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Sample records for brine shrimp toxicity

  1. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

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    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes.

  2. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

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    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50  1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity.

  3. Toxicity testing of restorative dental materials using brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhem, Manar M; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S; Darmani, Homa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability) followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively). One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (pbrine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  4. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

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    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  5. Toxicity assessment of fumonisins using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay.

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    Hartl, M; Humpf, H U

    2000-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) (1) and B(2) (FB(2)) (2), their hydrolysed analogues HFB(1) (3) and HFB(2) (4) and the recently discovered fumonisin derivatives N-palmitoyl-HFB(1) (5) and N-carboxymethyl-FB(1) (6) were compared for their toxicity in a short term bioassay using brine shrimp (Artemia salina). The brine shrimp were hatched in artificial sea water and exposed to the fumonisins in microwell plates with a mortality endpoint after 48 hours. LC(50) values were calculated after Probit transformation of the resulting data. Of the substances tested, fumonisin B(1) emerged to be the most toxic whereas its N-carboxymethyl analogue was 100-fold less effective. The hydrolysed fumonisins showed a four- to sixfold reduced toxicity compared to FB(1). N-Palmitoyl-HFB(1) had a higher LC(50) value than its precursor HFB(1). The brine shrimp assay proved to be a convenient and rapid system for toxicity assessment of this group of mycotoxins.

  6. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

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    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  7. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

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    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  8. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

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    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  9. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

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    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  10. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

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    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  11. Toxicity of organophosphates on morphology and locomotor behavior in brine shrimp, Artemia salina.

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    Venkateswara Rao, J; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Sridhar, V; Usman, P K

    2007-08-01

    The acute toxicity and hatching success of four organophosphorus insecticides--acephate (ACEP), chlorpyrifos (CPP), monocrotophos (MCP), and profenofos (PF)--was studied in a short-term bioassay using brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Fifty percent hatchability inhibition concentration and median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting data. Among the insecticides tested, CPP is found to be the most toxic and also to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the effect of these pesticides on locomotor behavior (swimming speed) and morphologic differences were studied in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. The in vivo effect of these insecticides on acetylcholinesterase (Enzyme commission number (EC 3.1.1.7) activity was also determined in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. Maximum percent decrease in their swimming speed and significant morphologic alterations were noticed in CPP-exposed brine shrimps. The order of toxicity was CPP > PF > MCP > ACEP in all the parameters studied.

  12. Toxicity effect of silver nanoparticles in brine shrimp Artemia.

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    Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Jennifer, Samou Michael; Prabhu, Durai; Chandhirasekar, Devakumar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30-40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar) were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10 nM) and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours) was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts.

  13. Characterization of sewage sludge and the use of brine shrimp for toxicity test

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    Pun, K.C.; Cheung, R.Y.H. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) of digested sludges, collected from 4 sewage treatment works in Hong Kong were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, after sequentially extracted by 1 M KNO{sub 3}, 0.5 M KF, 0.1 M Na{sub 4}, P{sub 2}, O{sub 7} 0.1 M EDTA and 6 M HNO{sub 3} It was found that the major forms of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were in the sulfide phase, organically bound phase, adsorbed phase and carbonate phase respectively. Nauplii larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was then used as bioindicator to test the toxicity, of the digested sludges. 20 individuals were placed into 1 liter seawater containing whole sample of the types of digested sludges at different concentrations, The toxicity of the 4 sludges, according to 48h-LC 50, were ranked as follows YL > TP > ST > SWH.

  14. Toxicity of some bis Mannich bases and corresponding piperidinols in the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay.

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    Gul, H Inci; Gul, Mustafa; Erciyas, Ercin

    2003-01-01

    Some acetophenone-derived bis Mannich bases were synthesized: bis[beta-benzoylethyl]ethylamine hydrochloride (IIa), bis[beta-(p-methylbenzoyl)ethyl]ethylamine hydrochloride (IIb), bis[beta-(p-chlorobenzoyl)ethyl]ethy- lamine hydrochloride (IId), bis[(2-thienylcarbonyl)ethyl]ethylamine hydrochloride (IIe); some corresponding piperidinol derivatives: 3-benzoyl-1-ethyl-4-phenyl-4-piperidinol hydrochloride (IIIa), 1-ethyl-3-(p-methyl- benzoyl)-4-(p-methylphenyl)-4-piperidinol hydrochloride (IIIb), 1-ethyl-3-(p-methoxybenzoyl)-4-(p-methoxy- phenyl)-4-piperidinol hydrochloride (IIIc), 1-ethyl-3-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-4-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-piperidinol hydrochloride (IIId), 1-ethyl-4-(2-thienyl)-3-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-4-piperidinol hydrochloride (IIIe); and some representative quaternary piperidinols: 3-benzoyl-1-ethyl-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidinium iodide (IIIf), 1-ethyl-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-3-(p-methylbenzoyl)-4-(p-methylphenyl)piperidinium iodide (IIIg). Toxicity was tested by the brine shrimp bioassay as an intermediate test before further in vivo animal experiments. Piperidine derivatives were found to be more potent than bis Mannich bases. Quaternary piperidine derivatives IIIf and IIIg and also non-quaternary piperidine derivatives IIIb, IIIe, IIIc and IIId were more toxic than 5-fluorouracil in brine shrimp bioassay. Except for IIe, bis Mannich bases were not effective. Quaternization and conversion of bis Mannich bases to corresponding piperidines improved the toxicity. The lipid solubility of the compounds may not affect the toxicity. From these findings the quaternary piperidine derivatives IIIf and IIIg could be used in further drug development and also for in vivo experiments.

  15. Toxicity of four antifouling biocides and their mixtures on the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

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    Koutsaftis, A; Aoyama, I

    2007-11-15

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT), Copper pyrihione (CPT), Chlorothalonil and Diuron are four of the most widely used as alternative to tributlytin (TBT) antifouling biocides in boat paints. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these biocides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, information on the possible combined toxicity of these common biocides to marine organisms are limited. In this study, the toxicity of binary (in several proportions), ternary and quaternary mixtures were evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as test organism. Mixture toxicities were studied using the concentration addition model (isobolograms and toxic unit summation), and the mixture toxicity index (MTI). The ZPT-CPT combination had a strictly synergistic effect which requires attention because the coexistence of ZPT and CPT in the marine environment, due to transchelation of ZPT, may occur. The binary mixtures of Diuron with the metal pyrithiones exhibited various interactive effects (synergistic, antagonistic or additive) depending on concentration ratios, whereas all binary mixtures that contained Chlorothalonil exhibited antagonistic effects. The different types of combined effects subsequent to proportion variation of binary mixtures underline the importance of the combined toxicity characterization for various ratios of concentrations. The four ternary mixtures tested, also exhibited various interactive effects, and the quaternary mixture exhibited synergism. The models applied were in agreement in most cases. The observed synergistic interactions underline the requirement to review water quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these chemicals.

  16. Evaluation of the toxicity of Araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum using brine Shrimp test

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    Roberto Carlos de Sá Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the dawn of medicine, man has used natural products for the treatment of disease. There has been a recent increase in studies of the therapeutic characteristics plants in popular use in many places of the world. In this context, the species Centrolobium tomentosum, Fabaceae, known popularly as Araribá or Araruva, is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an astringent for wound treatment and bruises due to the large amount of tannins contained in the bark. This work used toxicity tests to assess the biological activity of ethanolic extracts from C. tomentosum with the specific objectives of obtaining concentrated extracts from the bark and wood of this species and determining the total phenols and tannins present in these extracts. We collected araribá samples in order to obtain ethanolic extracts through the percolation process. We then made a qualitative chemical identification of hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. We used the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the phenols quantification and the casein precipitation method for the tannins determination. The toxicity of extracts was evaluated using the brine shrimp bioassay (Artemia salina, in which the C. tomentosum bark extract showed moderate toxicity, with estimated LC50 = 416 μg.ml-1, whereas the leaves and wood extracts of this species showed low toxicity with LC50 = 537 μg.ml-1 and 826 μg.ml-1, respectively.

  17. Toxicity of Five Phenolic Compounds to Brine Shrimp Artemia sinica(Crustacea:Artemiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Shaukat; LIU Guangxing; LI Zhengyan; XU Donghui; HUANG Yousong; CHEN Hongju

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of five phenolic compounds each to 15 d old Artemia sinica was determined in this study. The brine shrimp A. sinica was hatched from the encysted dry eggs (Bohai Bay Brand) produced by Dongying Ocean Artemia Co., Ltd., China at 27℃± 1℃in pre-filtered (through pores of 0.45 µm in diameter) and autoclaved seawater (salinity 31, pH 7.5-8.0) in a cilindroconical glass beaker (2000 mL in volume) under continuous illumination (provided by a side set 20 W fluorescent lamp) with slight aeration. Ten Artemia individuals from the same batch of the hatched were cultured in 10 mL toxicant solution prepared with seawater (salinity 31, pH 7.5-8.0) at room temperature (about 20℃) to determine 24 h, 48 h and 72 h medium lethal concentration (LC50) of 5 phenolic compounds each. It was found that the toxicity of n-heptylphenol was the highest followed by nonylphenol, t-butylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and bisphenol A in order. The LC50 values of the 5 compounds were calculated with regression analysis. The real concentration (in µg L-1) of 5 phenolic compounds each in toxicant solutions was measured with GC/MS analysis. Significant loss of phenolic compounds caused by either adsorption or desorption was not found. The significant difference of LC50 values was found among the five compounds 3 exposure times each. The range between the highest no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and 100%death causing concentration of five phenolic compounds each was determined. The toxicity in term of 24 h LC50 value of n-HP was 9.10 times higher than that of BPA, 1.71 times higher than t-BP, 1.53 times higher than 2,4-DCP and 1.36 times higher than NP, respectively.

  18. Phytochemical and toxicity evaluation ofPhaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl by MCF-7 cell line and brine shrimp lethality bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abul Kalam Azad; Wan Mohd Azizi Wan Sulaiman; Nushrat Khan Sunzida

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cytotoxicity ofPhaleria macrocarpa fruits extracts. Methods: The cytotoxicity test was carried out byin vitroMCF-7 cell line andin vivo brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: The preliminary phytochemical test showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycosides, saponin, terpene, steroids, phenols and flavonoids. TheMTT-assay results showed that the highest percentage of cell viability was 106.23% at concentration of 1.25µL and the lowest percentage was 13.04% at concentration of 10µL. Conclusions:TheMTT-assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay results showed that the extract was non-toxic and it would be consumable as a herbal remedy.

