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Sample records for brine shrimp

  1. Brine Shrimp Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Brynja; Swank, Rebecca; Haefner, Jim; Powell, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Young brine shrimp movements within a petri dish are tracked by students. Students are challenged to determine and verify whether the brine shrimp move in a random walk. From this exercise students gain greater understanding of PDE models, diffusion and parameter estimation.

  2. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  3. Correlation between brine shrimp test (BST) and some bioassays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  4. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  5. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION Antimicrobial and brine shrimp activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    plants is significant, given the amount of poverty that exists among these remotely located communities. The current study, therefore, aims to demonstrate presence of antimicrobial activity in root extracts which has not been reported before and in addition through the brine shrimp test to obtain preliminary indication of safety ...

  7. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  8. Brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial studies on the seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia kola (Family, Guttiferae) is employed in a variety of therapies ranging from skin, gastrointestinal, chest to tumour problems. Preparations of the stem and roots are used as antitumour in traditional medicine but the potential of the seeds as antitumour had not yet been investigated hence the brine-shrimp lethality and ...

  9. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  10. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  11. Brine Shrimp Lethality of Alkaloids from Croton sylvaticus Hoechst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae) and evaluated for their brine shrimp lethality. Julocrotine, a glutarimide alkaloid, was very toxic in vitro with a LC50 (95% confidence interval) value of 0.074 (0.052-0.105) μg/ml. Lupeol and penduliflaworosin were not toxic. The structures ...

  12. Insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antifungal and nitric oxide free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extract and various fractions derived from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana were screened in vitro for possible insecticidal, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities. Low insecticidal activity (20 %) was shown by chloroform (CHCl3) and aqueous fractions ...

  13. Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality tests of Magonia glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Machado, Luciana L; Souza, João S N; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Maia, Juliana L; Pessoa, Otilia D L

    2006-09-01

    The ethanolic extract of the fruit bark from Magonia glabrata yielded shikimic acid, scopoletin, sitosterol glycoside and 2-O-methyl-l-inositol. Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality activities were observed in this extract. The major constituent, 2-O-methyl-l-inositol, was found to be inactive in two assays but showed moderate activity as a radical scavenger.

  14. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  15. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2003-02-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with shrimp growth rather than an arsenic effect. This study represents one of the few full life cycle toxicity tests conducted with brine shrimp.

  16. Comparative Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Withenia somnifera and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lethality test at serial dilutions of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ ml and 10 μg/ml. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for each extract was determined. Both plant extracts were found to be toxic to brine shrimp with LC50 of 110.3 μg/ml and 106.6 μg/ml for W. somnifera and C. cinerarieafolium respectively. Kenya Veterinarian Vol.

  17. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  18. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  19. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  20. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  1. Energy Budgets of Eared Grebes on the Great Salt Lake and Implications for Harvest of Brine Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Michael R.; Caudell, Joe N.

    2009-01-01

    About 1.5-million eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis), representing half of the North American population, stage on Utah's Great Salt Lake, USA (GSL) during autumn migration to forage on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Indirectly competing with birds for brine shrimp are commercial harvesters who annually collect >1 million kg (dry wt) of shrimp cysts (i.e., hardened eggs), an amount that during some years equals up to half of all brine shrimp cysts produced annually on the GSL. No inform...

  2. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  3. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  4. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kidney and lung tissues of the rats. Histopathological examination also did not reveal any toxicity ... Keywords: Mentha spicata, Acute toxicity, Brine shrimp, Histopathology, Haematological. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ... rheumatism, toothache, muscle pain. Mint possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant.

  5. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  6. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus...... conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic. citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations...

  7. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  8. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  9. Using Brine Shrimps as Food and Premix for Domestic Birds, and Issues of the Prophylactics of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Volf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea: Anostraca: Artemiidae is widely used in the poultry farming as the food and premix of domestic birds. In salt lakes many wild bird species are vectors of infectious and parasitic diseases, and the feeding of farming birds with brine shrimp species of Artemia has potential danger of certain diseases. Using the brine shrimps of the genus Artemia in the poultry farming requires measures of disinfection of the raw materials and equipment. The brine shrimps, Artemia may be serving as potential intermediate hosts of the tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum , and one of the sources of the infectious diseases of game birds.

  10. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected gymnosperm and angiosperm species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković Peđa T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of selected species of flowering plants Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia (Asteraceae, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica, M. juliana, Thymus tosevii (Lamiaceae and conifers - Abies alba, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii (Pinaceae and Taxus baccata (Taxaceae, as well as diethyl ether extracts of ten species Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica and M. juliana from two flowering plant families (Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were tested for general bioactivity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality test. Lethal concentration (LC50 and 95% confidence intervals were determined by computer program LdP line. Out of fifteen tested methanol extracts, three possessed cytotoxic effect. Taxus baccata methanol extract showed the highest effect (LC50 = 18.60 μg/ml, while Thymus tosevii methanol extract expressed the lowest (LC50 = 842.50 μg/ml. All other analyzed species did not express significant cytotoxicity. Also, diethyl ether extracts of all tested species did not show significant cytotoxicity. The obtained results for methanol extracts which show certain cytotoxic effect could be guide for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  11. Cytotoxic activities of some mono and bis Mannich bases derived from acetophenone in brine shrimp bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Halise Inci; Gul, Mustafa; Hänninen, Osmo

    2002-01-01

    Some mono Mannich bases (1-phenyl-3-amino-1-propanone salts) and bis Mannich bases (1-phenyl-3-amino-2-amino-methyl-1-propanone salts) derived from acetophenone and a few representative quaternary derivatives were synthesised and their cytotoxicity was tested using the brine shrimp bioassay. This assay may serve as an intermediate test before further in vivo animal experiments in large scale, since brine shrimp nauplii as whole organisms were used in this test. Mono Mannich bases were generally more cytotoxic than their corresponding bis Mannich bases. Mannich bases synthesised were cytotoxic in both brine shrimp bioassay in this study and cell culture tests using Jurkat and Renca cells in a previous study. However, the order of the cytotoxic potency of the compounds were reverse, which may result from faster deamination of bis derivatives than optimal level, and different species and test media used in the two test systems. Faster deamination of bis derivatives might have led to elimination of active metabolites before reaching its target. The cytotoxicity of the compounds might have been altered by amino acids and proteins present in cell culture medium but not in sea water used in brine shrimp bioassay affecting their transport through the cell membrane and metabolism in the cell by binding with the compounds. With higher cytotoxic activity compared with 5-fluorouracil (CAS 51-21-8) in brine shrimp bioassay, mono Mannich base 1 and its quaternary derivative 4 and quaternary bis derivative 8 seem to be candidate compounds for further drug design.

  12. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  13. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  14. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  15. Bioencapsulation of Two Different Vibrio Species in Nauplii of the Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Herrera-Vega, Maria A.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Roque, Ana

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of nauplii from the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) were enriched with different bacteria, and the dynamics of bacterial uptake by the nauplii were observed. This study showed that the efficiency of Artemia nauplii in bioencapsulating bacteria strongly depends on the type of bacteria used, time of exposure, and status (live or dead) of the bacteria. PMID:9603861

  16. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brine shrimp (genus Artemia) are small (8 to 12 mm long) cosmopolitan crustaceans (Anostraca) found predominately in hypersaline water bodies such as inland salt lakes and pans, coastal lagoons, and salt works at salinity levels above 40 g·ℓ-1. They have been extensively studied due to their high monetary value as ...

  17. In-vitro anti-microbial and brine-shrimp lethality potential of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The brine-shrimp lethality assay analyzed using the Finney probit method showed that the crude ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stem displayed LD50 values at 192 ppm and 182 ppm respectively. These findings indicate the potential of the plant as panacea for infectious diseases and also reveal a novel potential in the ...

  18. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette M. Karchesy; Rick G. Kelsey; George Constantine; Joseph J. Karchesy

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 μg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta...

  19. TOXICITY TESTING OF RESTORATIVE DENTAL MATERIALS USING BRINE SHRIMP LARVAE (ARTEMIA SALINA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhem, Manar M.; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S.; Darmani, Homa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability) followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively). One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (pbrine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites. PMID:19089264

  20. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A. F.; Fernandes, Tainá; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Nascimento, Silvia M.

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments) and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs. PMID:28388672

  1. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A F Neves

    Full Text Available Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs.

  2. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-01-01

    H in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None......The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus...... concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of p...

  3. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-06-15

    The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of pH in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results

  4. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:21808570

  5. A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José Luis; Hernández-Inda, Zaira L; Pérez, Pilar; García-Grávalos, María D

    2002-01-01

    Background The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity. Material and Methods The bioactivity of the isopropanolic (2-PrOH) extracts of 14 species of marine invertebrates and 6 species of macroalgae was evaluated with the shrimp lethality assay (lethality assay), as well as with another assay based on the inhibition of hatching of the cyst (hatchability assay). The extracts were also assayed for cytotoxicity against two human cell lines, lung carcinoma A-549 and colon carcinoma HT-29, in order to assess the sensitivity of the shrimp assays to detect cytotoxic activity. Results Two sponges (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp.), two gorgonians (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp.), one tunicate (Polyclinum laxum), and three echinoderms (Holothuria impatiens, Pseudoconus californica and Pharia pyramidata) showed a strong cytostatic (growth inhibition) and cytotoxic effect. The hatchability assay showed a strong activity in 4 of the species active against the two human cell lines tested (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp., Pacifigorgia adamsii and Muricea sp.), and the lethality assay also showed a high lethality in 4 of them (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp., Polyclinum laxum, and Pharia pyramidata). Each bioassay detected activity in 50% of the species that were considered active against the two human cell lines tested. However, the simultaneous use of both bioassays increased the percentage to 75%. Conclusions Our results seem consistent with the correlation previously established between cytotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality in plant extracts. We suggest using both bioassays simultaneously to test natural marine products for pharmacological

  6. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  7. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  8. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

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    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  9. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Moshi, Mainen J; Masimba, Pax J; Kapingu, Modest C; Nondo, Ramadhani SO

    2007-01-01

    Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1), methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml), while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15) μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles. PMID:17394672

  10. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  11. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  12. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

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    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  13. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Pandan Wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui toksisitas dari ekstrak daun pandan wangimenggunakan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Ekstrak dibuat dengan cara maserasimenggunakan tiga macam pelarut, yaitu butanol, etil asetat, dan petroleum eter. Uji toksisitasdilakukan dengan menggunakan larva udang Artemia salina Leach yang berumur 48 jam. Efektoksik masing-masing ekstrak diidentifikasi dengan presentase kematian larva udangmenggunakan analisis probit (LC50. Ekstrak aktif kemudian diuji kandungan fitokimianya dansenyawa bioaktif yang terkandung di dalamnya dengan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasilnyamenunjukkan ekstrak etil asetat bersifat toksik (LC50 : 288,4 ppm. Senyawa yang terkandungdalam ekstrak etil asetat adalah senyawa terpenoid dan steroid.

  14. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  15. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalia, Yogesh; Vaghasiya, Yogeshkumar; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers was tested using Artemia salina (Brine shrimp) bioassay. Two doses (400 and 600 mg/Kg) were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity against the carrageenan, histamine, dextran, serotonin and formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and formaldehyde-induced analgesia in rats. In cytotoxicity study, extract caused 73% mortality of Brine shrimp larvae after 24 h at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. The results of the anti-inflammatory study showed that the extract produced significant (p < 0.05) decrease in paw volume in different models of paw edema. The extract also inhibited the formation of granuloma in cotton pellet-induced granuloma and reduced the frequency of formaldehyde-induced paw licking. These results showed that the methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers have weak cytotoxic and potent anti-inflammatory compounds and justifies the traditional uses for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. PMID:24250512

  16. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

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    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  17. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  18. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract. Results LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is

  19. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host–pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  20. Determination in oocytes of the reproductive modes for the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhong-Min; Li, Ran; Dai, Li; Yang, Jin-Shu; Chen, Su; Zeng, Qing-Guo; Yang, Fan; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2011-02-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, reproduces either oviparously, producing encysted embryos (diapause cysts), or ovoviviparously, producing free-swimming nauplii. Environmental factors, such as photoperiod, have been applied to control the reproduction mode of Artemia, but when the determination of a reproductive mode occurs remains unknown. We analysed the differential gene expression between oocytes from oviparous and ovoviviparous Artemia reared under different photoperiods. A total of 692 qualified cDNA clones were obtained by subtractive hybridization, 327 of which matched GenBank® Nucleotide Sequence Database entries. Gene expressions of 44 cDNAs (representing 56 clones) were analysed in oocytes using real-time PCR. Among these genes, 11 (21 clones) were significantly (Plife cycle.

  1. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; DeBell, L.; Hawkins, L.; Metcalf, J.; Guikema, J. A.; Rosowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  2. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Covi

    Full Text Available While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025-0.5 mg L-1 of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic

  3. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covi, Joseph A; Hutchison, Evan R; Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gunderson, Matthew D

    While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025-0.5 mg L-1) of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic barrier to the entry of

  4. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive mode in the Brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Ziro; Tanaka, Shin; Nambu, Fumiko

    2004-06-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia, exhibit two modes of reproduction: oviparity (diapause cyst production) and ovoviviparity (live larvae release). Environmental conditions determining these developmental routes are poorly understood, so we investigated the effects of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive mode. Nauplii of A. franciscana were hatched from cysts produced in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, and raised in 2% natural sea salt water under photoperiods of 24, 14, 12, or 10 h at 28 degrees or 20 degrees C. Mating pairs of mature shrimp were isolated and reared continuously under those conditions. The mode of reproduction shown by each pair was determined daily throughout their life span, and found to be greatly affected by photoperiod, and less influenced by temperature. The relative degree of oviparity increased as the photoperiod became shorter at both temperatures. In contrast, the degree of ovoviviparity was higher as the photoperiod became longer at both temperatures. The critical photoperiod appears to be between 12 and 14 h. For all photoperiods examined, the degree of oviparity was higher at 28 degrees C than at 20 degrees C, whereas the degree of ovoviviparity was greater at 20 degrees C than at 28 degrees C. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  7. Phytochemical and toxicity evaluation of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl by MCF-7 cell line and brine shrimp lethality bioassay

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    Abul Kalam Azad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits extracts. Methods: The cytotoxicity test was carried out by in vitro MCF-7 cell line and in vivo brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: The preliminary phytochemical test showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycosides, saponin, terpene, steroids, phenols and flavonoids. The MTT-assay results showed that the highest percentage of cell viability was 106.23% at concentration of 1.25 µL and the lowest percentage was 13.04% at concentration of 10 µL. Conclusions: The MTT-assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay results showed that the extract was non-toxic and it would be consumable as a herbal remedy.

  8. Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity, Total Phenolic Content, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, Thrombolytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Tagetes patula L.

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ruhul Kuddus; Mirza Sonia Alam; Sharmin Reza Chowdhury; Farhana Rumi; Md. Al Amin Sikder; Rashid, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    The methanol extract of leaf of Tagetes patula L. as well as its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates were subjected to screening for total phenolic content, brine shrimp lethality, membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activity. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by hypotonic solution-and heat-induced methods and was compared with acetyl salicylic acid. In the present studies, the n-hexane soluble fraction demonstrated strong...

  9. Studies on antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of crude samples of six different species of puffer fishes

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    Masilamani Mohan Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality activity of six different species of puffer fishes, including Cyclichthys orbicularis, Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster solandri, Arthron hispidus, A. inermis and Lagocephalua inermis (L. inermis. Methodology: The puffer fishes were collected from Annangkovil Fish Landing Centre (Lattitude 11°30.47' N; Longitude 79°47.02' E, Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India during summer season because of availability. Fresh tissue samples were collected from the clearly washed specimens, extracted with methanol at 37 °C for 3 days and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The solvents such as methanol and ethanol were concentrated by using rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The dark brown gummy mass was stored at 4 °C for further analysis. Prepared crude samples were analysed with human pathogens to assess the antibacterial activity and this was carried out by using standard disc diffusion method. The brine shrimp lethality was calculated as the percentage of mortality which was firstly calculated by dividing the number of dead larvae by the total number and then multiplied to 100%. Results: The antibacterial activity of crude extract of puffer fishes were exhibited against 10 different human bacterial pathogens. Among the ten human pathogens, Arthron hispidus showed maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm against Staphylococcus aureus while L. inermis showed minimum activity (1 mm against Proteus mirabilis and no zone of inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus. Brine shrimp lethality was examined with six puffer fish extracts. Cyclichthys orbicularis showed maximum mortalities as 100% and L. inermis showed minimum mortalities as 70% at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study showed the preliminary investigation of crude extracts of puffer fishes about the prominent activity against human bacterial pathogens. The extracts had

  10. Antibacterial and brine shrimp lethality effect of marine actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. CAS72 against human pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Vijayanand, Packiyaraj; Sivakumar, Kannan; Sugesh, Shanmugam; Poongodi, Subramaniam; Maharani, Viswanathan; Vijayalakshmi, Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the marine actinobacterium. Methods Forty six marine actinobacterial strains were isolated from sediment samples of Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, India. Preliminary screening was done by cross-streak method and the potential strain was identified by morphological, chemotaxonomical and molecular methods. Fermentation was done and the metabolite was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and purified by silica gel (100-200 mesh) column chromatography. The purified metabolite was tested for antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Among the forty six strains, CAS72 was found effective against human pathogenic bacteria. The strain CAS72 was identified as Streptomyces sp. The purified metabolite exhibited a significant in vitro antibacterial activity. The MIC value was also determined against human pathogenic bacteria and a strong cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay was observed and the LC50 value was 23.5 µg/mL. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that the marine actinobacteria are well obtainable in Uppanar estuary environment and it can provide a definite source for novel bioactive metabolites.

  11. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrabsky, Jason E.; Hand, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  12. Brine shrimp bioassay of some species of Solanum from Northestern Brazil

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    Tania Maria S. Silva

    Full Text Available The methanolic extracts of 13 Specieis of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae have been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina. The extracts investigated were prepared from various parts (aerial parts, roots and fruits of S. asperum, S. capsicoides, S. palinacantum, S. paludosum, S. paniculatum, S. paraibanum, S. sisymbriifolium, S. crinitum, S. diamantinense, S. megalonyx, S. torvum, S. asterophorum and S. stipulaceum. The lethal concentrations were determined for the extracts and among thirteen plants tested, four appear to be inactive. The extracts of the fruits of S. asperum (LC50 = 420.5 µg/mL and S. paludosum (LC50 = 548.0 µg/mL, aerial parts of S. diamantinense (LC50 = 481.0 µg/mL and S. sisymbrifolium (LC50 = 382.7 µg/mL, and the roots of S. asperum (LC50 = 593.4 µg/mL and S. stipulaceum (LC50 = 823.1 µg/mL, all of which previously showed molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata were also found to be active in the present study with brine shrimp.

  13. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the “survival of the fattest” principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur. PMID:26938743

  14. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Pons, Inès; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A; Lenormand, Thomas; Green, Andy J

    2016-03-01

    Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50) and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase) in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  16. In vitro antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality of Allophylus cobbe L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Torequl; Noor, Md. Abdun; Karon, Bijoy; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Plants are rich source of pharmacologically active agents, which could be explored in disease management. Methanol, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the whole plant of Allophylus cobbe L. were evaluated for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity by disk diffusion method was conducted against four Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi. In the antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity tests, growth inhibition was found to be within the range of 10.0–17.67 mm. Strong zone of inhibition by the ethanol extract of A. cobbe (EEAC) was found against Trichophyton spp. With some exceptions, a mild to strong antimicrobial activity was observed in this study. Significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 15.625 μg/ml) was found against Trichophyton spp. Other detected MICs were within the range of 31.25–125 μg/ml. The petroleum ether extract of the plant exhibited strong cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay test. PMID:23559808

  17. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ismail

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. Methods The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent. Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Results Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD50 value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4 mg/ml. Similarly, EC50 value for brine shrimp

  18. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Ahmed, Ghayour; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ghias, Mehreen; Khan, Imran

    2011-10-24

    Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic) activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml) three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent). Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM) -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD(50) value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4) mg/ml. Similarly, EC(50) value for brine shrimp cytotoxicity is 65.5 ± 7.28 (60.8- 69.4, n

  19. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic) activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. Methods The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml) three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent). Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM) -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Results Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD50 value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4) mg/ml. Similarly, EC50 value for brine shrimp cytotoxicity is 65.5

  20. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50 and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  1. Evaluation of the toxicity of Araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum using brine Shrimp test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos de Sá Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the dawn of medicine, man has used natural products for the treatment of disease. There has been a recent increase in studies of the therapeutic characteristics plants in popular use in many places of the world. In this context, the species Centrolobium tomentosum, Fabaceae, known popularly as Araribá or Araruva, is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an astringent for wound treatment and bruises due to the large amount of tannins contained in the bark. This work used toxicity tests to assess the biological activity of ethanolic extracts from C. tomentosum with the specific objectives of obtaining concentrated extracts from the bark and wood of this species and determining the total phenols and tannins present in these extracts. We collected araribá samples in order to obtain ethanolic extracts through the percolation process. We then made a qualitative chemical identification of hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. We used the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the phenols quantification and the casein precipitation method for the tannins determination. The toxicity of extracts was evaluated using the brine shrimp bioassay (Artemia salina, in which the C. tomentosum bark extract showed moderate toxicity, with estimated LC50 = 416 μg.ml-1, whereas the leaves and wood extracts of this species showed low toxicity with LC50 = 537 μg.ml-1 and 826 μg.ml-1, respectively.

