception from gloss meter measurements, we report several ambiguous correspondences in the medium gloss range. In order to analyze and explain this phenomenon, the BRDF was acquired and examined using a commercial BRDF measuring device. With an improved correlation-to-visual perception, we propose a two-dimensional gloss model by combining a parameter, the standard deviation of the specular lobe, from Ward's BRDF model with measured gloss values.

  4. MAGNESIUM, DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004, it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective association between mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  5. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  6. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  7. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Ao, Qiang; Tian, Xiaohong; Fan, Jun; Wei, Yujun; Hou, Weijian; Tong, Hao; Bai, Shuling

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering. PMID:28773924

  8. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  9. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Ao, Qiang; Tian, Xiaohong; Fan, Jun; Wei, Yujun; Hou, Weijian; Tong, Hao; Bai, Shuling

    2016-09-27

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  10. Factorization and non-factorization in diffractive hard scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun

    1997-01-01

    Factorization, in the sense defined for inclusive hard scattering, is discussed for diffractive hard scattering. A factorization theorem similar to its inclusive counterpart is presented for diffractive DIS. For hadron-hadron diffractive hard scattering, in contrast to its inclusive counterpart, the expected breakdown of factorization is discussed. Cross section estimates are given from a simple field theory model for non-factorizing double-pomeron-exchange (DPE) dijet production with and without account for Sudakov suppression

  11. Development of Composite Grinding Wheels for Hard and Soft Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Pruti, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of grinding wheel in terms of its internal granular particles and their effect on the surface finish for both soft and hard metals subjected to both dry and wet conditions of use. The study considers the properties of materials of construction including hardness of the granular particles and their size and distributions that affects the grinding wheel efficiency in abrading of soft and hard metal surfaces. Furthermore, in order to improve grinding pe...

  12. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohong; Ao, Qiang; Tian, Xiaohong; Fan, Jun; Wei, Yujun; Hou, Weijian; Tong, Hao; Bai, Shuling

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especial...

  13. Soft is hard and hard is easy: learning technologies and social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo riguarda principalmente la natura delle tecnologie per apprendere, con una particolare attenzione ai social media. Muovendo dalla definizione fornita da W. Brian Arthur delle tecnologie come un insieme di fenomeni orchestrati per un qualche uso, l’articolo amplia la teoria di Arthur ridefinendo e allargando la distinzione comunemente accettata tra tecnologie soft e hard, laddove le tecnologie soft sono intese come quelle che richiedono l’orchestrazione di fenomeni da parte degli esseri umani, mentre le tecnologie hard sono quelle per le quali l’orchestrazione è predeterminata o incorporata. Le tecnologie per apprendere sono quelle in cui le pedagogie (anch’esse tecnologie sono parte dell’insieme. Le conseguenze di questa prospettiva vengono esplorate nel quadro di diversi modelli pedagogici e in relazione agli approcci basati sul social learning in una varietà di contesti, dai corsi per corrispondenza ai MOOC.

  14. How to estimate hardness of crystals on a pocket calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simunek, Antonin

    2007-01-01

    A generalization of the semiempirical microscopic model of hardness is presented and applied to currently studied borides, carbides, and nitrides of heavy transition metals. The hardness of OsB, OsC, OsN, PtN, RuC, RuB 2 , ReB 2 , OsB 2 , IrN 2 , PtN 2 , and OsN 2 crystals in various structural phases is predicted. It is found that none of the transition metal crystals is superhard, i.e., with hardness greater than 40 GPa. The presented method provides materials researchers with a practical tool in the search for new hard materials

  15. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  16. Micro-hardness of non-irradiated uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Sik; Takagi, Osamu; Obata, Naomi; Kirihara, Tomoo.

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain the optimum conditions for micro-hardness measurements of sintered UO 2 , two kinds of hardness tests (Vickers and Knoop) were examined with non-irradiated UO 2 of 2.5 and 5 μm in grain size. The hardness values were obtained as a function of the applied load in the load range of 25 -- 1,000 g. In the Vickers test, cracks were generated around the periphery of an indentation even at lower load of 50 g, which means the Vickers hardness is not suitable for UO 2 specimens. In the Knoop test, three stages of load dependence were observed for sintered pellet as well as for a single crystal by Bates. Load dependence of Knoop hardness and crack formation were discussed. In the range of applied load around 70 -- 100 g there were plateau region where hardness values were nearly unchanged and did not contain any cracks in the indentation. The plateau region represents a hardness of a specimen. From a comparison between the hardness values of 2.5 μm and those of 5 μm UO 2 , it was approved that the degree of sintering controls the hardness in the plateau region. (author)

  17. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  18. Hard and soft acids and bases: structure and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James L

    2012-07-05

    Under investigation is the structure and process that gives rise to hard-soft behavior in simple anionic atomic bases. That for simple atomic bases the chemical hardness is expected to be the only extrinsic component of acid-base strength, has been substantiated in the current study. A thermochemically based operational scale of chemical hardness was used to identify the structure within anionic atomic bases that is responsible for chemical hardness. The base's responding electrons have been identified as the structure, and the relaxation that occurs during charge transfer has been identified as the process giving rise to hard-soft behavior. This is in contrast the commonly accepted explanations that attribute hard-soft behavior to varying degrees of electrostatic and covalent contributions to the acid-base interaction. The ability of the atomic ion's responding electrons to cause hard-soft behavior has been assessed by examining the correlation of the estimated relaxation energies of the responding electrons with the operational chemical hardness. It has been demonstrated that the responding electrons are able to give rise to hard-soft behavior in simple anionic bases.

  19. Hard metal lung disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Rafael Futoshi; Terra-Filho, Mário; Lima, Evelise; Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Chate, Rodrigo Caruso; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2016-01-01

    To describe diagnostic and treatment aspects of hard metal lung disease (HMLD) and to review the current literature on the topic. This was a retrospective study based on the medical records of patients treated at the Occupational Respiratory Diseases Clinic of the Instituto do Coração, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2010 and 2013. Of 320 patients treated during the study period, 5 (1.56%) were diagnosed with HMLD. All of those 5 patients were male (mean age, 42.0 ± 13.6 years; mean duration of exposure to hard metals, 11.4 ± 8.0 years). Occupational histories were taken, after which the patients underwent clinical evaluation, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, BAL, and lung biopsy. Restrictive lung disease was found in all subjects. The most common chest HRCT finding was ground glass opacities (in 80%). In 4 patients, BALF revealed multinucleated giant cells. In 3 patients, lung biopsy revealed giant cell interstitial pneumonia. One patient was diagnosed with desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with cellular bronchiolitis, and another was diagnosed with a hypersensitivity pneumonitis pattern. All patients were withdrawn from exposure and treated with corticosteroid. Clinical improvement occurred in 2 patients, whereas the disease progressed in 3. Although HMLD is a rare entity, it should always be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory dysfunction in workers with a high occupational risk of exposure to hard metal particles. A relevant history (clinical and occupational) accompanied by chest HRCT and BAL findings suggestive of the disease might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Descrever aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico e tratamento de pacientes com doença pulmonar por metal duro (DPMD) e realizar uma revisão da literatura. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários médicos de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Doenças Respiratórias Ocupacionais do Instituto do Coração, localizado na cidade de S

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The surface and borehole investigations and the research work performed in parallel with construction have provided a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The experimental results of the first tracer test with sorbing radioactive tracers have been obtained. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. The manufacturing of the CHEMLAB probe was completed during 1996, and the first experiments were started early in 1997. During 1997 three experiments on diffusion in bentonite using 57 Co, 114 Cs, 85 Sr, 99 Tc, and 131 I were conducted. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. The characterization of the rock mass in the area of the prototype repository is in progress. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition will be made in a new drift. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full scale plug. The backfill and rock will be instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The Retrieval Test is

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  2. Non-hard sphere thermodynamic perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2011-08-21

    A non-hard sphere (HS) perturbation scheme, recently advanced by the present author, is elaborated for several technical matters, which are key mathematical details for implementation of the non-HS perturbation scheme in a coupling parameter expansion (CPE) thermodynamic perturbation framework. NVT-Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for a generalized Lennard-Jones (LJ) 2n-n potential to obtain routine thermodynamic quantities such as excess internal energy, pressure, excess chemical potential, excess Helmholtz free energy, and excess constant volume heat capacity. Then, these new simulation data, and available simulation data in literatures about a hard core attractive Yukawa fluid and a Sutherland fluid, are used to test the non-HS CPE 3rd-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and give a comparison between the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT and other theoretical approaches. It is indicated that the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT is superior to other traditional TPT such as van der Waals/HS (vdW/HS), perturbation theory 2 (PT2)/HS, and vdW/Yukawa (vdW/Y) theory or analytical equation of state such as mean spherical approximation (MSA)-equation of state and is at least comparable to several currently the most accurate Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theories. It is discovered that three technical issues, i.e., opening up new bridge function approximation for the reference potential, choosing proper reference potential, and/or using proper thermodynamic route for calculation of f(ex-ref), chiefly decide the quality of the non-HS CPE TPT. Considering that the non-HS perturbation scheme applies for a wide variety of model fluids, and its implementation in the CPE thermodynamic perturbation framework is amenable to high-order truncation, the non-HS CPE 3rd-order or higher order TPT will be more promising once the above-mentioned three technological advances are established. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The surface and borehole investigations and the research work performed in parallel with construction have provided a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The experimental results of the first tracer test with sorbing radioactive tracers have been obtained. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. The manufacturing of the CHEMLAB probe was completed during 1996, and the first experiments were started early in 1997. During 1997 three experiments on diffusion in bentonite using {sup 57}Co, {sup 114}Cs,{sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 131}I were conducted. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. The characterization of the rock mass in the area of the prototype repository is in progress. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition will be made in a new drift. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full scale plug. The backfill and rock will be instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The annual report 1994 contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of detailed investigation methodology which is applied during tunnel construction. Construction of the facility and detailed characterization of the bedrock are performed in parallel. Excavation of the main access tunnel was completed during 1994 and at the end of the year only minor excavation work remained. The last 400 m of the main tunnel, which has a total length of 3600 m, was excavated by a 5 m diameter boring machine. The tunnel reaches a depth of 450 m below ground. Preparations for the operating phase have started and detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments. Nine organizations, including SKB, from eight countries are now participating in the work at the laboratory. 50 refs, 28 figs

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation.

  7. Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘D-Wave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257

  8. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  9. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V; Wallon, S

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as $1/Q^2$. This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in $\\alpha_{S}$ and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a $\\pi\\eta $ meson pair. We discuss the $\\pi\\eta$ generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of $\\pi$ and $\\eta$ mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very ...

  10. From hard thermal loops to Langevin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedeker, Dietrich

    1999-01-01

    In hot non-Abelian gauge theories, processes characterized by the momentum scale g 2 T (such as electroweak baryon number violation in the very early universe) are non-perturbative. An effective theory for the soft (vertical bar p vertical bar ∼ g 2 T) field modes is obtained by integrating out momenta larger than than g 2 T. Starting from the hard thermal loop effective theory, which is the result of integrating out the scale T, it is shown how to integrate out the scale gT in an expansion in the gauge coupling g. At leading order in g, one obtains Vlasov-Boltzmann equations for the soft field modes, which contain a Gaussian noise and a collision term. The 2-point function of the noise and the collision term are explicitly calculated in a leading logarithmic approximation. In this approximation the Boltzmann equation is solved. The resulting effective theory for the soft field modes is described by a Langevin equation. It determines the parametric form of the hot baryon number violation rate as Γ = κg 10 log(1/g)gT 4 , and it allows for a calculation for κ on the lattice

  11. Integrated Planning: Why is it so hard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the Manager of Planning integration at DOE-Richland and the Program Manager for Hanford Mission Planning at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company describe some of the reasons why integrated planning is so hard and what can be done to correct the situation. The authors use experiences from the last three years at Hanford to illustrate some of the difficulties in site integrated planning. The authors argue that integrated planning was not a major part of the previous diverse Site missions, but the change of mission has not resulted in a corresponding change of attitude about the need for such planning. Moreover, the DOE-RL staff is not structured or manned for planning, and a site perspective is the exception, rather than the norm. Contributing to this situation is the compartmentalization of funding and decision making and the diffusion of responsibility. The decision-making process at DOE sites is often not clear because of the evolving role of stakeholders, and agencies outside the DOE, especially regulators, are co-decision makers. The regulatory process and the requirements of environmental impact statements contribute to the diffusion of authority

  12. Hard X ray lines from neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented and evaluated concerning the features of the hard X-ray spectra detected in a number of cosmic X-ray sources which contain a neutron star. The strong emission line at cyclotron resonance detected in the spectrum of Her XI at an energy of 58 keV is evaluated and the implications of this finding are discussed. Also examined is the presence of spectral features in the energy range 20-80 keV found in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts, which have been interpreted as cyclotron resonance from interstellar-gas-accreting neutron stars. The less understood finding of a variable emission line at approximately 70 keV in the spectrum of the Crab Pulsar is considered. It is determined that several features varying with time are present in the spectra of cosmic X-ray sources associated with neutron stars. If these features are due to cyclotron resonance, it is suggested that they provide a direct measurement of neutron star magnetic fields on the order of 10 to the 11th-10 to the 13th Gauss. However, the physical condition of the emitting region and its geometry are still quite obscure.

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and the associated research, development, and demonstration tasks, have so far attracted considerable interest. A summary of work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2003 is given below. Seven organisations from six countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2003 in addition to SKB. Most of the organisations are interested in groundwater flow, radionuclide transport and rock characterisation. Several of the organisations are participating in the experimental work as well as in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. SKB is through Repository Technology co-ordinating three EC contracts and takes part in several EC projects of which the representation in five projects is channelled through Repository Technology. SKB takes also part in work within the IAEA framework.

  15. Traumatic Foot Fractures in Hard Working Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 hard working donkeys suffering from different types of traumatic foot fractures. These animals were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. Based on history, clinical signs and radiographic examination, various types of traumatic foot fractures were diagnosed and recorded. These fractures were affect metacarpal bones (N. =16, metatarsal bones (N. =9, proximal phalanx (N. = 13, middle phalanx (N. = 3, distal phalanx (N. = 2 and proximal sesamoid bones (N. = 2. It could be concluded that fractures of the large metacarpal bones are the most common types followed by fractures of the proximal phalanx of the thoracic limb then fractures of the metatarsal bones. Fractures of the middle phalanx, distal phalanx and proximal sesamoid bone are less common in donkeys. Single fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones are more common than comminuted one, in addition diaphyseal fractures of these bones are more common than metaphyseal or epiphyseal fractures. In the proximal phalanx, comminuted fractures are more common than single fractures.

  16. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  17. Hazards of the 'hard cash': hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeli, Elif; Karnak, Demet; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first to describe 'hard cash HP', possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.

  18. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Erdmann, W; Kästli, H C; Khalatyan, S; Meier, B; Radicci, V; Sibille, J

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has thoroughly been tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6E14 Neq and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5E15 Neq. After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a Sr-90 source w...

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The annual report 1994 contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of detailed investigation methodology which is applied during tunnel construction. Construction of the facility and detailed characterization of the bedrock are performed in parallel. Excavation of the main access tunnel was completed during 1994 and at the end of the year only minor excavation work remained. The last 400 m of the main tunnel, which has a total length of 3600 m, was excavated by a 5 m diameter boring machine. The tunnel reaches a depth of 450 m below ground. Preparations for the operating phase have started and detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments. Nine organizations, including SKB, from eight countries are now participating in the work at the laboratory. 50 refs, 28 figs.

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and the associated research, development, and demonstration tasks, have so far attracted considerable interest. A summary of work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2003 is given below. Seven organisations from six countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2003 in addition to SKB. Most of the organisations are interested in groundwater flow, radionuclide transport and rock characterisation. Several of the organisations are participating in the experimental work as well as in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. SKB is through Repository Technology co-ordinating three EC contracts and takes part in several EC projects of which the representation in five projects is channelled through Repository Technology. SKB takes also part in work within the IAEA framework

  1. Vapour-liquid equilibria of the hard core Yukawa fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques which extend the range of applicability of the Gibbs ensemble technique for particles which interact with a hard core potential are described. The power of the new technique is demonstrated in a numerical study of the vapour-liquid coexistence curve of the hard core Yukawa fluid.

  2. Failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology for processing and storage of data in portable external storage hard disks has increasingly improved over the years. Currently, terabytes of data can be stored in one portable external storage hard disk drive. Storing such amount of data on a single disk on itself is a risk. Several instances of data lost by big ...

  3. Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, W.; Albrecht, S. M.; Jespersen, T. S.

    2015-01-01

    a continuum of subgap states---a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial Al-InAs superconductor-semiconductor nanowires. The hard gap, along with favorable material properties and gate...

  4. Hard facings used in welded joints. Industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delair, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, two industrial application cases of special hard facings used in offshore and nuclear fabrications are described into details. These hard facings concern more particularly 1)the heterogeneous joints of a martensitic steel on an ordinary carbon steel 2)the homogeneous joints of a high resistive low alloy carbon steel. (O.M.)

  5. Car sequencing is NP-hard: a short proof

    OpenAIRE

    B Estellon; F Gardi

    2013-01-01

    In this note, a new proof is given that the car sequencing (CS) problem is NP-hard. Established from the Hamiltonian Path problem, the reduction is direct while closing some gaps remaining in the previous NP-hardness results. Since CS is studied in many operational research courses, this result and its proof are particularly interesting for teaching purposes.

  6. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  7. Adaptation policy in hard coal mining. Die Anpassungspolitik im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, H J; Haas, H; Jochum, E; Muellendorff, R; Rolshoven, H

    1981-01-01

    The book points out the necessity of balancing the output of hard coal mines. Detailed analyses of marketing conditions serve as a decision aid for business policy. Production and sales trends in German hard coal mining, instruments of adaptation to quantitative changes in sales, and empirical investigations of adaptation instruments in the underground part of the Goettelborn mine are reviewed.

  8. failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    model its structural responses to free fall drop-impact shock and vibration. Secondly, the hard ... Keywords: Free fall, impact force, Shock, Vibration, Stress, Reliability, Modeling, Simulation External Hard disk drive. 1. ..... on the disk, it could initiate process which could .... [19] Katta, P.: MATLAB Guide to Finite Elements - An.

  9. Thermodynamics and vibrational modes of hard sphere colloidal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zargar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The central question that we address in this thesis is the thermodynamics of colloidal glasses. The thermodynamics of colloidal hard sphere glasses are directly related to the entropy of the system, since the phase behavior of hard sphere systems is dictated only by entropic contributions, and also

  10. Influence of skin hardness on dehydration kinetics of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Caudana, Alberto; Giacosa, Simone; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Río Segade, Susana

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of initial mechanical properties on the evolution of the weight loss of berries through the drying process is scarce. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of skin hardness at two different physiological stages of off-vine drying kinetics of grapes. Skin hardness was evaluated as the berry skin-break force parameter, measured by the texture analysis test. The decrease of berry weight as a function of the drying time was linear, indicating that the drying rates were constant within each cultivar studied (Moscato bianco and Erbaluce), and for each ripening stage and berry skin hardness. The drying rates decreased as berry skin hardness increased for the ripest grapes in the cultivars studied. The study allowed the assessment of the correlation between the skin hardness of fresh berries and the weight loss determined for different drying days. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  12. Particle production at large transverse momentum and hard collision models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-04-01

    The majority of the presently available experimental data is consistent with hard scattering models. Therefore the hard scattering model seems to be well established. There is good evidence for jets in large transverse momentum reactions as predicted by these models. The overall picture is however not yet well enough understood. We mention only the empirical hard scattering cross section introduced in most of the models, the lack of a deep theoretical understanding of the interplay between quark confinement and jet production, and the fact that we are not yet able to discriminate conclusively between the many proposed hard scattering models. The status of different hard collision models discussed in this paper is summarized. (author)

  13. Sampling from a polytope and hard-disk Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C; Krauth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The hard-disk problem, the statics and the dynamics of equal two-dimensional hard spheres in a periodic box, has had a profound influence on statistical and computational physics. Markov-chain Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics were first discussed for this model. Here we reformulate hard-disk Monte Carlo algorithms in terms of another classic problem, namely the sampling from a polytope. Local Markov-chain Monte Carlo, as proposed by Metropolis et al. in 1953, appears as a sequence of random walks in high-dimensional polytopes, while the moves of the more powerful event-chain algorithm correspond to molecular dynamics evolution. We determine the convergence properties of Monte Carlo methods in a special invariant polytope associated with hard-disk configurations, and the implications for convergence of hard-disk sampling. Finally, we discuss parallelization strategies for event-chain Monte Carlo and present results for a multicore implementation

  14. Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Refractory Hard-Metal Borides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew Thomas

    As the limits of what can be achieved with conventional hard compounds, such as tungsten carbide, are nearing reach, super-hard materials are an area of increasing industrial interest. The refractory hard metal borides, such as ReB2 and WB4, offer an increasingly attractive alternative to diamond and cubic boron nitride as a next-generation tool material. In this Thesis, a thorough discussion is made of the progress achieved by our laboratory towards understanding the synthesis, structure, and properties of these extremely hard compounds. Particular emphasis is placed on structural manipulation, solid solution formation, and the unique crystallographic manifestations of what might also be called "super-hard metals".