  19. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and relaxant activity of fruits of callistemon citrinus curtis

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    Shah Ismail

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Callistemon citrinus Curtis belongs to family Myrtaceae that has a great medicinal importance. In our previous work, fruits of Callistemon citrinus were reported to have relaxant (antispasmodic activity. The current work describes the screening of fractions of the crude methanol extract for tracing spasmolytic constituents so that it shall help us for isolation of bioactive compounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity of crude methanol extract are also performed to standardize it. Methods The crude methanol extract was obtained by maceration with distilled water (500 ml three times and fractionated successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol (300 ml of each solvent. Phytochemical analysis for crude methanol extract was performed. Acute toxicity studies were performed in mice. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity studies were performed to determine its cytotoxicity and standardize it. In other series of experiments, rabbits' jejunum preparations were used in screening for possible relaxant activities of various fractions. They were applied in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations. In similar fashion, fractions were also tested on KCl (80 mM -induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed in K-rich Tyrode's solution. The effects of various fractions were tested on calcium chloride curves at concentrations 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Curves of verapamil used as reference drug at concentration 0.1 μM and 0.3 μM were also constructed. The curves were compared with their respective controls for possible right shift. Results Methanol extract tested strongly positive for saponins and tannins. However, it tested mild positive for presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. LD50 value for crude methanol extract is 476.25 ± 10.3 (470-481, n = 4 mg/ml. Similarly, EC50 value for brine shrimp

  20. Studies on the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur. (Bignoniaceae extracts and their main constituents

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    Rocha Eliana MM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach, we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans. Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL. From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2, 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3, and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm. Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic

  1. Toxicity of tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

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    Yamasaki, Toru; Sato, Masashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Mohamed, Ahmed S A; Fujii, Kyoko; Tsukioka, Junko

    2002-08-01

    Toxicities of gallo- and condensed tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is dependent on the tannins' molecular sizes. In the present paper we investigate the toxicity of ellagitannins to C elegans and the toxicity of ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins to the brine shrimpArtemia salina. Ellagitannins 1 and 2 were isolated from Euphorbia supina and identified as tellimagrandin I and rugosin A methyl ester, respectively. An ellagitannin preparation from Cornus officinalis was chromatographically fractionated into ellagitannins A through H, having different molecular weights and specific rotations. Three of the ten ellagitannins, 2, G, and H produced significant toxicity towards C. elegans, showing the presence of an activity-structure relationship, as opposed to the results from tests of gallo- and condensed tannins. Ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins also produced toxicity in A. salina.

  2. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and brine shrimp toxicity of rhizome extracts of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith

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    Augusto Bucker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Methods Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Results Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. Conclusions The DCM and MeOH extracts showed higher activity against A. nuneztovari larvae than against A. aegypti larvae, suggesting that the extracts have species-specific activity.

  3. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the toxicity of diatom extracts and short chain aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary S; Bentley, Matthew G; Olive, Peter J W

    2003-09-01

    Water soluble algal extracts, the aldehydes 2E,4E-decadienal, decanal, undecanal and the fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were assayed for toxicity to hatching success and larval mortality of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Both crude cellular extracts of the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Nitzschia commutata and the diatom-derived short chain aldehyde decadienal were found to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a dose-dependent manner. Decadienal also significantly affected larval mortality rates in 24 and 72 h exposure incubations. The Artemia hatching success assay was the least sensitive of the three (EC50=3.94 microg ml(-1)). A greater sensitivity was observed for the 72 h compared with the 24 h exposure trials (EC50 for 24h=2.14, 72 h=0.023 microg ml(-1)). Decanal did not significantly affect survival or hatching success at the concentrations tested. Undecanal and EPA showed a limited toxic effect in naupliar mortality trials. We suggest that 72 h Artemia exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for diatom toxicity where alternative bioassays are unavailable.

  4. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

  5. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.

  6. Toxicity and binding profile of lectins from the Genus canavalia on brine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Melo, Arthur Alves; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Romulo Farias; Barroso-Neto, Ito Liberato; Silva, Suzete Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Sousa Cavada, Benildo; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.

  7. Toxicity of cylindrospermopsin to the brine shrimp Artemia salina: comparisons with protein synthesis inhibitors and microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, J S; Lindsay, J; Beattie, K A; Birmingham, S; Saker, M L; Törökné, A K; Codd, G A

    2002-08-01

    The Artemia salina bioassay was successfully applied to the analysis of the hepatotoxic cyanobacterial alkaloid and protein synthesis inhibitor, cylindrospermopsin. A dose-dependent response in mortality was observed for purified cylindrospermopsin and LC(50) values decreased with time from 8.1 to 0.71 microg/ml(-1), between 24 and 72 h, respectively. Cylindrospermopsin was slightly less potent than micro cystin-LR, with similar LC(50) values on a gravimetric basis, but was more toxic to A.salina than the protein synthesis inhibitors, cycloheximide, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Cylindrospermopsin-containing strains of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were found to be toxic to A.salina and the LC(50) concentration for these strains over time was greater than the LC(50) for purified cylindrospermopsin, with the exception of C. raciborskii strain CR1.

  8. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  9. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laxman Pokhrel; Bigyan Sharma; Gan B Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  10. 镰刀菌Fusarium solani菌株对卤虫Artemia salina的毒性%Toxicity of Fusarium solani Strains on Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shagufia Hameed; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Mohammad Athar4

    2009-01-01

    寻找能杀伤肿瘤细胞而对正常细胞无毒的抗癌药物极具挑战性.具有细胞毒性的植物或者真菌可能含有抗肿瘤的化合物.卤虫无节幼体的致死性可作为筛选抗肿瘤化合物的试验.本研究运用从不同农作物种子分离的8株镰刀菌(Fusarium solani)培养滤液来测试卤虫的细胞毒性效果.结果表明,5株菌株(TS、S-29、B-17、C-10和W-5)对卤虫显示高毒性;3株菌株(SR、T-9和L-25)显示低毒性,且毒性随着培养滤液的稀释而减弱.5株菌株(TS、B-17、SR、T-9和L-25)按照1:10稀释能导致30%以上的死亡率.NaOH中和后的滤液毒性略微降低,表明培养滤液的pH值可能影响毒性.这些菌株冻干的滤液相对于未冻干的滤液毒性较低.只在3株温和毒性的菌株中得到正己烷可溶萃取物;氯仿可溶萃取物的鼍极微而不能作进一步处理.各菌株的毒性效果各小相同.从镰刀菌(F.solani)分离的化合物可开发为毒性化合物.%Discovery of anticancer drugs that must kill or disable tumor cells in the presence of normal cells without undue toxicity is an extraordinary challenge. Cytotoxicity of plant or fungal materials is considered as the presence of antitumor compounds. Brine shrimp lethality for larvae (nauplii) is used as prescreening test for the antitumor compounds. In this study, culture filtrates of eight strains of Fusarium solani isolated from seeds of various crops were tested for the toxic effect on brine shrimp. Five of the strains (TS, S-29, B-17, C-10, W-5) showed highest toxic effect and three of the strains (SR, T-9, L-25) showed low toxic activity on brine shrimp. Toxic activity reduced when culture filtrates were diluted. However, F. solani strains TS, B-17, SR, T-9 and L-25 caused more than 30% mortality at 1:10 dilution. Toxic activity was slightly reduced when the filtrates were neutralized with sodium hydroxide indicating possible role of pH of culture filtrate on toxicity. Lyophilized

  11. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  12. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  13. Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Arslan, Zikri; Farah, Ibrahim O; Rivera, Hilsamar Félix

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were exposed to different sizes of zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) to evaluate their toxicity in marine aquatic ecosystems. Acute exposure was conducted in seawater with 10, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) concentrations of the NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Phase contrast microscope images confirmed the accumulation of the NPs inside the guts. Artemia were unable to eliminate the ingested particles, which was thought to be due to the formation of massive particles in the guts. Although the suspensions of the NPs did not exhibit any significant acute toxicity within 24 h, mortalities increased remarkably in 96 h and escalated with increasing concentration of NP suspension to 42% for Zn NPs (40-60 nm) (LC50∼ 100 mg L(-1)) and to about 34% for ZnO NPs (10-30 nm) (LC50 > 100 mg L(-1)). The suspensions of Zn NPs were more toxic to Artemia than those of ZnO NPs under comparable regimes. This effect was attributed to higher Zn(2+) levels (ca. up to 8.9 mg L(-1)) released to the medium from Zn NPs in comparison to that measured in the suspensions of ZnO NPs (ca. 5.5 mg L(-1)). In addition, the size of the nanopowders appeared to contribute to the observed toxicities. Although the suspensions possessed aggregates of comparable sizes, smaller Zn NPs (40-60 nm) were relatively more toxic than larger Zn NPs (80-100 nm). Likewise, the suspensions of 10-30 nm ZnO NPs caused higher toxicity than those of 200 nm ZnO NPs. Lipid peroxidation levels were substantially higher in 96 h (p < 0.05), indicating that the toxic effects were due to the oxidative stress.

  14. Bacterial virulence analysis using brine shrimp as an infection model in relation to the importance of quorum sensing and proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Nan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp are aquatic crustaceans belonging to a genus of Artemia. This organism is widely used for testing the toxicity of chemicals. In this study, brine shrimp were evaluated as an infection model organism to study bacterial virulence. Artemia nauplii were infected with various pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and the susceptibility to these bacteria was investigated by counting the survival of the infected nauplii. While all of the tested bacteria have significant virulence to brine shrimp, killing the nauplii in a few days, V. vulnificus showed the strongest virulence. P. aeruginosa also showed a dose-dependent virulence to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weaker than that of V. vulnificus. The virulence tests using the virulence-attenuated mutants of V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, such as quorum sensing (QS) mutants or protease-deficient mutants showed a significant attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that the QS mechanism is important in the virulence of these bacteria to brine shrimp. B. vietnamiensis, S. aureus, and E. coli were also virulent to brine shrimp and the virulence was correlated with dosage within 24 h under our conditions. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis were also virulent to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weak and slowly exerted compared with that of other bacteria. Taken together, we suggest that brine shrimp are a good infection model to assay bacterial virulence, especially for V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, and QS is important in the bacterial virulence to brine shrimp.