  2. Stress tolerance during diapause and quiescence of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Oviparously developing embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia, arrest at gastrulation and are released from females as cysts before entering diapause, a state of dormancy and stress tolerance. Diapause is terminated by an external signal, and growth resumes if conditions are permissible. However, if circumstances are unfavorable, cysts enter quiescence, a dormant stage that continues as long as adverse conditions persist. Artemia embryos in diapause and quiescence are remarkably resistant to environmental and physiological stressors, withstanding desiccation, cold, heat, oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, and years of anoxia at ambient temperature when fully hydrated. Cysts have adapted to stress in several ways; they are surrounded by a rigid cell wall impermeable to most chemical compounds and which functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Artemia cysts contain large amounts of trehalose, a non-reducing sugar thought to preserve membranes and proteins during desiccation by replacing water molecules and/or contributing to vitrification. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins similar to those in seeds and other anhydrobiotic organisms are found in cysts, and they safeguard cell organelles and proteins during desiccation. Artemia cysts contain abundant amounts of p26, a small heat shock protein, and artemin, a ferritin homologue, both ATP-independent molecular chaperones important in stress tolerance. The evidence provided in this review supports the conclusion that it is the interplay of these protective elements that make Artemia one of the most stress tolerant of all metazoan organisms.

  3. Molecular approaches for improving desiccation tolerance: insights from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    We have evaluated the endogenous expression and molecular properties of selected Group 3 LEA proteins from Artemia franciscana , and the capacity of selected Groups 1 and 3 proteins transfected into various desiccation-sensitive cell lines to improve tolerance to drying. Organisms inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems frequently are confronted with the problem of water loss for multiple reasons--exposure to hypersalinity, evaporative water loss, and restriction of intracellular water due to freezing of extracellular fluids. Seasonal desiccation can become severe and lead to the production of tolerant propagules and entry into the state of anhydrobiosis at various stages of the life cycle. Such is the case for gastrula-stage embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Physiological and biochemical responses to desiccation are central for survival and are multifaceted. This review will evaluate the impact of multiple late embryogenesis abundant proteins originating from A. franciscana, together with the non-reducing sugar trehalose, on prevention of desiccation damage at multiple levels of biological organization. Survivorship of desiccation-sensitive cells during water stress can be improved by use of the above protective agents, coupled to metabolic preconditioning and rapid cell drying. However, obtaining long-term stability of cells in the dried state at room temperature has not been accomplished and will require continued efforts on both the physicochemical and biological fronts.

  4. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum (Lamiacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Kafeel; Khalil, Ali Talha; Khan, Jangrez; Khan, Yusra Ali; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Umar, Muhamad Naveed; Ahmad, Hilal

    2015-06-01

    To collect and screen for ethnopharmacological properties (antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine lethality assays) of medicinal plan Ocimum basilicum from Peshawar region (34.008 latitude and 71.57 altitudes). In the present study a general antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica strair was carried out. The antibacterial potential of the plant was performed against 06 gram positiv and 06 gram negative bacteria. Brine shrimp cyto- toxicity assay at different concentrations were investigated. The anti-promastigotes profile of the plant showed good antileishmanial activity exhibited LC50 value 21.67 µg/mL. The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O. basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from 20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86 ± 0.80 for Clostridium perfringens type C and Bacillus subtitilis, respectively, as compared to the gentamycin (27.36 ± 0.55 and 21.80 ± 0.72, respectively). For gram negative bacteria good activity was observed. A highest zone of inhibition was recorded for Pseudomonas aeroginosa (28.83 ± 0.28) at the highest concentration (10 mg/ mL). The LC50 value obtained for brine shrimp lethality assay was 91.56 µg/mL. The herb basil possesses effective cidal activities which make this plant a good candidate for the isolation of antiprotozoal and antibacterial compounds which may lead to the development of novel drug.

  6. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Misty R; Baxter, Bonnie K; Avery, Brian J

    2013-03-08

    Prior research on the microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, has mainly been limited to culture-based identification techniques or feeding studies for aquaculture. Our objective was to identify bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia adults and encysted embryos to understand the role of microbes in the Artemia life cycle and, therefore, their importance in a hypersaline food chain. We used small subunit (SSU) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to identify bacteria and archaea associated with adults and encysted Artemia embryos from one of their natural environments - Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA. We found that bacterial sequences most closely related to the genera Halomonas and Vibrio were commonly extracted from GSL adult Artemia, while bacterial sequences most similar to the genera Halomonas, Psychroflexus and Alkalilimnicola dominate in GSL water. Encysted embryos (cysts) yielded bacterial sequences from the genera Idiomarina and Salinivibrio, which were absent from adults and water. Common archaeal sequences in adults were most closely related to the genera Haloterrigena and Haloarcula, while all of the archaeal sequences from GSL water were most similar to the genus Halogeometricum. Cyst derived archaeal sequences were most closely related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. In addition to identifying microbial rRNA sequences that are specific to different stages of the Artemia life cycle, we observed striking differences in the sequences associated with the adult Artemia population in samples collected from GSL at different times and locations. While our study was limited in scope and the sample was small, our findings provide a foundation for future research into how the bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia influence the Artemia life cycle, and GSL food web.

  7. Larval helminths in the invasive American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana throughout its annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Angelov, Aleksandar; Vasileva, Gergana P; Sánchez, Marta I; Hortas, Francisco; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Pankov, Plamen; Green, Andy J

    2014-09-01

    One of the best examples of rapid displacement of native species by an invader is the eradication of native Artemia salina and A. parthenogenetica in the Mediterranean by the introduced American A. franciscana. Previous studies based on sampling from limited time periods suggest that the success of the American species as a competitor may be due partly to different parasite burden, since native Artemia spp. have high cestode infection rates regulating their density. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the helminth infection in A. franciscana in its invasive range is low throughout its annual life cycle. Samples of A. franciscana were collected every second month from La Tapa saltern (Andalusia) during one year. Five helminth species were recorded: cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides, F. flamingo, Gynandrotaenia stammeri (all flamingo parasites), Eurycestus avoceti (a shorebird parasite) and larval spirurids of the Acuariinae (the first record of nematodes in Artemia). The overall infection rate was low, with total prevalence 5.9% and prevalence of individual parasite species between 0.2 and 3.2%. The mean abundance of helminths was 0.005-0.155 (av. 0.068), 5-13 times lower than in native congeners. Waterbird counts indicate that the low infection rates cannot be explained by lack of definitive hosts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that helminths have no regulating effect on the invasive brine shrimp in the Mediterranean. The replacement of the native populations by the invader can be partially explained by a competition mediated by parasites/predators through a differential impact on host fitness.

  8. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  9. Expression and characterization of the JAK kinase and STAT protein from brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Gen-Der; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Li; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Huang, Fore-Lien; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized both JAK and STAT genes from Artemia, Artemia franciscana. Although AfJAK showed only 19% identity (33% similarity) to the Drosophila Hop protein, AfJAK contained the characteristic JAK homology domain (JH domain) from JH1 to JH7. On the other hand, AfSTAT showed higher identity (30%) to Drosophila STAT (STAT92E). The low identities of AfJAK and AfSTAT to Drosophila Hop and STAT92E suggest that JAK and STAT proteins are unique in each different species of invertebrate. RT-PCR analysis showed that both AfJAK and AfSTAT transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in the embryo, which is similar to the expression patterns of Drosophila Hop and STAT92E mRNAs during development. In addition, we generated a constitutively active form of AfSTAT by fusing the JH1 domain of AfJAK to the C-terminal end of AfSTAT. This fusion protein, AfSTAT-HA-JH1, autophosphorylated on its tyrosine residue and was able to bind to specific DNA motifs including the STAT-binding motifs in the Drosophila Raf promoter. Both AfJAK and AfSTAT proteins elicited the transactivation potential toward the fly Raf promoter in Sf9 cells. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of AfSTAT was not detected, which is consistent with the cellular localization analysis that most AfSTAT proteins were in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrate that both JAK and STAT are present in the genome of Artemia, which can serve as the basis for further investigations to explore the role of the JAK/STAT signal pathway in the development and immune response of brine shrimp. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research on the microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, has mainly been limited to culture-based identification techniques or feeding studies for aquaculture. Our objective was to identify bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia adults and encysted embryos to understand the role of microbes in the Artemia life cycle and, therefore, their importance in a hypersaline food chain. Results We used small subunit (SSU) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to identify bacteria and archaea associated with adults and encysted Artemia embryos from one of their natural environments – Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA. We found that bacterial sequences most closely related to the genera Halomonas and Vibrio were commonly extracted from GSL adult Artemia, while bacterial sequences most similar to the genera Halomonas, Psychroflexus and Alkalilimnicola dominate in GSL water. Encysted embryos (cysts) yielded bacterial sequences from the genera Idiomarina and Salinivibrio, which were absent from adults and water. Common archaeal sequences in adults were most closely related to the genera Haloterrigena and Haloarcula, while all of the archaeal sequences from GSL water were most similar to the genus Halogeometricum. Cyst derived archaeal sequences were most closely related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Conclusions In addition to identifying microbial rRNA sequences that are specific to different stages of the Artemia life cycle, we observed striking differences in the sequences associated with the adult Artemia population in samples collected from GSL at different times and locations. While our study was limited in scope and the sample was small, our findings provide a foundation for future research into how the bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia influence the Artemia life cycle, and GSL food web. PMID:23497541

  12. Effect of light and brine shrimp on skeletal δ 13C in the Hawaiian coral Porites compressa: a tank experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2002-06-01

    Previous experimental fieldwork showed that coral skeletal δ13C values decreased when solar intensity was reduced, and increased in the absence of zooplankton. However, actual seasonal changes in solar irradiance levels are typically less pronounced than those used in the previous experiment and the effect of increases in the consumption of zooplankton in the coral diet on skeletal δ13C remains relatively unknown. In the present study, the effects of four different light and heterotrophy regimes on coral skeletal δ13C values were measured. Porites compressa corals were grown in outdoor flow-through tanks under 112%, 100%, 75%, and 50% light conditions at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Hawaii. In addition, corals were fed either zero, low, medium, or high concentrations of brine shrimp. Decreases in light from 100% resulted in significant decreases in δ13C that is most likely due to a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis. Increases in light to 112% also resulted in a decrease in δ13C values. This latter response may be a consequence of photoinhibition. The overall curved response in δ13C values was described by a significant quadratic function. Increases in brine shrimp concentrations resulted in increased skeletal δ13C levels. This unexpected outcome appears to be attributable to enhanced nitrogen supply associated with the brine shrimp diet which led to increased zooxanthellae concentrations, increased photosynthesis rates, and thus increased δ13C values. This result highlights the potential influence of nutrients from heterotrophically acquired carbon in maintaining the zooxanthellae-host symbiosis in balance. In addition, evidence is presented that suggests that coral skeletal growth and δ13C are decoupled. These results increase our knowledge of how light and heterotrophy affects the δ13C of coral skeletons.

  13. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). Conclusion These results

  14. Studies on the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bur. (Bignoniaceae) extracts and their main constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Maria Lysete A; Lima, Maria Raquel F; Conserva, Lucia M; Andrade, Vânia S; Rocha, Eliana MM; Lemos, Rosangela PL

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach), we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans). Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm) and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm) growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL) and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL). From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1), 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2), 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3), and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4)] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm) and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm)] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm) and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm)] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm). Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic

  15. Studies on the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur. (Bignoniaceae extracts and their main constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Eliana MM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach, we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans. Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL. From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2, 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3, and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm. Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic

  16. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  17. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    MAP shrimps were characterized by phenotypic tests and identified as lactic acid bacteria (78 isolates), other Gram-positive bacteria (13 isolates) and Gram-negative bacteria (11 isolates). A selection of 48 LAB isolates were further characterized and identified by phenotypic tests and SDS......Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...

  18. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M. Obayed; Haque, Mahmuda; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Anita, Elichea Synthi; Begum, Momtaj; Hamid, Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. PMID:23570009

  19. Stable isotope record of Holocene climate and ecological change from brine shrimp cyst chitin for the Great Salt Lake, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K. E.; Bowen, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    We present a record of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in brine shrimp cysts from the Great Salt Lake, a terminal lake in the Great Basin, US. Water balance for the region is influenced by strength of the El Niño in Pacific and by the strength of the summer monsoon. Brine shrimp cysts are a novel proxy for isotope reconstruction, and allow reconstruction of water isotopes (oxygen, hydrogen) and ecology (hydrogen). Oxygen isotopes in chitin respond to water, while both diet and growth water contribute to hydrogen isotopes, allowing reconstruction of both environmental and ecological information from a single molecule. Values of δ18O decrease from about +15‰ to about +11‰ over course of the 8000 year record. This may suggest the importance of snow melt increased over the Holocene, or it may suggest lake is larger today than it was in mid-Holocene. Hydrogen isotopes are relatively stable for most of record, fluctuating around -140‰. Modeled hydrogen isotopes in food, also stable in the beginning of the record at about -150‰, become much heavier, shifting toward about -75‰ starting about 5000 ybp. This may suggest a shift from a primarily aquatic diet in the Mid-Holocene to a diet with a greater contribution of terrestrial material later in the Holocene. These observations agree broadly with previous inferences of a warm Mid-Holocene and associated low terrestrial productivity, followed by a more moist, and consequently more productive Late Holocene.

  20. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract and antispasmodic activity of α-amyrin acetate from Tylophora hirsuta Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that aerial parts of Tylophora hirsuta have antispasmodic profile. The current work is an attempt for isolation of pharmacologically active compound(s) that contribute for its antispasmodic activity. Methods Preliminary phytochemical screening for crude methanol extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) is performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract is performed. Column chromatography was used for isolation of compounds. Mass spectroscopy, H1 NMR and C13 NMR were used for structural determination of compounds. α-amyrin acetate was tried for possible spasmolytic activity in rabbit’s jejunal preparations and KCl-induced contractions. Results Th.Cr tested positive for saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids. Compound 1 was isolated as α-amyrin acetate. Compound 2 was heptaeicosanol. Crude methanol extract tested positive for brine shrimp cytotoxicity with LC50 492.33± 8.08 mg/ml. Compound 1 tested positive for antispasmodic activity on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunum preparations with EC50 (60 ± 2) × 10-5M. The compound also tested positive on KCl induced contractions with EC50 (72 ± 3) × 10-5M. Conclusions The present work confirms that α-amyrin acetate is has antispasmodic profile and the relaxant effect may be attributed to α-amyrin acetate which is a major compound. PMID:23773697

  1. Density and distribution of water boatmen and brine shrimp at a major shorebird wintering area in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K.J.; Collazo, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cabo Rojo salt flats are an important wintering area for migratory shorebirds. Their quality is intimately related to prey availability, as prey are needed to meet energetic requirements. Understanding prey dynamics is, therefore, a key element of shorebird conservation plans. To this end, we monitored the density and distribution of water-boatmen (Trichocorixa spp.) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) in relation to water salinity from September to November of 1994 and 1995. Salinity ranged from 4 to 292 ppt, and gradients were related to hydrological alterations (e.g., salt extraction) and connection to the ocean. Brine shrimp were restricted to areas of highest salinity (??? 106 ppt), whereas water-boatmen to areas of lowest salinity ( 100 ppt. Lowering water salinity did not result in osmolal related mortality. Results underscored the sensitivity of water boatmen to high salinity, particularly when the difference in salinity between the 'source' and 'destination' localities widened. Water boatmen density increased in one lagoon as salinity decreased from 65 to 47 ppt. On the basis of our experiments, local adult survivorship improved and immigration and subsequent survival of adults, if any, was not hindered. The density of nymphs also suggested that hatching occurred concurrently. The foraging value of the salt flats can be enhanced by maintaining salinity at salinity concentrations among them.

  2. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY TEST (BSLT DARI BERBAGAI FRAKSI EKSTRAK DAGING BUAH DAN KULIT BIJI MAHKOTA DEWA (Phaleria macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Lisdawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of a natural product involved in several certain characteristics will influence its pharmaceutical application. Secondary metabolites, considered as chemical compounds, are now thought to mediate plant defense mechanism by providing chemical barriers against animal and microbial predators. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method has been used as preliminary test for screening the activity of chemical compounds in n­ hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from mesocarp and seeds of Phaleria macrocarpa, fam. Thymelaeaceae. BSLT method used shrimp larvas of Artemia salina L. to study the mortality effect that was caused by the sample extracts. All of crude extracts showed bioactivity with LC50 values from 0.16 to 11.83 µg/ml (baseline 1000 µg/ml. It means, at the concentration the crude extracts can cause 50% mortality of A. salina L. shrimp larvas, after 24 hours incubation. These results clearly indicate that crude extracts of P. macrocarpa showed high potential biological activity.

  3. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is an important unit-operation in the production of cooked and peeled shrimps. The present study explores the feasibility of using ohmic heating for cooking of shrimps. The focus is on investigating the effects of different process parameters on heating time and quality of ohmic cooked sh...

  4. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine) : The use of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Van der Have, TM; Van der Winden, J; Chernichko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris

  5. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine): the use of brine shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.; Have, van der T.M.; Winden, van der J.; Chernichko, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris

  6. Opportunities for Sex Education and Personal and Social Education (PSE) through Science Lessons: The Comments of Primary Pupils When Observing Meal Worms and Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a characterization of students' comments during observation of meal worms or brine shrimp. Finds that many student comments had to do with sex, reproduction, death, violence, and the life history of the organisms. Significant differences in conversations occurred across age and gender groups. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)

  7. Pengujian Fitokimia dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Jantung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca LINN. dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok (Musa Paradisiaca Linn. dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT.  Pengujian dilakukan untuk mencari beberapa senyawa kimia dari ekstrak jantung pisang Musa Paradisaca. Linn serta mengetahui efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach.  Maserasi jantung pisang kepok dilakukan dengan menggunakan etanol. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas. Hasil pengujian fitokimia menunjukkan ekstrak etanol jantung pisang Musa paradisiaca. Linn memiliki komposisi senyawa flavonoid, kumarin dan senyawa fenolik lainnya. Ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok memberikan efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 806,8 μg/mL.Kata kunci: jantung pisang kepok, fitokimia, toksisitas, BSLT.

  8. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs, and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92, indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern. RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result

  9. Susceptibility of the brine shrimp Artemia and its pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus to chlorine dioxide in contaminated sea-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, M E; Vega-Villasante, F; Holguin, G; Bashan, Y

    1992-12-01

    Adults and nauplii of the brine shrimp, Artemia, together with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were placed in sewage-contaminated sea-water which had been treated with chlorine dioxide (Hallox E-100TM) to test its potential as a disinfectant for salt water aquaculture. The nauplii were very susceptible to low concentrations of chlorine dioxide (47 micrograms/l Cl-), but the adults were slightly more resistant. Sterile sea-water treated with lower concentrations of chlorine dioxide (less than 47 micrograms/l Cl-) had no effect on the shrimp, but inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. In sewage-contaminated sea-water, chlorine dioxide levels of 285-2850 micrograms/l, necessary for the inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and any native bacteria, destroyed the Artemia culture. Hallox E-100TM persisted in sea-water for 18 h, but later decayed. We conclude that: (i) Artemia nauplii are a sensitive and convenient test-organism to determine low concentrations of chlorine dioxide in sea-water; (ii) chlorine dioxide is efficient for controlling V. parahaemolyticus in sea-water; and (iii) chlorine dioxide should be further evaluated as a potential disinfectant for aquaculture, but, for higher organisms than Artemia.

  10. Assessment of cyst production potential of a natural population of brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Studies on a natural population of Artemia in the salterns of Jamnagar indicated that the population is parthenogenetic. These shrimps reach a maximum size of 9 mm. Number of cysts per brood varies from 10-32. Adults form about 68% of the total...

  11. Kajian pendahuluan uji toksisitas ekstrak air miselia dan tubuh buah jamur shitake (Lentinus edodes) dengan metode brine shrimp lethality test (BTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Erma NS; Tri Sundari; Arie Ika Susanty; Dwi Riani Octavia Palupi; Isnaeni Isnaeni; Sukardiman Sukardiman

    2012-01-01

    Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is one of the wood mushroom types that can be consumed as a food as well as for a medicalpurpose. Lentinan, a polysaccharide contained in shiitake, is well known for its use on cancer medication. Mycelium of Shiitake mushroomcontains lentinan the same as other part of the mushroom like fruity body. Toxicity of the lentinan in mycelium compare to the fruitybody has been first conducted by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST). Using Potato Dextrose Broth m...

  12. Differential protein expression using proteomics from a crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8.2 as control and 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress levels according to the predicted levels at the end of this century and next century, respectively) for 1, 7 and 14 days followed by examination of the protein expression changes via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Searches of protein databases revealed that 67 differential protein spots were altered due to lower pH level (7.6 and 7.8) stress in comparison to control groups (pH 8.2) by mass spectrometry. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins included the following: 1) metabolic process-related proteins involved in glycolysis and glucogenesis, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, DNA replication and apoptosis; 2) stress response-related proteins, such as peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin peroxidase, 70-kDa heat shock protein, Na/K ATPase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; 3) immune defence-related proteins, such as prophenoloxidase and ferritin; 4) cytoskeletal-related proteins, such as myosin light chain, TCP1 subunit 2, tropomyosin and tubulin alpha chain; and 5) signal transduction-related proteins, such as phospholipase C-like protein, 14-3-3 zeta, translationally controlled tumour protein and RNA binding motif protein. Taken together, these data support the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification may affect protein expression in the crustacean A. sinica and possibly also in other species that feed on brine shrimp in the

  13. Effect of municipal waste water effluent upon the expression of Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes of brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammou, Athina; Papadimitriou, Chrisa; Samaras, Peter; Vasara, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2011-06-01

    Multiple isoenzymes of the detoxification enzyme family Glutathione S-transferase are expressed in the brine shrimp Artemia. The number of the major ones detected in crude extract by means of chromatofocusing varied between three and four, depending on the age. Two isoenzymes, one alkaline and one neutral (with corresponding isoelectric points of 8.5 and 7.2) appear to be dominant in all three developmental stages studied, (24, 48, and 72 h after hatching). Culturing Artemia for 48 h after hatching, in artificial sea water prepared by municipal wastewater effluent resulted to significant alterations of the isoenzyme profile. In comparison to organisms cultured for the same period of time in artificial sea water prepared by filtered tap water, the expression of the alkaline isoenzyme decreased by 62% while that of the neutral isoenzyme increased by 58%. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of the major isoenzyme of the acidic area increased by more than two folds. It is worth mentioning that although the specific activity of the total enzyme in the whole body homogenate was elevated, no statistically significant alteration of the Km value was observed. These findings suggest that study of the isoenzyme profile of Glutathione S-transferase may offer high sensitivity in detecting environmental pollution and needs to be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Nigella sativa L. Seeds Using Brine Shrimp Toxicity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sharififar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since cytotoxicity screening is the first step necessary for any new drug development, this study was designed to find out and compare the cytotoxicity effects of the essential oil and various extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay. Materials and Methods: Essential oils and various extracts of N. sativa were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical package version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, 250 USA. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. Results: All of the tested fractions demonstrated more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of N. sativa showed the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 7 and 21 μg/ml respectively; while aqueous and ethanolic had no significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the GC/MS analysis of the essential oil of N. sativa showed the p-cymene (48.1%, α-thujone (14.38% and dihydro carveol (9.11% as the main compounds. Conclusion: These results suggest some limitation for using this spice in diet. Furthermore, this plant could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which should be studied in details.