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. Experiments with sorbing radioactive tracers have been completed in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. Breakthrough of sorbing tracers in the TRUE-I tests is retarded more strongly than would be expected based on laboratory data alone. Results are consistent for all tracers and tracer tests. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. The total duration of the project is approximately 4.5 years with a scheduled finish at the end of the year 2000. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. The project Degassing of groundwater and two phase flow was initiated to improve our understanding of observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts and interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts. The analysis performed so far shows that the experimentally observed flow reductions indeed are consistent with the degassing hypothesis. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. Experiments with sorbing radioactive tracers have been completed in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. Breakthrough of sorbing tracers in the TRUE-I tests is retarded more strongly than would be expected based on laboratory data alone. Results are consistent for all tracers and tracer tests. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. The total duration of the project is approximately 4.5 years with a scheduled finish at the end of the year 2000. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. The project Degassing of groundwater and two phase flow was initiated to improve our understanding of observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts and interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts. The analysis performed so far shows that the experimentally observed flow reductions indeed are consistent with the degassing hypothesis. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and

  17. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  18. Ethiopia: hard work for successful AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An innovative AIDS control program targeting sex workers and clients in Ethiopia has shown that hard work and government support are essential for the success of a program. Serosurveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 had shown that certain groups were particularly vulnerable to HIV infection: women who engage in formal or informal prostitution and their clients -- often migrant workers or truck drivers. So in mid-1990, Ethiopia's Department of AIDS Control (DAC) launched an intervention effort targeting these high-risk groups, a program entitled the Multiple Partner Sexual Contact (MPSC) Female and Male Mobilization and Condom Promotion Project. The program had a 3-layer strategy: 1) establishing a "trickle down" training process, which would create a network of MPSC peer educators and organizers; 2) identifying MPSC men to serve as educators for other men; and 3) ensuring the widespread availability of condoms for both men and women. As site for its pilot project, DAC selected Nazareth, a trading city of more than 30% among MPSC females. After 6 months of operation, the program's effectiveness convinced DAC to expand the project to 9 additional sites. An evaluation of the project has revealed several important findings: 1) retraining and motivation sessions must be constantly maintained; 2) men's resistance to condom use may be diminished by targeting them with education at the same time as the women; 3) interventions that take into account the socioeconomic issues faced by MPSC women make the program more effective; 4) it is important to develop new educational materials periodically; and 5) involving the owners and managers of sex-related businesses makes the program more effective.

  19. Converting hard copy documents for electronic dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.

    1994-12-31

    Since the advent of computer systems, the goal of a paperless office, and even a paperless society, has been pursued. While the normal paper flow in an organization is far from totally automated, particularly for items requiring signatures or authorizations, electronic information dissemination is becoming an almost simple task. The reasons for providing on-line documents are many and include faster and easier access for everyone, elimination of printing costs, reduction of wasted shelf and desk space, and the security of having a centrally-located, always up-to-date document. New computer software even provides the user with the ability to annotate documents and to have bookmarks so that the old scribbled-in and dog-eared manual can be replaced without loosing this `customizability`. Moreover, new hypermedia capabilities mean that documents can be read in a non-linear fashion and can include color figures and photographs, audio, and even animation sequences, capabilities which exceed those of paper. The proliferation of network-based information servers, coupled with the growth of the Internet, has enticed academic, governmental, and even commercial organizations to provide increasing numbers of documents and data bases in electronic form via the network, not just to internal staff, but to the public as well. Much of this information, which includes everything from mundane company procedures to spiffy marketing brochures, was previously published only in hard copy. Converting existing documents to electronic form and producing only electronic versions of new documents poses some interesting challenges to the maintainer or author.

  20. Future Hard Disk Storage: Limits & Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, David N.

    2000-03-01

    For several years the hard disk drive technology pace has raced along at 60-100products this year and laboratory demonstrations approaching what has been estimated as a physical thermal stability limit of around 40 Gbit/in2. For sometime now the data storage industry has recogniz d that doing business as usually will not be viable for long and so both incremental evolutionary and revolutionary technologies are being explored. While new recording head materials or thermal recording techniques may allow higher coercivity materials to be recorded upon, and while high sensitivity spin transport transducer technology may provide sufficient signals to extend beyond the 100 Gigabit/in2 regime, conventional isotropic longitudinal media will show large data retention problems at less than 1/2 of this value. We have recently developed a simple model which indicates that while thermal instability issues may appear at different areal densities, they are non-discriminatory as to the magnetic recording modality: longitudinal, perpendicular, magnetooptic, near field, etc. The model indicates that a strong orientation of the media tends to abate the onset of the thermal limit. Hence, for the past few years we have taken an approach of controlled growth of the microstructure of thin film media. This knowledge has lead us to believe that epitaxial growth of multiple thin film layers on single crystalline Si may provide a pathway to nearly perfect crystallites of various, highly oriented, thin film textures. Here we provide an overview of the recording system media challenges, which are useful for the development of a future media design philosophy and then discuss materials issues and processing techniques for multi-layered thin film material structures which may be used to achieve media structures which can easy exceed the limits predicted for isotropic media.

  1. Orientational Ordering and Phase Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of Hard Spheres and Hard Spherocylinders.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, L.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, G.; Muller, E.A.; Avendano, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 4 (2015), s. 044906 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/T17595; EPSRC(GB) GR/N35991; EPSRC(GB) EP/E016340; EPSRC(GB) EP/J014958; JREI(GB) GR/M94426 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : phase behaviour * liquid crystals * hard spheres Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2015

  2. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  3. Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.

  4. Rotation of hard particles in a soft matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weizhu; Liu, Qingchang; Yue, Zhufeng; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Baoxing

    Soft-hard materials integration is ubiquitous in biological materials and structures in nature and has also attracted growing attention in the bio-inspired design of advanced functional materials, structures and devices. Due to the distinct difference in their mechanical properties, the rotation of hard phases in soft matrixes upon deformation has been acknowledged, yet is lack of theory in mechanics. In this work, we propose a theoretical mechanics framework that can describe the rotation of hard particles in a soft matrix. The rotation of multiple arbitrarily shaped, located and oriented particles with perfectly bonded interfaces in an elastic soft matrix subjected to a far-field tensile loading is established and analytical solutions are derived by using complex potentials and conformal mapping methods. Strong couplings and competitions of the rotation of hard particles among each other are discussed by investigating numbers, relative locations and orientations of particles in the matrix at different loading directions. Extensive finite element analyses are performed to validate theoretical solutions and good agreement of both rotation and stress field between them are achieved. Possible extensions of the present theory to non-rigid particles, viscoelastic matrix and imperfect bonding are also discussed. Finally, by taking advantage of the rotation of hard particles, we exemplify an application in a conceptual design of soft-hard material integrated phononic crystal and demonstrate that phononic band gaps can be successfully tuned with a high accuracy through the mechanical tension-induced rotation of hard particles. The present theory established herein is expected to be of immediate interests to the design of soft-hard materials integration based functional materials, structures and devices with tunable performance via mechanical rotation of hard phases.

  5. Hard X-ray imaging with a slat collimated telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhuguo; Kotov, Yu.D.; Suslov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging experiments with a slat collimated hard X-ray telescope are described in this paper demonstrating the feasibility of the direct demodulation imaging method used in hard X-ray scanning modulation experiments. On 25 September 1993 an X-ray raster scan observation of Cyg X-1 was performed in a balloon flight with the hard X-ray telescope HAPI-4. An experiment to image radioactive X-ray sources was performed in the laboratory before. In both experiments the expected X-ray images were obtained, confirming the imaging capability of this method. (orig.)

  6. Dispersion representations for hard exclusive processes. Beyond the born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D.Yu.

    2007-07-01

    Several hard exclusive scattering processes admit a description in terms of generalized parton distributions and perturbative hard-scattering kernels. Both the physical amplitude and the hard-scattering kernels fulfill dispersion relations. We give a detailed investigation of their consistency at all orders in perturbation theory. The results shed light on the information about generalized parton distributions that can be extracted from the real and imaginary parts of exclusive amplitudes. They also provide a practical consistency check for models of these distributions in which Lorentz invariance is not exactly satisfied. (orig.)

  7. Electroerosion micro- and nanopowders for the production of hard alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, R. A.; Ageeva, E. V.; Kruglyakov, O. V.; Latypova, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    The shape and the surface morphology of the powder particles fabricated by the electroerosion dispersion of tungsten-containing wastes in illuminating oil are studied. The hard alloy fabricated from these powder particles is analyzed by electron-probe microanalysis. The powder synthesized by the electroerosion dispersion of the wastes of sintered hard alloys is found to consist of particles of a spherical or elliptical shape, an irregular shape (conglomerates), and a fragment shape. It is shown that W, Ti, and Co are the main elements in the hard alloy fabricated from the powder synthesized by electroerosion dispersion in illuminating oil.

  8. Excavation Technology for Hard Rock - Problems and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillani, S.T.A.; Butt, N.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering projects have greatly benefited from the mechanical excavation of hard rock technology. Mining industry, on the other hand, is still searching for major breakthroughs to mechanize and then automate the winning of ore and drivage of access tunnels in its metalliferous sector. The aim of this study is to extend the scope of drag bits for road headers in hard rock cutting. Various factors that can impose limitations on the potential applications of drag bits in hard rock mining are investigated and discussed along with alternative technology options. (author)

  9. Performance ratio hardness characteristics polystyrene-metal composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, V.F.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Lytvynenko, V.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A.; Hazhmuradov, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of measuring the hardness of layered polystyrene-metallic composite materials. It is proposed to use powder-like tungsten and powder-like steel as radiation-protective layer. A measurement of the hardness of composites of different composition, and given its dependence on the particle size and their form. The possibility of increasing the hardness of the composites reinforced with metallic additives. Radiation-protective characteristics were calculated for the studied species of composite materials. Influence of the quantitative composition of the metal components is studied on the change of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation

  10. Application of hard coatings for blanking and piercing tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgornik, B.; Zajec, B.; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the possibility of reducing lubrication and replacing expensive tungsten carbide material in blanking/piercing through introduction of hard tool coatings. Results show that hard PVD coatings can be successfully used in blanking/piercing...... critical value under dry friction conditions and leads to tool failure. Therefore, at present oxidation and temperature resistant hard coatings can give improved wear resistance of stamping tools, but elimination of lubricants in blanking and piercing processes is still not feasible....

  11. Micro-computer cards for hard industrial environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, J M

    1984-03-15

    Approximately 60% of present or future distributed systems have, or will have, operational units installed in hard environments. In these applications, which include canalization and industrial motor control, robotics and process control, systems must be easily applied in environments not made for electronic use. The development of card systems in this hard industrial environment, which is found in petrochemical industry and mines is described. National semiconductor CIM card system CMOS technology allows the real time micro computer application to be efficient and functional in hard industrial environments.

  12. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  13. Dureza Brinell y parámetros termofísicos de la Guadua angustifólia - Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo-Delgado,F.; Cortés-Hernández,D. M.; Mejía-Morales,C.; Bedoya-Pérez,A.F.; Ariza-Calderón,H.

    2012-01-01

    La Guadua angustifolia-Kunth es un recurso forestal que debido a sus características físicas y mecánicas ha sido utilizado principalmente en la construcción de viviendas, en la fabricación de laminados y de artículos decorativos. Además es una planta que desempeña un importante papel como protectora de cuencas hidrográficas, en la captura de CO2 y en la conservación de suelos. La caracterización térmica y mecánica de este tipo de materiales de origen biológico es de mucha importancia ya que p...

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important

  15. Experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    A dress rehearsal is being held in preparation for the construction of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at SKB's underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) on Aespoe, outside Oskarshamn. Here we can test different technical solutions on a full scale and in a realistic environment. The Aespoe HRL is also used for field research. We are conducting a number of experiments here in collaboration with Swedish and international experts. In the Zedex experiment we have compared how the rock is affected around a drill-and-blast tunnel versus a bored tunnel. In a new experiment we will investigate how much the rock can take. A narrow pillar between two boreholes will be loaded to the point that the rock's ultimate strength is exceeded (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment). In the Demo Test we are demonstrating emplacement of the copper canisters and the surrounding bentonite in the deposition holes. In the Prototype Repository we study what long-term changes occur in the barriers under the conditions prevailing in a deep repository. Horizontal deposition: Is it possible to deposit the canisters horizontally without compromising safety? Backfill and Plug Test: The tunnels in the future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel will be filled with clay and crushed rock and then plugged. Canister Retrieval Test: If the deep repository should not perform satisfactorily for some reason, we want to be able to retrieve the spent fuel. The Lot test is intended to show how the bentonite behaves in an environment similar to that in the future deep repository. The purpose of the TBT test is to determine how the bentonite clay in the buffer is affected by high temperatures. Two-phase flow means that liberated gas in the groundwater flows separately in the fractures in the rock. This reduces the capacity of the rock to conduct water. Lasgit: By pressurizing a canister with helium, we can measure how the gas moves through the surrounding buffer. Colloid Project: Can very small particles

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important parts of the

  17. Isotropic-nematic transition in a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders: scaled particle theory description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaled particle theory is developed for the description of thermodynamical properties of a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders. Analytical expressions for free energy, pressure and chemical potentials are derived. From the minimization of free energy, a nonlinear integral equation for the orientational singlet distribution function is formulated. An isotropic-nematic phase transition in this mixture is investigated from the bifurcation analysis of this equation. It is shown that with an increase of concentration of hard spheres, the total packing fraction of a mixture on phase boundaries slightly increases. The obtained results are compared with computer simulations data.

  18. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using

  19. Prepulse dependence in hard x-ray generation from microdroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sandhu, A. S.; Gibbon, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on experiments which show that liquid microdroplets are very efficient in hard x-ray generation. We make a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from 15 μm methanol microdroplets and a plain slab target of similar atomic composition at similar laser intensities. The hard X-ray yield from droplet plasmas is about 35 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas. A prepulse that is about 10ns and at least 2% in intensity of the main pulse is essential for hard x-ray generation from the droplets at about 1015 W cm-2. A hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8 x 1014 W cm-2; three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperature from solid plasmas that have similar atomic composition. We use 1D-PIC simulation to obtain qualitative correlation to the experimental observations

  20. The over-the-limb hard X-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    Over-the-limb hard X-ray events offer a uniquely direct view of the hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during a major flare. Limb occultation at angles greater than about 10 deg (an arbitrary definition of this class of events) excludes any confusion with brighter chromospheric sources. Published observations of seven over-the-limb events, beginning with the prototype flare of March 30, 1969, are reviewed. The hard X-ray spectra appear to fall into two classes: hard events, with power-law index of about 2.0; and soft events, with power-law index about 5.4. This tendency towards bimodality is only significant at the 90-percent confidence level due to the smallness of the number of events observed to date. If borne out by future data, the bimodality would suggest the existence of two different acceleration mechanisms.

  1. Extreme Temperature, Rad-Hard Power Management ASIC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group will design a rad-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for spacecraft power management that is functional over a temperature range of...

  2. Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: lapillus and asteriscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongni; Meyers, Marc André; Zhou, Bo; Feng, Qingling

    2013-05-01

    Otoliths are calcium carbonate biominerals in the inner ear of vertebrates; they play a role in balance, movement, and sound perception. Two types of otoliths in freshwater carp are investigated using nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus are higher than those of asteriscus both in nano- and micro-testing, which is attributed to the different crystal polymorphs. Both materials exhibit a certain degree of creep, which indicates some time dependence of the mechanical behavior and is attributed to the organic components. The nano-indentation hardnesses are higher than micro-hardnesses for both otoliths, a direct result of the scale dependence of strength; fewer flaws are encountered by the nano than by the microindenter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  4. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  5. Fracture toughness measurements of WC-based hard metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.; Albert, B.

    1983-01-01

    The fracture toughness of WC-based cemented carbides was determined by different methods. The values obtained are dependent on the procedure of measurement. Each method thoughness of hard metals mutually. (orig.) [de

  6. A Short Review of the Theory of Hard Exclusive Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.

    2012-01-01

    We first present an introduction to the theory of hard exclusive processes. We then illustrate this theory by a few selected examples. The last part is devoted to the most recent developments in the asymptotical energy limit. (author)

  7. HARD - The High Assurance Remote Authentication Device Project

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The HARD project will build and evaluate a high assurance network access device. The purpose of this device is to provide an unforgeable trusted path with which network clients can securely interact with security-enabled remote servers.

  8. Constraint satisfaction problems with isolated solutions are hard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborová, Lenka; Mézard, Marc

    2008-01-01

    We study the phase diagram and the algorithmic hardness of the random 'locked' constraint satisfaction problems, and compare them to the commonly studied 'non-locked' problems like satisfiability of Boolean formulae or graph coloring. The special property of the locked problems is that clusters of solutions are isolated points. This simplifies significantly the determination of the phase diagram, which makes the locked problems particularly appealing from the mathematical point of view. On the other hand, we show empirically that the clustered phase of these problems is extremely hard from the algorithmic point of view: the best known algorithms all fail to find solutions. Our results suggest that the easy/hard transition (for currently known algorithms) in the locked problems coincides with the clustering transition. These should thus be regarded as new benchmarks of really hard constraint satisfaction problems

  9. Towards Radiation Hard Sensor Materials for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Many measurements are described in literature, performed on a variety of silicon materials and technologies, but they are often hard to compare, because they were done under different conditions. To systematically compare the prope...

  10. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  11. Rad-hard embedded computers for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.; Joffre, F.; Marceau, M.; Robiolle, M.; Brunet, J.P.; Mijuin, D.

    1993-01-01

    For requirements of nuclear industries, it is necessary to use robots with embedded rad hard electronics and high level safety. The computer developed for french research program SYROCO is presented in this paper. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. Highly Damping Hard Coatings for Protection of Titanium Blades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Movchan, Boris A; Ustinov, Anatolii I

    2005-01-01

    Sn-Cr-MgO system is used as an example to show the basic capability to produce by EBPVD protective metal-ceramic coatings with a high adhesion strength, high values of hardness and damping capacity...

  13. Radiation hardness of new Kuraray double cladded optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedeschi, F.; Menzione, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Solov'ev, A.; Turchanovich, L.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation hardness of the new plastic scintillating and clear fibers irradiated by 137 Cs γ-flux and by pulsed reactor fast neutrons were investigated. All the studied fibers were of S-type (with S=70) and had a double cladding. Optical fibers degradation study after irradiation shows that the level of radiation hardness lower that what is expected from results of previous studies. 9 refs., 6 figs

  14. Hard, Soft or Smart Power: Conceptual Discussion or Strategic Definition?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Brígida

    2010-01-01

    The reflection presented here summarizes the discussions around conceptual differences, advantages, and risks associated with strategies inherent to Hard Power and Soft Power, as well as the emergent concept of Smart Power. The opportunity for this reflection was provided by the participation in the conference “Hard Vs. Soft Power: Foreign Policy Strategies in Contemporary International Relations” organised by the Academy for Cultural Diplomacy, at Cambridge University, in June 2010.