  15. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  16. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  17. Toxigenicity of enniatins from Western Australian Fusarium species to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Barbetti, Martin J

    2011-04-01

    The high prevalence (14 of 24 isolates) of enniatin-producing isolates from Western Australian Fusarium species isolated from pasture legumes associated with sheep feed refusal and rat deaths, and the high toxicity of their crude extracts to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from a previous study warranted further investigation of this class of mycotoxin. Crude extracts from Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium tricinctum and Fusarium sambucinum, along with enniatins A, A1, B and B1 purified from a Western Australian strain of F. acuminatum using semi-preparative HPLC, were bioassayed using brine shrimp. All Fusarium isolates produced both enniatins B and B1, except for F. tricinctum WAC 8019, and 11 of the 17 isolates produced enniatin A1. Overall, all of the F. avenaceum isolates produced high amounts of enniatins, in particular enniatin B. One isolate of F. acuminatum (WAC 5715) and of F. tricinctum (WAC 11486) also produced high amounts of both enniatins B and B1. Only F. acuminatum WAC 5715 produced enniatin A among the tested isolates. All four purified enniatins A, A1, B, B1, individually and in combination, caused brine shrimp toxicity after 6 h of exposure, implicating that this emerging class of mycotoxin as a cause of the acute toxicity to brine shrimp observed. The mixture of all four enniatins was the most toxic to brine shrimp compared to purified individual enniatins, where the relative toxicity order was B > B1 > A1 > A. Enniatin B was the individual most toxic enniatin with some bioactivity at 5 μg/mL and almost 100% brine shrimp death at 50 μg/mL after 24 h of exposure. This study is the first report to confirm the acute toxicity of enniatins A, A1, B and B1 to brine shrimp, and also highlights the need for further investigation of the potential toxicity of these cyclic hexadepsipeptides to animals and humans.

  18. Predictive modeling of selenium accumulation in brine shrimp in saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Earl R; Ohlendorf, Harry M; Redman, Aaron; Adams, William J; Marden, Brad; Grosell, Martin; Brooks, Marjorie L

    2011-07-01

    Great Salt Lake, Utah, is a large, terminal, hypersaline lake consisting of a northern more saline arm and a southern arm that is less saline. The southern arm supports a seasonally abundant fauna of low diversity consisting of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana), 7 species of brine flies, and multiple species of algae. Although fish cannot survive in the main body of the lake, the lake is highly productive, and brine shrimp and brine fly populations support large numbers of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, as well as resident waterfowl, shorebirds, and gulls. Selenium and other trace elements, metals, and nutrients are contaminants of concern for the lake because of their concentrations in municipal and industrial outfalls and runoff from local agriculture and the large urban area of Salt Lake City. As a consequence, the State of Utah recently recommended water quality standards for Se for the southern arm of Great Salt Lake based on exposure and risk to birds. The tissue-based recommendations (as measured in bird eggs) were based on the understanding that Se toxicity is predominately expressed through dietary exposure, and that the breeding shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls of the lake are the receptors of most concern. The bird egg-based recommended standards for Se require a model to link bird egg Se concentrations to their dietary concentrations and water column values. This study analyzes available brine shrimp tissue Se data from a variety of sources, along with waterborne and water particulate (potential brine shrimp diet) Se concentrations, in an attempt to develop a model to predict brine shrimp Se concentrations from the Se concentrations in surrounding water. The model can serve as a tool for linking the tissue-based water quality standards of a key dietary item to waterborne concentrations. The results were compared to other laboratory and field-based models to predict brine shrimp tissue Se concentrations from ambient water and their diet. No

  19. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  20. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  1. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  2. Bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Kastura, Mike; George, Robert; Bulman, Frank; Yarbrough, Jason; Cox, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia.

  3. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals.

  4. Potentials of converting microalgae into brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.

    1985-01-01

    High densities of brine shrimp Artemia can be cultured in flow-through systems using the effluent of microalgae cultures as a combined source of culture medium and food. It has been proven at the "St. Croix Artificial Upwelling Mariculture Project" that in comparison with the fast growing clam Tapes japonica, brine shrimp assure a much more efficient conversion of plant into animal biomass. It appears from the given examples that microalgae conversion into brine shrimp Artemia offers efficien...

  5. 不同日龄卤虫对钻井液生物毒性效应比较研究%The Biological Toxicity of Various Day Old Brine Shrimp Artemia salineto Drilling Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹翠玲; 张秋丰; 刘洋; 牛福新; 徐玉山

    2014-01-01

    The 96h biological toxicity of drilling effluent to two ,five ,ten ,twenty and thirty day old brine shrimp A rtemia saline was studied at water temperature from 23 ℃ to 25 ℃ .The results showed that the differences in mortality of the brine shrimp caused by different concentrations of drilling effluent were found to be increased with the test period elapse .There were significant differences in mortality between the second ,third ,fourth and fifth brime shrimp groups and the control group (P< 0 .05) ,except for between the first group and the control group in 96 h test .The 96 h LC50 was found to be 3464 mg/L in 2 day old A rtemia ,3488 mg/L in 5 day old A rtemia ,3452 mg/L in 10 day old A rtemia ,4811 mg/L in 20 day old A rtemia ,and 2592 mg/L in 30 day old A rtemia ,with the test time elapse ,the differences in mortality being decreased among all age A rtemia .%研究了23~25℃下2、5、10、20日和30日龄卤虫对钻井液的96 h毒性耐受力的差异。试验结果表明,随着试验时间的延长,不同质量浓度钻井液对卤虫死亡率的影响差异性逐渐增大,试验96 h时,除钻井液质量浓度为2000 mg/L组与对照组死亡率差异不显著外,4000、6000、8000、10000 mg/L质量浓度组均与对照组差异显著( P<0.05);2、5、10、20日和30日龄卤虫的96 h半致死质量浓度分别为3464、3488、3452、4811、2592 m g/L ,随着试验时间的延长,各日龄卤虫之间的死亡率差异逐渐降低。

  6. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  7. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L sakei dominated the spoilage microflora of brined and drained MAP shrimp, and of brined shrimp preserved using acetic, citric and lactic acids, irrespective of packaging...

  8. Alkaloid presence and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay of medicinal species of eastern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Felix G; Parikh, Dimpi M; Johnson, Caley A

    2010-04-01

    We used an alkaloid test and a brine shrimp bioassay to assess the bioactivity of the medicinal plants used by eastern Nicaraguan healers in traditional medicine. Ethnomedicinal uses were obtained from interviews of traditional healers. Aqueous extracts derived from 30 species of angiosperms were assayed for the presence of alkaloids and toxicity. Species tested are distributed in 30 genera and 21 families. Of the 30 species tested for alkaloids with Dragendorff's reagent, 29 contained alkaloids. Toxicological analysis was conducted using the brine shrimp lethal assay (BSLA). Biological activity using BSLA was recorded as the median lethal concentration (LC50) that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 h of contact with the aqueous plant extracts. The LC50 of the shrimp was less than 2500 microg/mL for 3 (10%) species, 2500-5000 microg/mL for 9 (30%), 5001-7500 microg/mL for 7 (23%), 7501-10000 microg/mL for 3 (10%), and greater than 10000 microg/mL for 8 (27%) of the species. The members of the orders Santales and Rubiales in general contained species with greater toxicity than any other group. Struthanthus cassythoides (Struthanthus cassythoides Millsp.(Loranthaceae)). (LC50 1574 microg/mL) and Alibertia edulis (Rich.) A. Rich. (Rubiaceae) (LC50 1741 microg/mL) were the most toxic.

  9. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  10. Comparative effects and metabolism of two microcystins and nodularin in the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kenneth A; Ressler, Judith; Wiegand, Claudia; Krause, Eberhard; Codd, Geoffrey A; Steinberg, Christian E W; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2003-02-12

    The toxicity and metabolism of the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin-LR (MCLR), Dhb-microcystin-HtyR and nodularin were investigated in the cysts, nauplii and adults of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. The presence of the phase II detoxication system glutathione S-transferase (sGST) in these stages was shown using different substrates. Exposure of adult A. salina to the toxins led to an elevation of GST activity in vivo. All three toxins were conjugated to glutathione via GST, which has been shown as an initial step of microcystin and nodularin detoxication.

  11. Antityrosinase, antioxidative activities, and brine shrimp lethality of ethanolic extracts from Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patcharawan Tanamatayarat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate all parts of Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl. (P. serratum) for their phytochemistry and biological activities including antityrosinase, antioxidant, and brine shrimp lethality. Methods: Nine ethanolic extracts from different P. serratum parts such as twig, whole fruit, pericarp, and root were investigated for their phytochemical screening and bio-logical activities in terms of tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidant against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, and lethality to brine shrimp larvae. Results: Phytochemical screening also revealed the presence of flavonoids, condensed tannins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, and sugars in P. serratum. The root extract was the most effective for antityrosinase activity with IC50 of (21.63 ± 0.31) mg/mL, and the leaf extract exhibited the highest antioxidation activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods, with IC50 of (4.34 ± 0.09) and (119.80 ± 1.01) mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil extracted from the whole fruit displayed the highest toxicity against brine shrimp, with LC50 of (3.57 ± 1.82) mg/mL. Conclusions: This study indicates that ethanolic extracts from each P. serratum part have differences in phytochemistry and biological activities (antityrosinase, antioxidant, and brine shrimp lethality). Some parts of the plant should be considered in the further study.

  12. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    shrimps (Pandalus Borelias). The shrimps were heated to a core temperature of 72 °C in a brine solution using a small batch ohmic heater. Three experiments were performed: 1) a comparative analyses of the temperature development between different sizes of shrimps and thickness (head and tail region...... and salt concentrations of 13.75 kg m−3 and 25.75 kg m−3 and 3) evaluating the effect of pretreatment (maturation) of the shrimps before ohmic processing. The maturation experiment was performed with the following maturation pre-treatments: normal tap water, a 21.25 kg m−3 brine solution and without...

  13. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  14. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  15. Antimicrobial, antityrosinase and brine shrimp lethality test of Bauhinia rufescens Lam (Fabaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminu Muhammad; Hasnah Mohd Sirat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate leaves and stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens for antimicrobial activities, tyrosinase enzyme inhibition potentials and lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemiasalina ). Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradient of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their antimicrobial, antityrosinase and cytotoxicity potentials.Results:The antimicrobial results indicated that the extracts inhibited the microbial growth in the range of 6.00-12.57 mm (450-1 800 µg/mL) for bacterial strains and 7.33-14.03 mm (225-1 800 µg/mL) for fungal strains. While the tyrosinase enzyme inhibition assay of the extracts showed that both the petroleum ether leaves and stem bark extracts exhibited a moderate inhibition (39.60%and 39.89%) towards the action of mushroom tyrosinase enzyme on L-DOPA. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of the plant were found toxic to the Artemia salina with IC50 values of 0.059 mg/mL and 0.389 mg/mL. However, both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark were nontoxic to the larvae.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggest the presence of phytochemicals possessing antimicrobial and antityrosinase activity as well as cytotoxic agents.