  15. Inland hypersaline lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia as simple models for biodiversity analysis at the population level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Beardmore, John A

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity can be measured at different hierarchical levels, from genetic diversity within species to diversity of ecosystems, though policy-makers tend to use species richness. The 2010 goal of reducing biodiversity loss, agreed by the subscribers to the Convention on Biological Diversity, requires simple and reliable protocols to evaluate biodiversity at any level in a given ecosystem. Stakeholders, particularly policy makers, need to understand how ecosystem components interact to produce social and economic benefits on the long run, whilst scientists are expected to fulfil this demand by testing and modelling ideally simple (low diversity) ecosystems, and by monitoring key species. This work emphasizes the unique opportunity offered by inland, isolated salt lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia, an example of biodiversity contained at the intra-specific level, as simple models to understand and monitor biodiversity, as well as to assess its predicted positive association with ecosystem stability. In addition to having well identified species and strains and even clones, that allow to test reproductive effects (sexual versus asexual), Artemia benefits from the possibility to set up experimental testing at both laboratory scale and outdoor pond systems, for which a comprehensive cyst bank with sufficient amount of samples from all over the world is available. PMID:17132175

  16. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwandeepika, H. A. Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells. PMID:26636765

  17. Molecular cloning and its expression of trachealess gene (As-trh) during development in brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Qing; Hou, Lin; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Riu-Feng; Zou, Xiang-Yang; Xiao, Qin; Guo, Ran

    2012-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (bHLH-PAS) family transcription factors are implicated in multiple developmental and physiological regulatory processes. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding a bHLH-PAS domain transcription factor trachealess gene (designated as As-trh) was cloned and characterized from brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) for the first time. The full-length cDNA of As-trh was 2,698 bp with a 2,319 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 772 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 86.02 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.87. Sequence alignment revealed that As-trh had high homology with other species trh gene, including the D-trh gene in Drosophila melanogaster and Bm-trh in Bombyx mori. The early and persistent expression of As-trh in the naupliar stages by whole-mount embryonic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry suggest that As-trh functions very early in the salt gland and may be required continuously in this tissue. Later in development, expression of As-trh begins to decrease and disappear in salt gland of the older nauplius and appears in the thoracic epipods of the sub-adult Artemia. These results indicated that As-trh might play an important role in osmoregulatiory organ development from the larvae stages through adult stages.

  18. Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and effects of dietary transfer of silver from brine shrimp exposed to PVP/PEI-coated silver nanoparticles to zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, José María; Fanjul, Álvaro; Bilbao, Eider; Gutierrez, Nerea; Barrio, Irantzu; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Cajaraville, Miren P; Orbea, Amaia

    2017-09-01

    The extensive use and release to the aquatic environment of silver nanoparticles (NPs) could lead to their incorporation into the food web. Brine shrimp larvae of 24h showed low sensitivity to the exposure to PVP/PEI-coated Ag NPs (5nm), with EC 50 values at 24h of 19.63mgAgL -1 , but they significantly accumulated silver after 24h of exposure to 100μgL -1 of Ag NPs. Thus, to assess bioaccumulation and effects of silver transferred by the diet in zebrafish, brine shrimp larvae were exposed to 100ngL -1 of Ag NPs as an environmentally relevant concentration or to 100μgL -1 as a potentially effective concentration and used to feed zebrafish for 21days. Autometallography revealed a dose- and time-dependent metal accumulation in the intestine and in the liver of zebrafish. Three-day feeding with brine shrimps exposed to 100ngL -1 of Ag NPs was enough to impair fish health as reflected by the significant reduction of lysosomal membrane stability and the presence of vacuolization and necrosis in the liver. However, dietary exposure to 100μgL -1 of Ag NPs for 3days did not significantly alter gene transcription levels, neither in the liver nor in the intestine. After 21days, biological processes such as lipid transport and localization, cellular response to chemical stimulus and response to xenobiotic stimulus were significantly altered in the liver. Overall, these results indicate an effective dietary transfer of silver and point out to liver as the main target organ for Ag NP toxicity in zebrafish after dietary exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) model system reveals that the phenolic compound pyrogallol protects against infection through its prooxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Duy Phong, Ho Phuong Pham; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phenolic compound pyrogallol is the functional unit of many polyphenols and currently there has been a growing interest in using this compound in human and animal health owing to its health-promoting effects. The biological actions of pyrogallol moiety (and polyphenols) in inducing health benefitting effects have been studied; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear yet. Here, we aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanism of action behind the protective effects of pyrogallol against bacterial infection by using the gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi as host-pathogen model system. The gnotobiotic test system represents an exceptional system for carrying out such studies because it eliminates any possible interference of microbial communities (naturally present in the experimental system) in mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We provided clear evidences suggesting that pyrogallol pretreament, at an optimum concentration, induced protective effects in the brine shrimp against V. harveyi infection. By pretreating brine shrimp with pyrogallol in the presence or absence of an antioxidant enzyme mixture (catalase and superoxide dismutase), we showed that the Vibrio-protective effect of the compound was caused by its prooxidant action (e.g. generation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). We showed further that generation of prooxidant is linked to the induction of heat shock protein Hsp70, which is involved in eliciting the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune responses. The ability of pyrogallol to induce protective immunity makes it a potential natural protective agent that might be a potential preventive modality for different host-pathogen systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants on the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta and cysts, larvae and adults of the brine shrimp Artemia salina: a prospective treatment to eradicate invasive organisms from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavand, Meghana R; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Peters, Robert W; Angus, Robert A

    2007-11-01

    Uptake and release of ship-borne ballast water is a major factor contributing to introductions of aquatic phytoplankton and invasive macroinvertebrates. Some invasive unicellular algae can cause harmful algal blooms and produce toxins that build up in food chains. Moreover, to date, few studies have compared the efficacy of ballast water treatments against different life history phases of aquatic macroinvertebrates. In the present study, the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, and three discrete life history phases of the brine shrimp Artemia salina, were independently used as model organisms to study the efficacy of sonication as well as the advanced oxidants, hydrogen peroxide and ozone, as potential ballast water treatments. Algal cells and brine shrimp cysts, nauplii, and adults were subjected to individual and combined treatments of sonication and advanced oxidants. Combined rather than individual treatments consistently yielded the highest levels of mortality in algal cells (100% over a 2 min exposure) and in brine shrimp (100% and 95% for larvae and adults, respectively, over a 2 min exposure). In contrast, mortality levels in brine shrimp cysts (66% over 2 min; increased to 92% over a 20 min exposure) were moderately high but consistently lower than that detected for larval or adult shrimp. Our results indicate that a combination of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants may be a promising method to eradicate aquatic unicellular algae and macroinvertebrates in ballast water.

  1. Enzyme inhibition, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts from the root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Malterud, Karl Egil; Le, Nhat Hao Tran; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-09-11

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera have been traditionally used against a variety of ailments such as wounds, hepatitis, malaria, fever, cough, and diarrhea as well as tuberculosis and skin diseases in African folk medicine. Boiling water extracts of Terminalia macroptera, administered orally, are the most common preparations of this plant used by the traditional healers in Mali. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of the activities of α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase, DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of different extracts obtained by boiling water extraction (BWE) and by ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) with ethanol, ethanol-water and water as extractants from different plant parts of Terminalia macroptera. 27 different crude extracts were obtained by BWE and ASE from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera. The total phenolic and carbohydrate contents, enzyme inhibition activities (α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase), DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of these extracts were evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for total biological activities evaluation. Several of the extracts from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera obtained by BWE and ASE showed potent enzyme inhibition activities, radical-scavenging properties and complement fixation activities. None of the extracts are toxic against brine shrimp larvae in the test concentration. Based on the results from PCA, the ASE ethanol extracts of root bark and stem bark and the low molecular weight fraction of the 50% ethanol-water extract of leaves showed the highest total biological activities. The boiling water extracts were less active, but the bark extracts showed activity as α-glucosidase inhibitors and radical scavengers, the leaf extract being less active. The observed enzyme

  2. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    that the temperature-dependent viscosity of seawater is the key physical/mechanical factor that controls the beat frequency of water-pumping cilia in mussels and the swimming velocity in a ciliate. The present study on the swimming velocity of 3 zooplankton organisms, however, shows that the response of swimming...... velocity to a change in viscosity is different when due to a change in temperature or, at constant temperature, due to a manipulation of viscosity by addition of a high-molecular-weight polymer (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP) to the ambient seawater. There is a biological effect (fraction of total reduction......) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of species...

  3. Kajian pendahuluan uji toksisitas ekstrak air miselia dan tubuh buah jamur shitake (Lentinus edodes dengan metode brine shrimp lethality test (BTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Erma NS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes is one of the wood mushroom types that can be consumed as a food as well as for a medicalpurpose. Lentinan, a polysaccharide contained in shiitake, is well known for its use on cancer medication. Mycelium of Shiitake mushroomcontains lentinan the same as other part of the mushroom like fruity body. Toxicity of the lentinan in mycelium compare to the fruitybody has been first conducted by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Using Potato Dextrose Broth media with the growth rate of3.88% did mycelium multiplications. Probit analysis showed that the toxicity of the mushroom’s cap, stem, and mycelium of Shiitakemushrooms is LC50 = 648.76507 mg/ml LC50 = 489.39444 mg/ml, and LC50 = 481.16941 mg/ml respectively.

  4. Molecular analysis and its expression of a pou homeobox protein gene during development and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Qing; Hou, Lin; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Riu-Feng; Zou, Xiang-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia are aquatic species of economic importance because of their important significance to aquaculture and are used as a model species in physiology and developmental biology. Research on Artemia POU homeobox gene function will enhance our understanding of the physiological and developmental processes of POU homeobox gene in animals. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding an Artemia POU homeobox protein gene 1 (APH-1) from Artemia sinica (designated as As-APH-1) was cloned and characterized by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. The As-APH-1 gene encoded a protein of 388 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 42.85kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.90 and the protein belongs to the POU III family. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that A. sinica As-APH-1 protein sequence shared a conserved POU homeobox domain with other species. The early and persistent expression of As-APH-1 in the naupliar stages by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and whole-mount embryonic immunohistochemistry suggest that As-APH-1 functions very early in the salt gland and may be required continuously in this organ. Later in development, expression of As-APH-1 begins to dramatically decrease and disappear in salt gland of the sub-adult Artemia. In addition, we also discovered that As-APH-1 increased obviously as the salinity increased, indicating that As-APH-1 might be used as a good indicator of salinity stress. In summary, we are the first to identify the As-APH-1 gene and to determine its gene expression patterns in early embryogenesis stages and in different salinity stress in brine shrimp, A. sinica. The result of expression of As-APH-1 affected by salinity changes will provide us further understanding of the underlying mechanisms of osmoregulation in Artemia early embryonic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A first AFLP-Based Genetic Linkage Map for Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana and Its Application in Mapping the Sex Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map. Eight sex-linked AFLP marker alleles were inherited from the female parent, supporting the hypothesis of a WZ–ZZ sex-determining system. The haploid Artemia genome size was estimated to 0.93 Gb by flow cytometry. The produced Artemia linkage maps provide the basis for further fine mapping and exploring of the sex-determining region and are a possible marker resource for mapping genomic loci underlying phenotypic differences among Artemia species. PMID:23469207

  6. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay and evaluation of their total phenolic content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Biradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plant-derived cytotoxic constituents and polyphenolic compounds have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. In this context, we have selected six Indian medicinal plants based on the literature claims and an attempt was made to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and total phenolic content (TPC of their methanol extracts and fractions. Materials and Methods: Six plants have been selected for the study, namely, Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae, Oroxylum indicum (Linn. Vent. (Bignoniaceae, Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb. Kunth. (Araceae, Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae, and Premna serratifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae. Authenticated plant materials were subjected to extraction with methanol by cold maceration and hot percolation methods. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out for all extracts and fractions. All extracts and their fractions were subjected to cytotoxicity screening by brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay. The plants with significant cytotoxicity were evaluated for TPC by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium and P. serratifolia and F1 fraction of M. pudica have shown significant cytotoxicity (lethal concentration (LC 50 < 100 ppm compared with other fractions. F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium show the LC 50 values 32.52, 14.27, and 24.02, respectively; F1, F2, and F3 of P. serratifolia show LC 50 values 7.61, 4.01, and 10.91 and same for F1 fraction of M. pudica was 34.82 μg/ml, respectively. TPC was found to be significantly higher (39.11 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g in P. serratifolia compared with other two plants. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity screening system confirmed the proposed anticancer plants used by traditional healers and literature claims.

  7. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A case study to optimise and validate the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana immobilisation assay with silver nanoparticles: The role of harmonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Drobne, Damjana; Singh, Shashi; Kalčíková, Gabriela; Kühnel, Dana; Rohit, Rekulapelly; Gotvajn, Andreja Žgajnar; Jemec, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been recognised as an important ecotoxicity and nanotoxicity test model organism for salt-rich aquatic environments, but currently there is still no harmonised testing protocol which would ensure the comparable results for hazard identification. In this paper we aimed to design the harmonised protocol for nanomaterial toxicity testing using Artemia franciscana and present a case study to validate the protocol with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We (i) revised the existing nanotoxicity test protocols with Artemia sp. (ii) optimised certain methodological steps based on the experiments with AgNPs and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as a soluble reference chemical and (iii) tested the optimised protocol in an international inter-laboratory exercise conducted within the EU FP7 NanoValid project. The intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the proposed protocol with a soluble reference chemical K2Cr2O7 was good, which confirms the suitability of this assay for conventional chemicals. However, the variability of AgNPs toxicity results was very high showing again that nanomaterials are inherently challenging for toxicity studies, especially those which toxic effect is linked to shed metal ions. Among the identified sources for this variability were: the hatching conditions, the type of test plate incubation and the illumination regime. The latter induced variations assumingly due to the changes in bioavailable silver species concentrations. Up to our knowledge this is the first inter-laboratory comparison of the Artemia sp. toxicity study involving nanomaterials. Although the inter-laboratory exercise revealed poor repeatability of AgNPs toxicity results, this study provides valuable information regarding the importance of harmonisation of all steps in the test procedure. Also, the presented AgNPs toxicity case study may serve as a platform for further validation steps with other types of NMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. A novel model of early development in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, and its use in assessing the effects of environmental variables on development, emergence, and hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gerlach, Jamie L; Ruggiero, Kristin M; Covi, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to the lack of a comprehensive developmental model that is applicable to observations of live specimens. The objective of this study was to build and test a descriptive model of post-diapause development in Artemia franciscana using observations made with a standard dissecting microscope. The working model presented is the first to comprehensively place all known "abnormal" embryonic and naupliar phenotypes within the context of a classic hatching profile. Contrary to previous reports, embryos and nauplii with aberrant phenotypes often recover and develop normally. Oval prenauplii may emerge as normal prenauplii (E2 stage). A delay of this transition leads to incomplete hatching or direct hatching of first instar larvae with a curved thoracoabdomen. When hatching is incomplete, retained cuticular remnants are shed during the next molt, and a "normal" second instar larva is produced. By differentiating between molting events and gross embryonic patterning in live embryos, this new model facilitates fine time-scale analyses of chemical and environmental impacts on early development. A small increase in salinity within what is commonly believed to be a permissive range (20‰-35‰) produced aberrant morphology by delaying emergence without slowing development. A similar effect was observed by decreasing culture density within a range commonly applied in toxicological studies. These findings clearly demonstrate that morphological data from end-point studies are highly dependent on the time points chosen. An alternate assessment method is proposed, and the potential impact of heavy metals, hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, and cis

  10. Click one pot synthesis, spectral analyses, crystal structures, DFT studies and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay of two newly synthesized 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Ayub, Khurshid; Mahmood, Tariq; Tahir, M. Nawaz; Khan, Bilal Ahmad; Hafeez, Muhammad; Ahmed, Madiha; ul-Haq, Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Methyl-2-(1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)-2-oxoacetate (1) and ethyl-2-(1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)-2-oxoacetate (2) were synthesized by one pot three component strategy, and characterized by FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy and TOF-MS spectrometry. Finally, the structures were unequivocally confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Both compounds, 1 and 2 exist in monoclinic crystal packing having space group P21/n and P21/c, respectively. Crystal structures investigations revealed that the molecular structures of the title compounds are stabilized by weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions to form dimers. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed not only to compare with the experimental spectroscopic results but also to probe structural properties. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapped over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules delivered information about the electrophilic and nucleophilic sites. Furthermore, frontier molecular orbital analysis gave the idea about stability and reactivity of compounds. Both compounds were also screened for brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay.

  11. Predator–prey interactions between native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and the alien boatman Trichocorixa verticalis: influence of salinity, predator sex, and size, abundance and parasitic status of prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Céspedes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichocorixa verticalis (T. verticalis, native to North America and the Caribbean islands, is an invasive waterboatman species (Corixidae in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous studies in the native range have suggested that predation by T. verticalis can regulate the abundance of Anostracan and Cladoceran zooplankton in saline ecosystems, causing increases in phytoplankton through a trophic cascade. In this experimental study, we tested the predator–prey relationship between the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, and T. verticalis from the Odiel salt ponds in SW Spain. In three experiments, we investigated (1 the effects of Artemia life stage (metanauplii, juveniles, and adults, (2 abundance (three, six, and 12 adult Artemia and (3 parasitic status (Artemia infected with avian cestodes or uninfected on predation rates by T. verticalis. We also considered how predation rates in all three experiments were influenced by the sex of T. verticalis and by different salinities (25 and 55 g l−1. Experiment 1 showed that predation rates were highest for metanauplii, possibly because their photophilic behavior makes them more prone to predation. In Experiment 2, we found that predation rate was higher for female T. verticalis and the higher salinity, although the strength of the sex effect varied between treatments. Experiment 3 showed that T. verticalis selectively predated adult Artemia infected with cestodes (red in color, as previously reported for predation by avian final hosts. Collectively, these results indicate that T. verticalis are important predators in their introduced range, and are likely to reduce the abundance of Artemia in more salt ponds as they expand their range, thus increasing phytoplankton abundance through trophic cascades.

  12. Predator-prey interactions between native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and the alien boatman Trichocorixa verticalis: influence of salinity, predator sex, and size, abundance and parasitic status of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Vanessa; Sánchez, Marta I; Green, Andy J

    2017-01-01

    Trichocorixa verticalis (T. verticalis), native to North America and the Caribbean islands, is an invasive waterboatman species (Corixidae) in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous studies in the native range have suggested that predation by T. verticalis can regulate the abundance of Anostracan and Cladoceran zooplankton in saline ecosystems, causing increases in phytoplankton through a trophic cascade. In this experimental study, we tested the predator-prey relationship between the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, and T. verticalis from the Odiel salt ponds in SW Spain. In three experiments, we investigated (1) the effects of Artemia life stage (metanauplii, juveniles, and adults), (2) abundance (three, six, and 12 adult Artemia) and (3) parasitic status (Artemia infected with avian cestodes or uninfected) on predation rates by T. verticalis. We also considered how predation rates in all three experiments were influenced by the sex of T. verticalis and by different salinities (25 and 55 g l-1). Experiment 1 showed that predation rates were highest for metanauplii, possibly because their photophilic behavior makes them more prone to predation. In Experiment 2, we found that predation rate was higher for female T. verticalis and the higher salinity, although the strength of the sex effect varied between treatments. Experiment 3 showed that T. verticalis selectively predated adult Artemia infected with cestodes (red in color), as previously reported for predation by avian final hosts. Collectively, these results indicate that T. verticalis are important predators in their introduced range, and are likely to reduce the abundance of Artemia in more salt ponds as they expand their range, thus increasing phytoplankton abundance through trophic cascades.

  13. Predator–prey interactions between native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and the alien boatman Trichocorixa verticalis: influence of salinity, predator sex, and size, abundance and parasitic status of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.