  15. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  16. Caring for patients who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather L; Hughes-Bell, Aileen; McDuffie, Anna W

    2015-12-01

    Patients who are deaf and hard of hearing often find the American healthcare system to be inaccessible due to communication barriers. This article describes facilities' and providers' requirements under the Americans with Disabilities Act to provide qualified interpreters and other assistive devices to patients who are deaf or hard of hearing. Removing communication barriers can protect healthcare providers from potential legal action and lets them deliver consistent, quality healthcare to all patients.

  17. The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

  18. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  19. Mongoose: Creation of a Rad-Hard MIPS R3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Dan; Smith, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a 32 Bit, full MIPS R3000 code-compatible Rad-Hard CPU, code named Mongoose. Mongoose progressed from contract award, through the design cycle, to operational silicon in 12 months to meet a space mission for NASA. The goal was the creation of a fully static device capable of operation to the maximum Mil-883 derated speed, worst-case post-rad exposure with full operational integrity. This included consideration of features for functional enhancements relating to mission compatibility and removal of commercial practices not supported by Rad-Hard technology. 'Mongoose' developed from an evolution of LSI Logic's MIPS-I embedded processor, LR33000, code named Cobra, to its Rad-Hard 'equivalent', Mongoose. The term 'equivalent' is used to infer that the core of the processor is functionally identical, allowing the same use and optimizations of the MIPS-I Instruction Set software tool suite for compilation, software program trace, etc. This activity was started in September of 1991 under a contract from NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Flight Data Systems. The approach affected a teaming of NASA-GSFC for program development, LSI Logic for system and ASIC design coupled with the Rad-Hard process technology, and Harris (GASD) for Rad-Hard microprocessor design expertise. The program culminated with the generation of Rad-Hard Mongoose prototypes one year later.

  20. Obtention of high hardness multilayer systems by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia T, I.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis work the synthesis of thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon nitride (CN x ) amorphous carbon (a-C) and Ti/TiN/CNx multilayers and Ti/TiN/a-C by means of the laser ablation technique, with the objective of obtaining films of high hardness is studied, as well as to produce multilayer coatings with superior properties to the individual layers. The effect that has the laser fluence used for ablationing the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the films deposited of TiN was investigated. It was found that the hardness is increased in lineal way approximately with the fluence increment up to 19 J/cm 2 . Thin films of a-C with hardness of the order of 12 GPa. likewise CN x films with high hardness (18.4 GPa) were obtained. The hardness of the deposited films was analyzed and it was related with its microstructure and deposit conditions. It was concluded that the Ti/TiN/CNx and Ti/TiN/a-C systems presented bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  1. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of the

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL, experiments are

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The bedrock with available fractures and fracture zones, its properties and on-going physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the integrity of the engineered barriers and the transport of radionuclides are denoted the natural barriers of a deep repository. Experiments are performed at Aespoe HRL at conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth, with the aim to increase the knowledge of the long term function of the repository barriers. Another aim with the Aespoe HRL is testing of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, chemical and biological processes. The programme for the testing of models includes evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. Ongoing projects are Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments, Long Term Diffusion Experiment, Radionuclide Retention Experiment, Microbial Project, Colloid Project, and Matrix Water Chemistry Experiments. The activities at Aespoe HRL include the evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different calculation models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to the models. An important part of this work is performed in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, an international co-operation project. The work within the Tasks 4 and 5 were reported during 2001

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The bedrock with available fractures and fracture zones, its properties and on-going physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the integrity of the engineered barriers and the transport of radionuclides are denoted the natural barriers of a deep repository. Experiments are performed at Aespoe HRL at conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth, with the aim to increase the knowledge of the long term function of the repository barriers. Another aim with the Aespoe HRL is testing of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, chemical and biological processes. The programme for the testing of models includes evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. Ongoing projects are Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments, Long Term Diffusion Experiment, Radionuclide Retention Experiment, Microbial Project, Colloid Project, and Matrix Water Chemistry Experiments. The activities at Aespoe HRL include the evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of different calculation models and the development and testing of methods for determination of parameters required as input to the models. An important part of this work is performed in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes, an international co-operation project. The work within the Tasks 4 and 5 were reported

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative Buffer

  6. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative

  9. State of the art in hard-on-hard bearings: how did we get here and what have we achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywiel, Michael G; Sayeed, Siraj A; Johnson, Aaron J; Schmalzried, Thomas P; Mont, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty has shown excellent results in decreasing pain and improving function in patients with degenerative disease of the hip. Improvements in prosthetic materials, designs and implant fixation have now resulted in wear of the bearing surface being the limitation of this technology, and a number of hard-on-hard couples have been introduced to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to review the origins, development, survival rates and potential advantages and disadvantages of the following hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty: metal-on-metal standard total hip arthroplasty; metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty, ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty; and ceramic-on-metal bearings. Improvements in the manufacturing of metal-on-metal bearings over the past 50 years have resulted in implants that provide low wear rates and allow for the use of large femoral heads. However, concerns remain regarding elevated serum metal ion levels, potential teratogenic effects and potentially devastating adverse local tissue reactions, whose incidence and pathogenesis remains unclear. Modern total hip resurfacing has shown excellent outcomes over 10 years in the hands of experienced surgeons. Current ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have demonstrated excellent survival with exceptionally low wear rates and virtually no local adverse effects. Concerns remain for insertional chipping, in vivo fracture and the variable incidence of squeaking. Contemporary ceramic-on-metal interfaces are in the early stages of clinical use, with little data reported to date. Hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty have improved dramatically over the past 50 years. As bearing designs continue to improve with new and modified materials and improved manufacturing techniques, it is likely that the use of hard-on-hard bearings will continue to increase, especially in young and active patients.

  10. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  11. Tactile sensor of hardness recognition based on magnetic anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyun; Zhang, Dongfang; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Hardness, as one kind of tactile sensing, plays an important role in the field of intelligent robot application such as gripping, agricultural harvesting, prosthetic hand and so on. Recently, with the rapid development of magnetic field sensing technology with high performance, a number of magnetic sensors have been developed for intelligent application. The tunnel Magnetoresistance(TMR) based on magnetoresistance principal works as the sensitive element to detect the magnetic field and it has proven its excellent ability of weak magnetic detection. In the paper, a new method based on magnetic anomaly detection was proposed to detect the hardness in the tactile way. The sensor is composed of elastic body, ferrous probe, TMR element, permanent magnet. When the elastic body embedded with ferrous probe touches the object under the certain size of force, deformation of elastic body will produce. Correspondingly, the ferrous probe will be forced to displace and the background magnetic field will be distorted. The distorted magnetic field was detected by TMR elements and the output signal at different time can be sampled. The slope of magnetic signal with the sampling time is different for object with different hardness. The result indicated that the magnetic anomaly sensor can recognize the hardness rapidly within 150ms after the tactile moment. The hardness sensor based on magnetic anomaly detection principal proposed in the paper has the advantages of simple structure, low cost, rapid response and it has shown great application potential in the field of intelligent robot.

  12. An overview on polynomial approximation of NP-hard problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschos Vangelis Th.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that polynomial time algorithm is very unlikely to be devised for an optimal solving of the NP-hard problems strongly motivates both the researchers and the practitioners to try to solve such problems heuristically, by making a trade-off between computational time and solution's quality. In other words, heuristic computation consists of trying to find not the best solution but one solution which is 'close to' the optimal one in reasonable time. Among the classes of heuristic methods for NP-hard problems, the polynomial approximation algorithms aim at solving a given NP-hard problem in poly-nomial time by computing feasible solutions that are, under some predefined criterion, as near to the optimal ones as possible. The polynomial approximation theory deals with the study of such algorithms. This survey first presents and analyzes time approximation algorithms for some classical examples of NP-hard problems. Secondly, it shows how classical notions and tools of complexity theory, such as polynomial reductions, can be matched with polynomial approximation in order to devise structural results for NP-hard optimization problems. Finally, it presents a quick description of what is commonly called inapproximability results. Such results provide limits on the approximability of the problems tackled.

  13. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue were also investigated, respectively. It was found that temperature had an obvious effect on indium leaching rate. Two different kinetic models corresponding to reactions which are diffusion controlled, [1-(1- x1/3]2=kt and (1-2x/3-(1-x2/3=kt were used to describe the kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled sample and activated sample, respectively. Their activation energies were determined to be 17.89 kJ/mol (umilled and 11.65 kJ/mol (activated within the temperature range of 30°C to 90°C, which is characteristic for a diffusion controlled process. The values of activation energy demonstrated that the leaching reaction of indium became less sensitive to temperature after hard zinc residue mechanically activated by planetary mill.

  14. Does trampoline or hard surface jumping influence lower extremity alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Tamura, Akihiro; Katsuta, Aoi; Sagawa, Ayako; Otsudo, Takahiro; Okubo, Yu; Sawada, Yutaka; Hall, Toby

    2017-12-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether repetitive trampoline or hard surface jumping affects lower extremity alignment on jump landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy females participated in this study. All subjects performed a drop vertical jump before and after repeated maximum effort trampoline or hard surface jumping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates were used to record lower extremity angles, moments, and vertical ground reaction force during drop vertical jumps. [Results] Knee extensor moment after trampoline jumping was greater than that after hard surface jumping. There were no significant differences between trials in vertical ground reaction force and lower extremity joint angles following each form of exercise. Repeated jumping on a trampoline increased peak vertical ground reaction force, hip extensor, knee extensor moments, and hip adduction angle, while decreasing hip flexion angle during drop vertical jumps. In contrast, repeated jumping on a hard surface increased peak vertical ground reaction force, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and hip extensor moment during drop vertical jumps. [Conclusion] Repeated jumping on the trampoline compared to jumping on a hard surface has different effects on lower limb kinetics and kinematics. Knowledge of these effects may be useful in designing exercise programs for different clinical presentations.

  15. Hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds under general Markovian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Christopher; Wallman, Joel; Beale, Stefanie; Laflamme, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Quantum error correction is instrumental in protecting quantum systems from noise in quantum computing and communication settings. Pauli channels can be efficiently simulated and threshold values for Pauli error rates under a variety of error-correcting codes have been obtained. However, realistic quantum systems can undergo noise processes that differ significantly from Pauli noise. In this paper, we present an efficient hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds and lowering failure rates of an error-correcting code under general completely positive and trace-preserving (i.e., Markovian) noise. We use our hard decoding algorithm to study the performance of several error-correcting codes under various non-Pauli noise models by computing threshold values and failure rates for these codes. We compare the performance of our hard decoding algorithm to decoders optimized for depolarizing noise and show improvements in thresholds and reductions in failure rates by several orders of magnitude. Our hard decoding algorithm can also be adapted to take advantage of a code's non-Pauli transversal gates to further suppress noise. For example, we show that using the transversal gates of the 5-qubit code allows arbitrary rotations around certain axes to be perfectly corrected. Furthermore, we show that Pauli twirling can increase or decrease the threshold depending upon the code properties. Lastly, we show that even if the physical noise model differs slightly from the hypothesized noise model used to determine an optimized decoder, failure rates can still be reduced by applying our hard decoding algorithm.

  16. Tuning hardness in calcite by incorporation of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Carloni, Joseph D; Demarchi, Beatrice; Sparks, David; Reid, David G; Kunitake, Miki E; Tang, Chiu C; Duer, Melinda J; Freeman, Colin L; Pokroy, Boaz; Penkman, Kirsty; Harding, John H; Estroff, Lara A; Baker, Shefford P; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2016-08-01

    Structural biominerals are inorganic/organic composites that exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. However, the structure-property relationships of even the simplest building unit-mineral single crystals containing embedded macromolecules-remain poorly understood. Here, by means of a model biomineral made from calcite single crystals containing glycine (0-7 mol%) or aspartic acid (0-4 mol%), we elucidate the origin of the superior hardness of biogenic calcite. We analysed lattice distortions in these model crystals by using X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations, and by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance show that the amino acids are incorporated as individual molecules. We also demonstrate that nanoindentation hardness increased with amino acid content, reaching values equivalent to their biogenic counterparts. A dislocation pinning model reveals that the enhanced hardness is determined by the force required to cut covalent bonds in the molecules.

  17. Using hardness to model yield and tensile strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The current direction in hardness research is towards smaller and smaller loads as nano-scale materials are developed. There remains, however, a need to investigate the mechanical behavior of complex alloys for severe environment service. In many instances this entails casting large ingots and making numerous tensile samples as the bounds of the operating environment are explored. It is possible to gain an understanding of the tensile strength of these alloys using room and elevated temperature hardness in conjunction with selected tensile tests. The approach outlined here has its roots in the work done by Tabor for metals and low alloy and carbon steels. This research seeks to extend the work to elevated temperatures for multi-phase, complex alloys. A review of the approach will be given after which the experimental data will be examined. In particular, the yield stress and tensile strength will be compared to their corresponding hardness based values.

  18. Evaluation of Treatments to Reduce Hardness of Agave americana Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agave americana contains inulin as storage carbohydrate. Therefore, agave is interesting to be used for the extraction of inulin by pressing. The yield of the process is low due to the high hardness of the core. The objective of this work was to evaluate pretreatments to reduce the hardness in the process of obtaining inulin by pressing. Treatments with water, sulphuric acid 1 % (by mass or sodium hydroxide 1 % (by mass were tested and optimized. The pretreatment of the core of A. americana with sulphuric acid 1 % allowed the reduction of hardness from 30 000 g to 2000 g of breaking force. The mathematical model obtained predicts an optimum processing at 84 °C during 75 min. The treatment with sulphuric acid 1 % also allows white core of A. americana to be obtained, while the other treatments provide yellow core. These results open a good alternative to obtain value added products from this resource.

  19. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  20. The hard-core model on random graphs revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Jean; Krzakala, Florent; Zhang, Pan; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the classical hard-core model, also known as independent set and dual to vertex cover problem, where one puts particles with a first-neighbor hard-core repulsion on the vertices of a random graph. Although the case of random graphs with small and very large average degrees respectively are quite well understood, they yield qualitatively different results and our aim here is to reconciliate these two cases. We revisit results that can be obtained using the (heuristic) cavity method and show that it provides a closed-form conjecture for the exact density of the densest packing on random regular graphs with degree K ≥ 20, and that for K > 16 the nature of the phase transition is the same as for large K. This also shows that the hard-code model is the simplest mean-field lattice model for structural glasses and jamming

  1. Signature Schemes Secure against Hard-to-Invert Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2012-01-01

    of the secret key. As a second contribution, we construct a signature scheme that achieves security for random messages assuming that the adversary is given a polynomial-time hard to invert function. Here, polynomial-hardness is required even when given the entire public-key – so called weak auxiliary input......-theoretically reveal the entire secret key. In this work, we propose the first constructions of digital signature schemes that are secure in the auxiliary input model. Our main contribution is a digital signature scheme that is secure against chosen message attacks when given an exponentially hard-to-invert function...... security. We show that such signature schemes readily give us auxiliary input secure identification schemes...

  2. Soft shell hard core concept for aircraft impact resistant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    For nuclear power plants sited in the vicinity of airports, the hypothetical events of aircraft impact have to be designed for. The conventional design concept is to strengthen the exterior structure to resist the impact induced force. The stiffened structures have two (2) disadvantages; one is the high construction cost, and the other is the high reaction force induced as well as the vibrational effects on the interior equipment and piping systems. This new soft shell hard core concept can relieve the above shortcomings. In this concept, the essential equipment required for safety are installed inside the hard core area for protection and the non-essential equipment are maintained between the hard core and soft shell area. During a hypothetical impact event, the soft shell will collapse locally and absorb large amounts of kinetic energy; hence, it reduces the reaction force and the vibrational effects. The design and analysis of the soft shell concept are discussed. (Author)

  3. Micro Structure and Hardness Analysis of Brass Metal Welded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman Faris, N.; Muljadi; Djuhana

    2018-01-01

    Brass metals are widely used for plumbing fittings. High tensile brasses are more highly alloyed and find uses in marine engineering. The welding of brass metal has been done by using electrical weld machine (SMAW). The microstructure of brass metal welded was observed by optical microscope. The result can see that the microstructure has been changed due to heat from welding. The microstructure of original brass metal is seen a fine laminar stucture, but the microstructure at HAZ appears bigger grains and some area at HAZ is seen coarser microstructure. The microstructure at weld zone can be seen that it was found some of agglomeration of materials from reaction between brass metal and electrode coating wire. According the hardness measurement, it is found highest hardness value about 301.92 HV at weld zone, and hardness value at base metal is 177.84 HV

  4. Implications of confining force field structures in hard hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, H.-U.

    1983-04-01

    This thesis is centered on the study of confining force field structures in hard scattering processes. Perturbative QCD provides the means of calculating any process on the parton level, but to be able accurately to describe the actual outcome of an event, one still needs a phenomenological model for how quarks and gluons transform into observable hadrons. One such model is based on the assumption that the particles are produced by the confining fields stretched between the partons. The actual particle distributions will then depend on the topology of the confining fields. We have developed a Monte Carlo program to simulate complete events in hard scattering, and we use this to study the properties of the confining field in different trigger situations. We further look at the amount of hard processes that can be expected in experiments that trigger on transverse energy sum (calorimeter experiments). Finally, we investigate charm production within our model. (author)

  5. Fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere mixtures: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Hard-sphere systems are one of the fundamental model systems of statistical physics and represent an important reference system for molecular or colloidal systems with soft repulsive or attractive interactions in addition to hard-core repulsion at short distances. Density functional theory for classical systems, as one of the core theoretical approaches of statistical physics of fluids and solids, has to be able to treat such an important system successfully and accurately. Fundamental measure theory is up to date the most successful and most accurate density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures. Since its introduction fundamental measure theory has been applied to many problems, tested against computer simulations, and further developed in many respects. The literature on fundamental measure theory is already large and is growing fast. This review aims to provide a starting point for readers new to fundamental measure theory and an overview of important developments. (topical review)

  6. Designing a fuzzy scheduler for hard real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John; Lee, Jonathan; Pfluger, Nathan; Natarajan, Swami

    1992-01-01

    In hard real-time systems, tasks have to be performed not only correctly, but also in a timely fashion. If timing constraints are not met, there might be severe consequences. Task scheduling is the most important problem in designing a hard real-time system, because the scheduling algorithm ensures that tasks meet their deadlines. However, the inherent nature of uncertainty in dynamic hard real-time systems increases the problems inherent in scheduling. In an effort to alleviate these problems, we have developed a fuzzy scheduler to facilitate searching for a feasible schedule. A set of fuzzy rules are proposed to guide the search. The situation we are trying to address is the performance of the system when no feasible solution can be found, and therefore, certain tasks will not be executed. We wish to limit the number of important tasks that are not scheduled.

  7. Soft- and hard-agglomerate aerosols made at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantilis, Stavros; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2004-07-06

    Criteria for aerosol synthesis of soft-agglomerate, hard-agglomerate, or even nonagglomerate particles are developed on the basis of particle sintering and coalescence. Agglomerate (or aggregate) particles are held together by weak, physical van der Waals forces (soft agglomerates) or by stronger chemical or sintering bonds (hard agglomerates). Accounting for simultaneous gas phase chemical reaction, coagulation, and sintering during the formation and growth of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles by silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) oxidation and neglecting the spread of particle size distribution, the onset of hard-agglomerate formation is identified at the end of full coalescence, while the onset of soft-agglomerate formation is identified at the end of sintering. Process conditions such as the precursor initial volume fraction, maximum temperature, residence time, and cooling rate are explored, identifying regions for the synthesis of particles with a controlled degree of agglomeration (ratio of collision to primary particle diameters).

  8. Statistical theory of correlations in random packings of hard particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuliang; Puckett, James G; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-05-01

    A random packing of hard particles represents a fundamental model for granular matter. Despite its importance, analytical modeling of random packings remains difficult due to the existence of strong correlations which preclude the development of a simple theory. Here, we take inspiration from liquid theories for the n-particle angular correlation function to develop a formalism of random packings of hard particles from the bottom up. A progressive expansion into a shell of particles converges in the large layer limit under a Kirkwood-like approximation of higher-order correlations. We apply the formalism to hard disks and predict the density of two-dimensional random close packing (RCP), ϕ(rcp) = 0.85 ± 0.01, and random loose packing (RLP), ϕ(rlp) = 0.67 ± 0.01. Our theory also predicts a phase diagram and angular correlation functions that are in good agreement with experimental and numerical data.