  16. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested.

  17. Acute Toxicity of Seven Pyrethroid Insecticides to Brine Shrimp Artemia%7种拟除虫菊酯农药对卤虫的急性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 汪小月; 邱立红; 李学锋; 王成菊

    2011-01-01

    To study the acute toxic effects of seven pyrethroid insecticides on the Great Salt Lake (GSL) Artemia, Ar temia nauplii hatched out within 18-24 h were picked out, and then continued to be cultured for another 24 h under the same condition to obtain the 2nd-3rd instar nauplii. The obtained GSL Artemia were exposed to different concentrations of pyrethroid solutions for 24 h, and the lethal effects were recorded. The results of Probit analysis showed that lethal effects of the seven studied pyrethroids on GSL Artemia were very different from each other. The 24 h median lethal concentrations (24 h-LC50) of permethrin, chlorenthrin, imiprothrin, tetramethrin, bifenthrin, lambadacyhalothrin, delta methrin to brine shrimp were 4.68, 14.82, 18.12, 38.21, > 100, > 100, > 100 mg·L-1, respectively. Therefore, in the Artemia-living saline environment, the pyrethroid insecticides with relatively lower toxicity including bifenthrin, lambada cyhalothrin and dehamethrin should be given prior consideration rather than the highly toxic permethrin.%为了研究7种拟除虫菊酯农药对美国大盐湖卤虫(GSL Artemia)的急性毒性效应,挑选18 ~24 h内孵出的卤虫,继续培养24h后得到Ⅱ~Ⅲ龄卤虫无节幼体,将其暴露于所设浓度梯度的拟除虫菊酯溶液中进行24h急性毒性实验,记录卤虫无节幼体在各浓度溶液中的死亡情况,并将所得数据进行Probit分析.结果表明,卤虫对不同拟除虫菊酯的敏感性相差较大.氯菊酯、氯烯炔菊酯、炔咪菊酯、胺菊酯、联苯菊酯、高效氯氟氰菊酯和溴氰菊酯对卤虫的24 h半致死浓度(24 h-LC50)分别为4.68、14.82、18.12、38.21、>100、>100和>100 mg·L-1.因此,在含有卤虫的盐水环境中,应尽量避免使用毒性较高的氯菊酯,而选择使用联苯菊酯、高效氯氟氰菊酯和溴氰菊酯等毒性较低的农药.

  18. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  19. ASSESSMENT OF CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS USING BRINE SHRIMP ( ARTEMIA SALINA AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sarker Apu*, S. H. Bhuyan, F. Khatun, M. Sultana Liza, M. Matin, Md. Faruq Hossain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Solanum sisymbriifolium (Solanaceae and Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae have long been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the plants and to make available the process of data analysis of cytotoxic studies to the researchers. A general toxicity of the extracts was assessed by a simple and low cost assay using brine shrimp lethality as an indicator of toxicity. Ethanol crude extract and fractions of the extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity compared to that of flowers and fruits against brine shrimp larvae with median lethal concentration, LC50 values ranging from 10.10 – 321.35 and 13.19 – 80.16 μg/ml, respectively. Methanol crude extract and fractions of the extract of leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia exhibited significant toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 17.19 – 98.19 μg/ml, while that of potassium permanganate, a positive control, was 11.27 μg/ml. Among the fractions of the crude extracts of both plants, non-polar fractions such as n-hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane were the most cytotoxic. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay directed isolation of the active principles.

  20. The brine shrimp artemia: adapted to critical life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M; Beardmore, John A

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to "perceive" forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  1. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  2. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs.

  3. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  4. Biological screening of Annonaceous Brazilian Medicinal Plants using Artemia salina (brine shrimp test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, L P; Pinto, G B; Takahashi, J A; e Silva, L G F; Boaventura, M A D

    2003-03-01

    Eighteen different extracts from five Annona species collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were submitted to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor, pesticidal and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. All of the Annonaceous species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compounds and literature data.

  5. A novel fucosyl glycosphingolipid of brine shrimp that is highly sensitive to endoglycoceramidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Horibata, Yasuhiro; Inagaki, Masanori; Hama, Yoichiro; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Goda, Hatsumi M; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2009-12-01

    Endoglycoceramidase (EGCase; EC 3.2.1.123) is a glycohydrolase that hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of various glycosphingolipids. We previously reported that hydra produced EGCase to digest glycosphingolipids of brine shrimp (Artemia salina), a type of aquatic crustacean used as a diet for the culture of hydra (Horibata Y, Sakaguchi K, Okino N, Iida H, Inagaki M, Fujisawa T, Hama Y, Ito M. 2004. J Biol Chem. 279:33379-33389). We report here that a major glycosphingolipid of brine shrimp is unique in structure and highly sensitive to EGCase. The glycosphingolipid was extracted from freshly hatched brine shrimp by Folch's partition, followed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and purification with a Sep-Pak plus silica cartridge. The structure of brine shrimp glycosphingolipid was determined by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry, and (1)H-NMR spectrometry to be GlcNAcalpha1-2Fucalpha1-3Manbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'Cer. Two major molecular species of the glycosphingolipid were identified; the sugar and sphingoid base of each were the same but the major fatty acid was C22:0 and 2-hydroxy C22:0, respectively. This is the first report describing the glycosphingolipid that has an internal fucosyl residue substituted with alpha1-2 N-acetylglucosaminyl residue. This study also suggests the biological relevance of the glycosphingolipid as a dietary source of hydra which possesses EGCase as a digestion enzyme.

  6. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi;

    2009-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many...

  7. When Parasites Are Good for Health: Cestode Parasitism Increases Resistance to Arsenic in Brine Shrimps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and pollutants can both affect any living organism, and their interactions can be very important. To date, repeated studies have found that parasites and heavy metals or metalloids both have important negative effects on the health of animals, often in a synergistic manner. Here, we show for the first time that parasites can increase host resistance to metalloid arsenic, focusing on a clonal population of brine shrimp from the contaminated Odiel and Tinto estuary in SW Spain. We studied the effect of cestodes on the response of Artemia to arsenic (acute toxicity tests, 24h LC50 and found that infection consistently reduced mortality across a range of arsenic concentrations. An increase from 25°C to 29°C, simulating the change in mean temperature expected under climate change, increased arsenic toxicity, but the benefits of infection persisted. Infected individuals showed higher levels of catalase and glutathione reductase activity, antioxidant enzymes with a very important role in the protection against oxidative stress. Levels of TBARS were unaffected by parasites, suggesting that infection is not associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, infected Artemia had a higher number of carotenoid-rich lipid droplets which may also protect the host through the "survival of the fattest" principle and the antioxidant potential of carotenoids. This study illustrates the need to consider the multi-stress context (contaminants and temperature increase in which host-parasite interactions occur.

  8. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY STUDIES OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hassan Kawsar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of methanol extract of whole plant of Synedrella nodiflora as well as its petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloro-methane and aqueous soluble partitionates were evaluated by DPPH of (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant assay and compared with standard antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and ascorbic acid (ASA. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (mg of GAE/g of sample. A great variance was observed for polyphenol content as well as antioxidant activity (1.574-9.4136 mg GAE/g and DPPH IC50 10.52-31.25 μg/ml depending on the nature of solvent used to fractionate the crude extract. The result demonstrated that dichloromethane soluble fraction revealed the highest amount of phenolic compounds (9.4136 mg GAE/g and also had significant free radical scavenging activity (IC50 10.52 μg/ml. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of S. nodiflora having correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.9270. The general toxicity of the extractive was studied by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and from the results (LC50 0.023-0.122 μg/ml, it can be well predicted that the crude extract and the partitionate fractions contain cytotoxic principles and have considerable toxic potencies which supported the insecticidal uses of plant by the indigenous people.

  9. A butyrylcholinesterase in the early development of the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: a target for phthalate ester embryotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acey, Roger A; Bailey, Stacie; Healy, Patricia; Jo, Chang; Unger, Thomas F; Hudson, Richard A

    2002-12-13

    The phthalate ester insensitive blue-green algae (Synechococcus lividus) were used as a food source to extend the survival of synchronously hatched brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae allowing measurement of a reduced toxic response to phthalate esters at late post-hatching stages of development. The maximum acute toxicity due to di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP) correlated with the expression of a phthalate ester-hydrolyzing enzyme. The purified enzyme was identified as a butyrylcholinesterase due to its rapid inactivation by low concentrations (10(-7)M) of diisopropyl fluorophosphate and inhibition by physostigmine (IC(50)=6 x 10(-7)M) and tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide (I-OMPA, IC(50)=x 10(-6)M) but not by BW284c5. Apparently competition of the phthalates with the endogenous substrates of the enzyme led to development-dependent toxicity.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (FAM: MENISPERMACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kaisarul Islam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia (Fam: Menispermaceae has been investigated for evaluation of the biological activities. The stem of Tinospora cordifolia were extracted with carbon tetrachloride, n-hexane and methanol were collected and afford 4.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 4.0 mg, respectively for the test. The crude carbon tetrachloride, n-hexane, and methanol extract of the plant were subjected to antimicrobial screening against 15 microorganisms such as gram-positive, gram-negative, fungi by the disc diffusion method. But interestingly no fraction showed any inhibitory effect against all the microorganisms. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, carbon tetrachloride fraction showed high toxicity, where LC90 value was only 6.25 mg/ml. The methanol crude extract and n-hexane fraction showed LC50 of 1.563 and 6.05 mg/ml respectively with very narrow therapeutic index (LC90 of 43.0 mg/ml and 45.0 mg/ml respectively. This indicated that the cytotoxicity exhibited by the carbon tetra chloride, n-hexane, and methanol extract was very significant.

  11. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MObayedUllah; MahmudaHaque; KanizFatimaUrmi; AbuHasanatMdZulfiker; ElicheaSynthiAnita; MomtajBegum; KaiserHamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results: All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.

  12. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Obayed; Ullah; Mahmuda; Haque; Kaniz; Fatima; Urmi; Abu; Hasanat; Md.Zulfiker; Elichea; Synthi; Anita; Momtaj; Begum; Kaiser; Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh.Methods:The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria(both gram positive and gram negative).The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations(LC50)were determined at confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with"Finney Programme??Results:All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains(zone of inhibition=5-28 mm).The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis(zone of inhibition=6-21 mm).All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps.The LC50value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323μg/mL with respect to the positive control(vincristine sulphate)which was 0.91μg/mL.Among all studied extracts,Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50value of 8.447μg/mL.Conclusions:The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.