    2017-01-01

    Trichocorixa verticalis (T. verticalis), native to North America and the Caribbean islands, is an invasive waterboatman species (Corixidae) in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous studies in the native range have suggested that predation by T. verticalis can regulate the abundance of Anostracan and Cladoceran zooplankton in saline ecosystems, causing increases in phytoplankton through a trophic cascade. In this experimental study, we tested the predator–prey relationship between the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, and T. verticalis from the Odiel salt ponds in SW Spain. In three experiments, we investigated (1) the effects of Artemia life stage (metanauplii, juveniles, and adults), (2) abundance (three, six, and 12 adult Artemia) and (3) parasitic status (Artemia infected with avian cestodes or uninfected) on predation rates by T. verticalis. We also considered how predation rates in all three experiments were influenced by the sex of T. verticalis and by different salinities (25 and 55 g l−1). Experiment 1 showed that predation rates were highest for metanauplii, possibly because their photophilic behavior makes them more prone to predation. In Experiment 2, we found that predation rate was higher for female T. verticalis and the higher salinity, although the strength of the sex effect varied between treatments. Experiment 3 showed that T. verticalis selectively predated adult Artemia infected with cestodes (red in color), as previously reported for predation by avian final hosts. Collectively, these results indicate that T. verticalis are important predators in their introduced range, and are likely to reduce the abundance of Artemia in more salt ponds as they expand their range, thus increasing phytoplankton abundance through trophic cascades. PMID:28713654

  14. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  15. Coadaptation: lessons from the brine shrimp Artemia, "the aquatic Drosophila" (Crustacea; Anostraca Coadaptación: lecciones desde el camarón de salmuera Artemia, "la Drosophila acuática" (Crustacea; Anostraca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO GAJARDO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During the fifties Brncic and the Dobzhansky's school, using the fruit fly Drosophila as a test organism, introduced the term integration of the genotype, or genetic coadaptation, which has had great impact on thinking in today's evolutionary biology. In this work we use the brine shrimp Artemia - in many respects a sort of aquatic Drosophila- as a model organism to evaluate the relationship between population structure, potential for divergence and the degree of morphological and/or genetic change. These aspects, tightly linked with the organization of the genotype, are important to understanding how recombination and adaptive release of genetic and phenotypic variation affect the speciation process in Artemia. Analysis of genetic (allozyme, diploid and chromocentre numbers, morphological (Mahalanobis distances and reproductive data (cross-fertility tests available for populations of the bisexual, endemic species of the Americas, Artemia franciscana and A. persimilis, indicate that: (i A. franciscana and A. persimilis are morphologically distinct in correspondence with observed genetic differences (D Nei > 1; 2n = 42 and 44; 12.5 and 1.5 mean chromocentre numbers, respectively; (ii populations from Chile and other South American localities (mainly A. franciscana display high levels of genetic variability and a trend to develop large genetic distances between populations; (iii the plasticity of Artemia gene pool is associated, at least in part, with ecological heterogeneity. Hence an adaptive divergence mode is thought to best define the speciation process in Artemia; (iv the succesful production of laboratory hybrids in the allopatric Artemia populations studied in the Americas, a feature seen in other anostracods, could be explained by the fact that formerly allopatric populations have not achieved later sympatry, as required by the allopatric speciation paradigmEn los años cincuenta Brncic y la escuela de Dobzhansky introdujeron el t

  16. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). WHITE SHRIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    detritus, chitin, parts of annelids September 1979. and gastropods, fish parts, bryozoans, sponges , corals, filaments )f algae, The hait shrimp fishery...foods. , and newly hatched brine shrimp to feed the mysis stages. Christmas and White shrimp are an important Etzold (1977) reported that early food for...effort and and marine organisms. Wiley- price-cost trends in the Gulf of Interscience, New York. 868 pp. Mexico shrimp fishery: implications on Mexico’s

  17. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  18. Composição química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise L. Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94% e γ-muuroleno (12,58%. O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0 µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5 µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94% and γ-muurolene (12.58%. Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L. test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0 µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5 µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control.

  19. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  20. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  1. Anticonvulsant screening and brine shrimp lethality test of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of this, some N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl) benzamides were synthesized and screened for anticonvulsant activity in accordance with the Antiepileptic Drug Development Program (ADD) of National Institute of Health (NIH), USA. All the four compounds screened offer partial protection against chemically induced seizure ...

  2. Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Brine Shrimp Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnasamy Arulvasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30–40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10 nM and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts.

  3. The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and ...

  4. Antimicrobial and brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, ethanol extracts of Dissotis brazzae and Strombosia scheffleri had LC50 values of >1000µg/ml. The seemingly innocuous nature and relatively good antibacterial activity against skin infections and gastrointestinal pathogenic bacteria support the traditional uses of the plants and deserve more detailed studies.

  5. Brine Shrimp Bioassays: A Useful Technique in Biological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stanley A.; Maness, Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    A technique to measure the potency of leaf compounds against herbivores with the use of a bioassay is described. Bioassays are useful in classes where students have career plans like medicine in which bioassays can be used as tools for screening plants for possible medicinal potency.

  6. Toxicity of heavy metals to brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Antimicrobial and brine shrimp activity of Acanthus pubescens root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results support the use of the plant in traditional medicine to treat gonorrhea, syphilis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia. Since the plant is used in combination with other plants it is difficult to make any final conclusions regarding safety and efficacy. Further work is needed to evaluate the activity of an extract made from a ...

  8. Brine Shrimp Lethality of a Glutarimide Alkaloid from Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    462. [7]. R. Tanaka. K. Masuda and S. Matsunaga. Ph)-tochem. 32 (1993) 47. [8]. E.K. Adesogan. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin I.,. (1981) 1151-1 153. [9]. M.C. Kapingu. Qi Guillame. Z.H.. Mbwambo. M.J. Moshi.. F.C. Uiso. R.L.A Mahunnah. Phytochem.

  9. Toxicity effect of silver nanoparticles in brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Jennifer, Samou Michael; Prabhu, Durai; Chandhirasekar, Devakumar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30-40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar) were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10 nM) and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours) was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts.

  10. Cyst quality and hatching in parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Ramaiah, N.

    Data on cyst size, naupliar size, biochemical constituents (carbohydrate, protein and lipid) and hatching characteristics (in relation to temperature, salinity, different glycerol concentrations and antibiotics) of Artemia collected from Balamba...

  11. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test of Marine Sponge Jaspis sp Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Puji; Alam, Gemini; Tahir, Akbar; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2002-01-01

    Research Collaboration Unhas-UGM this study was aimed at the separation of compounds responsible for the Artemia salina larvae mortality. samples were prepared at the concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ug/ml. LC50 (ug/ml) of the extracts were calculated by menas of probit analysis.

  12. Handbook of shrimp diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, S.K

    1989-01-01

    .... In addition to descriptions and illustrations of the common parasites and commensals of commercial penaeid shrimp, the publication includes information on the life cycles and general biological...

  13. Decapsulated brine shrimp cysts - an ideal feed for shrimps in aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    Feeding experiments have been carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using different stages of Artemia salina as feed. The importance of using decapsulated cysts to obtain greater food conversion efficiency has been indicated...

  14. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  15. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  16. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  17. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  18. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  19. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  20. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments. PMID:27069905

  1. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  2. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  3. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  4. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  5. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  6. Brine, Terry oral history interview

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Brine, Terry; Interviewer: La, Michelle; Interviewer: Garden, Bailey; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Terry Brine was born in New Westminster and grew up in Burnaby. He studied education at the university and upon graduation joined the successful family business. He was the third manager of this family business after his father and grandfather. The store existed for more than 100 years at its origin location. Terry shares his experience about the success, decline and revitalization of Columbia Street from its heyday as the “Miracle Mile” of the region until today. The interview provides infor...

  7. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  8. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  9. Comparison of Artemia-bacteria associations in brines, laboratory cultures and the gut environment: a study based on Chilean hypersaline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Mauricio; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Gajardo, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea) and a diversity of halophilic microorganisms coexist in natural brines, salterns and laboratory cultures; part of such environmental microbial diversity is represented in the gut of Artemia individuals. Bacterial diversity in these environments was assessed by 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting. Eight natural locations in Chile, where A. franciscana or A. persimilis occur, were sampled for analysis of free-living and gut-associated bacteria in water from nature and laboratory cultures. The highest ecological diversity (Shannon's index, H') was found in brines, it decreased in the gut of wild and laboratory animals, and in laboratory water. Significant differences in H' existed between brines and laboratory water, and between brines and gut of wild animals. The greatest similarity of bacterial community composition was between brines and the gut of field animals, suggesting a transient state of the gut microbiota. Sequences retrieved from DGGE patterns (n = 83) exhibited an average of 97.8% identity with 41 bacterial genera from the phyla Proteobacteria (55.4% of sequences match), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.9%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Environment-exclusive genera distribution was seen in Sphingomonas and Paenibacillus (gut of field animals), Amaricoccus and Ornithinimicrobium (gut of laboratory animals), and Hydrogenophaga (water of laboratory cultures). The reported ecological and physiological capabilities of such bacteria can help to understand Artemia adaptation to natural and laboratory conditions.

  10. Study of brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Available information pertinent to the treatment of geothermal brines was collected by literature search and then evaluated and summarized for use by the electric utility and geothermal industries. The information was screened from the geothermal, oil and gas, wastewater disposal, and boiler water treatment industries. The current state of knowledge and methodology concerning the treatment of geothermal brines to control scaling and corrosion in geothermal electric power production was assessed. Currently, geothermal scale in pipes and wells is removed by physical or chemical methods. There is a growing effort on developing methods to control scale formation for both fresh and spent brines, including pH adjustment and application of an electrical potential for fresh fluids, and coagulation to treat spent fluids. Current methods of corrosion control center around planned replacement of piping and other plant components, with efforts focused primarily on development of materials with improved corrosion resistance. Recommendations for additional work to improve brine treatment include the following: (1) chemical and physical characterization of brine and scale compositions, (2) basic data on the mechanism of scale formation and the effects of inhibitors, (3) development of instrumentation to monitor geothermal brine constituents, (4) correlation of laboratory results with field test data, and (5) screening of currently available commercial inhibitors for application to geothermal brines. An annotated bibliography of the reference material used in this study is included.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Landings Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual shrimp landings at the permit level from 2005-current fishing year. This also contains annual value of permit holders shrimp landings by...

  12. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  13. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  14. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  15. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  16. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures Mars surface conditions. Therefore, jarosite-bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  17. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  18. Age estimation of brown shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, J.; Bio, A.; Freitas, V.; Moreiro, C.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 2 methods for age estimation of Crangon crangon were compared: one based on total length, the other based on the number of segments in the antennules, as suggested by Tiews’ findings (1954: Ber Deut Wiss Kommiss 13:235-269). Shrimps from populations near the species’ geographic edges,

  19. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  20. Brine shrimp bioassay of some species of Solanum from Northestern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tania Maria S.; Nascimento, Roberto Jefferson B.; Batista, Michelle M.; Agra, Maria F.; Camara, Celso A.

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extracts of 13 Specieis of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae) have been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina. The extracts investigated were prepared from various parts (aerial parts, roots and fruits) of S. asperum, S. capsicoides, S. palinacantum, S. paludosum, S. paniculatum, S. paraibanum, S. sisymbriifolium, S. crinitum, S. diamantinense, S. megalonyx, S. torvum, S. asterophorum and S. stipulaceum. The lethal concentrations were determined for the extracts and among thirte...

  1. Evaluation of different feeds for optimal growth and survival of parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.

    Four types of food, each at 5 levels were evaluated for optimal growth and survival of Artemia larvae (1-4 d and 4-8 d), under laboratory conditions. The food types used were rice bran and 3 species of algae (Porphyra vietnamensis, Enteromorpha...

  2. Intracellular water in Artemia cysts (brine shrimp): Investigations by deuterium and oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Kasturi, S R; Seitz, P.K.; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The dormant cysts of Artemia undergo cycles of hydration-dehydration without losing viability. Therefore, Artemia cysts serve as an excellent intact cellular system for studying the dynamics of water-protein interactions as a function of hydration. Deuterium spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times of water in cysts hydrated with D2O have been measured for hydrations between 1.5 and 0.1 g of D2O per gram of dry solids. When the relaxation rates (I/T1, I/T2) of 2H and 17O are plot...

  3. Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougué, Odrade; Gallet, Romain; Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lenormand, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Symbiosis generally causes an expansion of the niche of each partner along the axis for which a service is mutually provided. However, for other axes, the niche can be restricted to the intersection of each partner's niche and can thus be constrained rather than expanded by mutualism. We explore this phenomenon using Artemia as a model system. This crustacean is able to survive at very high salinities but not at low salinities, although its hemolymph's salinity is close to freshwater. We hypothesized that this low-salinity paradox results from poor performance of its associated microbiota at low salinity. We showed that, in sterile conditions, Artemia had low survival at all salinities when algae were the only source of carbon. In contrast, survival was high at all salinities when fed with yeast. We also demonstrated that bacteria isolated from Artemia's gut reached higher densities at high salinities than at low salinities, including when grown on algae. Taken together, our results show that Artemia can survive at low salinities, but their gut microbiota, which are required for algae digestion, have reduced fitness. Widespread facultative symbiosis may thus be an important determinant of niche limits along axes not specific to the mutualistic interaction.

  4. Toxicity of Nanoparticles to Brine Shrimp: An Introduction to Nanotoxicity and Interdisciplinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Love, Sara A.; Meierhofer, Sharon; Marquis, Bryce J.; Liu, Zhen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotoxicity is an area of intense research, stimulated by increased use of nanoparticles in commercially available products. Herein, using nanotoxicity as a platform, we describe an experiment that emphasizes interdisciplinary science in a collaborative work setting while expanding the traditional realm of chemistry and chemistry research.…

  5. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on

  6. Morphology and Ultrastructure of cysts in different species of the brine shrimp, Artemia from Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Sivagnanam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface topography and ultrastructure of dried cysts of Artemia parthenogenetica (Vedaranyam population and bisexual Artemia sp. (Kelambakkam population were studied electron microscopically in order to identify the bisexual strain, inhabiting Covelong salterns, Kelambakkam, South India. The scope of this study is to provide substantial information for further characterization of these Artemia strains by the comparison of the cyst morphology and ultrastructure. A cyst of Artemia franciscana was used as a reference cyst for comparison. Scanning electron microscopic studies on cyst morphology revealed that the surface is smooth with no significant variation among the three Artemia strains studied. Transmission electron microscopic observations on the ultrastructure of the cyst both parthenogenetic and bisexual forms showed an apparent variation in thickness of the cortical layer. In Kelambakkam population of Artemia, the architecture of alveolar meshes is tightly arranged and is similar in shape. But they show minor variations in the arrangement of pores in the matrix and in the length of the cortical layer, compared to A. franciscana. In A. parthenogenetica, they are loosely arranged and are oval in shape. The present study clearly documents that the Artemia species, colonized in Kelambakkam saltpan is A. franciscana; thus, the variation in the cyst ultrastructure is much pronounced and a taxonomically important parameter for the genus Artemia.

  7. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    and a temperature of 27 degrees C. Biochemical changes during the larval stages showed a decreasing trend in protein, lipid and caloric contents. The effects of different inert feeds such as @iSpirulina@@, rice bran and yeast on the growth of @i...

  8. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Pigmen Kasar Mikroalga Spirulina Platensis Dengan Metode Uji Bslt (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizkina, Rani Agustian; Yudiati, Ervia; Sedjati, Sri

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a microalgae which rich of nutrients and has a potential extracts as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflamantory and antitumor. The aims of this research were to determine toxicity of methanol extract and crude pigment (methanol-acetone and diethyl ether fractions) of S. platensis against nauplii Artemia sp. aged 24 hour at 3rd instar as an antitumor. The aims of this research were to determine toxicity of methanol extract and crude pigment (methanol-ace...

  9. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.

  10. Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as traditional medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are only 1.1 and 1.2 less toxic than the standard drug, cyclophosphamide (LC50 16.3 μg /ml). In conclusion, the results indicate that among the 30 plants used as traditional medicines, 28 are safe for short term use. Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are mildly toxic, but by ...

  11. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  12. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine, in Sprague Dawley rats, the toxicity profile of the methanol extract of Mentha spicata, a plant used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various forms of pain. Methods: The plant extract, at concentrations ranging from 100 - 0.07 mg/ml, was used to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) ...

  13. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... hypersaline water bodies such as inland salt lakes and pans, coastal lagoons, and salt works at salinity levels above 40 g·ℓ-1. They have been ... ing Artemia distribution with populations being found in salt lakes and pans at ...... systems in Africa: Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation and Sus- tainable ...

  14. Brine shrimp toxicity of acidic fractions of Boswellia dalzielii gum resin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boswellia dalzielii is the West African species of the frankincense producing genus ( B. carterii, B. frereana and B. serrata are the more popular congeners). Its ethnobotanical uses include the treatment of rheumatism, venereal diseases and gastro-intestinal disorders, swellings/ growths on the skin, among other things.

  15. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  16. Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Eko Irianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.

  17. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bestha Lakshmi; Buddolla Viswanath; D. V. R. Sai Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are ch...

  18. Predicted sub-populations in a marine shrimp proteome as revealed by combined EST and cDNA data from multiple Penaeus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda), the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used. Findings Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins. Conclusions Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their small size allowed

  19. Predicted sub-populations in a marine shrimp proteome as revealed by combined EST and cDNA data from multiple Penaeus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotewong Rattanawadee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda, the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used. Findings Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins. Conclusions Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their

  20. Brine Effluents: Characteristics, Environmental Impacts, and Their Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Ariono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brine discharge is one of the largest sources of wastewater from industrial processes. Because of the environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of brine discharge and more rigorous regulations of pollution control, industries have started to focus on waste minimization and improving the process of wastewater treatment. Several approaches have been proposed to provide a strategy for brine handling by recovering both brine and water or to remove pollutant components so it complies with environmental regulations when discharged. One of the most promising alternatives to brine disposal is reusing the brine, which results in reduction of pollution, minimizing waste volume and salt recovery. The brine may also contain valuable components that could be recovered for profitable use. Also, water recovery from brine effluent is generally performed to save water. In the case of rejected brine from desalination plants, water recovery from higher brine concentrations has huge potential for salt production. This paper gives an overview of different types of brine effluents, their sources and characteristics. Also discussed are impacts of brine on the environment and management options related to their characteristics.

  1. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar and R. K. Umesha Department of Fishery Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, College of Fisheries, Mangalore-575 002, India Introduction Aquaculture is one of the fastest... growing food production sectors in the world (Subasinghe et al. 1998). According to FAO statistics, over 80% of fish produced by aquaculture comes from Asia, with the production valued at $ 38.855 billion (FAO, 1996). However, disease outbreaks have caused...

  2. Protein requirements of Penaeid shrimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanazawa, A

    1989-01-01

    Proteins are indispensable nutrients for growth and maintenance of live of all animals. The optimum protein levels in diets for shrimps are different among the various species. Squid meal is an effective protein source for many penaeids. The effects of dietary protein, lipid, and carbohydrate levels on the growth and survival of larvae of Penaeus japonicus were examined by feeding trials using purified diet with carrageenan as a binder. As a result, the effects of protein levels on growth and...

  3. Evaluation of Degreasers as Brine Curing Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The length of time needed for brine curing of raw hides and skins, a minimum of 18 h, is a time-consuming and expensive process. In this paper we initially report the results of an investigation of the stratigraphic distribution of sodium chloride and water in fleshed hides cured for varying interv...

  4. Effect of calcium in brine on salt diffusion and water distribution of Mozzarella cheese during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Pan, T; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2013-02-01

    A soft, pasty, high-moisture surface defect occurs with progressive brining of Mozzarella cheese. Addition of calcium is traditionally used to prevent this defect but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Mozzarella cheese was formed into a cylinder inside brine on its plane surface to ensure semi-infinite, unidirectional mass transfer and placed into brine containing 0, 0.1, or 0.25% (wt/wt) calcium chloride. To monitor the effect on cheese composition of calcium in brine, we measured calcium and water contents of the cheese during brining. The extent of calcium loss from the cheese decreased significantly with the addition of calcium. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% decreased the loss of calcium from 94.13 to 18.22% from the outside region of the cheese after 30 d, and the water content of the cheese was decreased from 67.8 to 48.8%. To further elucidate the effect of calcium in brine, the Boltzmann method was used to determine the effective diffusion coefficient value, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the cheese transversal relaxation time. The migration of calcium interfered with salt diffusion. At the end of brining, the amount of water bound to the protein of the cheese significantly increased. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% diminished the proportion of bound water by 20.96%. In conclusion, addition of calcium hinders the diffusion of sodium and modifies the distribution of water in Mozzarella cheese during brining. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Risk factors in pediatric shrimp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Maskatia, Zahida; Miller, Sarah; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Davis, Carla M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of shellfish allergy is ∼1.3% in the United States, with shrimp most commonly reported. Shellfish is one of the top causes of food-induced anaphylactic reactions, yet there are no reported rates of pediatric shrimp anaphylaxis in the literature. In previously reported adults with shrimp allergy, the rate of anaphylaxis to shrimp was 42%. To describe the rate of anaphylaxis among children with shrimp allergy, demographics, clinical presentation, and cross-reactive sensitization. Retrospective chart review of children ≤18 years old who presented with shrimp allergy to Texas Children's Hospital Allergy and Immunology Clinic over 11 years. Sixty-eight patients were identified with shrimp allergy (61% male, 39% female), with a median age of diagnosis at 5.6 years (range, 0.96-16.6 years). The rate of anaphylaxis was 12%, and mucocutaneous symptoms were most common (skin symptoms, 70%; urticaria, 58%; and angioedema, 58%). No factors were positively associated with anaphylaxis, whereas patients without anaphylaxis had a significantly higher rate of eczema compared with those with anaphylaxis (p = 0.02). African Americans and Asian Americans were disproportionately affected (p < 0.001). There were low rates of cross-sensitization for other crustaceans and for mollusks (57% and 26%, respectively). The rate of anaphylaxis to shrimp was significantly lower in children with shrimp allergy than in adults, and anaphylactic reactions were negatively associated with eczema. Cross-reactivity to other crustaceans and mollusks does not uniformly occur. Prospective studies with double blinded placebo-controlled food challenges are needed to further characterize patients with shrimp allergy.