  9. On Maximal Hard-Core Thinnings of Stationary Particle Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christian; Last, Günter

    2018-02-01

    The present paper studies existence and distributional uniqueness of subclasses of stationary hard-core particle systems arising as thinnings of stationary particle processes. These subclasses are defined by natural maximality criteria. We investigate two specific criteria, one related to the intensity of the hard-core particle process, the other one being a local optimality criterion on the level of realizations. In fact, the criteria are equivalent under suitable moment conditions. We show that stationary hard-core thinnings satisfying such criteria exist and are frequently distributionally unique. More precisely, distributional uniqueness holds in subcritical and barely supercritical regimes of continuum percolation. Additionally, based on the analysis of a specific example, we argue that fluctuations in grain sizes can play an important role for establishing distributional uniqueness at high intensities. Finally, we provide a family of algorithmically constructible approximations whose volume fractions are arbitrarily close to the maximum.

  10. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  11. High performance sinter-HIP for hard metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongxia Chen; Deming Zhang; Yang Li; Jingping Chen

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal sinter-HIP equipment with great charge capacity and high performance, developed and manufactured by Central Iron and Steel Research Institute(CISRI), is mainly used for sintering and condensation of hard metals. This equipment is characterized by large hot zone, high heating speed, good temperature uniformity and fast cooling system. The equipment can provide uniform hot zone with temperature difference less than 6 o C at 1500-1600 o C and 6-10 MPa by controlling temperature, pressure and circulation of gas precisely. Using large scale horizontal sinter-HIP equipment to produce hard matals have many advantages such as stable quality, high efficiency of production, high rate of finished products and low production cost, so this equipment is a good choice for manufacturer of hard metals. (author)

  12. A synthetic dataset for evaluating soft and hard fusion algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jacob L.; Hall, David L.; Rimland, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    There is an emerging demand for the development of data fusion techniques and algorithms that are capable of combining conventional "hard" sensor inputs such as video, radar, and multispectral sensor data with "soft" data including textual situation reports, open-source web information, and "hard/soft" data such as image or video data that includes human-generated annotations. New techniques that assist in sense-making over a wide range of vastly heterogeneous sources are critical to improving tactical situational awareness in counterinsurgency (COIN) and other asymmetric warfare situations. A major challenge in this area is the lack of realistic datasets available for test and evaluation of such algorithms. While "soft" message sets exist, they tend to be of limited use for data fusion applications due to the lack of critical message pedigree and other metadata. They also lack corresponding hard sensor data that presents reasonable "fusion opportunities" to evaluate the ability to make connections and inferences that span the soft and hard data sets. This paper outlines the design methodologies, content, and some potential use cases of a COIN-based synthetic soft and hard dataset created under a United States Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office (ARO). The dataset includes realistic synthetic reports from a variety of sources, corresponding synthetic hard data, and an extensive supporting database that maintains "ground truth" through logical grouping of related data into "vignettes." The supporting database also maintains the pedigree of messages and other critical metadata.

  13. On a possible test of the hard-Pomeron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years there have been discussions of the fact that the Pomeron-the Regge pole responsible for high-energy scattering-has in reality a double role: a soft Pomeron built of multiperipheral hadron exchange and a hard Pomeron described by gluon exchanges in QCD. Recently, Bjorken emphasized the need to distinguish these two forms of the Pomeron. The question arises of whether it is possible to distinguish the hard and soft Pomeron experimentally. According to the hard-Pomeron concept, the hadron-hadron total cross section is determined by the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude corresponding to two-gluon exchange with ladder corrections. This mechanism dominates in the case of scattering of particles built from heavy quarks (a good example is γγ scattering) and also in the case of virtual-particle scattering (for example, virtual photons, where quark pairs must also be included in the ladder). These processes are hard (γ virt γ virt scattering) or impossible (γγ scattering) to observe experimentally. Bjorken suggested another process whose cross section is determined by hard-Pomeron exchange - double diffractional hadron-hadron (e.g., pp) scattering at high energies with jet production in the projectile and target fragmentation regions. If the momentum transfer from the projectile to the target is in the intermediate region, |t|∼1 GeV, and events are selected with a rapidity gap in the rapidity distribution of produced particles between the two fragmentation regions, then, according to Bjorken, a process determined by the hard Pomeron will be observed. The author addresses this proposal

  14. Carbidosteels represents a new generation of hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narva, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Different processes of production of carbidosteels and improvement of their properties after sintering have been studied. The carbidosteel coating applying processes onto steel basis by plasma sputtering, electric contact baking and diffusion welding under vacuum were studied. It is shown that the electric contact baking method achieves a sufficiently high hardness as well as coupling strength of the baking layer with the substrate. In the process of diffusion welding with an increase in titanium carbide content and with the growth of the alloying degree of steel-binder in carbidosteel, hardness rises [ru

  15. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock

  16. Simple heuristic for the viscosity of polydisperse hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Robert S.

    2014-12-01

    We build on the work of Mooney [Colloids Sci. 6, 162 (1951)] to obtain an heuristic analytic approximation to the viscosity of a suspension any size distribution of hard spheres in a Newtonian solvent. The result agrees reasonably well with rheological data on monodispserse and bidisperse hard spheres, and also provides an approximation to the random close packing fraction of polydisperse spheres. The implied packing fraction is less accurate than that obtained by Farr and Groot [J. Chem. Phys. 131(24), 244104 (2009)], but has the advantage of being quick and simple to evaluate.

  17. Dressed Hard States and Black Hole Soft Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Porrati, Massimo

    2016-11-18

    A recent, intriguing Letter by Hawking, Perry, and Strominger suggests that soft photons and gravitons can be regarded as black hole hair and may be relevant to the black hole information paradox. In this Letter we make use of factorization theorems for infrared divergences of the S matrix to argue that by appropriately dressing in and out hard states, the soft-quanta-dependent part of the S matrix becomes essentially trivial. The information paradox can be fully formulated in terms of dressed hard states, which do not depend on soft quanta.

  18. Testing the radiation hardness of lead tungstate scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, M; Li Chuan; Chen, H; Xu, Z Z; Wang, Z M

    2000-01-01

    Large Hadron Collider operation will produce a high radiation background. PbWO/sub 4/ crystals are selected as scintillators for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To reach the precise requirement for energy measurements, a strict requirement for the radiation hardness is needed. In this paper, we present a method for evaluating the radiation hardness and its measurement. Results for several full size (23 cm length) lead tungstate crystals under Co/sup 60/ gamma - ray irradiation are given, investigating the light yield loss and its longitudinal uniformity. (8 refs).

  19. Process for altering the colour of hard stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilovich, M.I.; Shaposhniko, A.A.; Turinge, A.P.; Vakhidov, S.A.; Nurullaev, Ergash.

    1981-01-01

    Process for altering the colour of hard stones and articles made with such stones, used in the jewellery trade, consisting in treating the hard stones in a neutron reactor and gamma particles accompanying them, whereby the treatment is performed with fast neutrons of at least 0.5 MeV, at integral doses of 5x10 15 to 1x10 18 neutrons/cm 2 , and gamma radiations, at integral doses of 5x10 6 to 1x10 9 R, at temperatures under 300 0 C [fr

  20. Hard photoproduction: An analysis of the first ZEUS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    The electron-proton storage ring HERA gives the unique opportunity to study photon-proton collisions at center of mass energies around 200 GeV. This analysis covers the extraction of hard photoproduction events from the data taken by the ZEUS-detector in its first year of operation. It is shown, that these events are well described by the Monte Carlo generators PYTHIA and HERWIG. A jet analysis allows to measure the kinematics of the hard subprocess. Clear evidence for both direct and resolved photon processes is seen in the data. In detailed Monte Carlo studies different photon structure functions are compared to the data. (orig.)

  1. A hard X-ray laboratory for monochromator characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, B [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Since their installation at ILL during the 1970`s the ILL {gamma}-ray diffractometers have been intensively used in the development of neutron monochromators. However, the ageing of the sources and new developments in hard X-ray diffractometry lead to a decision at the end of 1995 to replace the existing {gamma}-ray laboratory with a hard X-ray laboratory, based on a 420 keV generator, making available in the long term several beam-lines for rapid characterisation of monochromator crystals. The facility is now installed and its characteristics and advantages are outlined. (author). 2 refs.

  2. Towards Practical Whitebox Cryptography: Optimizing Efficiency and Space Hardness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Isobe, Takanori; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Whitebox cryptography aims to provide security for cryptographic algorithms in an untrusted environment where the adversary has full access to their implementation. Typical security goals for whitebox cryptography include key extraction security and decomposition security: Indeed, it should...... the practical requirements to whitebox cryptography in real-world applications such as DRM or mobile payments. Moreover, we formalize resistance towards decomposition in form of weak and strong space hardness at various security levels. We obtain bounds on space hardness in all those adversarial models...... real-world applications with whitebox cryptography....

  3. Model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1984-07-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented.

  4. Comparative metallurgical study of thick hard coatings without cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemendot, F.; Van Duysen, J.C.; Champredonde, J.

    1992-07-01

    Wear and corrosion of stellite type hard coatings for valves of the PWR primary system raise important problems of contamination. Substitution of these alloys by cobalt-free hard coatings (Colmonoy 4 and 4.26, Cenium 36) should allow to reduce this contamination. A comparative study (chemical, mechanical, thermal, metallurgical), as well as a corrosion study of these coatings were carried out. The results of this characterization show that none of the studied products has globally characteristics as good as those of grade 6 Stellite currently in service

  5. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate....

  6. Hard single diffractive jet production at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary results from the D null experiment on jet production with forward rapidity gaps in p anti p collisions are presented. A class of dijet events with a forward rapidity gap is observed at center-of-mass energies √s = 1800 GeV and 630 GeV. The number of events with rapidity gaps at both center-of-mass energies is significantly greater than the expectation from multiplicity fluctuations and is consistent with a hard single diffractive process. A small class of events with two forward gaps and central dijets is also observed at 1800 GeV. This topology is consistent with hard double pomeron exchange

  7. Effects of Hardness on Pintle Rod Performance in the Universal and Retained Gas Samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Interaction between hardness of the pintle rods and the retainer rings used in the core samplers is investigated. It is found that ordinary Rockwell C measurements are not sufficient and superficial hardness instruments are recommended to verify hardness since in-production hardness of pintle rods is found to vary widely and probably leads to some premature release of pistons in samplers

  8. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  9. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for 238 PuO 2 fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors

  10. Phase and vacancy behaviour of hard "slanted" cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, R.; van der Meer, B.; van den Broeke, J. J.; Smallenburg, F.; Filion, L.

    2017-01-01

    We use computer simulations to study the phase behaviour for hard, right rhombic prisms as a function of the angle of their rhombic face (the “slant” angle). More specifically, using a combination of eventdriven molecular dynamics simulations, Monte Carlo simulations, and free-energy calculations,

  11. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  12. COPD: A stepwise or a hit hard approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ferreira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current guidelines differ slightly on the recommendations for treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients, and although there are some undisputed recommendations, there is still debate regarding the management of COPD. One of the hindrances to deciding which therapeutic approach to choose is late diagnosis or misdiagnosis of COPD. After a proper diagnosis is achieved and severity assessed, the choice between a stepwise or “hit hard” approach has to be made. For GOLD A patients the stepwise approach is recommended, whilst for B, C and D patients this remains debatable. Moreover, in patients for whom inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are recommended, a step-up or “hit hard” approach with triple therapy will depend on the patient's characteristics and, for patients who are being over-treated with ICS, ICS withdrawal should be performed, in order to optimize therapy and reduce excessive medications.This paper discusses and proposes stepwise, “hit hard”, step-up and ICS withdrawal therapeutic approaches for COPD patients based on their GOLD group. We conclude that all approaches have benefits, and only a careful patient selection will determine which approach is better, and which patients will benefit the most from each approach. Keywords: COPD, Stepwise, Hit hard, Step-up, ICS withdrawal, Bronchodilators, ICS

  13. Hard sphere colloidal dispersions: Mechanical relaxation pertaining to thermodynamic forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, J.; de Kruif, C.G.; Blom, C.; Vrij, A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex viscosity of sterically stabilized (hard) silica spheres in cyclohexane has been measured between 80 Hz and 170 kHz with torsion pendulums and a nickel tube resonator. The observed relaxation behaviour can be attributed to the interplay of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic forces. The

  14. Developmental Stuttering in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Richard M.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Oleson, Jacob J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A number of studies with large sample sizes have reported lower prevalence of stuttering in children with significant hearing loss compared to children without hearing loss. This study used a parent questionnaire to investigate the characteristics of stuttering (e.g., incidence, prevalence, and age of onset) in children who are hard of…

  15. Simple liquids’ quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2016-01-01

    This topical review discusses the quasiuniversality of simple liquids' structure and dynamics and two possible justifications of it. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic physics. An alternative explanation argues t...

  16. Simple liquids' quasiuniversality and the hard-sphere paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    This presentation reflects on the well-known quasiuniversality of simple liquids’ structure and dynamics [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. We discuss two possible justifications of it [6, 7]. The traditional one is based on the van der Waals picture of liquids in which the hard-sphere system reflects the basic ph...

  17. Total-dose hardness assurance for low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.H.; Suter, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Earth Orbit radiation environment has two significant characteristics that make laboratory simulation exposures difficult: (1) a low dose rate and (2) many cycles of low dose accumulation followed by dose-free annealing. Hardness assurance considerations for this environment are discussed and related to data from the testing of Advanced Low Power Schottky and High-speed CMOS devices

  18. Mainstream Teachers about Including Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jorine A.; Denessen, Eddie; Knoors, Harry

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at teachers' classroom practices and their beliefs and emotions regarding the inclusion of deaf or hard of hearing (d/hh) students in mainstream secondary schools. Nine teachers in two schools were interviewed about the inclusion of d/hh students. These teachers were found to consider the d/hh students' needs in their teaching…

  19. Hardness Assurance Techniques for New Generation COTS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. I.; Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    Hardness Assurance (HA) techniques and total dose radiation characterization data for new generation linear and COTS devices from various manufacturers are presented. A bipolar op amp showed significant degradation at HDR, not at low dose rate environment. New generation low-power op amps showed more degradation at low voltage applications. HA test techniques for COTS devices are presented in this paper.

  20. Bringing codecision to agriculture: a hard case of parliamentarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roederer-Rynning, C.; Schimmelfennig, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty extended the codecision procedure to the Common Agricultural Policy. This is not only a hard case of parliamentarization but also a deviant case for existing explanations of the empowerment of the EP. We argue that the parliamentarization of agricultural policy in the EU cannot ......, which prevailed over the resistance of vested policy interests....

  1. Nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaka, Ronald; Derry, Trevor E.; Sigalas, Iakovos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The load-displacement indentation response of hot-pressed B 6 O is measured and analysed. → The nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide is reported. → An approach is developed to simulate multi-cycling loading load-displacement curves. → A comprehensive model inter-comparison study of the ISE in hot-pressed B 6 O is also presented. → The fractal dimension is a better measure of ISE than the Meyer's index. - Abstract: The existence of the indentation size effect implies the absence of a single hardness value for the material under investigation especially at low applied loads. In this paper we present an investigation of the indentation size dependence behaviour of nanoindentation hardness in boron suboxide ceramic compacts prepared by uniaxial hot-pressing. Berkovich nanohardness indentations were conducted and analyzed accordingly. In addition to the ordinary Oliver and Pharr method of nanoindentation data analysis, a quantitative approach for the loading curve analysis is proposed. Using the proposed approach, the description and characterization of the observed indentation size effect through the application of the Meyer's law, and the classical and the modified proportional specimen resistance models as well as the multi-fractal scaling law was conducted and is reported. The load-independent hardness values deduced from our quantitative approach are comparable to the results calculated with conventional methods, especially with the multi-fractal scaling law.

  2. {pi}{eta} pair hard electroproduction and exotic hybrid mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay, France, UMR 8627 du CNRS (France); BLTP, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France, UMR 7644 du CNRS (France); Pire, B. [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France, UMR 7644 du CNRS (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland) and Univ. de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Teryaev, O.V. [BLTP, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay, France, UMR 8627 du CNRS (France)

    2005-06-13

    We show that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular through the hybrid decay channel H->{pi}{eta}. We discuss the {pi}{eta} generalized distribution amplitude, calculate the production amplitude and propose a forward-backward asymmetry as a signal for the hybrid meson production.

  3. πη pair hard electroproduction and exotic hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular through the hybrid decay channel H->πη. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude, calculate the production amplitude and propose a forward-backward asymmetry as a signal for the hybrid meson production

  4. Hard and soft tissue surgical complications in dental implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses surgical complications associated with the placement of dental implants, specifically focusing on how they occur (etiology), as well as their management and prevention. Dental implant surgical complications can be classified into those of hard and soft tissues. In general, complications can be avoided with thorough preoperative treatment planning and proper surgical technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rad-hard embedded computers for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.; Joffre, F.; Marceau, M.; Robiolle, M.; Brunet, J.P.; Mijuin, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear industries require robots with embedded rad hard electronics and high reliability. The SYROCO research program allowed to perform efficient industrial prototypes, build according to MICADO architecture, and to design CADMOS architecture. MICADO architecture uses the auto healing property that have CMOS circuits when being switched off during irradiation. (D.L.). 8 refs., 5 figs

  6. A further problem of the hard problem of consciousness | Gbenga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justifying this assertion is identified as the further problem of the hard problem of consciousness. This shows that assertions about phenomenal properties of mental experiences are wholly epistemological. Hence, the problem of explaining phenomenal properties of a mental state is not a metaphysical problem, and what is ...

  7. The Tonya Harding Controversy: An Analysis of Image Restoration Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Hanczor, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Tonya Harding's defense of her image in "Eye to Eye with Connie Chung," applying the theory of image restoration discourse. Finds that the principal strategies employed in her behalf were bolstering, denial, and attacking her accuser, but that these strategies were not developed very effectively in this instance. (SR)

  8. [Analysis of 2 patients with occupational hard mental lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bangmei; Ding, Lu; Yu, Bin; Fan, Cunhua; Han, Lei; Hu, Jinmei; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-01-01

    We sought to master the clinical characteristics and prognosis of hard mental lung disease, improving this disease's diagnosis and treatment quality. We recruited two suspected patients with hard mental lung disease and collected their occupational history, examination results of occupational health, and past medical records. By virtue of laboratory tests, high Kv chest radiography, CT and HRCT of chest, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and ECG examination, diagnostic report was synthesized respectively by respiratory physicians and pathologist from three different agencies. Then the report was submitted to diagnosis organizations of occupational disease, and diagnostic conclusion of occupational disease was drawn after discussion by at least three diagnosticians of occupational disease. We found that both of the two suspected patients were exposed to dusts of hard metal, and length of exposure service ranged from 8 to 9 years. Clinical manifestations were dominated by dry cough, wheezing after activities, and pathological manifestation was characteristic giant cell interstitial pneumonia. The prognosis and outcome of the disease were different. According to exact occupational exposure history, clinical manifestations, combined with the results of high Kv chest radiography, CT of chest and pathological manifestation, it can be diagnosed with hard mental lung disease.

  9. Nutrient loading and metabolism in hard-bottom littoral mesocosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersting, K.; Lindblad, C.

    2001-01-01

    In eight hard-bottom tidal littoral mesocosms oxygen concentrations and temperature were measured every 30 s and registered as 15 min-averages. The mesocosms were fed with water from the Oslofjord (residence time about 2 h) and the measurements were also performed in the inflow. In addition,

  10. Surface hardness behaviour of Ti–Al–Mo alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Such a report is lacking in literature in this class of alloys. Keywords. Ti–Al–Mo alloys; microhardness; slip steps. 1. Introduction. Ti-aluminides containing α2 and γ phases with lamellar morphology are expected to possess hardness that is higher than the β and γ phases (Li and Loretto 1994). Room temperature ductility is ...