  13. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J.;

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading...... to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa......) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate...

  14. Interactive effect of selenium and mercury on development and mortality of brine shrimp, Artemia sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, B.L. II; Bailey, F.C.; Klaine, S.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The interactions between organic mercury and selenium derivatives are well documented. Inorganic mercury has been shown to have a deleterious effect on the development of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana while selenate has no effect. In this study, concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/l Hg (as Hg(NO{sub 3})2) slowed the rate of development. Selenate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mg/l as Se decreased the effect of Hg on brine shrimp developmental rate. Both selenate and inorganic mercury alone produced a dose-response with respect to nauplii mortality. Preliminary data suggest that combinations of selenate and inorganic mercury act antagonistically to lower this mortality.

  15. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  16. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  17. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-01-01

    and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas...... of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus......The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus...

  18. Biopreservation of Brined Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, H; Lauzon, H L

    1995-02-01

    In brined shrimp (ca. 3% NaCl), the effects of three different lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins (crude [6.54 x 10(sup10) U of bacteriocin activity {BU}/g] and purified [8.13 x 10(sup23) BU/g] nisin Z, carnocin UI49 [2.32 x 10(sup4) BU/g], and crude bavaricin A [2.78 BU/g]) on bacterial growth and shelf life were compared with those of a benzoate-sorbate solution (0.1% each [wt/wt]) and a control with no preservatives. The shelf life of shrimp subjected to the control treatment was found to be 10 days. Carnocin UI49 did not extend the shelf life, while crude bavaricin A (a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus bavaricus MI 401) resulted in a shelf life of 16 days, as opposed to 31 days with nisin Z for both its crude and purified forms. The benzoate-sorbate solution preserved the brined shrimp for the whole storage period (59 days). In the control, carnocin UI49, and crude bavaricin A treatments, a gram-positive flora dominated towards the end of the storage period while in the nisin Z treatment a gram-negative flora was more pronounced.

  19. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah; Akter MstYeasmin; Ashraful MdAlam; Wahedul Md Islam; Parvez Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae) due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  20. Embryonic diapause in two species of brine shrimp: Artemia monica and Artemia franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drinkwater, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, has the capacity to produce encysted embryos which are resistant to severe environmental conditions. Upon release from the ovisac, these embryos, or cysts, do not hatch, but remain in a state of developmental arrest imposed by some unknown endogenous mechanism. However, once the proper abiotic signal is received, the embryo is free to resume development. Regulation of this embryonic diapause in two related species of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana and Artemia monica, is studied. The abiotic cues which terminate diapause and the possibility of a regulatory mechanism involving depressed intracellular pH (pH/sub i/) are investigated. /sup 31/P-NMR studies show that pH/sub i/ of diapause cysts of both species is alkaline, greater than or equal to 7.9, essentially the same as that of activated cysts. A franciscana, which inhabits an unpredictable environment, is activated by several cues: low temperature, dehydration, and elevated levels of CO/sub 2/. A. monica, found in a fairly stable body of water with regular seasonal changes in temperature, breaks diapause only upon exposure to low temperature. Induction of anoxybiosis in diapause and activated cysts is studied using /sup 31/P-NMR to reveal that diapause cysts acidify rapidly in response to anoxia; pH/sub i/ falls to about 7.2 in 30 minutes, much like activated cysts, indicating the presence of a fairly active metabolism. The effects of salinity on cyst activation, hatching, water content, and carbohydrate metabolism are examined.

  1. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp.

  2. Toxicity of Aqueous Filmforming Foams to Marine Organisms: Literature Review and Biological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    BRINE SHRIMP The second species selected for AFFF toxicity testing was Artemia salina, commonly known as brine shrimp . Toxicity to brine shrimp was...the actual EC5 0 is closer to 4.0-gm/liter. Similarly, there was no significant toxicity to brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia salina) at concentrations of...gm/liter. The estimated 96-hour LCr0 for brine shrimp , Artemia salina, is between 4.0 and 6.0 gm/liter. These LC5 0 concentrations are in the

  3. [Immunocytochemical studies on the phase of differentiation of hatching gland cells in brine shrimp, Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fan, Ting Jun; Wang, Xiao Feng; Cong, Ri Shan; Yu, Qiu Tao; Zhong, Qi Wang

    2004-04-01

    Hatching enzyme (HE), synthesized in hatching gland cells (HGCs), plays vital roles in animal hatching. Immunocytochemical techniques employing anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum, prepared from Xenopus HE and with specificity to brine shrimp HE, were first used to investigate the differentiation and variability of hatching gland cells (HGCs) in the hatching process of embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina, in this study. HGCs with immunoreactivity to anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum were identified, for the first time, in brine shrimp embryos during hatching process. Immunocytochemical staining results showed that, (1) HE-positive immunoreactivity is really specific to Artemia HE, and its appearance and disappearance are closely correlated with the hatching process of Artemia salina. (2) Artemia HGCs, first appeared in embryos 5 hours before hatching and disappeared 4 hours after hatching, were also a transient type of cells, with an existence period of 9 hours. (3) The head portion of Artemia embryo is probably the initial position of HE secretion, and likely to be the main position of HE secretion as well. The detailed process and mechanism need to be studied. (4) The appearance of HGCs is in a synchronous mode from places all over the embryos, and their disappearance is also in a synchronous mode. (5) The number of HGCs increased gradually along with embryo development process and reached a maximum number at hatching. Contrarily, the number of HGCs decreased gradually after hatching, and HGCs disappeared 5 hours after hatching. However, the intensity of HE-positive reaction was almost at the same level at the period of HGCs'presence. (6) Artemia HGCs were distributed throughout the body of embryos at all time during their presence. Therefore, it can concluded that Artemia HGCs, as a transient type of cells, first appeared in embryos 4 hours before hatching and disappeared in embryos 5 hours after hatching, and with distinguished patterns of appearance, disappearance and

  4. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J; Green, A J; Figuerola, J; Amat, F; Rico, C

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many hypersaline aquatic ecosystems of other continents. Parthenogenetic Artemia lineages occur only in the Old World. Ten and five microsatellite markers were developed to characterize two populations for A. franciscana and two populations for diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, respectively. For A. franciscana the number of alleles ranged from 11 to 58 per locus, while for parthenogens the number of alleles ranged from three to 10. The levels of heterozygosity in A. franciscana and in parthenogens ranged from 0.115 to 0.976 and from 0.000 to 0.971, respectively. These microsatellite loci showed a high population assignment power, which will be useful for future studies of population genetics and invasive processes in Artemia.

  5. Brine shrimp bioassay: importance of correct taxonomic identification of Artemia (Anostraca) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebhart, David R; Cock, Ian E; Shaw, Glen R

    2008-08-01

    Despite the common use of the brine shrimp bioassay in toxicology, there is confusion in the literature regarding citation of the correct taxonomic identity of the Artemia species used. The genus Artemia, once thought to be represented by a single species Artemia salina, is now known to be composed of several bisexual species as well as parthenogenetic populations. Artemia franciscana is the best studied of the Artemia species and is considered to represent the vast majority of studies in which Artemia is used as an experimental test organism. We found that in studies referring to the use of A. salina, the zoogeography of the cyst harvest site indicated that the species used was actually A. franciscana. Those performing bioassays with Artemia need to exercise diligence in assigning correct species identification, as the identity of the test organism is an important parameter in assuring the validity of the results of the assay.

  6. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro

    2008-07-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate an early Pleistocene expansion of A. salina in the Mediterranean Basin. Subsequent population isolation in a mosaic of Pleistocene refugia is suggested, with two or three refugia located in the Iberian Peninsula. Two instances of long-distance colonization were also observed. Surprisingly, given its strong phylogeographical structure, A. salina showed a signature of correlation between geographical and genetic distance. Owing to strong 'priority effects', extensive population differentiation is retained, despite dispersal via migrant birds and human management of saltpans. The foreseeable expansion of A. franciscana is likely to be followed by substantial loss of genetic diversity in Mediterranean A. salina. Large genetic divergences between Mediterranean and South African A. salina suggest that the latter deserves species status.

  7. [Study of a DNA sequence from brine shrimp artemia containing a novel DM domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Song, Wen Qin; Chen, Rui Yang

    2004-10-01

    Sex-determining mechanisms are highly variable between phyla. However, there is an apparent exception in which structurally and functionally related genes control sex determination in different phyla: the sexual regulators DSX of Drosophila melanogaster and MAB-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans both containing a DNA-binding motif, DM domain. Proteins containing the domain may also play a role in sexual development of vertebrates. For examples, both the human DMRT1 (doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1) gene and mouse Dmrt1 gene are necessary for male development. In this paper, through the degenerated PCR, a DNA fragment ADM was amplified out from genomic DNA of brine shrimp, Artemia sinica from YunCheng Salt Lake, Shanxi, China and Artemia parthenogenetica from GaHai, Qinghai, China, respectively. ADM encodes 47 amino acids and is highly homologous to amino acid sequence of the known DM domains. By comparing total of 27 DM domains in distant related species, a phylogenic tree of DM domain was constructed. In the tree, these DM domains were divided into different branches according to their subtypes. Among the DM domains that were compared, ADM is most homologous to the DM domain contained in human DMRT3 and mouse Dmrt3, which shares 83% identity between them. In addition, the same length of ADM could also be amplified out from cDNA of Artemia sinica and Artemia parthenogenetica, which indicated that ADM was expressed and located in one exon. The DM domain in brine shrimp reported here would make it possible for cloning the full-length cDNA containing the DM domain and further elucidating their functions.

  8. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Evan R.; Neumeyer, Courtney H.; Gunderson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025–0.5 mg L-1) of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic barrier to the entry

  9. Some observations on the growth and cyst production characteristics of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) in pond culture and its potential for import substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, P.; Krishna Raju, V.; Thaker, S R

    1989-01-01

    Experimental culture of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) and production of cyst is discussed. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cyst and its economic potential for import substitution are highlighted.