  7. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  8. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor...... the replacement of pre-wetted salt so the process was adjusted to the ordinary plan for reinvestments in new spreading material....

  9. Retracing the Text: Francisco Brines' Poemas excluidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Nantell

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available In 198S Francisco Brines published Poemas excluidos [Excluded Poems] . In this work he included, ironically and paradoxically (considering the title, various poems that had been excluded from his previously published collections of poetry. This essay investigates the critical activity of reconstructing the text within the included-excluded intertextual context of Brines' poetic production. In particular, as will be shown, Poemas excluidos demonstrates the play of texts and play of meaning that constitute the complex object the literary critic seeks to describe. One aspect of the play of texts evident in this work is that the poem is a symbiont not only of other poems of the collection but also of earlier and later poems of Brines' other collections. From this symbiosis arises the interplay of texts and the indeterminacy of meaning of Poemas excluidos . Textual reconstruction yields yet another important result. As critics attempt to untangle the tangle of texts, they become more and more caught up in the snarl of texts, and the play of meaning of the object scrutinized. Critical commentary, then, itself becomes yet one more thread in the intricate intertextual web of Poemas excluidos .

  10. A model for discrimination freshness of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linong Du

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp is popular for its nutrition and dainty, however, it is easy to decay, and its freshness degrades, so, it is important to assess its freshness. The shrimp gives off unpleasant odor with its freshness change, detecting its odor difference can evaluate its freshness. The feasibility of using electronic nose for evaluating the freshness of shrimp (Penaeus vanmamei is explored in this paper. The odor of shrimp, stored at 5 °C, was detected by the electronic nose. Combined with the sensory evaluation and TVBN, a model based on the electronic nose was constructed to evaluate the shrimp freshness. In principal components analysis, the first three principal components accounted for 86.97% of total variation, and they are used to establish a model to estimate the shrimp freshness with Fisher Liner Discriminant. The discriminant rates were 98.3% for 120 modeling sample data, and 91.7% for 36 testing sample data. The model could be easily used to evaluate the freshness of shrimp with better accuracy.

  11. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  12. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  13. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  14. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  15. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  16. Sensory quality of frozen shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Barbosa Nunes Queiroga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory quality of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown and stored in a freezer. A sensory analysis consisted of the Quality Index Method (MIQ to review the raw shrimp and Descriptive Analysis (AD in cooked shrimp in samples stored for a period of 90 days, using eight previously trained panelists. Accommodation comprising shrimp filet (100-120 pieces / kg samples were subjected to freezing in liquid nitrogen (- 86 °C, Freezing Tunnel (- 35 °C and Domestic Freezer (- 18 °C. At 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage in these freezing systems, determination of pH, water holding capacity (WHC, weight loss during cooking (WLC, shearing force, color, total volatile bases (TVB and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were performed. The attributes manual firmness and softness showed better results in rapid freezing. The color parameters (a *, b * and L *, WHC and WCL were higher at 90 days of storage, no significant losses were observed. Highlighted the strength of greater shear in slowly frozen samples at 90 days, confirming the results reported by the sensory panel. At 90 days of storage, the frozen shrimp showed good sensory quality and physical and chemistry characteristics. The shelf life of this shrimp could be set at about 90 days.

  17. Evaluation of sustainable concrete produced with desalinated reject brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi P. Fattah

    2017-06-01

    With the intent of reducing the carbon footprint of concrete production, a study was carried out to determine the effect of using reject brine as the source of water and the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS as a replacement for cement. Concrete samples having three different cement contents were prepared with normal tap water and reject brine. Results showed that the use of GGBS and reject brine improved the strength of concrete produced by 16.5%. Replacing 50% of the cement with GGBS and using reject brine as the source of water has a potential for reducing 176 kg CO2 and 1.7–3.4 kg of CO2 equivalents per one cubic meter of concrete, respectively. The use of the waste reject brine can potentially save USD 170–340 per cubic meter of concrete produced.

  18. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  19. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the sieves under a faucet, preferably with spray attached, and rinse shrimp with no rubbing of flesh... careful to avoid undue pressure or rubbing, and return each shrimp to the sieve. Remove the top sieve and...

  20. HYDRATION IN THE SAND SHRIMP CRANGON SEPTEMSPINOSA: RELATION TO DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J Ross; Jeffries, H Perry

    1976-06-01

    Tissue hydration in the estuarine sand shrimp Crangon septemspinosa is correlated with nutritional conditions. Hydration levels of shrimp who are ingesting food remain normal. In starved shrimp or in individuals who are not ingesting adequate amounts of food, hydration levels are high. Presumably, water replaces metabolized tissues.

  1. Adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve eco-friendly and sustainable development of shrimp farming, adoption of improved shrimp farming practices is necessary. An attempt has been made in this study to collect data from shrimp farmers along the south Konkan region of Maharashtra to judge the level of adoption of improved aquaculture practices.

  2. adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Adesope

    ABSTRACT. To achieve eco-friendly and sustainable development of shrimp farming, adoption of improved shrimp farming practices is necessary. An attempt has been made in this study to collect data from shrimp farmers along the south Konkan region of Maharashtra to judge the level of adoption of improved aquaculture ...

  3. Copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Jafar; Alamdari, Abdolmohammad

    2009-07-30

    The present study aims at investigation of copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation process. The produced brine containing heavy metals is usually returned to the reservoir for water flooding or is discarded to the surroundings. Therefore, surface waters or underground waters may be polluted due to probable contact to these discarded waters. Removal experiments were carried out at room temperature in a bench-scale crystallizer equipped with a draft tube. In order to gain an insight into the influence of soluble compounds in the industrial natural brine on the precipitation process, some comparative experiments were performed both on a sample of natural brine and on a synthetic simulated brine in the absence of natural impurities. A metal removal practice by coprecipitation of copper through CaCO(3) precipitates induced by reaction of Na(2)CO(3) and CaCl(2) reduced the copper concentration (Cu(2+)) from 0.27 ppm in the synthetic brine to 0.06 ppm. This removal of 78% required only 1g of precipitate per 0.15 mg copper metal. Analysis of the experimental results suggested that about 5% of the copper removal from the synthetic brine was through the mechanism of incorporation into the crystal lattice, and around 95% was through the adsorption on the crystal faces.

  4. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  5. Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    The refractive index of freezing brine is important for example in order to estimate oceanic scattering as sea ice develops. Previously, no simple continuous expression was available for estimating the refractive index of brine at subzero temperatures. I show that extrapolation of the empirical...... formula for the refractive index of seawater by Quan and Fry [Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3477-3480 (1995)] provides a good fit to the refractive index of freezing brine for temperatures above -24 degrees celsius and salinities below 180 parts per thousand....

  6. Wellbore flow model for carbon dioxide and brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2008-11-01

    Wellbores have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. In order to quantify the impacts of leakage of CO{sub 2} and brine through wellbores, we have developed a wellbore simulator capable of describing non-isothermal open well flow dynamics of CO{sub 2}-brine mixtures. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission handled semianalytically. This new wellbore simulator can take as input the pressure, saturation, and composition conditions from reservoir simulators and calculate CO{sub 2} and brine fluxes needed to assess impacts to vulnerable resources. This new capability is being incorporated into the Certification Framework (CF) developed for risk assessment of GCS sites.

  7. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  8. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  9. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  10. Quantal Response Of Freshwater Shrimp ( Desmocaris trispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantal-response of freshwater shrimp (Desmocaris trispinosa) to the toxicity of five azo dyes was studied. Generally, increase in percentage mortality of the organisms was obtained with increases in concentration of the toxicants and exposure time. The median lethal concentration50 (LC50) and median lethal ...

  11. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  12. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  13. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in

  14. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  15. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus

  16. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    . Policy to position shrimp farms behind mangroves can be effective but also requires good institutional capacity and coordination, effective enforcement, incentives, land tenure and participation of all stakeholders for success. Better management practices have been identified which reduce impacts......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  17. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  18. Coordinated group response to nest intruders in social shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth, Eva; Duffy, J. Emmett

    2005-01-01

    A key characteristic of highly social animals is collective group response to important stimuli such as invasion by enemies. The marine societies of social snapping shrimp share many convergences with terrestrial eusocial animals, including aggressive reaction to strangers, but no group actions have yet been observed in shrimp. Here we describe ‘coordinated snapping’, during which a sentinel shrimp reacts to danger by recruiting other colony members to snap in concert for several to tens of s...

  19. Seafood consumption habits of South Carolina shrimp baiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Deborah; Vahey, Grace; Faith, Trevor; Vena, John; Williams, Edith M

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp baiting is a fishing technique used by many South Carolinians and has been regulated in the state since the late 1980s. A postcard survey was developed and included with 400 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) annual surveys of registered shrimp baiters over a two-year period. The survey contained questions concerning frequency, portion size, baiting locations, and preparation techniques for shrimp as well as other species consumed and demographic information. An overall response rate of 37% was received. The majority of respondents were men over the age of 55 years. Charleston and Beaufort counties were the most common locations for shrimp baiting. Almost half (45.9%) of respondents reported eating locally caught shrimp at least 2-3 times per month. The most common portion size was ½ pound (8 oz. or 277 g), with 44.8% of respondents reporting this as their typical amount of shrimp ingested at one meal. Only 3.7% of respondents reported typically eating the whole shrimp, while all other respondents ingested shrimp with the head removed. The most commonly consumed species besides shrimp were blue crab, oysters, and flounder. According to the US Food and Drug Administration mercury (Hg) guidelines, the majority (97%) of our respondents were not at risk for consuming unsafe levels of Hg from locally caught shrimp. However, this does not take into account other local seafood eaten or other contaminants of concern. These consumption results may be used in conjunction with data on contaminant levels in shrimp to determine potential adverse health risks associated with consumption of locally caught shrimp.

  20. Challenges to shrimp production in the Bentre province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Khang van

    2008-01-01

    Shrimp world production in the last few years has shows very high growth rates. In Vietnam in general and Bentre in particular, shrimp farming has rapidly developed recently and become an important economic sector, creating employment, increasing farmers’ income and earning foreign currency for the country. However, shrimp farming in Bentre is facing a number of challenges that hinder the sustainable development of the sector. The development has been through unplanned expansion of the number...

  1. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first....... The corresponding density data at the same conditions were also measured. For solubility, two models used in the Eclipse simulator were tested: the correlations of Chang et al. and the Søreide and Whitson equation of state (EoS) model. The latter model was modified to improve its performance for high salinity brine...... of CO2 increases the brine density only if the apparent mass density of CO2 in brine is higher than the brine density at the same conditions....

  2. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher; Daigle, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from 3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of 500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of 330 nm.

  3. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  4. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Christopher, E-mail: cgriffith@utexas.edu; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from ~3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of ~500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of ~330 nm.

  5. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound Site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report of predisposal studies. Chapter 4. Appendix 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hann, Jr, Roy W.; Randall, Robert E. [eds.

    1981-02-01

    This report describes nekton communities off Freeport, Texas prior to brine disposal based on trawl studies in the period October 1977 to February 1980. Trawling was conducted aboard chartered commercial shrimp trawlers along a transect in depths of 3 to 25 fathoms to describe the general background of nekton communities off Freeport. An array of stations were occupied at the diffuser site in 12 fathoms of water to describe in detail nekton communities near the diffuser. Collections at each station, in general, were made once a month during the day and once a month at night, cruises being about two weeks apart in time. Projected diffuser locations, stations occupied, etc., changed during the course of the project, and the Materials and Methods (Section 4.2) should be consulted for details.

  6. NMR-based untargeted metabolomic study of hydrogen peroxide-induced development and diapause termination in brine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming-Chang; Ding, Shangwu; Lin, Cheng-Chi; Chu, Tah-Wei; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun

    2017-12-01

    Artemia diapause has been extensively studied in embryonic biology for a long time. It has been demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can increase the hatching rate in the development and diapause termination of Artemia cysts. This study used an untargeted 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach to explore the physiological regulation of H2O2 in initiating the development and terminating the diapause of Artemia cysts. This experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, we analyzed three groups with or without H2O2 as control-0h, control-5h and H2O2 (180μM)-5h; in the second part, after 7-d incubation, the non-hatching cysts were treated with different H2O2 concentrations as low as 180μM and as high 1800μM. The results showed that arginine and proline metabolism were up-regulated after 5h, and H2O2 up-regulated valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis in the development of cysts. In the second part, low H2O2 (180μM) showed alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, but high H2O2 (1800μM) also up-regulated arginine and proline metabolism, as in the control group without H2O2 stimulus. These results suggest that enough H2O2 can catalyze cell transcription and translation in Artemia cysts, and it improves the cell growth rate, thus allowing embryo cells to grow again. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate’s innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia’s immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity. PMID:26876951

  8. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  9. Evaluation of antileishmanial,antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum(Lamiacea)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imran Khan Kafeel Ahmad Ali Talha Khalil Jangrez Khan Yusra Ali Khan Muhammad Shahab Saqib Muhammad Naveed Umar Hilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    .../mL.The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O.basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86...

  10. Evaluation of antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum (Lamiacea)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Kafeel; Khalil, Ali Talha; Khan, Jangrez; Khan, Yusra Ali; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Umar, Muhamad Naveed; Ahmad, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    .... The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O. basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from 20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86...

  11. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-02-15

    The invertebrate's innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia's immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity.

  12. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ofelio

    2014-06-01

    The results obtained in the first test showed that the L. rhamnosus was able to survive in seawater during the whole experiment (30h, maintaining densities of 10e7 CFU/ml during the first 6h although decreasing progressively afterwards (10e3 CFU/ml at 30h. This allows adequate levels at sufficient time for Artemia to incorporate the probiotic. In fact, bioencapsulation test demonstrated that Artemia metanauplii were able to bioencapsulate the probiotic, reaching the highest concentration in Artemia after 30 min of bioencapsulation (10e4 CFU/Artemia. A slight further decrease (10e3 CFU/Artemia was observed after 24h. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus reduced in 1Log total Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia during the 3 first hours. Therefore, 3 hours was the time established for the bioencapsulation protocol and further studies are in progress to determine the ability of Artemia metanauplii to maintain bioencapsulated L. rhamnosus once transferred to rearing tanks. Also, the capability of the probiotic to inhibit potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria will be assessed.

  13. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D.

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  14. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy De Grave

    Full Text Available We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT. Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats.

  15. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  16. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  17. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic and

  18. [History evolution of salt production and processing with brine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Cai-Yun; Le, Zhi-Yong; Dong, Jing-Jing; Bai, Zong-Li

    2017-10-01

    Salt is an important excipient for Chinese medicine salt. The standardization of its quality is conducive to ensuring the quality of Chinese medicine pieces. In this paper, the processing with brine and the processing auxiliary salt were studied from three aspects: the history evolution of salt, the history evolution of processing with brine, and the modern research of processing with brine. It has been found that salt plays an important role in the history of China. It has a long history and a wide variety. The salt used in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine mainly includes three categories: common salt, halitum and white salt. The quality of salt is closely related to its origin and processing, mainly based on the color and the place of origin. In ancient times, the varieties of salt used in the production of different Chinese herbal medicines were different, which might be related to the nature of drugs. The primary purpose of processing with brine is to increase the efficacy of drugs. At present, there are many reports on optimizing the preparation technology of processing with brine, but the evaluation indexes are quite different, and its scientific nature is to be discussed. The processing method with brine and its processing auxiliary materials are lacking of relevant evaluation standards and quality standards, which is not conducive to the healthy development of Chinese herbal pieces. In this paper, the relevant literature was studied in order to provide reference for the establishment of standards for salt processing excipient in traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    that the salt will run from the high level of the road to the lower level”. In the test the salt moved 1 meter in 3 hours. The knowledge gained from the measurements in the county of Funen - brine spread with nozzles, spreading salt to high level of the road and using GPS controlled spreading – was implemented......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  20. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

    2017-02-01

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  1. 9 CFR 96.14 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with saturated brine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... saturated brine solution. 96.14 Section 96.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... § 96.14 Uncertified casings; disinfection with saturated brine solution. Foreign animal casings offered... acid as at present or if preferred may be submerged in a saturated brine solution at a temperature not...

  2. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP) ...

  3. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  4. When and How to Worry about OA: Greenland Shrimp Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We use a bio-economic model of the Greenland shrimp fishery to study potential ocean acidification (OA) impacts in arctic resources. Predicted changes in pH in Baffin Bay describe an anticipated though uncertain drop. Efforts to understand changes in shrimp quantity/ quality from OA reflect signi...

  5. Collections of freshwater shrimps along the southern coast of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collections of freshwater shrimps along the southern coast of South Africa. D.J. Coetzee. Abstract. During the period February 1983 to November 1986 a total of 38 rivers along the south-western, southem and eastern Cape coasts and Ciskei were investigated for the occurrence of freshwater shrimps. Five species were ...

  6. 77 FR 27411 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... the net is fishing, thus preventing shrimp from escaping over the top. Owing to increased shrimp catch... subsequently damaging the gear. The frames are maintained in this position by two or more stays or cables to... falling with the bottom contour. The bottom of the gear includes tickler chains and lead lines. The...

  7. Population dynamics of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population dynamics, including the sex ratio, reproductive period, individual growth and longevity, and population structure of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, are described. The shrimps were collected monthly from July 2005 to June 2007 at four sites in Ubatuba Bay, Brazil. The salinity, temperature, depth, organic ...

  8. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  9. The rediscovery of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium crenulatum in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunte, Waine

    1979-01-01

    A record of the freshwater shrimps of Jamaica has been provided by Hart (1961b). His study includes taxonomical comments and notes on the locations at which the various species were caught. Since then Holthuis (1963a) has described a new subterranean freshwater shrimp, Troglocubanus jamaicensis,

  10. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  11. Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the population structure and identifies nursery areas and recruitment seasons of penaeid shrimps in the Pungué river estuary of Mozambique. Shrimp samples were obtained from 12 trawl stations at monthly intervals during 2004. Six species were found, two of which (Fenneropenaeus indicus and ...

  12. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Subramanian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii. Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control. Conclusions: The live V. furnissii had showed infection in the shrimp immune system. The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.

  13. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  14. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  15. Efficient use of shrimp waste: present and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, Prameela; Challa, Murali Mohan; Jyothi, Hemalatha Kalangi Padma

    2012-01-01

    The production of shrimp waste from shrimp processing industries has undergone a dramatic increase in recent years. Continued production of this biomaterial without corresponding development of utilizing technology has resulted in waste collection, disposal, and pollution problems. Currently used chemical process releases toxic chemicals such as HCl, acetic acid, and NaOH into aquatic ecosystem as byproducts which will spoil the aquatic flora and fauna. Environmental protection regulations have become stricter. Now, there is a need to treat and utilize the waste in most efficient manner. The shrimp waste contains several bioactive compounds such as chitin, pigments, amino acids, and fatty acids. These bioactive compounds have a wide range of applications including medical, therapies, cosmetics, paper, pulp and textile industries, biotechnology, and food applications. This current review article present the utilization of shrimp waste as well as an alternative technology to replace hazardous chemical method that address the future trends in total utilization of shrimp waste for recovery of bioactive compounds.

  16. Influence of cultivar, soak treatment and brine composition on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cultivar, soak treatment and brine composition on physico-chemical and sensory properties of unpeeled whole canned tomatoes was investigated with a view to understanding the influence of these process conditions on the canned product characteristics. Two tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum Var.

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  18. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27. 75 - 36.27 x 103 during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64) The volumes of brine as well as those of bitterns...

  19. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  20. Water and brine chillers using the refrigerant R717

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, A.P.R. [Sabroe Refrigeration A/S, Aarhus, (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    When the Montreal Protocol was revised in Copenhagen in November 1992, a phase-out program for R22 was adopted. Subsequently a number of countries have advanced their local phase-out deadlines. R22 has been an important refrigerant in water and brine chillers and it has thus become of utmost importance to find an alternative refrigerant. R717 is a natural choice and this paper concentrates on the application of R717 in water and brine chillers with either flooded or dry expansion unit design. Description of the individual unit designs, oil selection and coefficients of performance are included. Most experience on water/brine refrigeration systems operating with R717 as refrigerant has been accumulated with flooded plate heat exchanger designs. These systems have been operating for years and they have proved to have the advantages of great reliability, small R717 charge, low operating costs, and low maintenance costs. It is concluded that the natural substitute for HCFC and HFC is already here, and the technical unit designs for brine/water cooling with R717 have long ago passed the prototype stage and recovered from teething troubles. (author). 2 tabs., 8 figs., 2 refs.

  1. Marine Origin Of Nigerian Brines – A Contribution From Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace element analyses which employ the X – ray fluorescence (XRF) and pelletisation have been carried out on 17 salt samples extracted from Nigerian brines. Results of the analyses reveal that these samples, from the Albian – Turonian formations in the middle Benue and Anambra basins, have Sr values of between ...

  2. [Experimental interaction of halophilic prokaryotes and opportunistic bacteria in brine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, E A; Nemtseva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Study the effect of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on preservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine. 17 strains of moderately halophilic bacteria and 2 strains of extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from continental hypersaline lake Razval of Sol-Iletsk area of Orenburg Region. Identification of pure cultures of prokaryotes was carried out taking into account their phenotype properties and based on determination of 16S RNA gene sequence. The effect of halophilic prokaryote on elimination of Escherichia coli from brine was evaluated during co-cultivation. Antagonistic activity of cell extracts of the studied microorganisms was evaluated by photometric method. A more prolonged preservation of an E. coli strain in brine in the presence of live cells of extremely halophilic archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and moderately halophilic bacteria Marinococcus halophilus was established. Extracts of cells of extremely halophilic archaea and moderately halophilic bacteria on the contrary displayed antagonistic activity. The protective effect of live cells of halophilic prokaryotes and antagonistic activity of their cell extracts change the period of conservation of opportunistic bacteria in brine that regulates inter-microbial interactions and changes the period of self-purification that reflects the sanitary condition of a hypersaline water body.