  11. Hardness and elasticity of abrasive particles measured by instrumented indentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvizdoš, P.; Zeleňák, Michal; Hloch, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2016), s. 869-871 ISSN 1805-0476 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive * garnet * hardness * elasticity * instrumental indentation Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.mmscience.eu/content/file/archives/MM_Science_201601.pdf

  12. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  13. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  14. Crystallizing hard-sphere glasses by doping with active particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Ran; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization and vitrification are two different routes to form a solid. Normally these two processes suppress each other, with the glass transition preventing crystallization at high density (or low temperature). This is even true for systems of colloidal hard spheres, which are commonly used as

  15. Optimization of machining parameters of hard porcelain on a CNC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of machining parameters of hard porcelain on a CNC machine by Taguchi-and RSM method. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2018) > ... The conduct of experiments was made by employing the Taguchi's L27 Orthogonal array to ...

  16. New hard X-ray sources at 380 declination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    We report the detection of three new hard X-rays sources emitting in the range 15-150 KeV. Their observation was carried out by means of a balloon borne payload, consisting of two large area high spectral resolution Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters. (orig.)

  17. Hard X-ray observation of HER X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Vialetto, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1981-01-01

    A hard X-rays (15-170 KeV) measurement of the spectrum of Her X-1, during a mid turn-on is presented. The presence of an emission line at about 53 KeV during the mid-on state is confirmed by the present measure.

  18. Hard X-ray observation of HER X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Vialetto, G.

    1981-01-01

    A hard X-rays (15-170 KeV) measurement of the spectrum of Her X-1, during a mid turn-on is presented. The presence of an emission line at about 53 KeV during the mid-on state is confirmed by the present measure. (orig.)

  19. RTnet -- A Flexible Hard Real-Time Networking Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiszka, Jan; Wagner, Bernardo; Zhang, Yuchen; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the open source project RTnet is presented. RTnet provides a customisable and extensible framework for hard real-time communication over Ethernet and other transport media. The paper describes architecture, core components, and protocols of RTnet. FireWire is introduced as a powerful

  20. Development of radiation hard components for remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tominaga, Ryuichiro; Akada, Tamio; Morita, Hirosuke.

    1997-01-01

    In International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel remote-handling is inevitably required to assemble and maintain activated in-vessel components due to D-T operation. The components of the in-vessel remote-handling system must have sufficient radiation hardness to allow for operation under an intense gamma-ray radiation of over 30 kGy/h for periods up to more than 1,000 hours. To this end, extensive irradiation tests and quality improvements including the optimization of material composition have been conducted through the ITER R and D program in order to develop radiation hard components which satisfy radiation doses from 10 MGy to 100 MGy at the dose rate of 10 kGy/h. This paper outlines the latest status of the radiation hard component development that has been conducted as the Japan Home Team's contribution to ITER. The remote-handling components tested are categorized into either robotics, viewing systems or common components. The irradiation tests include commercial base products for screening both modified and newly developed products to improve their radiation hardness. (author)

  1. Nano-hardness estimation by means of Ar+ ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartali, R.; Micheli, V.; Gottardi, G.; Vaccari, A.; Safeen, M.K.; Laidani, N.

    2015-01-01

    When the coatings are in nano-scale, the mechanical properties cannot be easily estimated by means of the conventional methods due to: tip shape, instrument resolution, roughness, and substrate effect. In this paper, we proposed a semi-empirical method to evaluate the mechanical properties of thin films based on the sputtering rate induced by bombardment of Ar + ion. The Ar + ion bombardment was induced by ion gun implemented in Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). This procedure has been applied on a series of coatings with different structure (carbon films) and a series of coating with a different density (ZnO thin films). The coatings were deposited on Silicon substrates by RF sputtering plasma. The results show that, as predicted by Insepov et al., there is a correlation between hardness and sputtering rate. Using reference materials and a simple power law equation the estimation of the nano-hardness using an Ar + beam is possible. - Highlights: • ZnO film and Carbon films were grown on silicon using PVD. • The growth temperature was room temperature. • The hardness of the coatings was estimated by means of nanoindentation. • Evaluation of resistance of materials to the mechanical damage induced by an Ar + ion gun (AES). • The hardness have been studied and a power law with the erosion rate has been found

  2. Force distribution affects vibrational properties in hard-sphere glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeGiuli, E.; Lerner, E.; Brito, C.; Wyart, M.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the elastic properties of hard-sphere glasses and provide a real-space description of their mechanical stability. In contrast to repulsive particles at zero temperature, we argue that the presence of certain pairs of particles interacting with a small force f

  3. Soft versus hard nanoparticles in the delivery of aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Previous literature and various scientific search engines were used for the review. Results: A classification of the nanoparticles based on the nature of their components, 'hard'-inorganic and 'soft'-organic, is made and several advantages and disadvantages about their uses are pointed out. Also ...

  4. Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rystedt, I; Fischer, T

    1983-05-01

    Eight hundred fifty-three hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with 20 substances from their environment, including nickel and cobalt. Nickel sensitivity was found in 2 men and 38 women. 88% of the nickel-sensitive individuals had developed a jewelry dermatitis prior to employment in the hard metal industry or before the appearance of hand eczema. 29% of the hard metal workers gave a history of slight irritant dermatitis. In the nickel sensitized group, 40% had had severe hand eczema which generally appeared 6-12 months after starting employment. In 25% of the cases, nickel sensitive individuals developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the total population investigated. Most facts indicate that nickel sensitivity and irritant hand eczema precede cobalt sensitization. Hard metal workers with simultaneous nickel and cobalt sensitivity had a more severe hand eczema than those with isolated cobalt or nickel sensitivity or only irritant dermatitis. 64% of the female population had pierced ear lobes. Among the nickel allergic women, 95% had pierced ear lobes. The use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is strongly suspected of being the major cause of nickel sensitivity. Piercing at an early age seems to increase the risk of incurring nickel sensitivity.

  5. Nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaka, Ronald, E-mail: Ronald.Machaka@wits.ac.za [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Derry, Trevor E. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sigalas, Iakovos [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} The load-displacement indentation response of hot-pressed B{sub 6}O is measured and analysed. {yields} The nanoindentation hardness of hot-pressed boron suboxide is reported. {yields} An approach is developed to simulate multi-cycling loading load-displacement curves. {yields} A comprehensive model inter-comparison study of the ISE in hot-pressed B{sub 6}O is also presented. {yields} The fractal dimension is a better measure of ISE than the Meyer's index. - Abstract: The existence of the indentation size effect implies the absence of a single hardness value for the material under investigation especially at low applied loads. In this paper we present an investigation of the indentation size dependence behaviour of nanoindentation hardness in boron suboxide ceramic compacts prepared by uniaxial hot-pressing. Berkovich nanohardness indentations were conducted and analyzed accordingly. In addition to the ordinary Oliver and Pharr method of nanoindentation data analysis, a quantitative approach for the loading curve analysis is proposed. Using the proposed approach, the description and characterization of the observed indentation size effect through the application of the Meyer's law, and the classical and the modified proportional specimen resistance models as well as the multi-fractal scaling law was conducted and is reported. The load-independent hardness values deduced from our quantitative approach are comparable to the results calculated with conventional methods, especially with the multi-fractal scaling law.

  6. Hard scattering and jet physics in connection with real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzl, K.P.

    1983-01-01

    This report contains a summary of the physics discussed in the working groups on (a) jet physics at the SPS in hadron-hadron collisions, (b) hard scattering with incident real photons and (c) large psub(T) prompt photons in hadron-hadron collisions. (orig.)

  7. Dynamical instabilities in quark-gluon plasma with hard jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, O.P.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamical instabilities, whose development can be expected under the hard jet propagating through the quark-gluon plasma, are analyzed. The possible signals of the quark-gluon plasma formation in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions connected with the development of the plasma-jet instabilities are discussed. 10 refs

  8. Impact of water hardness on energy consumption of geyser heating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the Eskom Research, Testing, and Development Business Unit embarked on a study to examine total water hardness as a chemical parameter that may impact the power consumption of electrical geyser heating elements. An accelerated scaling method was developed to lime-scale the geyser heating elements ...

  9. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for 238 PuO 2 fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors

  10. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of lowMach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using theWiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  11. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of low Mach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using the Wiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  12. Plastic strain and flux jumps in hard and composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, I.L.; Mints, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made into the effect of the critical current density dependence upon the value of plastic strain on the critical state stability in hard and composite superconductors under conditions of plastic yield of the material. Criteria of the critical state stability relative to the jointly developing magnetic flux jumps and plastic strain jerks, are found. (author)

  13. Transport Coefficients for dense hard-disk systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Rojo, R.; Luding, Stefan; Brey, J. Javier; Ooms, G.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks, based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The pressure, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined for different density and system-size. While most transport coefficients agree with Enskog theory

  14. Transport coefficients for dense hard-disk systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Rojo, R.; Luding, S.; Brey, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The self-diffusion, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined with averaging techniques especially appropriate for event-driven molecular dynamics

  15. Erosion and damage by hard spherical particles on glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikkerveer, P.J.; Verspui, M.A.; Skerka, G.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Solid particle impact of hard spherical particles on glass is of fundamental interest because of the presence of a number of different impact regimes. Understanding the impact of spherical particles is also a step toward modeling the behavior of rounded particles. This paper verifies theoretical

  16. Development of radiation hardness components for ITER remote maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki; Morita, Yousuke

    1998-04-01

    In the ITER, in-vessel remote handling is required to assemble and maintain in-vessel components in DT operations. Since in-vessel remote handling systems must operate under intense gamma ray radiation exceeding 30 kGy/h, their components must have sufficiently high radiation hardness to allow maintenance long enough in ITER in-vessel environments. Thus, extensive radiation tests and quality improvement, including optimization of material compositions, have been conducted through the ITER R and D program to develop radiation hardness components that meet radiation doses from 10 to 100 MGy at 10 kGy/h. This paper presents the latest on radiation hardness component development conducted by the Japan Home Team as a contribution to the ITER. The remote handling components tested are categorized for use in robotic or viewing systems, or as common components. Radiation tests have been conducted on commercially available products for screening, on modified products, and on new products to improve the radiation hardness. (author)

  17. Development of radiation hardness components for ITER remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Yagi, Toshiaki; Morita, Yousuke

    1998-01-01

    In the ITER, in-vessel remote handling is required to assemble and maintain in-vessel components in DT operations. Since in-vessel remote handling systems must operate under intense gamma ray radiation exceeding 30 kGy/h, their components must have sufficiently high radiation hardness to allow maintenance long enough in ITER in-vessel environments. Thus, extensive radiation tests and quality improvement, including optimization of material compositions, have been conducted through the ITER R and D program to develop radiation hardness components that meet radiation doses from 10 to 100 MGy at 10 kGy/h. This paper presents the latest on radiation hardness component development conducted by the Japan Home Team as a contribution to the ITER. The remote handling components tested are categorized for use in robotic or viewing systems, or as common components. Radiation tests have been conducted on commercially available products for screening, on modified products, and on new products to improve the radiation hardness. (author)

  18. Hardness and thermal stability of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kragh, Flemming; Frost, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and thermal stability of cubic spinel silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, have been studied by microindentation measurements, and x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively The phase at ambient...

  19. Prospects for supermirrors in hard x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    . The measured x-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard x ray applications that could benefit from x-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, collimating and focusing devices for synchrotron...

  20. Starting from Marginalized Lives: A Conversation with Sandra Harding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Elizabeth; Olson, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a conversation with philosopher of science Sandra Harding, a major exponent of "feminist standpoint theory." Argues that objectivity is maximized not by excluding social factors from the production of knowledge but by starting the process of inquiry from an explicitly social location--the lived experience of those traditionally…

  1. Nanostructural Evolution of Hard Turning Layers in Carburized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Vikram

    The mechanisms of failure for components subjected to contact fatigue are sensitive to the structure and properties of the material surface. Although, the bulk material properties are determined by the steel making, forming and the heat treatment; the near surface material properties are altered during final material removal processes such as hard turning or grinding. Therefore, the ability to optimize, modulate and predict the near surface properties during final metal removal operations would be extremely useful in the enhancement of service life of a component. Hard machining is known to induce severely deformed layers causing dramatic microstructural transformations. These transformations occur via grain refinement or thermal phenomena depending upon cutting conditions. The aim of this work is to engineer the near surface nanoscale structure and properties during hard turning by altering strain, strain rate, temperature and incoming microstructure. The near surface material transformations due to hard turning were studied on carburized SAE 8620 bearing steel. Variations in parent material microstructures were introduced by altering the retained austenite content. The strain, strain rate and temperature achieved during final metal cutting were altered by varying insert geometry, insert wear and cutting speed. The subsurface evolution was quantified by a series of advanced characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), X-ray stress evaluation and nanoindentation which were coupled with numerical modeling. Results showed that the grain size of the nanocrystalline near surface microstructure can be effectively controlled by altering the insert geometry, insert wear, cutting speed and the incoming microstructure. It was also evident that the near surface retained austenite decreased at lower cutting speed indicating transformation due to plastic deformation, while it increased at higher cutting

  2. The influence of material hardness on liquid droplet impingement erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Yamagata, Takayuki; Takano, Shotaro; Saito, Kengo; Morita, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied for various metal materials. • Average power dependency on droplet velocity is found as 7. • Power dependency on Vickers hardness is found as −4.5. • An empirical formula is constructed for erosion rates of metal materials. • Predicted erosion rate is well correlated with experiment within a factor of 1.5. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study on the liquid droplet impingement erosion of metal materials to understand the influence of material hardness on the erosion rate. The experiment is carried out using a water spray jet apparatus with a condition of relatively thin liquid film thickness. The metal materials tested are pure aluminum, aluminum alloy, brass, mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel. The liquid droplets considered are 30 ± 5 μm in volume average diameter of water, which is the same order of droplet diameter in the actual pipeline in nuclear/fossil power plants. In order to understand the influence of material hardness on the liquid droplet impingement erosion, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on the eroded surface and the measurement of erosion rate are carried out in the terminal stage of erosion. The experimental results indicate that the erosion rates are expressed by the droplet velocity, volume flux, Vickers hardness and the liquid film thickness, which are fundamentals of the liquid droplet impingement erosion. The empirical formula shows that the power index for droplet velocity dependency is found to be 7 with a scattering from 5 to 9 depending on the materials, while the power index for Vickers hardness dependency is found as −4.5

  3. Effort and Displeasure in People Who Are Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthen, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort helps explain why people who are hard of hearing are prone to fatigue and social withdrawal. However, a one-factor model that cites only effort due to hardness of hearing is insufficient as there are many who lead happy lives despite their disability. This article explores other contributory factors, in particular motivational arousal and pleasure. The theory of rational motivational arousal predicts that some people forego listening comprehension because they believe it to be impossible and hence worth no effort at all. This is problematic. Why should the listening task be rated this way, given the availability of aids that reduce its difficulty? Two additional factors narrow the explanatory gap. First, we separate the listening task from the benefit derived as a consequence. The latter is temporally more distant, and is discounted as a result. The second factor is displeasure attributed to the listening task, which increases listening cost. Many who are hard of hearing enjoy social interaction. In such cases, the actual activity of listening is a benefit, not a cost. These people also reap the benefits of listening, but do not have to balance these against the displeasure of the task. It is suggested that if motivational harmony can be induced by training in somebody who is hard of hearing, then the obstacle to motivational arousal would be removed. This suggests a modified goal for health care professionals. Do not just teach those who are hard of hearing how to use hearing assistance devices. Teach them how to do so with pleasure and enjoyment.

  4. Polarization observables in hard rescattering mechanism of deuteron photodisintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsian, Misak M

    2004-05-06

    Polarization properties of high energy photodisintegration of the deuteron are studied within the framework of the hard rescattering mechanism (HRM). In HRM, a quark of one nucleon knocked-out by the incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with high relative momentum. Summation of all relevant quark rescattering amplitudes allows us to express the scattering amplitude of the reaction through the convolution of a hard photon-quark interaction vertex, the large angle p-n scattering amplitude and the low momentum deuteron wave function. Within HRM, it is demonstrated that the polarization observables in hard photodisintegration of the deuteron can be expressed through the five helicity amplitudes of NN scattering at high momentum transfer. At 90 deg. CM scattering HRM predicts the dominance of the isovector channel of hard pn rescattering, and it explains the observed smallness of induced, P{sub y} and transfered, C{sub x} polarizations without invoking the argument of helicity conservation. Namely, HRM predicts that P{sub y} and C{sub x} are proportional to the phi{sub 5} helicity amplitude which vanishes at {theta}{sub cm}=90 deg. due to symmetry reasons. HRM predicts also a nonzero value for C{sub z} in the helicity-conserving regime and a positive {sigma} asymmetry which is related to the dominance of the isovector channel in the hard reinteraction. We extend our calculations to the region where large polarization effects are observed in pp scattering as well as give predictions for angular dependences.

  5. Modeling hard clinical end-point data in economic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Anuraag R; Zheng, Ying; Palencia, Roberto; Ruffolo, Antonio; Hass, Bastian; Sorensen, Sonja V

    2013-11-01

    The availability of hard clinical end-point data, such as that on cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, is increasing, and as a result there is growing interest in using hard end-point data of this type in economic analyses. This study investigated published approaches for modeling hard end-points from clinical trials and evaluated their applicability in health economic models with different disease features. A review of cost-effectiveness models of interventions in clinically significant therapeutic areas (CV diseases, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory diseases) was conducted in PubMed and Embase using a defined search strategy. Only studies integrating hard end-point data from randomized clinical trials were considered. For each study included, clinical input characteristics and modeling approach were summarized and evaluated. A total of 33 articles (23 CV, eight cancer, two respiratory) were accepted for detailed analysis. Decision trees, Markov models, discrete event simulations, and hybrids were used. Event rates were incorporated either as constant rates, time-dependent risks, or risk equations based on patient characteristics. Risks dependent on time and/or patient characteristics were used where major event rates were >1%/year in models with fewer health states (Models of infrequent events or with numerous health states generally preferred constant event rates. The detailed modeling information and terminology varied, sometimes requiring interpretation. Key considerations for cost-effectiveness models incorporating hard end-point data include the frequency and characteristics of the relevant clinical events and how the trial data is reported. When event risk is low, simplification of both the model structure and event rate modeling is recommended. When event risk is common, such as in high risk populations, more detailed modeling approaches, including individual simulations or explicitly time-dependent event rates, are

  6. Elasticity of Hard-Spheres-And-Tether Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, O.; Kantor, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Physical properties of a large class of systems ranging from noble gases to polymers and rubber are primarily determined by entropy, while the internal energy plays a minor role. Such systems can be conveniently modeled and numerically studied using ''hard' (i.e., ''infinity-or-zero'') potentials, such as hard sphere repulsive interactions, or inextensible (''tether'') bonds which limit the distance between the bonded monomers, but have zero energy at all permitted distances. The knowledge of elastic constants is very important for understanding the behavior of entropy-dominated systems. Computational methods for determination of the elastic constants in such systems are broadly classified into ''strain'' methods and (fluctuation methods. In the former, the elastic constants are extracted from stress-strain relations, while in the latter they are determined from measurements of stress fluctuations. The fluctuation technique usually enables more accurate and well-controlled determination of the elastic constants since in this method the elastic constants are computed directly from simulations of the un strained system with no need to deform the simulation cell and perform numerical differentiations. For central forces systems, the original ''fluctuation'' formalism can be applied provided the pair potential is twice differentiable. We have extended this formalism to apply to hard-spheres-and-tether models in which this requirement is not fulfilled. We found that for such models the components of the tensor of elastic constants can be related to (two-, three- and four-point) probability densities of contacts between hard spheres and stretched bonds. We have tested our formalism on simple (phantom networks and three-dimensional hard spheres systems

  7. The influence of material hardness on liquid droplet impingement erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki, E-mail: fujisawa@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Visualization Research Center, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Yamagata, Takayuki, E-mail: yamagata@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Visualization Research Center, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Takano, Shotaro; Saito, Kengo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Morita, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Inada, Fumio [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwatokita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied for various metal materials. • Average power dependency on droplet velocity is found as 7. • Power dependency on Vickers hardness is found as −4.5. • An empirical formula is constructed for erosion rates of metal materials. • Predicted erosion rate is well correlated with experiment within a factor of 1.5. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study on the liquid droplet impingement erosion of metal materials to understand the influence of material hardness on the erosion rate. The experiment is carried out using a water spray jet apparatus with a condition of relatively thin liquid film thickness. The metal materials tested are pure aluminum, aluminum alloy, brass, mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel. The liquid droplets considered are 30 ± 5 μm in volume average diameter of water, which is the same order of droplet diameter in the actual pipeline in nuclear/fossil power plants. In order to understand the influence of material hardness on the liquid droplet impingement erosion, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on the eroded surface and the measurement of erosion rate are carried out in the terminal stage of erosion. The experimental results indicate that the erosion rates are expressed by the droplet velocity, volume flux, Vickers hardness and the liquid film thickness, which are fundamentals of the liquid droplet impingement erosion. The empirical formula shows that the power index for droplet velocity dependency is found to be 7 with a scattering from 5 to 9 depending on the materials, while the power index for Vickers hardness dependency is found as −4.5.