  10. Chemical investigation of saponins from twelve annual Medicago species and their bioassay with the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tava, Aldo; Pecetti, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    The saponin and sapogenin composition of the aerial growth of 12 annual Medicago species sampled at full senescence were investigated. Saponins were extracted from the plant material and obtained in a highly pure grade by reverse-phase chromatography, with a yield ranging from 0.38 +/- 0.04% to 1.35 +/- 0.08% dry matter, depending on the species. Sapogenins were then obtained after acid hydrolysis of saponins, and evaluated by GC/FID and GC/MS methods. Different compositions of the aglycone moieties were observed in the 12 Medicago species. Medicagenic acid was the dominant aglycone in M. x blancheana, M. doliata, M. littoralis, M. rotata, M. rugosa, M. scutellata, M. tornata and M. truncatula, bayogenin and hederagenin in M. arabica and M. rigidula, echinocystic acid in M. polymorpha, and soyasapogenol B in M. aculeata. The purified saponin mixtures, characterized by different chemical compositions, were then used in a toxicity test using the brine shrimp Artemia salina. The most active compounds were the saponins from M. arabica and M. rigidula with LD50 values of 10.1 and 4.6 microg/mL, respectively. A structure-activity relationship for the tested saponin mixtures was observed.

  11. Composição química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise L. Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94% e γ-muuroleno (12,58%. O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0 µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5 µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94% and γ-muurolene (12.58%. Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L. test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0 µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5 µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control.

  12. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the water quality in Hangzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiaolu; Li, Tian; Xu, Yifei; Wu, Xu

    2012-03-01

    As physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms, bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution. In this study, invertebrate crustacean Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was applied as an indicator to assess the water quality of Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The percentage mortality of brine shrimp was recorded after 24-h exposure to the Canal water. The water samples were collected from five typical sites during October 2008 and April 2009. It exhibited 11% ± 8.3%, 26.7% ± 17%, 31.7% ± 8.5%, 28.0% ± 11.7%, and 4% ± 4.3% percentage mortality for the sample from Tangxi Bridge, Yi Bridge, Gongchen Bridge, Maiyu Bridge, and Gujia Bridge in 2008, respectively. And it exhibited 5.7% ± 4.2%, 10.3% ± 8.2%, 24.3% ± 12.3%, 16.0% ± 12.3%, and 0%, percentage mortality in 2009, respectively. According to the results, a relative improvement in water quality was observed, although the results were not significantly different at the p < 0.05 level. It suggested that 24-h A. salina exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for water toxicity when alternative bioassays were unavailable.

  13. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  14. Impact of enriching larval brine shrimp (Artemia sp. with a supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids on their growth and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prusińska Maja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact the commercial supplement S.presso (INVE Aquaculture, Belgium, a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids to enrich the proximate composition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp., had on their growth and mortality. Four different enrichment protocols were investigated: the supplement was given in one or two doses at various time intervals. The results indicate that while S.presso increased nauplius mortality slightly, administering the appropriate dose reduced losses to a very low level (from 12.5% with a single dose to 8.6% with the recommended dose divided into to equal parts. Additionally, it was confirmed that the supplement S.presso increased brine shrimp growth slightly in comparison to that of the control group, but the differences were statistically insignificant. The results permit concluding that S.presso is suitable for use as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids for brine shrimp enrichment with the intent of using them as fish food.

  15. Toxicity of heavy metals to brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Brine Shrimp (Artemia) in China Using DNA Barcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Wang; Jun Yu; Qibin Luo; Haiyan Guo; Peter Bossier; Gilbert Van Stappen; Patrick Sorgeloos; Naihong Xin; Qishi Sun; Songnian Hu

    2008-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a powerful approach for characterizing species of organisms,especially those with almost identical morphological features, thereby helping to to establish phylogenetic relationships and reveal evolutionary histories. In this study, we chose a 648-bp segment of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), as a standard barcode region to establish phylogenetic relationships among brine shrimp (Artemia) species from major habitats around the world and further focused on the biodiversity of Artemia species in China, especially in the Tibetan Plateau. Samples from five major salt lakes of the Tibetan Plateau located at altitudes over 4,000 m showed clear differences from other Artemia populations in China. We also observed two consistent amino acid changes, 153A/V and 183L/F, in the COI gene between the high and low altitude species in China.Moreover, indels in the COI sequence were identified in cyst and adult samples unique to the Co Qen population from the Tibetan Plateau, demonstrating the need for additional investigations of the mitochondrial genome among Tibetan Artemia populations.

  17. Determination in oocytes of the reproductive modes for the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhong-Min; Li, Ran; Dai, Li; Yang, Jin-Shu; Chen, Su; Zeng, Qing-Guo; Yang, Fan; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2011-02-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, reproduces either oviparously, producing encysted embryos (diapause cysts), or ovoviviparously, producing free-swimming nauplii. Environmental factors, such as photoperiod, have been applied to control the reproduction mode of Artemia, but when the determination of a reproductive mode occurs remains unknown. We analysed the differential gene expression between oocytes from oviparous and ovoviviparous Artemia reared under different photoperiods. A total of 692 qualified cDNA clones were obtained by subtractive hybridization, 327 of which matched GenBank® Nucleotide Sequence Database entries. Gene expressions of 44 cDNAs (representing 56 clones) were analysed in oocytes using real-time PCR. Among these genes, 11 (21 clones) were significantly (PArtemia oocytes that subsequently enter diapause. Remarkably, known diapause-related proteins such as ArHsp22 (Artemia heat-shock protein 22) and chitin-binding proteins are found to be already differentially expressed. Furthermore, RNAi (RNA interference) knockdown of a differentially expressed gene, polo-like kinase 1, in oocyte of ovoviviparous Artemia led to the production of white embryos rather than free-swimming nauplii. In summary, our results provide evidence at the molecular level that the reproductive mode of Artemia is already determined at the oocyte stage of their life cycle.

  18. Stress tolerance during diapause and quiescence of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Oviparously developing embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia, arrest at gastrulation and are released from females as cysts before entering diapause, a state of dormancy and stress tolerance. Diapause is terminated by an external signal, and growth resumes if conditions are permissible. However, if circumstances are unfavorable, cysts enter quiescence, a dormant stage that continues as long as adverse conditions persist. Artemia embryos in diapause and quiescence are remarkably resistant to environmental and physiological stressors, withstanding desiccation, cold, heat, oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, and years of anoxia at ambient temperature when fully hydrated. Cysts have adapted to stress in several ways; they are surrounded by a rigid cell wall impermeable to most chemical compounds and which functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Artemia cysts contain large amounts of trehalose, a non-reducing sugar thought to preserve membranes and proteins during desiccation by replacing water molecules and/or contributing to vitrification. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins similar to those in seeds and other anhydrobiotic organisms are found in cysts, and they safeguard cell organelles and proteins during desiccation. Artemia cysts contain abundant amounts of p26, a small heat shock protein, and artemin, a ferritin homologue, both ATP-independent molecular chaperones important in stress tolerance. The evidence provided in this review supports the conclusion that it is the interplay of these protective elements that make Artemia one of the most stress tolerant of all metazoan organisms.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of brine shrimp (Artemia) in China using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Luo, Qibin; Guo, Haiyan; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Xin, Naihong; Sun, Qishi; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2008-12-01

    DNA barcoding is a powerful approach for characterizing species of organisms, especially those with almost identical morphological features, thereby helping to to establish phylogenetic relationships and reveal evolutionary histories. In this study, we chose a 648-bp segment of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), as a standard barcode region to establish phylogenetic relationships among brine shrimp (Artemia) species from major habitats around the world and further focused on the biodiversity of Artemia species in China, especially in the Tibetan Plateau. Samples from five major salt lakes of the Tibetan Plateau located at altitudes over 4,000 m showed clear differences from other Artemia populations in China. We also observed two consistent amino acid changes, 153A/V and 183L/F, in the COI gene between the high and low altitude species in China. Moreover, indels in the COI sequence were identified in cyst and adult samples unique to the Co Qen population from the Tibetan Plateau, demonstrating the need for additional investigations of the mitochondrial genome among Tibetan Artemia populations.

  20. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrabsky, Jason E; Hand, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions.

  1. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting.

  2. A proteomic study on postdiapaused embryonic development of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Meng, Bo; Chen, Weihua; Ge, Xiaomeng; Liu, Siqi; Yu, Jun

    2007-10-01

    Encysted gastrula of brine shrimp (Artemia, Crustacea, and Anostraca) provides an excellent model for studying molecular processes of diapause. We report a proteomic study on early molecular responses of Artemia's postdiapaused cysts and found that dehydrated cysts actually store more proteins, in both kind and amount, than developing cysts. We identified 75 differentially expressed proteins over a course of cyst development, and also exploited PTMs of dehydrate cysts. We further surveyed gene expression of postdiapaused cysts in early developmental phases in a 0.5 h interval up to the seventh hour, and discovered that the activation of cellular activities is ignited as early as 0.5 h after rehydration. We traced nine differentially expressed proteins (COXI, COXIII, heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP60, and HSP70), CDC48, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA), GS1-like protein, and cathepsin L-associated protein (CLAP)) for quantitative transcriptional changes, monitored by real-time PCR, and found these proteins exhibiting distinct expression patterns that suggest complex gene regulations for cyst reactivation after diapause breakage. Future experiments should be designed to focus on early activation concerning signal transduction, energy generation, and PTMs.

  3. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system.

  4. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands.

  5. Larval helminths in the invasive American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana throughout its annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Angelov, Aleksandar; Vasileva, Gergana P; Sánchez, Marta I; Hortas, Francisco; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Pankov, Plamen; Green, Andy J

    2014-09-01

    One of the best examples of rapid displacement of native species by an invader is the eradication of native Artemia salina and A. parthenogenetica in the Mediterranean by the introduced American A. franciscana. Previous studies based on sampling from limited time periods suggest that the success of the American species as a competitor may be due partly to different parasite burden, since native Artemia spp. have high cestode infection rates regulating their density. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the helminth infection in A. franciscana in its invasive range is low throughout its annual life cycle. Samples of A. franciscana were collected every second month from La Tapa saltern (Andalusia) during one year. Five helminth species were recorded: cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides, F. flamingo, Gynandrotaenia stammeri (all flamingo parasites), Eurycestus avoceti (a shorebird parasite) and larval spirurids of the Acuariinae (the first record of nematodes in Artemia). The overall infection rate was low, with total prevalence 5.9% and prevalence of individual parasite species between 0.2 and 3.2%. The mean abundance of helminths was 0.005-0.155 (av. 0.068), 5-13 times lower than in native congeners. Waterbird counts indicate that the low infection rates cannot be explained by lack of definitive hosts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that helminths have no regulating effect on the invasive brine shrimp in the Mediterranean. The replacement of the native populations by the invader can be partially explained by a competition mediated by parasites/predators through a differential impact on host fitness.