  3. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  4. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    function relationships of cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 60-69. Pavia M, Trujillo AJ, Guamis B, Ferragut V (2000). Ripening control of salt-reduced Manchego-type cheese obtained by brine vacuum- impregnation. Food Chem. 70: 155-162.

  5. A Bioeconomic model of ocean acidification in the Baffin Bay/ Davis Strait Shrimp Fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We examine the case of the shrimp fishery in Baffin Bay/Davis Straight for potential effects of Ocean Acidification (OA), including: 1. the overall productivity of the shrimp fishery, 2. the spatial spread of the shrimp fishery, 3. the quality of the shrimp brought to market, and hence price...

  6. 77 FR 4993 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... includes certain warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether frozen, wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised... shrimp (Penaeus schmitti), blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris), western white shrimp (Penaeus occidentalis... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3, 2010). In accordance with the above...

  7. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... International Trade Administration Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's... Administrative Review of Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China: Issues and Decision... revised the wage rate methodology and the surrogate values for shrimp larvae, diesel fuel, shrimp waste...

  8. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... (Trachypenaeus curvirostris), southern white shrimp (Penaeus schmitti), blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris), western white shrimp (Penaeus occidentalis), and Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus). Frozen shrimp and... Investigation 3. Injury Test 4. Subsidies Valuation 5. Analysis of Programs 6. Disclosure and Public Comment 7...

  9. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... curvirostris), southern white shrimp (Penaeus schmitti), blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris), western white shrimp (Penaeus occidentalis), and Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus). Frozen shrimp and prawns that... Investigation 3. Injury Test 4. Subsidies Valuation 5. Use of Facts Otherwise Available and Adverse Inferences 6...

  10. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... curvirostris), southern white shrimp (Penaeus schmitti), blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris), western white shrimp (Penaeus occidentalis), and Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus). Frozen shrimp and prawns that... Investigation 3. Injury Test 4. Subsidies Valuation 5. Analysis of Programs 6. ITC Notification 7. Disclosure...

  11. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY... for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form may be found at 50 CFR 622.5(a)(1)(iii)(C... shrimp must complete an annual Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form. The form will be...

  12. Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

    2010-10-01

    Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD

  13. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  14. Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of Scientific Versus Traditional Shrimp Farming: A Case Study from India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Ninan, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts a social cost-benefit analysis of scientific versus traditional shrimp farming in West Bengal, India. Using primary data, the paper shows that although intensive or scientific shrimp farming yields high returns as compared to traditional shrimp farming, when the opportunity costs and environmental costs of shrimp farming including disease risk are accounted for, scientific shrimp farming loses its advantage. In fact sensitivity analysis shows that if expected benefits were...

  15. Coordinated group response to nest intruders in social shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eva; Duffy, J Emmett

    2005-03-22

    A key characteristic of highly social animals is collective group response to important stimuli such as invasion by enemies. The marine societies of social snapping shrimp share many convergences with terrestrial eusocial animals, including aggressive reaction to strangers, but no group actions have yet been observed in shrimp. Here we describe 'coordinated snapping', during which a sentinel shrimp reacts to danger by recruiting other colony members to snap in concert for several to tens of seconds. This distinctive behaviour is a specific response to intrusion by strange shrimp into the colony's sponge and is highly successful at repelling these intruders. Although coordinated snapping apparently functions analogously to alarm responses in other social animals, colony members in social shrimp do not rush to the site of the attack. Coordinated snapping appears instead to be a warning signal to would-be intruders that the sponge is occupied by a cooperative colony ready to defend it. This is the first evidence for coordinated communication in social shrimp and represents yet another remarkable convergence between social shrimp, insects and vertebrates.

  16. ShrimpGPAT: a gene and protein annotation tool for knowledge sharing and gene discovery in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshkari, Parpakron; Vaiwsri, Sirintra; Flegel, Timothy W; Ngamsuriyaroj, Sudsanguan; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Prachumwat, Anuphap

    2014-06-21

    Although captured and cultivated marine shrimp constitute highly important seafood in terms of both economic value and production quantity, biologists have little knowledge of the shrimp genome and this partly hinders their ability to improve shrimp aquaculture. To help improve this situation, the Shrimp Gene and Protein Annotation Tool (ShrimpGPAT) was conceived as a community-based annotation platform for the acquisition and updating of full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs), Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), transcript contigs and protein sequences of penaeid shrimp and their decapod relatives and for in-silico functional annotation and sequence analysis. ShrimpGPAT currently holds quality-filtered, molecular sequences of 14 decapod species (~500,000 records for six penaeid shrimp and eight other decapods). The database predominantly comprises transcript sequences derived by both traditional EST Sanger sequencing and more recently by massive-parallel sequencing technologies. The analysis pipeline provides putative functions in terms of sequence homologs, gene ontologies and protein-protein interactions. Data retrieval can be conducted easily either by a keyword text search or by a sequence query via BLAST, and users can save records of interest for later investigation using tools such as multiple sequence alignment and BLAST searches against pre-defined databases. In addition, ShrimpGPAT provides space for community insights by allowing functional annotation with tags and comments on sequences. Community-contributed information will allow for continuous database enrichment, for improvement of functions and for other aspects of sequence analysis. ShrimpGPAT is a new, free and easily accessed service for the shrimp research community that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date database of quality-filtered decapod gene and protein sequences together with putative functional prediction and sequence analysis tools. An important feature is its community

  17. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  18. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  19. Interaction between Penaeid Shrimp and Fish Populations in the Gulf of Mexico: Importance of Shrimp as Forage Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masami; Zhou, Can; Acres, Chelsea; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of shrimp stocks in supporting the production of valuable predator species. Fishery-independent data on white shrimp, brown shrimp, and selected fish species (spotted seatrout, red drum, and southern flounder) were collected from 1986 to 2014 by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and converted to catch-per-unit effort (CPUE). Here, the associations between the CPUEs of fish species as predators and those of shrimp species as prey in each sampled bay and sampling season were analyzed using co-integration analysis and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Co-integration analysis revealed significant associations between 31 of 70 possible fish/shrimp pairings. The analysis also revealed discernible seasonal and spatial patterns. White shrimp in August and brown shrimp in May were associated with fish CPUEs in bays located along the lower coast of Texas, whereas white shrimp in November was more strongly associated with fish CPUEs in bays located on the upper coast. This suggests the possible influence of latitudinal environmental gradient. The results of the PLSR, on the other hand, were not conclusive. This may reflect the high statistical error rates inherent to the analysis of short non-stationary time series. Co-integration is a robust method when analyzing non-stationary time series, and a majority of time series in this study was non-stationary. Based on our co-integration results, we conclude that the CPUE data show significant associations between shrimp abundance and the three predator fish species in the tested regions.

  20. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  1. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  2. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  3. Physical properties of NaCl-free cucumber fermentation cover brine containing calcium chloride and glycerin, and apparent freezing injury of the brined fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of glycerin (2-20%) as a food-grade antifreeze agent and calcium chloride (1.1-20%), to reduce the freezing point and improve quality of cold-stored fermented cucumbers brined without sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored. Temperature and cover brine composition did not significantly affect th...

  4. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  5. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  6. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different brine concentrations on some properties of Turkish white cheese. Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out ...

  7. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 degrees C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not

  8. Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

  9. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  11. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Constraints on Upward Migration of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid and Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Samuel A; Sharma, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to aid extraction of oil and gas from black shales have raised concerns regarding potential environmental effects associated with predictions of upward migration of HF fluid and brine. Some recent studies have suggested that such upward migration can be large and that timescales for migration can be as short as a few years. In this article, we discuss the physical constraints on upward fluid migration from black shales (e.g., the Marcellus, Bakken, and Eagle Ford) to shallow aquifers, taking into account the potential changes to the subsurface brought about by HF. Our review of the literature indicates that HF affects a very limited portion of the entire thickness of the overlying bedrock and therefore, is unable to create direct hydraulic communication between black shales and shallow aquifers via induced fractures. As a result, upward migration of HF fluid and brine is controlled by preexisting hydraulic gradients and bedrock permeability. We show that in cases where there is an upward gradient, permeability is low, upward flow rates are low, and mean travel times are long (often >106 years). Consequently, the recently proposed rapid upward migration of brine and HF fluid, predicted to occur as a result of increased HF activity, does not appear to be physically plausible. Unrealistically high estimates of upward flow are the result of invalid assumptions about HF and the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins. PMID:23895673

  13. Development of shrimp in small ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Adolfo Ortega Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in small ponds ( 6 m3 in fresh water (2-3‰ and seawater; ponds 3.66 x 1.65 x 1.0 m; availability of fresh water, sea water, aeration and drainage. Two cycles of three months each were made. The postlarvae were acclimated to seawater fresh water in four days. Four hundred postlarvas/m3 were seeded in freshwater pond and 500 in the pool of seawater. First, a culture of Daphnia magna in the freshwater pond, also appeared chyronomid larvae; Artemia cysts were seeded in sea water as a dietary supplement. The shrimp were fed Camaronina (25% protein at libitum, daily; is offered on a tray of food; the temperature ranged between 27 and 30° C, oxygen 4.26 ± 1.43 mg / L , pH between 7 and 8 . Detritus siphoned every third day. Water changes between 10 and 20% are often performed. The feed conversion rate (FCR was 1:1.3 . The shrimp were measured in length and weight to calculate weekly growth by Bertalanffy model. Survival in the first cycle was 95.8 , and 97.9% for the second cycle. In seawater parameters of the population of the first cycle were k = 0.0301, L ∞ = 322.16 and t0 = -0.8852, the second cycle of k = 0.0203, L ∞ = 294.42 and t0 = -5.3771. The biomass of 27 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. Freshwater population parameters of the first cycle were k = 0.0957, L ∞ = 146.98 and t0 = - 0.93; in the second cycle of k = 0.0172 , L ∞ = 367.82 and t0 = - 4.60. The biomass of 26 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. The results indicate a rapid growth during the first 10 weeks. In small ponds can be handled well aseptic conditions without disease problems, good crop was obtained.

  14. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  15. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY... turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced five public hearings to be held in Morehead...

  16. Commercially important penaeid shrimp larvae in the estuaries of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Larval stages of the penaeid shrimps, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (Milne - Edwards) and Penaeus merguiensis De Man were mostly distributed at the lower reaches of Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. While larvae of M. dobsoni and M. affinis...

  17. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  18. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  19. Genetic diversity and historical demography of Chinese shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and historical demography of Chinese shrimp Feneropenaeus chinensis in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea based on mitochondrial DNA analysis. YL Li, XY Kong, ZN Yu, J Kong, S Ma, LM Chen ...

  20. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  1. Isolation and purification of calmodulin from the shrimp, Crangon crangon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, R H; Pipkorn, R; Willig, A; Jaros, P P

    1992-01-01

    Calmodulin was isolated and purified from shrimp abdominal muscle by heat precipitation, ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified calmodulin was homogeneous when evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A still remaining contaminant was eliminated by high performance liquid chromatography on a phenyl column. The biological and physicochemical properties of shrimp calmodulin such as amino acid composition, molecular weight and the ability to activate calmodulin-deficient bovine heart phosphodiesterase were compared to those of other invertebrate calmodulins.

  2. Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    1999-07-01

    Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

  3. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  4. Bacterial Selection from Shrimp Ponds for Degradation of Organic Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powtongsook, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of ammonia, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in a shrimp pond is generally caused by incomplete degradation of residual organic matters from overfeeding and from organic wastes released by shrimps. The phenomenon affects shrimp growth and survival rate. The objectives of this investigation were to screen for a bacterial strain able to digest organic residues and to evaluate the changes of residues by bacterial activities under natural conditions. The results from this work showed that the isolated strain, Bacillus cereus S1, had the highest protease activity (57.1 U/ml with the presence of glucoamylase and lipase activities (4.5 and 0.13 U/ml, respectively. Under an aseptic condition in 1-L flasks containing seawater with 0.1% shrimp feed, B. cereus S1 degraded organic matters and significantly reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD (70.8%. An amount of ammonia-nitrogen was increased during the first 5 days of incubation due to the degradation of organic compounds in shrimp feed. However, it declined afterward with nitrate-nitrogen increase and unchanged nitrite nitrogen content. Under natural conditions in 10-L glass jars containing seawater with 0.05% shrimp feed and 0.05% sediment, B. cereus S1 and a commercial bacterial product (Inpicin-G could reduce COD (4.5% and 15.8%, respectively and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD (35.1 and 11.4%, respectively. However, similar changes of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen contents in water samples were observed. The results indicate that this selected bacterium could reduce organic compound accumulations on a laboratory scale. In addition, the strain did not produce any enterotoxins compared to a toxin standard. Therefore, the bacterium, Bacillus cereus S1, could be applied to decrease organic matters accumulated in shrimp pond without any harm to shrimps or consumers.

  5. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... 1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae...

  6. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  7. Biological denitrification of reverse osmosis brine concentrates: I. Batch reactor and chemostat studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ersever, Ilknur; Ravindran, Varadarajan; Pirbazari, Massoud

    2007-01-01

    A major technological concern with reverse osmosis in water purification, wastewater treatment, and water reclamation or recycling is the production of brine concentrates high in ammonia or nitrogen...

  8. Production of giant freshwater prawn postlarvae in penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery: An experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Chatterji, A.; Sripada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.

    on the experience gained in the pilot scale penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery at NIO so that other commercial shrimp hatcheries can also follow the protocols and earn additional revenue from sale of freshwater prawn seed during the monsoon season. Protocols...

  9. ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

  10. Use of slaughter house waste as a feed for shrimps and prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments with some shrimps and fishes (Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus dobsoni, Sarotherodon mossambicus and Etroplus suratensis) using slaughter house waste as food, showed that the shrimps and arotherodon were able to utilize...

  11. Economic Data Collection for Gulf of Mexico South Atlantic Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Economic Survey of Federal Gulf and Atlantic Shrimp Permit Holders collects data about operating expenses and costs of owning and maintaining shrimp...

  12. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  13. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  14. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Alessia; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  15. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.berti@unibs.it [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, 22060 Novedrate, CO (Italy); Bochicchio, Ivana, E-mail: ibochicchio@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universitá degli Studi di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Fabrizio, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.fabrizio@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bologna, Piazza di Porta S. Donato, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  16. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  17. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  18. Effect of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balasubramanian, T.

    % of that of the lower size group regardless of level of ablation. The UEA shrimps exhibited better protein efficiency ratio. The production rate of UEA shrimps were two to three times more than that of the control, whereas BEA shrimps showed comparatively low production...

  19. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  20. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels

  1. Management options for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) fisheries in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.; Kooten, van T.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Trapman, B.K.; Reijden, van der K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries targeting brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) in the North Sea in European waters are largely unregulated in terms of landings and effort. A license system exists, but this did not prevent the current situation of overcapacity of the shrimp fleet. The governments of the North Sea brown shrimp

  2. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  3. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  4. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  5. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  6. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system,

  7. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina

  8. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture...), blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris), western white shrimp (Penaeus occidentalis), and Indian white prawn... Tube From Mexico, 74 FR 41681, 41682 (Aug., 18, 2009). This cash deposit requirement shall remain in...

  9. 76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture... schmitti), blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris), western white shrimp (Penaeus occidentalis), and Indian... Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3...

  10. Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The

  11. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application and...

  12. Antibiotic contaminants in coastal wetlands from Vietnamese shrimp farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Hoang Thi Thanh; Nga, Le Phi; Loan, Tu Thi Cam

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp culture has been expanded rapidly in recent years in coastal wetland zone of Vietnam due to favorable natural conditions. However, this industry has caused several negative impacts to the environment. One of the critical issues is the excessive application of antibiotics including human medicines. These chemicals could be released from shrimp ponds and then accumulated and contaminated of the ecosystem. This review article discusses a whole range of findings that address various aspects of the usage, occurrence and potentially environmental risks of antibiotics released from shrimp farming, with emphasis on the South Vietnam coastal wetland. The published information on the usage and occurrence of antibiotics in Vietnamese shrimp farming has been reviewed. A global comparison was also carried out. This follows by a brief overview of the transport and fate of these antibiotics in the environment. Several antibiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture have been detected in wastewater and sediment of the ponds, as well as in surrounding coastal wetlands, resulting in the existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, their transport and fate could not be clearly defined. The well-documented accumulation of antibiotics in mud and sediments in Vietnamese coastal wetlands potentially poses serious risks for the local wetland ecosystems. Thus, research on the transport and fate of antibiotics' residues from the ponds into the surrounding environment is urgently needed.

  13. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  14. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Luz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100 Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Interactions between invasive crayfish and native river shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banha F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the south of Portugal there are only two species of strictly freshwater decapods: the native freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmarestii and the exotic crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The aim of this study is to understand if the exotic crayfish acts as river shrimp predator and if both species share the same type of microhabitat. We performed laboratory experiments to study predation and conducted field work in the river Sorraia to verify the microhabitat distribution of both species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated significant predation on river shrimp for crayfish with a cephalothorax length (CT over 24 mm. The average daily consumption increases with crayfish CT to a maximum of 0.8 shrimps at 44 mm. Field work confirmed that both species share the same microhabitats although with small differences e.g. on the water quality variables such as conductivity and the percentage of oxygen saturation. These microhabitats are shallow pools with abundant aquatic vegetation with no preference for the type of substrate. In the field, both crayfish density and its cephalothorax length are negatively correlated with shrimp densities. In conclusion, P. clarkii can predate A. desmarestii and the major impacts are expected at high densities of large sized crayfish.

  16. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  17. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  18. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  19. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  20. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  1. Application Status of Rubidium, Cesium and Research Situation of its Separation from Brine with Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Du, Xuemin; Wang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yafei; Deng, Tianlong

    2017-12-01

    Rubidium, cesium and its compounds play an important role in traditional and high-tech fields. This paper focuses on the research status of separation rubidium and cesium in brine using solvent extraction, and briefly introduced the characteristics of this method, which can be used to realize industrial production of rubidium and cesium from brine.

  2. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  3. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m−2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  4. Selection of a Brine Processor Technology for NASA Manned Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Gleich, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The current ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) reclaims water from crew urine, humidity condensate, and Sabatier product water. Urine is initially processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which recovers 75% of the urine as distillate. The remainder of the water is present in the waste brine which is currently disposed of as trash on ISS. For future missions this additional water must be reclaimed due to the significant resupply penalty for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA has pursued various technology development programs for a brine processor in the past several years. This effort has culminated in a technology down-select to identify the optimum technology for future manned missions. The technology selection is based on various criteria, including mass, power, reliability, maintainability, and safety. Beginning in 2016 the selected technology will be transitioned to a flight hardware program for demonstration on ISS. This paper summarizes the technology selection process, the competing technologies, and the rationale for the technology selected for future manned missions.

  5. Solubility of Calcium Phosphate in Concentrated Dairy Effluent Brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezia, K; Lee, J; Zisu, B; Chen, G Q; Gras, S L; Kentish, S E

    2017-05-24

    The solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy brine streams is important in understanding mineral scaling on equipment, such as membrane modules, evaporators, and heat exchangers, and in brine pond operation. In this study, the solubility of calcium phosphate has been assessed in the presence of up to 300 g/L sodium chloride as well as lactose, organic acids, and anions at 10, 30, and 50 °C. As a neutral molecule, lactose has a marginal but still detectable effect upon calcium solubility. However, additions of sodium chloride up to 100 g/L result in a much greater increase in calcium solubility. Beyond this point, the concentrations of ions in the solution decrease significantly. These changes in calcium solubility can readily be explained through changes in the activity coefficients. There is little difference in calcium phosphate speciation between 10 and 30 °C. However, at 50 °C, the ratio of calcium to phosphate in the solution is lower than at the other temperatures and varies less with ionic strength. While the addition of sodium lactate has less effect upon calcium solubility than sodium citrate, it still has a greater effect than sodium chloride at an equivalent ionic strength. Conversely, when these organic anions are present in the solution in the acid form, the effect of pH dominates and results in much higher solubility and a calcium/phosphate ratio close to one, indicative of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as the dominant solid phase.

  6. BELL PEPPER CULTIVATION WITH BRINE FROM BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE MOURA ARRUDA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and pollutant water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing crops since it is carefully monitored. In order to test this hypothesis, bell pepper plants, cv. 'Margarita', were grown in coconut fiber substrate under greenhouse and were irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap water, brine from desalination plant, and its dilution with tap water at 75, 50 and 25%, giving a range of electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (ECs of 2.6, 3.1, 6.6, 10.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 after the dilutions and fertilizers addition. Completely randomized blocks design was used with 5 treatments (salinity levels of the nutrient solutions and six replications. Leaf area, number of marketable fruit, total and marketable yield were reduced with ECs increase. The marketable yield of bell pepper 'Margarita' reduced 6.3% for each unitary increase of ECs above 2.6 dS m-1 (threshold salinity and the results suggest that in hydroponic system, the reduction of marketable yield with increasing ECs is promoted by reduction of the number of fruits per plant instead of a reduction of fruit mean weight.

  7. Design, construction and operation of a brine pipeline: the longest FRP brine pipeline of Germany; Planung, Bau und Betrieb einer Soleleitung: die laengste GFK-Soleleitung Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, B. [TUEV Industrie Service, TUEV Sued Gruppe, Inst. fuer Kunststoffe, Muenchen (Germany); Westendorff, K. [Ingenieurbuero Dr.-Ing. Klaus Westendorff, Neuehuette (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The design, the authority management and the fabrication of a FRP brine pipeline make respectively high demands of planners, suppliers, fabricators and authorities. These requests only can be fulfilled if a general, inter-disciplinary quality management is imported and sustained. In the report the current stand of the sets of rules, the technical requirements on a brine pipeline and the examination is represented. Current examining methods are described and new valuation methods shown for pressure tests on long buried FRP pipes. (orig.)