  8. Low-threshold Care for Marginalised Hard Drug Users: Marginalisation and Socialisation in the Rotterdam Hard Drug Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Poel (Agnes)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 1990s several developments have taken place in the hard drug scene in the Netherlands. Key elements in these developments were harm reduction measures, introduction of crack, open drug scenes, police interventions, drug-related nuisance, low-threshold care facilities and

  9. Hard Times as Bodie: the allegorical functionality in E.L. Doctorow’s Welcome to Hard Times (1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. van der Merwe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available “Welcome to Hard Times” (1960, E.L. Doctorow’s first novel, differs from the rest of his oeuvre because it is not set in a metropolitan context like New York. References to historical events that contain an apparent “mixture” of “factual” and fictional elements that are typical of Doctorow’s oeuvre are less prominent than in his other fiction, though definitely not absent. An analysis of the pioneer setting, the town Hard Times, reveals that other settings (including metropolitan ones like New York are not merely representations of specific contexts, but portrayals with allegorical elements. Criticism of Doctorow’s fiction does not sufficiently point out the rationale of Doctorow’s fiction in relation to his first novel: it is not just the basic level that contains the true topicality but also the underlying causal and thematic relationships. This article sets out to explore “Welcome to Hard Times” as a case in point. The objective of this article is therefore also to show that an analysis of this novel provides a valuable basis for understanding the allegorical character of his fiction. Angus Fletcher’s theoretical analysis, “Allegory: the theory of a symbolic mode” (1964, serves as a useful starting point for the analysis of the allegorical value of space and the town Hard Times as a microcosmic or symbolic society, as well as the “daemonic agents” in the town and the role of causality.

  10. Hard-hard coupling assisted anomalous magnetoresistance effect in amine-ended single-molecule magnetic junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Lin, C.-J.; Chiang, K.-R.

    2017-06-01

    We proposed a single-molecule magnetic junction (SMMJ), composed of a dissociated amine-ended benzene sandwiched between two Co tip-like nanowires. To better simulate the break junction technique for real SMMJs, the first-principles calculation associated with the hard-hard coupling between a amine-linker and Co tip-atom is carried out for SMMJs with mechanical strain and under an external bias. We predict an anomalous magnetoresistance (MR) effect, including strain-induced sign reversal and bias-induced enhancement of the MR value, which is in sharp contrast to the normal MR effect in conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The underlying mechanism is the interplay between four spin-polarized currents in parallel and anti-parallel magnetic configurations, originated from the pronounced spin-up transmission feature in the parallel case and spiky transmission peaks in other three spin-polarized channels. These intriguing findings may open a new arena in which magnetotransport and hard-hard coupling are closely coupled in SMMJs and can be dually controlled either via mechanical strain or by an external bias.

  11. Peer Support for the Hardly Reached: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Rebeccah; Fisher, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Health disparities are aggravated when prevention and care initiatives fail to reach those they are intended to help. Groups can be classified as hardly reached according to a variety of circumstances that fall into 3 domains: individual (e.g., psychological factors), demographic (e.g., socioeconomic status), and cultural-environmental (e.g., social network). Several reports have indicated that peer support is an effective means of reaching hardly reached individuals. However, no review has explored peer support effectiveness in relation to the circumstances associated with being hardly reached or across diverse health problems. To conduct a systematic review assessing the reach and effectiveness of peer support among hardly reached individuals, as well as peer support strategies used. Three systematic searches conducted in PubMed identified studies that evaluated peer support programs among hardly reached individuals. In aggregate, the searches covered articles published from 2000 to 2015. Eligible interventions provided ongoing support for complex health behaviors, including prioritization of hardly reached populations, assistance in applying behavior change plans, and social-emotional support directed toward disease management or quality of life. Studies were excluded if they addressed temporally isolated behaviors, were limited to protocol group classes, included peer support as the dependent variable, did not include statistical tests of significance, or incorporated comparison conditions that provided appreciable social support. We abstracted data regarding the primary health topic, categorizations of hardly reached groups, program reach, outcomes, and strategies employed. We conducted a 2-sample t test to determine whether reported strategies were related to reach. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, and these studies represented each of the 3 domains of circumstances assessed (individual, demographic, and cultural-environmental). Interventions

  12. Prediction of hardness in pieces of quenched and tempered steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanzon, Rodolfo Carlos; Rodriguez, Augusto; Sanchez, Arlington Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes the first stage of a work plan to obtain a simple software, for predicting properties at certain points of a quenched and tempered piece. In this first stage, this prediction is limited to cylindrical pieces made with steels whose chemical composition is within a certain range. The methodology basically consists of obtaining , from experimental data, a mathematical tool able to predict the hardness value, for Jominy test piece ends made with this type of steel. This meant beginning with the analysis of the usual forms of theoretical calculation of Jominy curves of quenched samples, which resulted in a proposal to modify the Just equation. Two different mathematical methods were then developed, that could predict hardness values in tempered Jominy test pieces. One, based on the determination of polynomic equations, that reproduces the loss of hardness at points along the test piece, base on the quenching value and as a function of the tempering temperature. The other one, which uses the lineal multidimensional interpolation method, because of its ease of application, has been selected as the mathematical tool to use in the software under development. At this stage of the work, the relationship between the points on the piece and those on the Jominy test pieces is carried out by the Lamont method and the representative variable of the temperature/time combination for the tempering process itself, is obtained with software based on the Hollomon and Jaffe expression. Data is needed to define: a) chemical composition and grain size of the steel used, b) diameter of the piece, c) 'H G ' severity of the quenching medium d) temperature and time of the tempering. The work's second stage continued with the addition of hardness values measured in Jominy test pieces made with other steels. The chemical composition and grain size data of each steel introduced are converted by the software into one more variable, using the concept of ideal critical

  13. Nanolaminated TiN/Mo2N hard multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martev, I N; Dechev, D A; Ivanov, N P; Uzunov, T S D; Kashchieva, E P

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results on the synthesis of hard multilayer coatings consisting of titanium nitride and molybdenum nitride thin films with thickness of several nm. The TiN and Mo 2 N films were successively deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. These multilayer structures were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-section scanning electron microscopy (CSSEM) and cross-section electron probe microanalysis (CSEPMA). The mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings, namely, hardness, Young's modulus and the coefficient of plastic deformation were measured. The adhesion was evaluated by the Rockwell-C-impact test. Coatings with different total thickness were examined with respect to adhesion to substrates of tool materials.

  14. Structural qualia: a solution to the hard problem of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loorits, Kristjan

    2014-01-01

    The hard problem of consciousness has been often claimed to be unsolvable by the methods of traditional empirical sciences. It has been argued that all the objects of empirical sciences can be fully analyzed in structural terms but that consciousness is (or has) something over and above its structure. However, modern neuroscience has introduced a theoretical framework in which also the apparently non-structural aspects of consciousness, namely the so called qualia or qualitative properties, can be analyzed in structural terms. That framework allows us to see qualia as something compositional with internal structures that fully determine their qualitative nature. Moreover, those internal structures can be identified which certain neural patterns. Thus consciousness as a whole can be seen as a complex neural pattern that misperceives some of its own highly complex structural properties as monadic and qualitative. Such neural pattern is analyzable in fully structural terms and thereby the hard problem is solved.

  15. Structural qualia: a solution to the hard problem of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan eLoorits

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hard problem of consciousness has been often claimed to be unsolvable by the methods of traditional empirical sciences. It has been argued that all the objects of empirical sciences can be fully analyzed in structural terms but that consciousness is (or has something over and above its structure. However, modern neuroscience has introduced a theoretical framework in which also the apparently non-structural aspects of consciousness, namely the so called qualia or qualitative properties, can be analyzed in structural terms. That framework allows us to see qualia as something compositional with internal structures that fully determine their qualitative nature. Moreover, those internal structures can be identified which certain neural patterns. Thus consciousness as a whole can be seen as a complex neural pattern that misperceives some of its own highly complex structural properties as monadic and qualitative. Such neural pattern is analyzable in fully structural terms and thereby the hard problem is solved.

  16. NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, François

    2011-05-01

    Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.

  17. NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.

  18. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland: hard palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Canas, Wilmer; Benitez Narvaez, N.

    2006-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumor occurs in 4 to 14% of the accessory glands salivary. Different localizations exist: AEC, nasal block, lips, maxillary sinus, nasopharynx or in any other localization where salivate tissue exists, but the palate constitutes the most frequent localization, because it gathers more than 50% of minor salivary glands. In the palate, it can be developed a wide variety of tumors coming from the connective and epithelial tissue, 44% arise in the minor salivary glands. In 49 to 65% of them are benign tumors, principally pleomorphic adenomas, located preferably in the hard palate, nearby or in the union with the soft palate as in our case. We present a 42 year old patient with at pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate. (The author)

  19. Radiation hardness of diamond and silicon sensors compared

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim; Furgeri, Alexander; Mueller, Steffen; Sander, Christian; Berdermann, Eleni; Pomorski, Michal; Huhtinen, Mika

    2007-01-01

    The radiation hardness of silicon charged particle sensors is compared with single crystal and polycrystalline diamond sensors, both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that for Si- and C-sensors, the NIEL hypothesis, which states that the signal loss is proportional to the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss, is a good approximation to the present data. At incident proton and neutron energies well above 0.1 GeV the radiation damage is dominated by the inelastic cross section, while at non-relativistic energies the elastic cross section prevails. The smaller inelastic nucleon-Carbon cross section and the light nuclear fragments imply that at high energies diamond is an order of magnitude more radiation hard than silicon, while at energies below 0.1 GeV the difference becomes significantly smaller.

  20. On the Convergence of Iterative Receiver Algorithms Utilizing Hard Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen F. Rößler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of receivers performing iterative hard decision interference cancellation (IHDIC is analyzed in a general framework for ASK, PSK, and QAM constellations. We first give an overview of IHDIC algorithms known from the literature applied to linear modulation and DS-CDMA-based transmission systems and show the relation to Hopfield neural network theory. It is proven analytically that IHDIC with serial update scheme always converges to a stable state in the estimated values in course of iterations and that IHDIC with parallel update scheme converges to cycles of length 2. Additionally, we visualize the convergence behavior with the aid of convergence charts. Doing so, we give insight into possible errors occurring in IHDIC which turn out to be caused by locked error situations. The derived results can directly be applied to those iterative soft decision interference cancellation (ISDIC receivers whose soft decision functions approach hard decision functions in course of the iterations.

  1. ANALYSIS OF CHIP FORMATION DURING HARD TURNING THROUGH ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Neslušan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of chip formation and related aspects of the chip formation during turning hardened steel 100Cr6. The paper draws a comparison of some aspects of the chip formation between turning annealed and hardened roll bearing steel. The results of the analysis show that there is the formation of a segmented chip in the case of hard turning. Frequency of segmentation is very high. A conventional piezoelectric dynamometer limits the frequency response to about 3.5 kHz. On the other hand, the frequency of process fluctuation may by obtained by using accelerometers or acoustic emission. This paper reports about the dynamic character of cutting process when hard turning and correlation among the calculated segmentation frequencies and the experimental analysis.

  2. Electronic basis of hardness and phase transformations (covalent crystals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, J J

    2008-01-01

    Several electronic parameters measure the stabilities of covalent crystals, including minimum energy band-gap densities, inverse polarizabilities, plasma frequencies, transverse vibrational frequencies and elastic shear moduli. Convenient is the band-gap density (energy/volume; called the 'bond modulus'). For a given bonding type, the indentation hardness is proportional to the bond modulus. Examples are the group IV elements, III-V compounds; and II-VI compounds. The motion of dislocation kinks requires the excitation of bonding electrons into anti-bonding states. The bond modulus measures this together with the work done by the applied stress when a kink moves. In addition to hardness, the bond modulus measures the compressive strain (pressure) needed to transform an ambient structure into a more dense structure. Activation of such transformations also requires the excitation of bonding electrons into anti-bonding states together with the work done by the compressive stress

  3. HardCem : an innovative product and partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joudrie, C. [Teck Cominco, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the multiple uses of Hard-Cem{sup TM}, a concrete hardener developed for ready-mix and pre-cast concrete applications. The product is engineered to improve the durability of concrete for air and non-air entrained construction projects including buildings, roads, bridges, dams and recreational facilities such as skate parks. The development history of Hard-Cem was reviewed along with its market introduction by Teck Cominco Limited. Technical and operating partnerships were also outlined along with future marketing opportunities. The concrete additive is engineered to increase abrasion resistance. It is added to the concrete during the batching and mixing operations where it is evenly dispersed through the concrete matrix with other proprietary ingredients. The recommended dosages were described along with performance data. The product was shown to save time and money while offering more resistance to mechanical and water borne abrasion forces in both interior and exterior concrete applications. tabs., figs.

  4. Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi 2 and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 o C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 o C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 μm wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays

  5. Interferometry of hard photons in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, R.W.

    1993-10-01

    Heavy ion collisions offer the unique opportunity to study interference effects between independent hard photons (energies above 25 MeV). The theoretical basis of interference is presented in the framework of classical as well as quantum theory. Experiments use the photon spectrometer TAPS, a modular array of BaF 2 crystals covering 30% of the solid angle. The properties of the spectrometer and the data analysis techniques are described for the experiment 129 Xe + 197 Au at 44 MeV/u, the very first dedicated to the study of photon correlation function. Data are interpreted using GEANT3 simulations to analyse the effect of the method as well as the response function of the photon spectrometer. A second experiment, 86 Kr + 58 Ni at 60 MeV/u is described briefly, where for the first time the existence of an interference effect between hard photons is observed. 52 figs., 76 refs

  6. Hardness and adhesion performances of nanocoating on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnidawani, J. N.; Azlina, H. N.; Norita, H.; Bonnia, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    Nanocoatings industry has been aggressive in searching for cost-effective alternatives and environmental friendly approaches to manufacture products. Nanocoatings represent an engineering solution to prevent corrosion of the structural parts of ships, insulation and pipelines industries. The adhesion and hardness properties of coating affect material properties. This paper reviews ZnO-SiO2 as nanopowder in nano coating formulation as the agent for new and improved coating performances. Carbon steel on type S50C used as common substrate in nanocoating industry. 3wt% ZnO and 2wt% SiO2 addition of nanoparticles into nanocoating showed the best formulation since hardness and adhesion of nanocoating was good on carbon steel substrate. Incorporation of nanoparticles into coating increased the performances of coating.

  7. Conformal symmetry and pion form factor: Soft and hard contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a constraint of conformal symmetry in the analysis of the pion form factor. The usual power-law behavior of the form factor obtained in the perturbative QCD analysis can also be attained by taking negligible quark masses in the nonperturbative quark model analysis, confirming the recent AdS/CFT correspondence. We analyze the transition from soft to hard contributions in the pion form factor considering a momentum-dependent dynamical quark mass from an appreciable constituent quark mass at low momentum region to a negligible current quark mass at high momentum region. We find a correlation between the shape of nonperturbative quark distribution amplitude and the amount of soft and hard contributions to the pion form factor

  8. Microindentation hardness testing of coatings: techniques and interpretation of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, P. J.

    1986-09-01

    This paper addresses the problems and promises of micro-indentation testing of thin solid films. It has discussed basic penetration hardness testing philosophy, the peculiarities of low load-shallow penetration tests of uncoated metals, and it has compared coated with uncoated behavior so that some of the unique responses of coatings can be distinguished from typical hardness versus load behavior. As the uses of thin solid coatings with technological interest continue to proliferate, microindentation testing methodology will increasingly be challenged to provide useful tools for their characterization. The understanding of microindentation response must go hand-in-hand with machine design so that the capability of measurement precision does not outstrip our abilities to interpret test results in a meaningful way.

  9. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  10. Hard thermal loops, static response, and the composite effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Liu, Q.; Lucchesi, C.

    1994-01-01

    First, we investigate the static non-Abelian Kubo equation. We prove that it does not possess finite energy solutions; thereby we establish that gauge theories do not support hard thermal solitons. This general result is verified by a numerical solution of the equations. A similar argument shows that ''static'' instantons are absent. In addition, we note that the static equations reproduce the expected screening of the non-Abelian electric field by a gauge-invariant Debye mass m=gT √(N+N F /2)/3 . Second, we derive the non-Abelian Kubo equation from the composite effective action. This is achieved by showing that the requirement of stationarity of the composite effective action is equivalent, within a kinematical approximation scheme, to the condition of gauge invariance for the generating functional of hard thermal loops

  11. The Enskog Equation for Confined Elastic Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynar, P.; García de Soria, M. I.; Brey, J. Javier

    2018-03-01

    A kinetic equation for a system of elastic hard spheres or disks confined by a hard wall of arbitrary shape is derived. It is a generalization of the modified Enskog equation in which the effects of the confinement are taken into account and it is supposed to be valid up to moderate densities. From the equation, balance equations for the hydrodynamic fields are derived, identifying the collisional transfer contributions to the pressure tensor and heat flux. A Lyapunov functional, H[f], is identified. For any solution of the kinetic equation, H decays monotonically in time until the system reaches the inhomogeneous equilibrium distribution, that is a Maxwellian distribution with a density field consistent with equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Planning Report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the planned activities for the year 2011. The report is revised annually and details the programme carried out in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory as described in SKB's Research, Development and Demonstration Programme 2010, and serves as a basis for the management of the laboratory. The role of the Planning Report is to present the plans and scope of work for each project. Background information on the projects is given in the Annual Report as well as findings and results

  13. Diffractive hard scattering at ep and p antip colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, P.; Ingelman, G.; Uppsala Univ.

    1993-12-01

    Models for diffractive scattering based on the exchange of a pomeron with a parton structure are analysed in terms of hard scattering processes and the resulting characteristics of the final state. Diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering is considered in connection with the recently observed rapidity gap events at HERA. Heavy flavour and W, Z production in p anti p interactions are interesting measures of the gluon and quark component, respectively, in the pomeron. (orig.)

  14. Kinematic power corrections in off-forward hard reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V M; Manashov, A N

    2011-11-11

    We develop a general approach to the calculation of kinematic corrections ∝t/Q(2), m(2)/Q(2) in hard processes which involve momentum transfer from the initial to the final hadron state. As the principal result, the complete expression is derived for the time-ordered product of two electromagnetic currents that includes all kinematic corrections to twist-four accuracy. The results are immediately applicable, e.g., to the studies of deeply virtual Compton scattering.

  15. Correction: MAXI J1543-564 in hard intermediate state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennea, J. A.; Motta, S.; Curran, P.; Krimm, P. A. Evans. H. A.; Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Yamaoka, K.; Negoro, H.

    2011-09-01

    A correction to Kennea et al. (ATEL #3662): With a measured photon index of ~2.7, the Swift/XRT spectrum of MAXI J1543-564 is currently consistent with the source being in the hard intermediate state, or under the Remillard and McClintock (2006) definition, the steep power-law state. We apologize for this error, and thank Tomaso Belloni for bringing it to our attention.

  16. Luck is Hard to Beat: The Difficulty of Sports Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Raquel YS; Assuncao, Renato M; de Melo, Pedro OS Vaz

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of sports events is a hard task. We quantify this difficulty with a coefficient that measures the distance between the observed final results of sports leagues and idealized perfectly balanced competitions in terms of skill. This indicates the relative presence of luck and skill. We collected and analyzed all games from 198 sports leagues comprising 1503 seasons from 84 countries of 4 different sports: basketball, soccer, volleyball and handball. We measured the competi...