  6. Expression and characterization of the JAK kinase and STAT protein from brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Gen-Der; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ya-Li; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Huang, Fore-Lien; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized both JAK and STAT genes from Artemia, Artemia franciscana. Although AfJAK showed only 19% identity (33% similarity) to the Drosophila Hop protein, AfJAK contained the characteristic JAK homology domain (JH domain) from JH1 to JH7. On the other hand, AfSTAT showed higher identity (30%) to Drosophila STAT (STAT92E). The low identities of AfJAK and AfSTAT to Drosophila Hop and STAT92E suggest that JAK and STAT proteins are unique in each different species of invertebrate. RT-PCR analysis showed that both AfJAK and AfSTAT transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in the embryo, which is similar to the expression patterns of Drosophila Hop and STAT92E mRNAs during development. In addition, we generated a constitutively active form of AfSTAT by fusing the JH1 domain of AfJAK to the C-terminal end of AfSTAT. This fusion protein, AfSTAT-HA-JH1, autophosphorylated on its tyrosine residue and was able to bind to specific DNA motifs including the STAT-binding motifs in the Drosophila Raf promoter. Both AfJAK and AfSTAT proteins elicited the transactivation potential toward the fly Raf promoter in Sf9 cells. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of AfSTAT was not detected, which is consistent with the cellular localization analysis that most AfSTAT proteins were in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrate that both JAK and STAT are present in the genome of Artemia, which can serve as the basis for further investigations to explore the role of the JAK/STAT signal pathway in the development and immune response of brine shrimp.

  7. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  8. Maladaptive Sex Ratio Adjustment in the Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Eva J P; Henriques, Gil J B; Michalakis, Yannis; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-06-06

    Sex allocation theory is often hailed as the most successful area of evolutionary theory due to its striking success as a predictor of empirical observations [1]. Most naturally occurring sex ratios can be explained by the principle of equal investment in the sexes [2-4] or by cases of "extraordinary" sex allocation [5]. Deviations from the expected sex ratio are often correlated with weak selection or low environmental predictability (e.g., [6, 7]); true cases of aberrant sex allocation are surprisingly rare [8]. Here, we present a case of long-lasting maladaptive sex allocation, which we discovered in invasive populations of the exclusively sexual brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. A. franciscana was introduced to Southern France roughly 500 generations ago [9]; since then, it has coexisted with the native asexual species Artemia parthenogenetica [10]. Although we expect A. franciscana to produce balanced offspring sex ratios, we regularly observed extremely male-biased sex ratios in invasive A. franciscana, which were significantly correlated to the proportion of asexuals in the overall population. We experimentally proved that both invasive- and native-range A. franciscana overproduced sons when exposed to excess females, without distinguishing between conspecific and asexual females. We conclude that A. franciscana adjust their offspring sex ratio in function of the adult sex ratio but are information limited in the presence of asexual females. Their facultative adjustment trait, which is presumably adaptive in their native range, has thus become maladaptive in the invasive range where asexuals occur. Despite this, it has persisted unchanged for hundreds of generations.

  9. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming velocity (V......Beating cilia are important organelles for swimming in many zooplanktonic aquatic organisms, including many invertebrate larvae, rotifers and ciliates, but other planktonic organisms, such as copepods and brine shrimps, use muscle-powered swimming appendages. In recent studies we found......) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of species...

  10. Naked eye instant reversible sensing of Cu(2+) and its in situ imaging in live brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ratish R; Raju, M; Patel, Neha P; Raval, Ishan H; Suresh, E; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-08-21

    A Cu(2+)-specific colorimetric reversible fluorescent receptor was designed and synthesized which showed a naked eye observable colour change from colourless to pink on addition of an aqueous buffer (pH 7.4) solution of 30 ppb Cu(2+). Short response time (≤5 s) and low detection limit (nearly 3 ppb) make suitable as a reliable "dip-in" open eye sensor for Cu(2+). Bio-imaging application in live brine shrimp Artemia enabled to detect Cu(2+) at as low as 10 ppb exposure.

  11. Sex-dependent transcriptome analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gajardo, Gonzalo

    2014-10-29

    In order to enhance genomic resources for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, RNA-Seq analysis was conducted for adult females and males. Through de novo assembly, 36,896 high quality contigs were obtained, of which 13,749 sequences were annotated with arthropod sequences. Just 4.5% matched against previously reported sequences for Artemia spp. Additionally, different transcriptional patterns between males and females were found, evidencing sex-related transcriptional responses. Furthermore, 221 and 534 putative SNPs were identified exclusively in males and females, respectively. These results will build the foundation for further genomic studies in A. franciscana.

  12. Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity, Total Phenolic Content, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, Thrombolytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Tagetes patula L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ruhul Kuddus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of leaf of Tagetes patula L. as well as its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates were subjected to screening for total phenolic content, brine shrimp lethality, membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activity. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by hypotonic solution-and heat-induced methods and was compared with acetyl salicylic acid. In the present studies, the n-hexane soluble fraction demonstrated strong membrane stabilizing activity in both hypotonic solution-and heat-induced methods with 44.48% and 42.68% inhibition of haemolysis, respectively. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent. In brine shrimp bioassay, the crude methanol extract of leaf showed strong cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 8.58 μg/ml compared to that of 0.451 μg/ml exhibited by standard vincristine sulphate. During assay for thrombolytic activity, the n-hexane soluble fraction revealed 43.7% lysis of clot while standard streptokinase and water, used as positive and negative controls, demonstrated 65.8% and 3.62% lysis of clot, respectively. In antimicrobial assay by disc diffusion method, all the samples exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition = 9.0-22.0 mm against all the test organisms. Among all the samples, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction displayed strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (22.0 mm.

  13. A case study to optimise and validate the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana immobilisation assay with silver nanoparticles: The role of harmonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Drobne, Damjana; Singh, Shashi; Kalčíková, Gabriela; Kühnel, Dana; Rohit, Rekulapelly; Gotvajn, Andreja Žgajnar; Jemec, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been recognised as an important ecotoxicity and nanotoxicity test model organism for salt-rich aquatic environments, but currently there is still no harmonised testing protocol which would ensure the comparable results for hazard identification. In this paper we aimed to design the harmonised protocol for nanomaterial toxicity testing using Artemia franciscana and present a case study to validate the protocol with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We (i) revised the existing nanotoxicity test protocols with Artemia sp. (ii) optimised certain methodological steps based on the experiments with AgNPs and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as a soluble reference chemical and (iii) tested the optimised protocol in an international inter-laboratory exercise conducted within the EU FP7 NanoValid project. The intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the proposed protocol with a soluble reference chemical K2Cr2O7 was good, which confirms the suitability of this assay for conventional chemicals. However, the variability of AgNPs toxicity results was very high showing again that nanomaterials are inherently challenging for toxicity studies, especially those which toxic effect is linked to shed metal ions. Among the identified sources for this variability were: the hatching conditions, the type of test plate incubation and the illumination regime. The latter induced variations assumingly due to the changes in bioavailable silver species concentrations. Up to our knowledge this is the first inter-laboratory comparison of the Artemia sp. toxicity study involving nanomaterials. Although the inter-laboratory exercise revealed poor repeatability of AgNPs toxicity results, this study provides valuable information regarding the importance of harmonisation of all steps in the test procedure. Also, the presented AgNPs toxicity case study may serve as a platform for further validation steps with other types of NMs.

  14. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY TEST (BSLT DARI BERBAGAI FRAKSI EKSTRAK DAGING BUAH DAN KULIT BIJI MAHKOTA DEWA (Phaleria macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Lisdawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of a natural product involved in several certain characteristics will influence its pharmaceutical application. Secondary metabolites, considered as chemical compounds, are now thought to mediate plant defense mechanism by providing chemical barriers against animal and microbial predators. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method has been used as preliminary test for screening the activity of chemical compounds in n­ hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from mesocarp and seeds of Phaleria macrocarpa, fam. Thymelaeaceae. BSLT method used shrimp larvas of Artemia salina L. to study the mortality effect that was caused by the sample extracts. All of crude extracts showed bioactivity with LC50 values from 0.16 to 11.83 µg/ml (baseline 1000 µg/ml. It means, at the concentration the crude extracts can cause 50% mortality of A. salina L. shrimp larvas, after 24 hours incubation. These results clearly indicate that crude extracts of P. macrocarpa showed high potential biological activity.

  15. Opportunities for Sex Education and Personal and Social Education (PSE) through Science Lessons: The Comments of Primary Pupils When Observing Meal Worms and Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a characterization of students' comments during observation of meal worms or brine shrimp. Finds that many student comments had to do with sex, reproduction, death, violence, and the life history of the organisms. Significant differences in conversations occurred across age and gender groups. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)

  16. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine) : The use of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Van der Have, TM; Van der Winden, J; Chernichko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  17. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine): the use of brine shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.; Have, van der T.M.; Winden, van der J.; Chernichko, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  18. Feeding of the brine shrimp Artemia on yeast: effect of mechanical disturbance, animal density, water quality and light intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P. (Peter); Sorgeloos, P.

    1989-01-01

    Details are given of experiments conducted to determine the effects of tank culture conditions on the feeding of Artemia. Mechanical disturbance, animal density and water quality were found to affect the feeding rate of Artemia. The importance of culture conditions in maintaining a rate of food consumption which does not limit the growth of the brine shrimp is stressed.

  19. Hemolymph patterns of free amino acids in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana after three days starvation at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kaworu; Iwaizumi, Koichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2007-05-01

    The hemolymph pattern of free amino acids was examined in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana (Great Salt Lake origin). After one-month acclimation to 35 or 60 ppt salinity at 27 degrees C, the animals were transferred to 10, 35 or 60 ppt salinities to continue acclimation for 3 days without feeding at 27 degrees C. The osmolarity of one of the new media was raised by glycerol addition. In the hemolymph, 8 amino acids such as taurine, alanine, threonine, serine, lysine, glycine, arginine and leucine, comprised approximately 70% of the total content of free amino acids. This pattern suggested internal proteolysis due to starvation at high temperature. The total content of free amino acids significantly increased at 10 and 60 ppt salinities in comparison to 35 ppt. The hemolymph patterns from the 10 ppt and glycerol-added media showed a singularly high peak of taurine or alanine.