  8. Identification of burrowing shrimp food sources along an estuarine gradient using fatty acid analysis and stable isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of burrowing shrimps occur in high densities in U.S. West Coast estuaries, the ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) and the blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis). Both species of shrimp are considered ecosystem engineers as they bioturbate and irrigate extensive galleries in the sed...

  9. Molecular phylogeny of penaeid shrimps inferred from two mitochondrial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloch, Carolina M; Freire, Pablo R; Russo, Claudia A M

    2005-12-30

    Penaeid shrimps are an important resource in crustacean fisheries, representing more than the half of the gross production of shrimp worldwide. In the present study, we used a sample of wide-ranging diversity (41 shrimp species) and two mitochondrial markers (758 bp) to clarify the evolutionary relationships among Penaeidae genera. Three different methodologies of tree reconstruction were employed in the study: maximum likelihood, neighbor joining and Bayesian analysis. Our results suggest that the old Penaeus genus is monophyletic and that the inclusion of the Solenocera genus within the Penaeidae family remains uncertain. With respect to Metapenaeopsis monophyly, species of this genus appeared clustered, but with a nonsignificant bootstrap value. These results elucidate some features of the unclear evolution of Penaeidae and may contribute to the taxonomic characterization of this family.

  10. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  11. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  12. Rice and shrimp farming in the Xuan Thuy National Park: sustainable and unsustainable practices

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung; Lebailly, Philippe; Tran Huu, Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural and aquaculture patterns in Xuan Thuy National Park mainly consists of rice planting and shrimp aquaculture (intensive and semi-intensive). Currently, there are about 11,899 rice households covering 1,873.07 ha, 215 semi-intensive shrimp households occupying 1,730.7 ha and 40 intensive households amounting to 90 ha in the Ramsar site. The local farmers produce 14,411 ton of rice, 450 ton of intensive shrimp and 516 tonof semi-intensive shrimp. Thus, rice and shrimp contribute sig...

  13. On tidal migration in the shrimp Crangon crangon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, G. M.; Kuipers, B. R.

    The length-frequency distribution of the shrimp population in the tidal flat area Balgzand in the western Wadden Sea shows a spatial separation between the adult shrimps, that inhibit the subtidal, and the juveniles (< 2.5 cm) that are restricted to the tidal zone. Observations in the tidal channel through the tides indicate that the juvenile population does not show migration of any importance from the tidal zone during ebb. Samples on the emerged flats during LW proof the presence of these juveniles in about the same densities as observed during HW.

  14. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  15. A feasibility study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps ( PENEAUS MONODON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Gagnon, M.

    1995-02-01

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland "PENAEUS MONODON" Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 ± 1 °C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

  16. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  17. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    -, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation...... mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions....... During emulsion formation the relative interactions at the oil-water interface are proved to follow the Hofmeister series: K+

  18. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  19. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Adel, Mustafa

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  20. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  1. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  2. Modeling brine inflow to Room Q: A numerical investigation of flow mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, G.A. [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1997-04-01

    A hydrologic modeling study was performed to gain insight into the flow mechanisms around Room Q. A summary of hydrologic and structural data and of predictive fluid flow models from Room Q are provided. Six years of measured data are available from the time of excavation. No brine accumulation in Room Q was measured in the first two years following excavation. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with this early-time data due to inadequate sealing of the room. Brine may have been lost to evaporation or it may have flowed into newly created disturbed rock zone (DRZ) porosity resulting from excavation. Non-zero brine accumulation rates were measured from 2--5 years, but brine accumulation within the room dropped to zero after 5.5 years. A conceptual model for brine inflow to Room Q was developed which assumes far-field Darcy flow combined with an increasing DRZ pore volume. Numerical simulations employed TOUGH28W and used predictive DRZ porosity increase with time from SPECTROM-32 rock deformation simulations. Simulated brine inflow showed good agreement with measured brine accumulation rates for the first five years. Two important conclusions were drawn from the simulation results: (1) early-time brine inflow to the room can be reduced to zero if the DRZ pore volume increases with time, and (2) brine accumulation (inflow) rates from 2 to 5 years suggest a far-field permeability of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}22} m{sup 2} with a bulk rock compressibility of 5.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} Pa{sup {minus}1}.

  3. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  4. Numerical simulation of surface-downhole geoelectrical measurements in order to detect brine plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, María Victoria; Grünhut, Vivian; Osella, Ana; Tichno, Adrián

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the world are in the secondary recovery stage and improving this step in the exploitation of these reservoirs would greatly benefit the oil industry. Secondary recovery involves injecting brine in some wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. The injected water moves mainly through the channels with higher permeability of the reservoir rock. The identification of these channels would allow the development of technical strategies to close them. In this context, the ability to detect brine flow pathways after injection is a goal of this work. Given the high electrical conductivity of brine, the use of geoelectrical methods can be useful to detect and monitor flow evolution. The limitations in the application of this method are due to the characteristics of the target: a very conductive fluid is usually contained in paths with dimensions that are much smaller than the depth at which it is located. Therefore, our objective is to overcome these constraints in order to find the strategies required to successfully detect and eventually monitor the movement of brine flowing from injection wells. In this work, we studied the feasibility of detecting brine in an oil reservoir with surface-downhole electrical measurements. To achieve this, we designed an electrical model of the reservoir from well data and numerically simulated the forward geoelectrical response to determine the conditions under which the anomaly, i.e., the accumulation of brine, can be identified. Our results show that once the initial location of the brine is known, by installing potential electrodes in a single well the direction of brine migration can be determined, even in unfavorable conditions with relatively few surface measurements. In the case of a well equipped with permanent electrodes, this could be an efficient method to monitor the evolution of the brine plume.

  5. Comparing fish bycatch of shrimp trawlers with catches made by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing fish bycatch of shrimp trawlers with catches made by artisanal fishers in Malindi-Ungwana Bay, Kenya. Cosmas N Munga, Stephen N Mwangi, Harrison Ong'anda, Renison K Ruwa, Julius Manyala, Johan C Groeneveld, Edward N Kimani, Ann Vanreusel ...

  6. Authenticating the Origin of Different Shrimp Products on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and reliable PCR method using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with three restriction enzymes (HpyCH4III/ MboI / AluI) was optimized for unambiguous differentiation of shrimp from 19 commercial market samples (raw and processed products). Results showed that the restriction fragment length ...

  7. Primary Carbon Sources for juvenile Penaeid Shrimps in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract— A study to estimate the relative importance of mangrove primary carbon and nitrogen sources to five commercial penaeid shrimps species was done at Saco da lnhaca, a non-estuarine mangrove-fringed bay on lnhaca Island, southern Mozambique. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a ...

  8. 78 FR 9024 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation... Statement (DEIS) to Reduce Incidental Bycatch and Mortality of Sea Turtles in the Southeastern U.S. Shrimp... elevated sea turtle strandings in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, particularly throughout the Mississippi...

  9. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  10. Short Communications Collections of freshwater shrimps along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-13

    Mar 13, 1987 ... Shrimps and prawns of the world. An annotated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAD. Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 (FJR/S125) 1: 1-271. JOHNSON, D.S. 1973. Notes on some species of the genus. Macrobrachium (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae). J. Singapore National Acad. Sci.

  11. Fishing methods for sustainable shrimp fisheries in the Canary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past 20 years, experimental cruises have been conducted around the Canary Islands (North-West Africa) to investigate the biodiversity of the deep-sea ecosystem and to explore new fisheries resources. Although pandalid shrimps were shown to be very abundant in this region, information is lacking regarding ...

  12. Chitosan from shrimp shell ( Crangon crangon ) and fish scales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chitosan is a naturally available biopolymer. It has been prepared by alkaline N deacetylation process of shrimp (Crangon crangon) chitin and fish (Labeorohita) chitin. The physico-chemical properties such as the degree of deacetylation (DD), solubility, water binding capacity, fat binding capacity and chitosan yield have ...

  13. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dijk, van H.; Bosma, R.H.; Boer, de W.F.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions

  14. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de K.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays

  15. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  16. Physicochemical Characterization of Biopolymer Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaddin Mengelizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, which is a naturally abundant mucopolysaccharide, supporting the matter of crustaceans, insects, and fungi. Because of its unique properties, such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, chitosan has a wide range of applications in various fields. The objective of the present work is to extract the polymer chitosan from Persian Gulf shrimp shells. In order to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the extracted chitosan, degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, water and fat binding capacities extraction rate, and apparent viscosity were measured using a variety of techniques including viscometry, weight measurement method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results of the study of the physicochemical properties, molecular weight (6.7×105 Da, degree of deacetylation (57%, ash content as well as yield (0.5% of the prepared chitosan indicated that shrimp processing wastes (shrimp shells are a good source of chitosan. The water binding capacity (521% and fat binding capacity (327% of the prepared chitosan are in good agreement with the other studies. The elemental analysis showed the C, H and N contents of 35.92%, 7.02%, and 8.66%, respectively. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of chitosan was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated the high potential of chitosan as an antibacterial agent. Moreover, the results of the study indicated that shrimp shells are a rich source of chitin as 25.21% of the shell’s dry weight.

  17. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon

  18. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inbreeding as negative factor perhaps promote a significant increase of the genetic similarity of the captive populations, consequently leading to greater disease susceptibility and impairment of both the growth and final size of the shrimps. Therefore evaluating genetic diversity and inbreeding required for improvement of ...

  20. Lunar Cycles, Catchability of Penaeid Shrimps and Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. latisulcatus manifested significant variations in night-time CPUE during the lunar cycle, with full moons yielding the lowest catches. This is thought to be caused by the burrowing behaviour of this nocturnal shrimp which decreases its catchability. The benefits of fishery closure during full moons and from June to the end of ...

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rangel Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With a technical approach, this diagnosis aims to fill a gap in the overview of the activity, considering its technical aspects that manage the fishing effort of shrimping of Penambuco. From October 2013 to August 2014, the fishing grounds were identified used in this activity, as well as the fishing method, the number of boats and fishermen acting, type of boat and gears used. Analyses were performed with the major communities operating in this fishery (Recife, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Barra de Sirinhaém and São Jose da Coroa Grande. The analyzes of the catch were tested using one-way ANOVA (α 5%. They observed two traditional types: the beach seining and trawing. It was cataloged about 50 vessels in the activity, with approximately 100 fishermen. They are caught mainly three types of shrimp: pink (Farfantepenaeus spp., Seabob (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and white (Lithopenaeus schmitii. Statistical data concentrated in the metropolitan area of Recife and Barra de Sirinhaém. There seems to be a direct relationship rainfall with shrimp production because with increased rainfall, there is a higher volume of landing fishery. Barra de Sirinhaém is the main area used in the State. Keywords: ‘mangote’; trawling fishing; pink shrimp; Farfantepenaeus spp.

  2. Emerging and potential technologies for facilitating shrimp peeling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    Ready-to-eat shrimp processing is challenging due to the complex biological design with the shell tightly connected to the meat. Several techniques have been developed to weaken or loosen this connection, thus facilitating the subsequent peeling. The loosening process is typically undertaken by m...

  3. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-16

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low.

  4. Absorption and retention of selenium from shrimps in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, S. H.; Sandstrom, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the bioavailability of selenium in shrimps, a possible good source of selenium, by measurements of the absorption and retention of selenium and the effects on plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Twelve healthy young subjects (9F...... of the study, after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The selenium intake increased from 39.4 +/- 15.3 mug/d to 127 +/- 5.5 mug/d with the addition of shrimps. The apparent absorption of selenium from shrimps was 83 +/- 4%, Faecal and urinary selenium excretion was 32.5 +/- 17.0 mug/d and 21.2 +/- 9.0 mug/d, re spectively...... and the total retention of selenium was 3.1 +/- 1.1 mg. Plasma selenium concentrations were 95.2 +/- 9.7 mug/L and 101.5 +/- 9.7 mug/L before and after six weeks of shrimp intake, respectively (p...

  5. Mouse model in food allergy: dynamic determination of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the method could continuously reflect the variation of allergic symptom and actualize dynamic determination of shrimp allergenicity. Furthermore, it is feasible, sensitive and repeatable. The approach will provide some valuable reference for identifying allergenicity of novel food proteins by using animal model in the future.

  6. Characterization of myosin light chain in shrimp hemocytic phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Myosin light chain, a well-known cytoskeleton gene, regulates multiple processes that are involved in material transport, muscle shrink and cell division. However, its function in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In this investigation, a myosin light chain gene was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The full-length cDNA of this gene was of 766 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 462 bp encoding a polypeptide of 153 amino acids. The myosin light chain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified GST fusion protein. As revealed by immuno-electron microscopy, the myosin light chain protein was only expressed in the dark bands of muscle. In the present study, the myosin light chain gene was up-regulated in the WSSV-resistant shrimp as revealed by real-time PCR and western blot. And the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were remarkably increased in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, suggesting that the myosin light chain protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, RNAi assays indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index were significantly decreased when the myosin light chain gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA. These findings suggested that myosin light chain protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing discards in Shrimp fisheries with the Letterbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Leijzer, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Two gear adjustments for reducing discards in brown shrimp fisheries were compared; the sievenet and the letterbox. Sievenets are already used in the Netherlands since 2002 and are cone-shaped nets inserted into standard trawls, which direct unwanted by-catch to an escape hole in the body of the

  8. Juvenile Penaeid Shrimp Density, Spatial Distribution and Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of habitat characteristics (mangrove creek, sandflat, mudflat and seagrass meadow) water salinity, temperature, and depth on the density, spatial distribution and size distribution of juveniles of five commercially important penaied shrimp species (Metapenaus monoceros, M. stebbingi, Fenneropenaeus indicus, ...

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  10. Population Structure and Recruitment of Penaeid Shrimps from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eds.). Relatorio Anual. 2004, Maputo, Mozambique. pp 7-9. Palha de Sousa, L., Brito, A., Abdula, S., & Caputi, N. (2006) Research assessment for the management of the industrial shallow-water multi-species shrimp fishery in Sofala Bank in ...

  11. adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Adesope

    Even though India is having such a huge potential brackish water area, only 13 per cent (1,56,500 ha) is developed till March 2003. Maharashtra is gifted with 80,000 ha total brackish water area out of which 14,455 ha is suitable for aquaculture and 871 ha is developed for shrimp culture. The south konkan region is blessed.

  12. Shrimp Waste Meal Supplementation Of Cassava Products Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of investigating shrimp waste (SWM) and cassava leaf (CLM) meals as cheap alternatives and protein source mixtures that would best complement cassava root-soybean ration in total replacement for maize in broiler diets, six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were evaluated using two weeks old ...

  13. Genetic diversity and historical demography of kuruma shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two varieties (I and II) of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) were found in the north of South China Sea (SCS) and Taiwan Strait (TS). To estimate the demographic history and genetic diversity of this species complex off China, 141 individuals were collected from the East China Sea (ECS), TS and SCS and 27 variety 2 ...

  14. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  15. Primary carbon sources for juvenile penaeid shrimps in a mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of primary producers (mangroves, epiphytes, phytoplankton and seagrasses), sediments and in five penaeid shrimp species (Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) indicus, P. japonicus, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros and M. stebbingi), collected ...

  16. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  17. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product.

  18. Microbial deproteinization of shrimp shell penaeus merguiensis for chitin extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sedaghat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After cellulose, Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer in nature. The most important derivative of chitin is chitosan, obtained by deacetylation of chitin. Major sources of chitin are the exoskeleton of marine crustaceans such as crab, shrimp, and krill. Chitin extraction from shrimp shells can be carried out chemically or using biological methods. Microbial fermentation as an eco-friendly procedure is a suitable alternative for the chemical and enzymatic processes. In this study, the effect of three protease-producing bacteria species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Bacillus pumilus on the efficiency of microbial demineralization (DM and deproteinization (DP of the shrimp shell penaeus merguiensis, was investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate obtained during the fermentation process was measured. Materials and methods: Demineralization and deproteinization was carried out by incubating shrimp waste inoculated with bacteria at 30°C and 100 rpm for 6 days. Results: Statistical analysis of data showed a significant difference between the percentage of demineralization and deproteinization in different bacteria species (p<0.05. The highest deproteinization (74.76% and demineralization rate (78.46% were obtained with P. aeruginosa, while the lowest was observed for S. marcescens. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysate also showed a significant difference. The highest reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in volumes of 400 µl hydrolysate of S.marcescens and 100 µl hydrolysate of B. pumilus, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicated that P. aeruginosa in comparison with other bacterial strains, had a higher ability to remove proteins and minerals from shrimp shell waste. Therefore, the use of this bacterium is suitable for protein and minerals removal from marine crustaceans.

  19. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  20. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt).

  1. Financial Feasibility of Green-water Shrimp Farming Associated with Mangrove Compared to Extensive Shrimp Culture in the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Tendencia, E.A.; Bunting, S.W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a post-hoc assessment of the introduction of intensive shrimp farming strategies, with and without green-water (GW) technology, in the Mahakam Delta where extensive systems (ES) dominate. The study also assesses the potential of integrated mangrove GW shrimp production (MGW). The

  2. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nildo da Silva Dias; Francisco Aécio de Lima; Claudio Ricardo da Silva; Osvaldo Nogueira de Sousa Neto; Hans Raj Gheyi

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11...

  3. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  4. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  5. Utilization of Brine Sludge in Nonstructural Building Components: A Sustainable Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and influence of brine sludge on the properties of cement-fly ash-sludge binders are presented. The reaction products formed during the hydration of binder provide an interlocking framework to physically encapsulate the waste particles and are responsible for the development of strength. The utilization of brine sludge in making paver blocks and bricks and the effect of sludge concentration on the engineering properties of these products are also discussed. These results clearly exhibited that brine sludge up to 35 and 25% can safely be utilized for making paver blocks and bricks, respectively. The leachability studies confirm that the metals ions and impurities in the sludge are substantially fixed in the matrix and do not readily leach from there. The utilization of brine sludge in construction materials could serve as an alternative solution to disposal and reduce pollution.

  6. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  7. Observations of Brine Pool Surface Characteristics and Internal Structure Through Remote Acoustic and Structured Light Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the surface characteristics and internal structure of deep-sea brine pools are currently limited to discrete in-situ observations. Complementary acoustic and structured light imaging sensors mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) have demonstrated the ability systematically detect variations in surface characteristics of a brine pool, reveal internal stratification and detect areas of active hydrocarbon activity. The presented visual and acoustic sensors combined with a stereo camera pair are mounted on the 4000m rated ROV Hercules (Ocean Exploration Trust). These three independent sensors operate simultaneously from a typical 3m altitude resulting in visual and bathymetric maps with sub-centimeter resolution. Applying this imaging technology to 2014 and 2015 brine pool surveys in the Gulf of Mexico revealed acoustic and visual anomalies due to the density changes inherent in the brine. Such distinct changes in acoustic impedance allowed the high frequency 1350KHz multibeam sonar to detect multiple interfaces. For instance, distinct acoustic reflections were observed at 3m and 5.5m below the vehicle. Subsequent verification using a CDT and lead line indicated the acoustic return from the brine surface was the signal at 3m, while a thicker muddy and more saline interface occurred at 5.5m, the bottom of the brine pool was not located but is assumed to be deeper than 15m. The multibeam is also capable of remotely detecting emitted gas bubbles within the brine pool, indicative of active hydrocarbon seeps. Bubbles associated with these seeps were not consistently visible above the brine while using the HD camera on the ROV. Additionally, while imaging the surface of brine pool the structured light sheet laser became diffuse, refracting across the main interface. Analysis of this refraction combined with varying acoustic returns allow for systematic and remote detection of the density, stratification and activity levels within and

  8. High rate of house dust mite sensitization in a shrimp allergic southern Ontario population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Lana; Tsoulis, Michael William; Milio, Kirolos; Schnittke, Meghan; Kim, Harold

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp and house dust mite (HDM) allergies are common in Canadians. Often, both of these allergies occur in the same patient. This may be due to homology of tropomyosin or other potentially shared proteins. The aim of our study was to assess the frequency of house dust mite sensitization in a shrimp allergic Canadian population. We undertook a retrospective chart review of shrimp allergic patients at an outpatient allergy clinic in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada. Our primary endpoint was to assess for presence of HDM sensitization in this population. Patients were categorized into approximate quartiles. We assessed the severity of the shrimp reactions, correlated shrimp skin test size to HDM skin test size, and measured the proportion of patients with atopic symptoms. We identified 95 shrimp allergic patients who were tested for house dust mite. 86 (90.5%) of these patients had a positive skin test to HDM. Patients with a shrimp skin test ≥5 mm were 5.31 times (95% CI, 1.55-18.14; p = 0.008) more likely to exhibit a dust mite skin test ≥5 mm than patients with a shrimp skin test <5 mm. The odds of a patient with a shrimp skin test between 10 and 18 mm having a larger HDM skin test were 3.93 times (95% CI 1.03-14.98, p = 0.045) the odds for a patient with a shrimp skin test size between 3 and 4 mm. We did not find a correlation between shrimp skin test size and shrimp reaction symptom grade (p = 0.301). In our Canadian patients, we found a large majority of shrimp allergic patients to be sensitized to HDM. We found that patients with a large skin test to shrimp were more likely to have a large skin test to HDM compared to those patients with a small skin test to shrimp. We did not find a correlation between shrimp skin test size and shrimp reaction symptom severity. Most of these patients had symptoms of rhinitis and/or asthma that may have been caused by house dust mite allergy.

  9. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a

  10. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman S. Mazahreh; Jihad M. Quasem; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Ibrahim A. Afaneh; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Jihad M. Quasem; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Ibrahim A. Afaneh

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese) is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year) without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%). Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be poss...

  11. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into ... using size exclusion chromatography. All samples were analysed for protein, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. Protein-enriched samples were pooled (P1, P2 and P3) and analysed for phenolic acids, total amino acids and peptide/protein sequence using advanced mass spectrometry. All...