  17. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi

    2013-01-01

    Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...

  18. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  19. Hard breakup of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsian, Misak M.; Granados, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a large angle photodisintegration of two nucleons from the 3 He nucleus within the framework of the hard rescattering model (HRM). In the HRM a quark of one nucleon knocked out by an incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with large relative momentum. Assuming the dominance of the quark-interchange mechanism in a hard nucleon-nucleon scattering, the HRM allows the expression of the amplitude of a two-nucleon breakup reaction through the convolution of photon-quark scattering, NN hard scattering amplitude, and nuclear spectral function, which can be calculated using a nonrelativistic 3 He wave function. The photon-quark scattering amplitude can be explicitly calculated in the high energy regime, whereas for NN scattering one uses the fit of the available experimental data. The HRM predicts several specific features for the hard breakup reaction. First, the cross section will approximately scale as s -11 . Second, the s 11 weighted cross section will have the shape of energy dependence similar to that of s 10 weighted NN elastic scattering cross section. Also one predicts an enhancement of the pp breakup relative to the pn breakup cross section as compared to the results from low energy kinematics. Another result is the prediction of different spectator momentum dependencies of pp and pn breakup cross sections. This is due to the fact that the same-helicity pp-component is strongly suppressed in the ground state wave function of 3 He. Because of this suppression the HRM predicts significantly different asymmetries for the cross section of polarization transfer NN breakup reactions for circularly polarized photons. For the pp breakup this asymmetry is predicted to be zero while for the pn it is close to (2/3).

  20. Hard pair production in large-angle Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Trentadue, L.

    1996-01-01

    The cross section of hard pair production in large-angle Bhabha scattering calculated in the leading and next-to-leading logarithmic approximations. Eight regions of the collinear kinematics, when the final particles imitate a process of the 2 →2 type, and three semicollinear regions, when the final particles imitate a process of the 2→3 type, are considered. Analytical formulae for differential cross sections are presented. (orig.)

  1. News and Views: Try not to work too hard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Success in education, and subsequently in research, often comes from sustained hard work. Research is rewarding, satisfying and often a lot of fun, but it makes practitioners susceptible to working long hours at the expense of home and family life. How do researchers maintain a balance between work and leisure when careers are competitive, and posts scarce and often short-term? Sue Bowler ponders the outcomes of a work-life balance workshop.

  2. Electroformed Nanocrystalline Coatings: An Advanced Alternative to Hard Chrome Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-21

    100mL/min. The vials were then analyzed for any traces of cobalt, iron, chloride, sulphate, and for two additives. A summary of the emission results...observed that correspond to cobalt- phosphites , indicating that the phosphorus is present in the deposits in a solid solution state (similar to XRD...precipitation of cobalt- phosphites from the supersaturated solid solution at elevated temperatures. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in hardness as a

  3. Monte Carlo computer simulation of sedimentation of charged hard spherocylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viveros-Méndez, P. X.; Aranda-Espinoza, S.; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a NVT Monte Carlo computer simulation study of sedimentation of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged hard spherocylinders (CHSC) with aspect ratio L/σ = 5, where L and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively, for each particle. This system is an extension of the restricted primitive model for spherical particles, where L/σ = 0, and it is assumed that the ions are immersed in an structureless solvent, i.e., a continuum with dielectric constant D. The system consisted of N = 2000 particles and the Wolf method was implemented to handle the coulombic interactions of the inhomogeneous system. Results are presented for different values of the strength ratio between the gravitational and electrostatic interactions, Γ = (mgσ)/(e 2 /Dσ), where m is the mass per particle, e is the electron's charge and g is the gravitational acceleration value. A semi-infinite simulation cell was used with dimensions L x ≈ L y and L z = 5L x , where L x , L y , and L z are the box dimensions in Cartesian coordinates, and the gravitational force acts along the z-direction. Sedimentation effects were studied by looking at every layer formed by the CHSC along the gravitational field. By increasing Γ, particles tend to get more packed at each layer and to arrange in local domains with an orientational ordering along two perpendicular axis, a feature not observed in the uncharged system with the same hard-body geometry. This type of arrangement, known as tetratic phase, has been observed in two-dimensional systems of hard-rectangles and rounded hard-squares. In this way, the coupling of gravitational and electric interactions in the CHSC system induces the arrangement of particles in layers, with the formation of quasi-two dimensional tetratic phases near the surface

  4. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaber, M.; Krogulski, K.; Gawlik, L.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  5. Results of endocapsular phacofracture debulking of hard cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison JA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available James A Davison Wolfe Eye Clinic, Marshalltown, IA, USA Purpose/aim of the study: To present a phacoemulsification technique for hard cataracts and compare postoperative results using two different ultrasonic tip motions during quadrant removal.Materials and methods: A phacoemulsification technique which employs in situ fracture and endocapsular debulking for hard cataracts is presented. The prospective study included 56 consecutive cases of hard cataract (LOCS III NC [Lens Opacification Classification System III, nuclear color], average 4.26, which were operated using the Infiniti machine and the Partial Kelman tip. Longitudinal tip movement was used for sculpting for all cases which were randomized to receive longitudinal or torsional/interjected longitudinal (Intelligent Phaco [IP] strategies for quadrant removal. Measurements included cumulative dissipated energy (CDE, 3 months postoperative surgically induced astigmatism (SIA, and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD losses.Results: No complications were recorded in any of the cases. Respective overall and longitudinal vs IP means were as follows: CDE, 51.6±15.6 and 55.7±15.5 vs 48.6±15.1; SIA, 0.36±0.2 D and 0.4±0.2 D vs 0.3±0.2 D; and mean ECD loss, 4.1%±10.8% and 5.9%±13.4% vs 2.7%±7.8%. The differences between longitudinal and IP were not significant for any of the three categories.Conclusion: The endocapsular phacofracture debulking technique is safe and effective for phacoemulsification of hard cataracts using longitudinal or torsional IP strategies for quadrant removal with the Infiniti machine and Partial Kelman tip. Keywords: astigmatism, cataract, corneal endothelium, phacoemulsification, viscoelastic

  6. Results of endocapsular phacofracture debulking of hard cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, James A

    2015-01-01

    To present a phacoemulsification technique for hard cataracts and compare postoperative results using two different ultrasonic tip motions during quadrant removal. A phacoemulsification technique which employs in situ fracture and endocapsular debulking for hard cataracts is presented. The prospective study included 56 consecutive cases of hard cataract (LOCS III NC [Lens Opacification Classification System III, nuclear color], average 4.26), which were operated using the Infiniti machine and the Partial Kelman tip. Longitudinal tip movement was used for sculpting for all cases which were randomized to receive longitudinal or torsional/interjected longitudinal (Intelligent Phaco [IP]) strategies for quadrant removal. Measurements included cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), 3 months postoperative surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) losses. No complications were recorded in any of the cases. Respective overall and longitudinal vs IP means were as follows: CDE, 51.6±15.6 and 55.7±15.5 vs 48.6±15.1; SIA, 0.36±0.2 D and 0.4±0.2 D vs 0.3±0.2 D; and mean ECD loss, 4.1%±10.8% and 5.9%±13.4% vs 2.7%±7.8%. The differences between longitudinal and IP were not significant for any of the three categories. The endocapsular phacofracture debulking technique is safe and effective for phacoemulsification of hard cataracts using longitudinal or torsional IP strategies for quadrant removal with the Infiniti machine and Partial Kelman tip.

  7. Robust design of head interconnect for hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. K.; Liu, Q. H.; Liu, Z. J.

    2005-05-01

    Design of head interconnect is one of the important issues for hard disk drives with higher data rate and storage capacity. The impedance of interconnect and electromagnetic coupling influence the quality level of data communication. Thus an insightful study on how the trace configuration affects the impedance and crosstalk is necessary. An effective design approach based on Taguchi's robust design method is employed therefore in an attempt to realize impedance matching and crosstalk minimization with the effects of uncontrollable sources taken into consideration.

  8. Determination of moisture content in hard coals using microwave meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.; Kopec, M.; Turek, B.

    1989-01-01

    The results of hard-coal moisture-content measurements, performed with the aid of the ZAM-WILMER microwave meter are presented. Over 80 ground coal samples, weighing 1.5 kg (approx.) each, were examined. The moisture content values ranged from 0 to 15 wt%, with the mean standard error being equal to 0.8 wt%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. Hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a balloon borne hard X-ray observation of Her X-1 is presented. The experiment, released from the base of Hyderabad (India) the 19th April 1980, was a collaboration between the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale (Italy) and the TIFR (India). The data obtained are compatible with a thermal emission at low energy with a strong emission line overimposed on the continuum around 50-60 keV

  10. Recent applications of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Conan; Woicik, Joseph C., E-mail: Joseph.Woicik@NIST.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Rumaiz, Abdul K. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Pianetta, Piero [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Recent applications of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) demonstrate its many capabilities in addition to several of its limitations. Examples are given, including measurement of buried interfaces and materials under in situ or in operando conditions, as well as measurements under x-ray standing-wave and resonant excitation. Physical considerations that differentiate HAXPES from photoemission measurements utilizing soft x-ray and ultraviolet photon sources are also presented.

  11. Student Centric Learning Through Planned Hard work - An Innovative Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubrajyotsna

    2016-01-01

    The strategies followed by educational institutions and the students become very important when the performance of students in the examinations is concerned. By means of properly planned and well guided model of training and motivation to do hard work, students can follow a well disciplined study plan and become exceptionally successful in examinations. Teaching and training by experienced and dedicated faculty members, continuous support by parents and motivating the students based on settin...

  12. Radiation hard diamond sensors for future tracking applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in experimental particle physics in the coming decade depends crucially upon the ability to carry out experiments in high-radiation areas. In order to perform these complex and expensive experiments, new radiation hard technologies must be developed. This paper discusses the use of diamond detectors in future tracking applications and their survivability in the highest radiation environments. We present results of devices constructed with the newest polycrystalline and single crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond and their tolerance to radiation

  13. Hard x- and gamma-rays from supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, S.; Shigeyama, T.; Nomoto, K.; Nishmura, J.; Itoh, M.

    1988-01-01

    The x-ray light curve and spectrum from SN 1987A due to Compton degradation of γ-rays from the 56 Co decay are calculated and compared with the Ginga and Kvant observations. If mixing of 56 Co into outer layers has taken place, the x-rays emerge much earlier than in the case without mixing and the resulting hard x-rays are in reasonable agreement with observations

  14. Heuristics for NP-hard optimization problems - simpler is better!?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žerovnik Janez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide several examples showing that local search, the most basic metaheuristics, may be a very competitive choice for solving computationally hard optimization problems. In addition, generation of starting solutions by greedy heuristics should be at least considered as one of very natural possibilities. In this critical survey, selected examples discussed include the traveling salesman, the resource-constrained project scheduling, the channel assignment, and computation of bounds for the Shannon capacity.

  15. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B, E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.fr [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) (Netherlands); DUBBLE-ESRF, BP 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Molecular and Nanomaterials, Chemistry Department, Catholic University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  16. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B

    2010-01-01

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  17. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392). (paper)

  18. Taking family planning services to hard-to-reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1996-01-01

    Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-reach populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-reach groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-reach persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-reach groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care.

  19. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  20. CO II laser free-form processing of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Klasing, Manfred; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Drilling and surface processing of bone and tooth tissue belongs to standard medical procedures (bores and embeddings for implants, trepanation etc.). Small circular bores can be generally quickly produced with mechanical drills. However problems arise at angled drilling, the need to execute drilling procedures without damaging of sensitive soft tissue structures underneath the bone or the attempt to mill small non-circular cavities in hard tissue with high precision. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The processing of bone is done with a CO II laser (10.6 μm) with pulse durations of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled fast galvanic laser beam scanner and a fine water-spray, which helps keeping the ablation process effective and without thermal side-effects. Laser "milling" of non-circular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth can be especially interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser processing of these cavities without thermal damage and with minimised tapering. It included the exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines, etc.), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, and optimal water spray position. The optimised results give evidence for the applicability of pulsed CO II lasers for biologically tolerable effective processing of deep cavities in hard tissue.

  1. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV R. SIMONOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  2. Supercooled liquid dynamics for the charged hard-sphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1994-08-01

    We study the dynamics of supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition by applying the mode coupling theory to the charged hard-sphere model. By exploiting the two independent parameters inherent in the charged hard-sphere system we examine structurally the subtle and competitive role played by the short-range hard-core correlation and the long-range Coulomb tail. It is found in this work that the long-range Coulombic charge factor effect is generally a less effective contribution to structure when the plasma parameter is less than 500 and becomes dominant when it is greater thereof. To extend our understanding of the supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition, an attempt is made to calculate and to give physical relevance to the mode-coupling parameters which are frequently used as mere fitting parameters in analysis of experiments on supercooled liquid systems. This latter information enables us to discuss the possible application of the model to a realistic system. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs

  3. Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Δ isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, Carlos G.; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2011-01-01

    We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two Δ isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn→ΔΔ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn→ΔΔ scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to Δ ++ Δ - is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the Δ + Δ 0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard Δ isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting ΔΔ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both Δ ++ Δ - and Δ + Δ 0 channels to be similar.

  4. Hard copies for digital medical images: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Hartwig R.; Muka, Edward

    1995-04-01

    This paper is a condensed version of an invited overview on the technology of film hard-copies used in radiology. Because the overview was given to an essentially nonmedical audience, the reliance on film hard-copies in radiology is outlined in greater detail. The overview is concerned with laser image recorders generating monochrome prints on silver-halide films. The basic components of laser image recorders are sketched. The paper concentrates on the physical parameters - characteristic function, dynamic range, digitization resolution, modulation transfer function, and noise power spectrum - which define image quality and information transfer capability of the printed image. A preliminary approach is presented to compare the printed image quality with noise in the acquired image as well as with the noise of state-of- the-art cathode-ray-tube display systems. High-performance laser-image- recorder/silver-halide-film/light-box systems are well capable of reproducing acquired radiologic information. Most recently development was begun toward a display function standard for soft-copy display systems to facilitate similarity of image presentation between different soft-copy displays as well as between soft- and hard-copy displays. The standard display function is based on perceptional linearization. The standard is briefly reviewed to encourage the printer industry to adopt it, too.

  5. RD50 Collaboration overview: Development of new radiation hard detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S., E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    Silicon sensors are widely used as tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This results in several specific requirements like radiation hardness and granularity. Therefore research for highly performing silicon detectors is required. The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for application in high luminosity collider experiments. Extensive research is ongoing in different fields since 2001. The collaboration investigates both defect and material characterization, detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. The report gives selected results of the collaboration and places an emphasis on the development of new structures, namely 3D devices, CMOS sensors in HV technology and low gain avalanche detectors. - Highlights: • The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for high luminosity collider experiments. • The collaboration investigates defect, material and detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. • Results of measured data of n-in-p type sensors allow recommendations for silicon tracking detectors at the HL-LHC. • The charge multiplication effect was investigated to allow its exploitation and resulted in new structures like LGAD sensors. • New sensor types like slim and active edge sensors, 3D detectors, and lately HVCMOS devices were developed in the active collaboration.

  6. A NICER Look at the Aql X-1 Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Peter; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Cackett, Edward M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Gendreau, Keith C.; Guillot, Sebastien; Homan, Jeroen; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Keek, Laurens; Kenyon, Steve; Lamb, Frederick K.; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig; Miller, Jon M.; Prigozhin, Gregory; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Uttley, Phil

    2018-05-01

    We report on a spectral-timing analysis of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Aql X-1 with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) on the International Space Station (ISS). Aql X-1 was observed with NICER during a dim outburst in 2017 July, collecting approximately 50 ks of good exposure. The spectral and timing properties of the source correspond to that of a (hard) extreme island state in the atoll classification. We find that the fractional amplitude of the low-frequency (soft thermal emission and the power-law emission. Additionally, we measure hard time lags, indicating the thermal emission at 0.5 keV leads the power-law emission at 10 keV on a timescale of ∼100 ms at 0.3 Hz to ∼10 ms at 3 Hz. Our results demonstrate that the thermal emission in the hard state is intrinsically variable, and is driving the modulation of the higher energy power-law. Interpreting the thermal spectrum as disk emission, we find that our results are consistent with the disk propagation model proposed for accretion onto black holes.

  7. Modelling human hard palate shape with Bézier curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Janssen

    Full Text Available People vary at most levels, from the molecular to the cognitive, and the shape of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth is no exception. The patterns of variation in the hard palate are important for the forensic sciences and (palaeoanthropology, and might also play a role in speech production, both in pathological cases and normal variation. Here we describe a method based on Bézier curves, whose main aim is to generate possible shapes of the hard palate in humans for use in computer simulations of speech production and language evolution. Moreover, our method can also capture existing patterns of variation using few and easy-to-interpret parameters, and fits actual data obtained from MRI traces very well with as little as two or three free parameters. When compared to the widely-used Principal Component Analysis (PCA, our method fits actual data slightly worse for the same number of degrees of freedom. However, it is much better at generating new shapes without requiring a calibration sample, its parameters have clearer interpretations, and their ranges are grounded in geometrical considerations.

  8. The Impact of Hard Disk Firmware Steganography on Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Sutherland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hard disk drive is probably the predominant form of storage media and is a primary data source in a forensic investigation. The majority of available software tools and literature relating to the investigation of the structure and content contained within a hard disk drive concerns the extraction and analysis of evidence from the various file systems which can reside in the user accessible area of the disk. It is known that there are other areas of the hard disk drive which could be used to conceal information, such as the Host Protected Area and the Device Configuration Overlay. There are recommended methods for the detection and forensic analysis of these areas using appropriate tools and techniques. However, there are additional areas of a disk that have currently been overlooked.  The Service Area or Platter Resident Firmware Area is used to store code and control structures responsible for the functionality of the drive and for logging failing or failed sectors.This paper provides an introduction into initial research into the investigation and identification of issues relating to the analysis of the Platter Resident Firmware Area. In particular, the possibility that the Platter Resident Firmware Area could be manipulated and exploited to facilitate a form of steganography, enabling information to be concealed by a user and potentially from a digital forensic investigator.

  9. Full Multilayer Laue Lens for Focusing Hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Shi, B.; Qian, J.; Conley, R.; Yan, H.; Wieczorek, M.; Macrander, A. T.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) were developed by us using dynamic diffraction effects to efficiently focus hard x-rays to very small spots. Using a partial MLL we were able to focus 19.5-keV hard x-rays to a line focus of 16 nm with an efficiency of 31%. A full MLL is a complete linear MLL structure. It can be fabricated by bonding two partial MLL wafers, or by growing the full structure using magnetron sputtering without bonding. A 40-μm full MLL, with a total of 5166 layers of WSi 2 and Si, has been successfully grown by sputter deposition. The layer thicknesses gradually vary from 4 nm to ∼400 nm and then back to 4 nm. Two coating runs were used to grow the full structure, one for each half. It took over 56 h for each run. A 100-μm nearly-full MLL was constructed by bonding. Each 50-μm half-structure has 1788 WSi 2 and Si layers with 12-nm to ∼32-nm thicknesses and ∼32-μm total thickness, followed by a thick WSi 2 layer of ∼17 μm, and an AuSn layer of ∼1 μm. Both full MLL structures survived dicing and polishing. The primary results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a full MLL with a doubled numerical aperture and large beam acceptance for hard x-rays.

  10. Elastic energy loss and longitudinal straggling of a hard jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, A.

    2009-01-01

    The elastic energy loss encountered by jets produced in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off a large nucleus is studied in the collinear limit. In close analogy to the case of (nonradiative) transverse momentum broadening, which is dependent on the medium transport coefficient q, a class of medium enhanced higher twist operators which contribute to the nonradiative loss of the forward light-cone momentum of the jet (q - ) are identified and the leading correction in the limit of asymptotically high q - is isolated. Based on these operator products, a new transport coefficient e is motivated which quantifies the energy loss per unit length encountered by the hard jet. These operator products are then computed, explicitly, in the case of a similar hard jet traversing a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in the hard-thermal-loop (HTL) approximation. This is followed by an evaluation of subleading contributions which are suppressed by the inverse light-cone momentum q - , which yields the longitudinal 'straggling', i.e., a slight change in light cone momentum due to the Brownian propagation through a medium with a fluctuating color field.