  12. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  13. Corrosion of N80 and Cr13 steels in brine and CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zhan, H.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of the N80 casing and Cr13 steels was studied in a brine-CO2 mixture in autoclaves using electrochemical measurements and mass loss test. The brine solution contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2, representative for formation waters in North Sea wells. The

  14. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    NODA, FUMIO; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  15. CO2 Mineralization Using Brine Discharged from a Seawater Desalination Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hwan Bang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 mineralization is a method of sequestering CO2 in the form of carbonated minerals. Brine discharged from seawater desalination is a potential source of Mg and Ca, which can precipitate CO2 as forms of their carbonate minerals. The concentration of Mg and Ca in brine are twice those in the seawater influent to desalination process. This study used a cycle for CO2 mineralization that involves an increase in the pH of the brine, followed by CO2 bubbling, and, finally, filtration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that non-synthesized brine from a seawater desalination plant has been used for CO2 mineralization. The resulting precipitates were CaCO3 (calcite, Mg5(CO34(OH2·4H2O (hydromagnesite, and NaCl (halite with these materials being identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and thermo gravimetric-differentail thermal Analysis (TGA-DTA. Despite the presence of Ca with Mg in brine being unfavorable for the precipitation of Mg carbonate, Mg reacted with CO2 to form hydromagnesite at a yield of 86%. Most of the Ca formed calcite, at 99% yield. This study empirically demonstrates that brine from seawater desalination plants can be used for CO2 mineralization.

  16. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  17. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  18. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

    1995-04-01

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

  19. Detecting supercritical CO2 in brine at sequestration pressure with an optical fiber sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bo; Melo, Luis; Davies, Benjamin; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David; Wild, Peter

    2013-01-02

    Monitoring of sequestered carbon is essential to establishing the environmental safety and the efficacy of geological carbon sequestration. Sequestration in saline aquifers requires the detection of supercritical CO(2) and CO(2)-saturated brine as distinct from the native reservoir brine. Here we demonstrate an all-optical approach to detect both supercritical CO(2), and saturated brine under sequestration conditions. The method employs a long-period grating written on an optical fiber with a resonance wavelength that is sensitive to local refractive index within a pressure- and temperature-controlled apparatus at 40 °C and 1400 psi (9.65 MPa). The supercritical CO(2) and brine are clearly distinguished by a wavelength shift of 1.149 nm (refractive index difference of 0.2371). The CO(2)-saturated brine is also detectable relative to brine, with a resonance wavelength shift of 0.192 nm (refractive index difference of 0.0396). Importantly, these findings indicate the potential for distributed, all-optical monitoring of CO(2) sequestration in saline aquifers.

  20. Concentrated Brine Treatment using New Energy in Coal Mine Evaporation Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-12-01

    Recently, more and more coal mine water is being advanced treated and reused in China. The concentrated brine that results from advanced treatment methods can only be evaporated in an evaporation pond. Because of limited treatment capabilities and winter freezing, evaporation ponds often overflow, causing environment contamination. In this paper, based on analysis of brine water quality and economic-technical feasibility, we present a suitable treatment method for brine in evaporation ponds as electrodialysis using solar energy. In addition, we propose a new system to treat brine in coal mine evaporation ponds, which is powered by solar and wind. The operating efficiency of this treatment system proposed in this paper can meet the concentrated brine treatment demands in most coal mines in western mining areas of China and it places the photovoltaic power generation plates on the surface of the evaporation pond on a fixed floating island, which reduces any risk associated with land acquisition. This system can enhance brine treatment efficiency, requires a reduced evaporation pond area, increases the utilization of coal mine water, and minimizes the risk of environment contamination.

  1. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  2. The effect of copper on the color of shrimps: redder is not always healthier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martínez

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water. As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500-700 nm: P=0.0015; red chroma (625-700 nm: P<0.0001. These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps.

  3. Effects of Shrimp Meal Fermented with Aspergillus niger On Physical Quality of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research materials were 75 broiler chickens of 1 day old and feeds. The research employed five treatments, namely (P0: feed without addition of fermented shrimp meal, P1: feed with 5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P2: feed with 7.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P3: feed with 10 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P4: feed with 12.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal. Every treatment was repeated 3 times, with 5 chickens respectively. Variables of this research were Water Holding Capacity (WHC, cooking loss and tenderness of broiler meat. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design, if there was a significant effect, it was followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result of this research showed that the use of fermented shrimp meal in broiler feed can improve WHC, degrading cooking loss and improving tenderness of broiler meat.   Keywords : Water holding capacity, cooking loss, tenderness

  4. Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    OpenAIRE

    Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larva...

  5. Increasing Calcium Oxide (Cao) to Accelerate Moulting and Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Erlando, Gito; ', Rusliadi; Mulyadi,

    2016-01-01

    The research about the increasing Calcium Oxide (CaO) to accelerate moulting and survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was conducted from Agustus until September 2015 at Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Instalasi Pembenihan Udang (IPU) Gelung, Situbondo Provinsi Jawa Timur. The purpose of this research was to investigate optimum doses calcium oxide to accelerate moulting and the survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vannamei shrimp with size PL25 were used in...

  6. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country’s achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in ...

  7. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  8. Microbiota from Litopenaeus vannamei: digestive tract microbial community of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzuc, Jaqueline Tuyub; Escalante, Diana Rendíz; Rojas Herrera, Rafael; Gaxiola Cortés, Gabriela; Ortiz, Maria Leticia Arena

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria capable of producing different extracellular enzymes of potential relevance in digestive processes were isolated from the stomach, hepatopancreas and intestine of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei...

  9. Formulation of a fish feed for goldfish with natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weeratunge, W K. O. V; Perera, B G. K

    2016-01-01

    .... An attempt was made towards optimization of astaxanthin extraction conditions using three different extraction conditions and a solvent series, from uncooked, cooked and acid-treated shrimp waste...

  10. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to Litopenaeus vannamei from infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M A; Shervette, V R; Lotz, J M

    2001-06-20

    Shrimp viruses can remain infectious in frozen shrimp tissue and have been found in frozen commodity shrimp. Therefore, the threat of viral outbreaks in wild and cultured shrimp via frozen commodity shrimp exists. Because frozen shrimp are imported with and without the cephalothorax, more knowledge is needed concerning the infectivity of a cephalothorax relative to that of an abdomen. We compared the mortality rates from shrimp exposed to a WSSV-infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver. Estimates of transmission coefficients from the exposures to the infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp were also calculated because the transmission coefficients account for differences in the initial doses. In addition, we compared the variability in infectivity of pieces of shrimp by feeding 24 equal-sized pieces of cephalothorax and abdomen to 24 individually isolated shrimp. In Expt 1, susceptible shrimp did not completely consume the infected abdomen, and a significant difference was detected among shrimp exposed to the abdomen (mortality rate = 0.40), cephalothorax (mortality rate = 0.75), and whole shrimp cadaver (mortality rate = 0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.95 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.59 from an infected abdomen, and 0.69 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 2, susceptible shrimp were starved to ensure complete ingestion of each dose. No significant difference was observed in the estimated mortality rates from an infected cephalothorax (0.58), abdomen (0.63), or whole shrimp (0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.84 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.83 from an infected abdomen, and 0.60 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 3, no difference was observed in the mortality rates resulting from exposures to pieces of infected cephalothorax (0.57) or abdomen (0.58). Our results suggested that there was no difference in the viral loads of a WSSV-infected cephalothorax or abdomen, but

  11. Fermentation Cover Brine Reformulation for Cucumber Processing with Low Salt to Reduce Bloater Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Y; Pérez-Díaz, I M

    2017-12-01

    Reformulation of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2 ), sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the indigenous carbon dioxide (CO2 )- producing microbiota, and decrease the solubility of the gas. The influence of the cover brine formulations tested, on the cucumber fermentation microbiota, biochemistry, CO2 production, and bloating defect was studied using metagenetics, HPLC analysis, a portable gas analyzer and bloater index, respectively. Cover brine supplementation with Ca(OH)2 and acetic acid resulted in complete fermentations with final pH values 0.5 units higher than the un-supplemented control. Lactic acid production increased by approximately 22%, possibly inducing the observed reduction in the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae by 92%. Ca(OH)2 supplementation also resulted in an increased relative abundance of Leuconostocaceae by 7%, which likely contributed to the observed increment in CO2 levels by 25%. A 50% reduction on acetic acid formation was detected when cover brines were supplemented with Ca(OH)2 and 690 mM (4%) NaCl. No significant difference was observed in bloater index as the result of Ca(OH)2 or NaCl supplementation in cover brines, given that the CO2 levels remained at above the 20 mg/100 mL needed to induce the defect. It is concluded that the modified cover brine formulation containing Ca(OH)2 and NaCl enables the complete conversion of sugars, decreases production of CO2 and levels of Enterobacteriaceae, but insignificantly reduces bloater index. A cucumber fermentation cover brine containing Ca(OH)2 , 0.26% CaCl2 , 345 mM (2%) NaCl, and acetic acid to pH 4.7 has a functional combination of ingredients enabling a complete conversion of sugars to lactic acid with reduced production of acetic acid and CO2 . It

  12. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of white brined cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Burgos-Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp.

  14. Evolution of Neural Computations: Mantis Shrimp and Human Color Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Zaidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification.

  15. Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, M.; Briggs, D. E. G.; Van Heemst, J. D. H.; Kear, A. J.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1995-03-01

    The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass after only eight weeks. This selective preservation confirms that the resistance of chitin to decay may be a major factor in accounting for the extensive fossil record of arthropods lacking a biomineralized skeleton. It also suggests that chitin is likely to be an important contributor to the organic content of recent marine sediments. The pyrolysate of the preserved cuticle of fossil shrimps reveals a homologous series of alkanes and alkenes indicating a substitution of chitin by more resistant organic matter derived from other sources.

  16. Quantification of Organic Acids in Fermented Shrimp Waste by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Isabel Sánchez-Machado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple, rapid, and reliable HPLC method for the determination of organic acids in fermented shrimp waste. Lactic, acetic and citric acids were quantified by HPLC with UV detection, on a 250×4.6 mm Extrasil ODS 5-μm column, mobile phase was ultrapure water adjusted with metaphosphoric acid to pH=2.1, flow rate 0.6 mL/min, column temperature 30 °C, and detection wavelength 210 nm. Under these conditions, the recovery (97.5 % and the method repeatability (RSD=6.2 % for lactic acid were of satisfying quality. Organic acids can preserve the quality and nutritive value of fermented shrimp waste.

  17. Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

    2007-05-01

    In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

  18. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  19. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  20. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  1. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  2. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  3. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26 ± 0.89 GPa at 25 °C that reduces to 7.61 ± 0.65 GPa at 80 °C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38 ± 2.3 GPa at 25 °C to 24.58 ± 1.71 GPa at 80 °C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. - Highlights: • Shrimp species Pandalus platyceros and Rimicaris exoculata exoskeletons are analyzed. • Temperature dependent properties of shrimp exoskeleton are compared. • Mechanical properties are correlated with structure and composition of exoskeleton. • Mechanical properties reduce with increase in temperature. • Presence of biominerals gives better thermal stability to structure.

  4. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  5. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni

    2017-11-01

    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.

  6. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winslow, C D

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  7. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  8. Toxicity Test of Extracts of the Four Sea Cucumber (Family Holothuriidae) From East Penjaliran Island, Seribu Islands, Jakarta Based on the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Bslt)

    OpenAIRE

    Albuntana, Arum; Yasman, Yasman; Wardhana, Wisnu

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumber is one of the marine bioactive compounds resources . The properties of the bioactive compound are biologically shown by their functions as anticancer, antifungi, hemolytic, and immunomodulatoryt. The purpose of this research is to predict (determine) the toxicity level of the extracts of Actinopyga miliaris, Holothuria leucospilota, Bohadschia argus, and Bohadschia marmorata collected from Penjaliran Timur Island, Seribu Island National Park Jakarta. The method used in this resea...

  9. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia Dan Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Kulit Umbi Bawang Merah ( Allii cepae var. ascalonicum ) Dengan Metode Uji Brine Shrimp (BST)

    OpenAIRE

    Manullang, Leli

    2011-01-01

    The red onion is multifunction spices plant. The red onion, besides it’s used as food flavoring it has been known as a traditional medicine too, for along time. Red onion can be stored for a long time without removing it’s skin, this thing shows that red onion’s skin has active compounds that protects the red onion’s bulb. The red onion’s skin is used for making boiled “pindang” eggs so those boiled eggs stay fresh for a long time. This research aimed to see the differences in toxicity of ext...

  10. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam Amutha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and lossThe antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collpase and loss of function. Time-kill assay of C. albicans indicated a primarily fungicidal effect at 1- and 2-fold MIC. E. hirta extracts had LC50 values of 0.71, 0.66, 0.41 and 0.03 mg/mL for stems, leaves, roots and flowers, respectively against Artemia salina. Hence, these plants can be used to discover new bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals.

  11. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...... traditional barrel-salted herring TSa) were used without any pre-treatment or with a previous pH adjustment, and tested either as coating agents (glazing) for frozen herring or additives in fresh mince herring, in order to prevent oxidation. TSa and TSp were the most effective glazing agents, retarding lipid...

  12. Proteasome properties of hemocytes differ between the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei and the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Sandra; Saborowski, Reinhard; Martínez-Cruz, Oliviert; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans are intensively farmed in aquaculture facilities where they are vulnerable to parasites, bacteria, or viruses, often severely compromising the rearing success. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is crucial for the maintenance of cellular integrity. Analogous to higher vertebrates, the UPS of crustaceans may also play an important role in stress resistance and pathogen defense. We studied the general properties of the proteasome system in the hemocytes of the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, and the European brown shrimp Crangon crangon. The 20S proteasome was the predominant proteasome population in the hemocytes of both species. The specific activities of the trypsin-like (Try-like), chymotrypsin-like (Chy-like), and caspase-like (Cas-like) enzymes of the shrimp proteasome differed between species. P. vannamei exhibited a higher ratio of Try-like to Chy-like activities and Cas-like to Chy-like activities than C. crangon. Notably, the Chy-like activity of P. vannamei showed substrate or product inhibition at concentrations of more than 25 mmol L-1. The K M values ranged from 0.072 mmol L-1 for the Try-like activity of P. vannamei to 0.309 mmol L-1 for the Cas-like activity of C. crangon. Inhibition of the proteasome of P. vannamei by proteasome inhibitors was stronger than in C. crangon. The pH profiles were similar in both species. The Try-like, Chy-like, and Cas-like sites showed the highest activities between pH 7.5 and 8.5. The proteasomes of both species were sensitive against repeated freezing and thawing losing ~80-90% of activity. This study forms the basis for future investigations on the shrimp response against infectious diseases, and the role of the UPS therein.

  13. These squatters are not innocent: the evidence of parasitism in sponge-inhabiting shrimps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ďuriš

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic and T. spongicola (Mediterranean. The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae and Synalpheus (Alpheidae. The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation.

  14. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  15. Experimental evaluation of co-culture of juvenile sea cucumbers, Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), with juvenile blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson)

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, S; Patrois, Jacques; Fraisse, N.

    2006-01-01

    The co-culture of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), or 'sandfish', with juvenile blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) was tested by growing groups in co-culture and monoculture for 3 weeks in tanks with enriched sand substratum. Feed was supplied on trays, accessible only to shrimp. Survival of shrimp and sandfish was high in all treatments (73-100%). Growth of shrimp did not differ between monoculture and co-culture, but sandfish grew significantly slower in co-cul...

  16. Distribution of deep sea shrimp (Pandalus borealis Krøyer) in relation to temperature in the Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Nedreaas, Kjell Harald; Øynes, Per

    1987-01-01

    In the years 1980 to 1985 stratided raildom bottom trawl surveys were carried out on the shrimp fields in the Svalbard and Barents Sea regions. The objeetives of the cruises were to study the structure of the shrimp stock and to estimate the abundance of shrimp. On each trawl station the bottom temperature was measured. Only the results from the surveys in the Barents Sea have throroughly been analysed with regard to temperature. In the investigated area the deep sea shrimp ...

  17. Antioxidant Effect of Orange Peel Extract on Chemical Quality, Sensory Properties, and Black Spots of Farmed White Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Vakili; Seyyed Ali Yasini Ardakani

    2018-01-01

    Background: Black spots are a major problem in commercial shrimp species and can have negative effects on shrimps' appearance, quality, shelf life, economic value, and product acceptance by consumers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of orange peel extract on chemical and sensory qualities as well as black spots on Litopenaeus vannamei species of white farmed shrimp. Methods: Samples included treated shrimps at concentration of 150 g, orange peel extract for 30 minutes, and ...

  18. The early bird gets the shrimp: Confronting assumptions of isotopic equilibrium and homogeneity in a wild bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Michael B.; Jehl, Joseph R.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Because stable isotope distributions in organic material vary systematically across energy gradients that exist in ecosystems, community and population structures, and in individual physiological systems, isotope values in animal tissues have helped address a broad range of questions in animal ecology. It follows that every tissue sample provides an isotopic profile that can be used to study dietary or movement histories of individual animals. Interpretations of these profiles depend on the assumption that metabolic pools are isotopically well mixed and in equilibrium with dietary resources prior to tissue synthesis, and they extend to the population level by assuming isotope profiles are identically distributed for animals using the same proximal dietary resource. As these assumptions are never fully met, studying structure in the variance of tissue isotope values from wild populations is informative. 2. We studied variation in δ13C, δ15N, δ2H and δ18O data for feathers from a population of eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) that migrate to Great Salt Lake each fall to moult feathers. During this time, they cannot fly and feed almost exclusively on superabundant brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). The ecological simplicity of this situation minimized the usual spatial and trophic complexities often present in natural studies of feather isotope values. 3. Ranges and variances of isotope values for the feathers were larger than those from previously published studies that report feather isotopic variance, but they were bimodally distributed in all isotope dimensions. Isotope values for proximal dietary resources and local surface water show that some of the feathers we assumed to have been grown locally must have been grown before birds reached isotopic equilibrium with local diet or immediately prior to arrival at Great Salt Lake. 4. Our study provides novel insights about resource use strategies in eared grebes during migration. More generally, it

  19. 78 FR 28146 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... prevent the waste of brown shrimp that would be discarded in fishing operations because of their small... INFORMATION: The Gulf shrimp fishery is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP). The FMP was prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council and is...

  20. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Decision Memo can be accessed directly on the Web at http://ia.ita.doc.gov/frn/index.html . The paper copy...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  1. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  2. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    KAUST Repository

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  3. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... found to be subsidized by the Governments of China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam and that are...

  4. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless...

  5. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  6. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  7. The cluster panacea?: Questioning the role of cooperative shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu Ha, Ha; Bush, S.R.; Dijk, van H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of ‘clustering’ as a form of cooperative production to improve the environmental performance of shrimp farmers and facilitating them to upgrade their position in the global value chain. Comparing intensive and extensive shrimp farmer clusters in Ca Mau province, Vietnam,

  8. Investigations of a stock assessment in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) Part 2: Biomass model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der T.; Poos, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Conservation and Food quality, Producer organisations of the Dutch shrimp fisheries and NGO’s (Stichting de Noordzee and Waddenvereniging) have underlined the importance of sustainable harvesting of brown shrimp in the North Sea and Wadden Sea. Also they would like the

  9. Optimal foraging in the thalassinidean shrimp Callianassa subterranea - Improving food quality by grain size selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ; de Wilde, PAWJ

    1998-01-01

    The grain size distributions and organic content of habitat sediment, stomach content and faecal pellets of the endobenthic shrimp C. subterranea were analyzed to study food selection and its nutritional yield. Sub-samples of sediment from the shrimps' habitat and the stomach content were fractioned

  10. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to...

  11. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews pursuant to... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be...

  12. Development and test of Dyneema shrimp trawl; Udvikling og forsoeg med dyneema rejetrawl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results from analysis of test fishing with one shrimp trawl made of standard materials and one shrimp trawl made of the material Dyneema, which is stronger than the standard material. By using the new developed trawl savings of 43 l fuel/hour is obtained. (EHS)

  13. Burrow architecture and turbative activity of the thalassinid shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Schreurs, CE; Videler, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The architecture and development of the burrows of the endobenthic shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea were studied in sediment-filled containers and thin cuvettes in the laboratory. Three-dimensional burrows of 81 shrimps were used to describe the 3-dimensional burrow

  14. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Comparison of quality characteristics between belacan from Brunei Darussalam and Korean shrimp paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Boong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The protein content, pH, water activity Ca, Fe, K, P, Zn, total amino acids, essential amino acids, saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol content tended to be higher in the Korean dried shrimp paste than in Bruneian belacan and Korean fermented Saewoojeot shrimp paste.

  16. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... warmwater shrimp from India to determine whether R.D.R. Exports (RDR) is the successor-in-interest company to Jaya Satya Marine Exports Pvt. Ltd. (Jaya Satya). See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn...

  17. Major shrimp pathogenic virus in america and their relationship with low salinity environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Godínez Siordia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture is an expanding activity in many countries in which the health status is a determining factor for its success. In this review we present world shrimp viral agents, with emphasis in America reported virus and the influence of water salinity.

  18. 75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... definitions in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS), are products which are processed... shrimp is a shrimp- based product that, when dusted in accordance with the definition of dusting above... realities surrounding an alleged sale of the subject merchandise.'' See Hebei New Donghua Amino Acid Co...

  19. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly

  20. Length-weight relationships of the pink shrimp penaeus notialis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred indigenous pink shrimps, Penaeus notialis and 19 exotic giant tiger Shrimps, P. monodon from Buguma Creek were caught in brackish water tidal ponds of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Buguma in April, May and June 2005. The length-weight relationship of both species ...