  11. It must be hard to stay so close

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossi, L

    The ATLAS pixel detector should operate for many years at a few centimeters from the LHC collision region. Every part of the detector should then be radiation hard to levels exceeding 500 KGy. This requirement is particularly difficult to meet for the active parts of the detectors, namely the sensors and the electronics. While the pixel sensors have already proven to be rad-hard, the electronics, being more complex, have required a longer development period. It is then with understandable excitement that the pixel collaboration begun to test the first samples of rad-hard electronics developed in Deep Sub Micron (DSM), a technology where the very pure and thin oxides minimize the transistor voltage threshold variation with irradiation. The first DSM 8" wafers have been delivered in January 2002, after a long and intense design activity lead by Kevin Einsweiler. Several laboratories did contribute to the design of the electronics: the Front End chip has been developed by Bonn, CPPM and LBNL, the Module Contro...

  12. Relating hard QCD processes through universality of mass singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Petronzio, R.; Veneziano, G.

    1978-01-01

    Hard QCD processes involving final jets are studied and compared by means of a simple approach to mass singularities. This is based on the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem and on a rather subtle use of gauge invariance in hard collinear gluon bremsstrahlung. One-loop results are easily derived for processes involving any number of initial quarks and/or currents. The method greatly simplifies the computation of higher-order loops at the leading log level and the preliminary results allow one to conclude that the crucial features encountered at the one-loop level will persist. The authors are thus able to relate different hard processes and to show that suitable ratios of cross sections, being free from mass singularities, can be computed perturbatively, as usually assumed in QCD-inspired parton models. It is also possible to relate the universal leading mass singularities to leading scaling violations and to extend therefor the results of the operator product expansion method to processes outside the range of the light-cone analysis. Some delicate points caused by confinement-related singularities (e.g. narrow resonance poles) are also discussed. (Auth.)

  13. REVIEW ON HARD SEGMENT INFLUENCESON THE PHYSICALPROPERTIES OF THERMOPLASTICPOLYURETHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayati Fithriyah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs are the fastest growing market in polyurethane technology mainly due to their easy process ability, versatile properties and recyclable nature. They find applications in high performance materials like coatings, adhesives, fibres and foams in a variety of industries ranging from automotive and footwear to medical implants. TPUs are linear block copolymers comprising of alternating soft and hard segments. The versatile properties of TPUs are usually attributed to their phase-separated morphologies. Different parameters are known to affect TPUs physical properties. One of those is their chemical architecture that is the statistical arrangement of hard segments (HS and soft segments (SS.In particular the architecture of the HS will influence the molecular structure and intermolecular interaction. Its role as physical crosslink sites will govern thermal, mechanical and morphological properties. Hence a modification of HS chemical architecture might adjust the ultimate properties of TPU. This implication is important in process control of production and design of application. Therefore this paper will review various studies to understand the effect of different architecture to the properties of TPU.   Keywords: thermoplasticpolyurethanes, hard segment architecture, physical properties

  14. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, M., E-mail: m.patt@fz-juelich.de; Wiemann, C. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Weber, N.; Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [Focus GmbH, Neukirchner Str. 2, D-65510 Hünstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO{sub 3} sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

  15. A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winarski, Robert P., E-mail: winarski@anl.gov; Holt, Martin V. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Fuesz, Peter; Carbaugh, Dean; Benson, Christa; Shu, Deming; Kline, David; Stephenson, G. Brian; McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Maser, Jörg [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline is a precision platform for scanning probe and full-field microscopy with 3–30 keV X-rays. A combination of high-stability X-ray optics and precision motion sensing and control enables detailed studies of the internal features of samples with resolutions approaching 30 nm. The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline (or Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray microscopy facility incorporating diffraction, fluorescence and full-field imaging capabilities designed and operated by the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was constructed to probe the nanoscale structure of biological, environmental and material sciences samples. The beamline provides intense focused X-rays to the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (or Nanoprobe) which incorporates Fresnel zone plate optics and a precision laser sensing and control system. The beamline operates over X-ray energies from 3 to 30 keV, enabling studies of most elements in the periodic table, with a particular emphasis on imaging transition metals.

  16. Structural properties of hard disks in a narrow tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, S; Gurin, P; Balló, G

    2011-01-01

    Positional ordering of a two-dimensional fluid of hard disks is examined in tubes so narrow that only nearest neighbor interactions take place. Using the exact transfer-matrix method the transverse and longitudinal pressure components and the correlation function are determined numerically. Fluid–solid phase transition does not occur even in the widest tube, where the method just loses its exactness, but the appearance of a dramatic change in the equation of state and the longitudinal correlation function shows that the system undergoes a structural change from a fluid to a solid-like order. The pressure components show that the collisions are dominantly longitudinal at low densities, while they are transverse in the vicinity of the close packing density. The transverse correlation function shows that the size of solid-like domains grows exponentially with increasing pressure and the correlation length diverges at close packing. It is possible to find an analytically solvable model by expanding the contact distance up to first order. The approximate model, which corresponds to a system of hard parallel rhombuses, behaves very similarly to the system of hard disks

  17. Hard X-ray mirrors for Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pardini, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Research performed under this LDRD aimed to demonstrate the ability to detect and measure hard X-ray emissions using multilayer X-ray reflective optics above 400 keV, to enable the development of inexpensive and high-accuracy mirror substrates, and to investigate applications of hard X-ray mirrors of interest to the nuclear security community. Experiments conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility demonstrated hard X-ray mirror reflectivity up to 650 keV for the first time. Hard X-ray optics substrates must have surface roughness under 3 to 4 Angstrom rms, and three materials were evaluated as potential substrates: polycarbonates, thin Schott glass and a new type of flexible glass called Willow Glass®. Chemical smoothing and thermal heating of the surface of polycarbonate samples, which are inexpensive but have poor intrinsic surface characteristics, did not yield acceptable surface roughness. D263 Schott glass was used for the focusing optics of the NASA NuSTAR telescope. The required specialized hardware and process were costly and motivated experiments with a modified non-contact slumping technique. The surface roughness of the glass was preserved and the process yielded cylindrical shells with good net shape pointing to the potential advantage of this technique. Finally, measured surface roughness of 200 and 130 μm thick Willow Glass sheets was between 2 and 2.5 A rms. Additional results of flexibility tests and multilayer deposition campaigns indicated it is a promising substrate for hard X-ray optics. The detection of U and Pu characteristics X-ray lines and gamma emission lines in a high background environment was identified as an area for which X-ray mirrors could have an impact and where focusing optics could help reduce signal to noise ratio by focusing signal onto a smaller detector. Hence the first one twelvetant of a Wolter I focusing optics for the 90 to 140 keV energy range based on aperiodic multilayer coating was designed. Finally

  18. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2017-10-01

    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunishi, T; Sato, N; Yazawa, K

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  20. Dependence of Hardness of Silicate Glasses on Composition and Thermal History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    composition on hardness of silicate glasses. E-glasses of different compositions are subjected to various degrees of annealing to obtain various fictive temperatures in the glasses. It is found that hardness decreases with the fictive temperature. Addition of Na2O to a SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O glass system causes......The prediction of hardness is possible for crystalline materials, but so far not possible for glasses. In this work, several important factors that should be used for predicting the hardness of glasses are discussed. To do so, we have studied the influences of thermal history and chemical...... a decrease in hardness. However, hardness cannot solely be determined from the degree of polymerisation of the glass network. It is also determined by the effect of ionic radius on hardness. However, this effect has opposite trend for alkali and alkaline earth ions. The hardness increases with ionic radius...

  1. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo-Kai; Ma Yu-Qiang; Li Jian; Chen Kang; Tian Wen-De

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. (rapid communication)

  2. Hot hardness studies on zircaloy 2 pressure tube along three orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Ravi, K.; Jarvis, T.; Sengupta, A.K.; Majumdar, S.; Tewari, R.; Shrivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium based alloys are the natural choice for both the fuel element cans and in-core structural components in water cooled nuclear reactors. In this paper, the hot hardness behaviour of zircaloy 2 pressure tubes has been examined from room temperature to 400 degC using a hot hardness tester. For the purpose of comparison, the hardness of the as cast and room temperature rolled specimens has also been carried out. For this, the samples were cut along three orientations and hardness was measured in each of these directions using Vickers diamond pyramid indenter. The variation in hardness of the pressure tube samples show that the hardness was highest along circumferential direction and least along the axial direction. The room temperature rolled samples showed highest hardness along the rolling planes. These variations in hardness could be explained in terms of development of texture during working on the material. (author)

  3. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN SOFT SKILLS DAN HARD SKILLS UNTUK SISWA SMK

    OpenAIRE

    Widarto Noto Widodo, Pardjono

    2013-01-01

    Abstrak: Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Soft Skills dan Hard Skills untuk Siswa SMK. Era global menuntut sumber daya manusia yang memiliki daya saing, adaptif dan antisipatif, mampu belajar, terampil, mudah beradaptasi dengan teknologi baru. Profil tenaga kerja yang dibutuhkan pasar adalah yang kuat pada aspek soft skills dan hard skills. Ada tiga alternatif model pendidikan yang memadukan hard skills dan soft skills, yaitu (1) aspek soft skills dan hard skills dilaksanakan di sekolah; (2) a...

  4. From Hard Times to Better Times: College Majors, Unemployment, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Cheah, Ban

    2015-01-01

    This third installment of "Hard Times" updates the previous analyses of college majors, unemployment, and earnings over the Great Recession. While there is wide variation by college majors, hard times have become better times for most college graduates, but the recovery is far from complete. Hard times are becoming better times for most…

  5. The analogy in the formation of hardness salts and gallstones according to the EPR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichugina, Alina; Tsyro, Larisa; Unger, Felix

    2017-11-01

    The article shows that the hardness salts contain the same crystalline phases as the bile stone pigment. The identity of EPR spectra of hardness salts and pigment of gallstones containing calcium carbonate was established. An analogy between the processes of formation of hardness salts and gallstones is played, in which particles with open spin-orbitals (fermions) play a decisive role.

  6. Estimating Janka hardness from specific gravity for tropical and temperate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; David W. Green

    2007-01-01

    Using mean values for basic (green) specific gravity and Janka side hardness for individual species obtained from the world literature, regression equations were developed to predict side hardness from specific gravity. Statistical and graphical methods showed that the hardness–specific gravity relationship is the same for tropical and temperate hardwoods, but that the...

  7. Ductile Binder Phase For Use With Almgb14 And Other Hard Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce A.; Russell, Alan; Harringa, Joel

    2005-07-26

    This invention relates to a ductile binder phase for use with AlMgB14 and other hard materials. The ductile binder phase, a cobalt-manganese alloy, is used in appropriate quantities to tailor good hardness and reasonable fracture toughness for hard materials so they can be used suitably in industrial machining and grinding applications.

  8. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than ''good quality'' granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface

  9. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Hard X-rays incident upon the photosphere with energies > or approx. =15 keV have high probabilities of backscatter due to Compton collisions with electrons. This effect has a strong influence on the spectrum, intensity, and polarization of solar hard X-rays - especially for anisotropic models in which the primary X-rays are emitted predominantly toward the photosphere. We have carried out a detailed study of X-ray backscatter, and we have investigated the interrelated problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter in a coherent fashion. The results of this study are compared with observational data. Because of the large contribution from backscatter, for an anisotropic primary X-ray source which is due to bremsstrahlung of accelerated electrons moving predominantly down toward the photosphere, the observed X-ray flux around 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of flare on the Sun. For such an anisotropic source, the X-ray spectrum observed in the 15-50 keV range becomes steeper with the increasing heliocentric angle of the flare. These results are compatible with the data. The degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies between about 15 and 30 keV can be very large for anisotropic primary X-ray sources, but it is less than about 4% for isotropic sources. We also discuss the characteristics of the brightness distribution of the X-ray albedo patch created by the Compton backscatter. The height and anisotropy of the primary hard X-ray source might be inferred from the study of the albedo patch

  10. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  11. Hard photons a probe of the heavy ion collision dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions have proven to be a unique tool to study the nucleus in extreme states, with values of energy, spin and isospin far away from those encountered in the nucleus in its ground state. Heavy-ion collisions provide also the only mean to form and study in the laboratory nuclear matter under conditions of density and temperature which could otherwise only be found in stellar objects like neutron stars and super-novae. the goal of such studies is to establish the equation of state of nuclear matter and the method consist in searching the collective behaviour in which heavy-ion collisions differ from a superposition of many nucleon-nucleon collisions. Among the various probes of collective effects, like flow, multifragmentation, or subthreshold particles, we have selected hard photons because they provide, together with dileptons, the only unperturbed probe of a phase of the collision well localized in space and time. The origin of hard photons, defined as the photons building up the spectrum beyond the energy of the giant dipole resonance (E γ > 30∼MeV), is attributed predominantly to the bremsstrahlung radiation emitted incoherently in individual neutron-proton collisions. Their energy reflects the combination of the beam momentum and the momenta induced by the Fermi motion of the nucleons within the collision zone. Therefore, at intermediate energies, hard photons probe the dynamical phase space distribution of participant nucleons and they convey information on the densities reached in heavy-ion collisions, the size and life time of the dense photon source and the compressibility of nuclear matter. The techniques we have developed include intensity interferometry and exclusive measurements scanning with high resolution the whole range of impact parameters. The interpretation of our data is guided by dynamical phase space calculations of the BUU type

  12. Investigation of ultrashort-pulsed laser on dental hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchizono, Takeyuki; Awazu, Kunio; Igarashi, Akihiro; Kato, Junji; Hirai, Yoshito

    2007-02-01

    Ultrashort-pulsed laser (USPL) can ablate various materials with precious less thermal effect. In laser dentistry, to solve the problem that were the generation of crack and carbonized layer by irradiating with conventional laser such as Er:YAG and CO II laser, USPL has been studied to ablate dental hard tissues by several researchers. We investigated the effectiveness of ablation on dental hard tissues by USPL. In this study, Ti:sapphire laser as USPL was used. The laser parameter had the pulse duration of 130 fsec, 800nm wavelength, 1KHz of repetition rate and the average power density of 90~360W/cm2. Bovine root dentin plates and crown enamel plates were irradiated with USPL at 1mm/sec using moving stage. The irradiated samples were analyzed by SEM, EDX, FTIR and roughness meter. In all irradiated samples, the cavity margin and wall were sharp and steep, extremely. In irradiated dentin samples, the surface showed the opened dentin tubules and no smear layer. The Ca/P ratio by EDX measurement and the optical spectrum by FTIR measurement had no change on comparison irradiated samples and non-irradiated samples. These results confirmed that USPL could ablate dental hard tissue, precisely and non-thermally. In addition, the ablation depths of samples were 10μm, 20μm, and 60μm at 90 W/cm2, 180 W/cm2, and 360 W/cm2, approximately. Therefore, ablation depth by USPL depends on the average power density. USPL has the possibility that can control the precision and non-thermal ablation with depth direction by adjusting the irradiated average power density.

  13. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuvier, Eric; Duboz, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics. These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the knowledge of the cheesemaker and affineur. In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, some of which have protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. Among these cheeses, some are made in the Alps or Jura Mountains, including Comté, Beaufort, Abondance, and Emmental, which are made from raw milk. The principle of hard or semihard cooked cheese, produced in the Alps and Jura Mountains, was to make a product during the summer-a period during which the animals feed more and milk production is high-with a shelf life of several months that could be consumed in winter. Today, these traditional cheeses are produced according to a specific approach combining science and tradition in order to better understand and preserve the elements that contribute to the distinctiveness of these cheeses. To address this complex problem, a global approach to the role of the raw milk microflora in the final quality of cheeses was initially chosen. The modifications resulting from the elimination of the raw milk microflora, either by pasteurization or by microfiltration, to the biochemistry of the ripening process and ultimately the sensory quality of the cheeses were evaluated. This approach was achieved mainly with experimental hard cooked cheeses. Other types of traditional cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk are also considered when necessary. Besides the native raw milk microflora, traditional lactic starters (natural or wild starters) also participate in the development of the characteristics of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. After an

  14. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Development of ITER diagnostics: Neutronic analysis and radiation hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukolov, Konstantin, E-mail: vukolov_KY@nrcki.ru; Borisov, Andrey; Deryabina, Natalya; Orlovskiy, Ilya

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Problems of ITER diagnostics caused by neutron radiation from hot DT plasma considered. • Careful neutronic analysis is necessary for ITER diagnostics development. • Effective nuclear shielding for ITER diagnostics in the 11th equatorial port plug proposed. • Requirements for study of radiation hardness of diagnostic elements defined. • Results of optical glasses irradiation tests in a fission reactor given. - Abstract: The paper is dedicated to the problems of ITER diagnostics caused by effects of radiation from hot DT plasma. An effective nuclear shielding must be arranged in diagnostic port plugs to meet the nuclear safety requirements and to provide reliable operation of the diagnostics. This task can be solved with the help of neutronic analysis of the diagnostics environment within the port plugs at the design stage. Problems of neutronic calculations are demonstrated for the 11th equatorial port plug. The numerical simulation includes the calculations of neutron fluxes in the port-plug and in the interspace. Options for nuclear shielding, such as tungsten collimator, boron carbide and water moderators, stainless steel and lead screens are considered. Data on neutron fluxes along diagnostic labyrinths allow to define radiation hardness requirements for the diagnostic components and to specify their materials. Options for windows and lenses materials for optical diagnostics are described. The results of irradiation of flint and silica glasses in nuclear reactor have shown that silica KU-1 and KS-4V retain transparency in visible range after neutron fluence of 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. Flints required for achromatic objectives have much less radiation hardness about 5 × 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Nucleation at hardness indentations in cold rolled Al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.L.; Zhang, Yubin; Wu, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleation of recrystallization near hardness indentations has been investigated in slightly cold rolled high purity aluminium. Samples were cold rolled to 12% and 20% reductions in thickness and indentations were done with two different loads (500 g and 2000 g). The samples were annealed at 300 °C...... for 1 h and nuclei were identified. It is found that the indentations are preferential nucleation sites. With EBSD maps around indentation tips, the orientation relationship between nuclei and matrix is analyzed. Finally, effects of rolling reduction and indentation load on local misorientations...... and stored energy distributions and thus on nucleation are discussed....

  17. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Status Report May - August 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site. The plans for SKB's research and development of technique during the period 2008-2013 are presented in SKB's RDandD-Programme 2007 /SKB 2007/. The information given in the RDandD-Programme related to Aespoe HRL is annually detailed in the Aespoe HRL Planning Report /SKB 2009/. This Aespoe HRL Status Report is a collection of the main achievements obtained during the period May to August 2009

  18. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, K.K., E-mail: gan@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Buchholz, P.; Heidbrink, S. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vogt, M.; Ziolkowski, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    We have designed and fabricated a compact parallel optical engine for transmitting data at 5 Gb/s. The device consists of a 4-channel ASIC driving a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array in an optical package. The ASIC is designed using only core transistors in a 65 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. The ASIC contains an 8-bit DAC to control the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels in the VCSEL array. The performance of the optical engine up at 5 Gb/s is satisfactory.

  19. On exact account of heavy quark thresholds in hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshitzer, Yu. L.

    1993-01-01

    We study the problem to accurately account for the heavy quark threshold effects in hard processes. We employ the direction perturbative Feynman diagram analysis and the Stueckelberg-Bogoliubov massive renormalization group formalism to show that both methods results in the same prescription for the 'physical' mass-dependent QCD effective coupling as an argument of anomalous dimensions that determine the evolution of structure function (parton distributions). By considering the one-loop example, we demonstrate that an intrinsic ambiguity of the standard approach based on the notion of 'effective number of quark flavours' may affect the α s determination at the level of two-loop effects

  20. Transverse energy distribution and hard constituent scattering in hadronic collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Åkesson

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the contributions to the total transverse energy spectrum from hard constituent scattering and the soft hadronic spectrum in hadron collisions. The transverse energy at which jet production starts to dominate is found to be essentially independent of the cms-energy (for large enough s and roughly a linear function of rapidity and azimuthal angle interval included. Calculations are presented for pp collisions at s= 25and60GeV, andp¯p interactions at s= 540GeV.