  20. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs, and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92, indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern. RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result

  1. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Amat, Francisco; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin's time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data) in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA) to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (Φ ST of 0.92), indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern). RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result in substantial

  2. Assessment of the role of brine shrimp Artemia in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Song; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Dong, Yun-Wei; Tian, Xiang-Li; Cao, Yi-Cheng; Li, Zuo-Jia; Yan, Dong-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Challenge tests with Artemia four different development stages (nauplii, metanauplii, pseudoadults and adults) to white spot syndrome virus was carried out by immersion challenge and virus-phytoplankton adhesion route in order to asses the possibility of Artemia acting as a vector of WSSV to penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. The WSSV succeeded in infecting four stages Artemia, and nested-PCR detection for WSSV revealed positive results to virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. No mass mortalities were observed in penaeid shrimp postlarvae fed with WSSV-positive Artemia which exposed to WSSV by virus-phytoplankton adhesion route, whereas WSSV DNA detected in penaeid shrimp postlarvae by nested-PCR. By contrary, no WSSV-positive was detected in any animal fed with WSSV-negative Artemia. These results indicated that Artemia could serve as a vector in WSSV transmission.

  3. Assessment of cyst production potential of a natural population of brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Studies on a natural population of Artemia in the salterns of Jamnagar indicated that the population is parthenogenetic. These shrimps reach a maximum size of 9 mm. Number of cysts per brood varies from 10-32. Adults form about 68% of the total...

  4. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...... MAP shrimps were characterized by phenotypic tests and identified as lactic acid bacteria (78 isolates), other Gram-positive bacteria (13 isolates) and Gram-negative bacteria (11 isolates). A selection of 48 LAB isolates were further characterized and identified by phenotypic tests and SDS...... to chemical changes in spoiled products. Carnobacterium divergens , a non-motile Carnobacterium sp. nov. and Lactobacillus curvatus were the LAB species observed in spoilage associations of products stored at 0degreesC, 5degreesC and 8degreesC. Conclusions: Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were...

  5. The Frequency-Dependence of the NMR Longitudinal Relaxation Rate, T(1)(-1), of Water in Cysts of the Brine Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Thomas F.

    The NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate, T(,1)(' -1), of water is independent of the Larmor frequency, (omega)/2(pi), in the normal rf range. However, T(,1)('-1) of intracellular water in biological systems, which accounts for as much as 80% of the cell mass, is frequency-dependent. This indicates that the NMR properties of water in the cellular environment are influenced by long-correlation time processes due to the interaction of water with proteins and other macromolecular constituents of the cell. In this research, the relaxation rate T(,1)(' -1) of water in the Artemia (brine shrimp) cyst is examined as a function of: (1) the proton NMR Larmor frequency for .01 Artemia cysts between 10 and 500 MHz. At lower Larmor frequencies, below 1 MHz, the relaxation rates of water in brine shrimp cysts are influenced by additional relexation mechanisms; translational diffusion of hydration water is one possibility.

  6. 腌制和干制对即食虾仁品质的影响%Effects of Brining and Drying on the Quality of Instant Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 李威; 李汴生; 杨朝雄

    2011-01-01

    The salt content, the moisture content, water activity, sensory evaluation and color of instant shrimp were determined during the brining and drying treatments, to investigate the effects of brining and drying on the quality of instant shrimp. The results showed that the moisture content and salt content of the shrimp were sigiificantly changed when the salt solution was over 2% by vacuum brining method. The best brining regents and time were determined as 6% salt solution and 1.5 h, respectively. And the best drying technology were found as follows:drying the pickled shrimp at 80℃ until no water was detected at the product surface and then re-drying it at 65℃ until the water content was down to 60%.%通过对产品的盐含量、水分含量、水分活度、感官评定以及色泽的测定,研究即食虾仁加工过程中的腌制和干制对其品质的影响.结果表明,腌制采用真空湿腌法,在腌制液中的盐浓度大于2%之后,可以显著改变腌制后虾仁的水分含量以及盐含量,最佳的腌制液盐浓度为6%,腌制时间为1.5 h,干制的最佳条件为:在80℃干燥到表面无复水,然后在65℃烘干至最终水分含量60%.

  7. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum.

  8. Quorum sensing-disrupting brominated furanones protect the gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

  9. Cestode parasitism in invasive and native brine shrimps (Artemia spp.) as a possible factor promoting the rapid invasion of A. franciscana in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, B B; Sánchez, M I; Vasileva, G P; Nikolov, P N; Green, A J

    2007-11-01

    Artemia franciscana is an invasive crustacean expanding its range in hypersaline wetlands in the Mediterranean region and replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. Native brine shrimps are known as intermediate hosts of cestodes; infected individuals exhibit changes in their behaviour and appearance, thus facilitating the parasite transmission to the avian hosts by predation. To assess whether invasive brine shrimps participate in the cestode life cycles to the same extent as the native species, we examined the natural infections in seven populations of Artemia spp. along the southern coast of Spain and Portugal: three populations of each A. franciscana and A. parthenogenetica and one population of A. salina. Ten cestode species were found in A. parthenogenetica, while only six were recorded in each of A. salina and A. franciscana. The overall infection was consistently higher in native than in invasive populations. For a particular cestode species, the prevalence or abundance was significantly higher in a native population for 54 pairwise comparisons and only higher for an invasive population for 4 pairwise comparisons. These results suggest that cestodes may influence competitive interactions between native and invasive brine shrimps, thus partly explaining the invasive success of A. franciscana.

  10. Differential protein expression using proteomics from a crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8.2 as control and 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress levels according to the predicted levels at the end of this century and next century, respectively) for 1, 7 and 14 days followed by examination of the protein expression changes via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Searches of protein databases revealed that 67 differential protein spots were altered due to lower pH level (7.6 and 7.8) stress in comparison to control groups (pH 8.2) by mass spectrometry. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins included the following: 1) metabolic process-related proteins involved in glycolysis and glucogenesis, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, DNA replication and apoptosis; 2) stress response-related proteins, such as peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin peroxidase, 70-kDa heat shock protein, Na/K ATPase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; 3) immune defence-related proteins, such as prophenoloxidase and ferritin; 4) cytoskeletal-related proteins, such as myosin light chain, TCP1 subunit 2, tropomyosin and tubulin alpha chain; and 5) signal transduction-related proteins, such as phospholipase C-like protein, 14-3-3 zeta, translationally controlled tumour protein and RNA binding motif protein. Taken together, these data support the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification may affect protein expression in the crustacean A. sinica and possibly also in other species that feed on brine shrimp in the

  11. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells.

  12. A note on the biogeographical origin of the brine shrimp Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 from Urmia Lake, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimanifar, Amin; Asem, Alireza; Djamali, Morteza; Wink, Michael

    2016-03-30

    The brine shrimp Artemia urmiana, an abundant inhabitant of the hypersaline Urmia Lake in northwestern Iran, has recently been described from Lake Koyashskoe, also a shallow hypersaline lake that is located on the Black Sea coast of the Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine). This discovery has questioned the endemicity of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake and has also brought into question the biogeographical origin of this species. In the present study, we combined recent genetic divergence data (mtDNA-COI) with palaeoecological evidence to address the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana. Calibration of the molecular clock of the COI region was set by assigning the age of the micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex minimally at 145 Mya. The divergence age of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake dates back to 383,000 years, whereas Ukrainian Artemia reflects a very young populations that diverged about 196,000 years ago. Palaeoecological evidence suggests that the age of the major habitat of A. urmiana i.e. Urmia Lake goes back to the Tertiary Period while the Ukranian habitats of the species are very young, by virtue of geological features of the Holocene age. We conclude that the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana is outside of Europe and the current state of knowledge strongly suggests that Urmia Lake has been the major source of its expansion into its modern habitats in Europe.

  13. Characterization of a group 1 late embryogenesis abundant protein in encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Michelle A; Kozarova, Anna; Clegg, James S; Vacratsis, Panayiotis O; Warner, Alden H

    2009-04-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are hydrophilic molecules that are believed to function in desiccation and low-temperature tolerance in some plants and plant propagules, certain prokaryotes, and several animal species. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana can produce encysted embryos (cysts) that enter diapause and are resistant to severe desiccation. This ability is based on biochemical adaptations, one of which appears to be the accumulation of the LEA protein that is the focus of this study. The studies described herein characterize a 21 kDa protein in encysted Artemia embryos as a group 1 LEA protein. The amino acid sequence of this protein and its gene have been determined and entered into the NCBI database (no. EF656614). The LEA protein consists of 182 amino acids and it is extremely hydrophilic, with glycine (23%), glutamine (17%), and glutamic acid (12.6%) being the most abundant amino acids. This protein also consists of 8 tandem repeats of a 20 amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of group 1 LEA proteins from non-animal species. The LEA protein and its gene are expressed only in encysted embryos and not in larvae or adults. Evidence is presented to show that the LEA protein functions in the prevention of drying-induced protein aggregation, which supports its functional role in desiccation tolerance. This report describes, for the first time, the purification and characterization of a group 1 LEA protein from an animal species.

  14. Effect of municipal waste water effluent upon the expression of Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes of brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammou, Athina; Papadimitriou, Chrisa; Samaras, Peter; Vasara, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2011-06-01

    Multiple isoenzymes of the detoxification enzyme family Glutathione S-transferase are expressed in the brine shrimp Artemia. The number of the major ones detected in crude extract by means of chromatofocusing varied between three and four, depending on the age. Two isoenzymes, one alkaline and one neutral (with corresponding isoelectric points of 8.5 and 7.2) appear to be dominant in all three developmental stages studied, (24, 48, and 72 h after hatching). Culturing Artemia for 48 h after hatching, in artificial sea water prepared by municipal wastewater effluent resulted to significant alterations of the isoenzyme profile. In comparison to organisms cultured for the same period of time in artificial sea water prepared by filtered tap water, the expression of the alkaline isoenzyme decreased by 62% while that of the neutral isoenzyme increased by 58%. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of the major isoenzyme of the acidic area increased by more than two folds. It is worth mentioning that although the specific activity of the total enzyme in the whole body homogenate was elevated, no statistically significant alteration of the Km value was observed. These findings suggest that study of the isoenzyme profile of Glutathione S-transferase may offer high sensitivity in detecting environmental pollution and needs to be further investigated.

  15. Molecular cloning and its expression of trachealess gene (As-trh) during development in brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Qing; Hou, Lin; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Riu-Feng; Zou, Xiang-Yang; Xiao, Qin; Guo, Ran

    2012-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (bHLH-PAS) family transcription factors are implicated in multiple developmental and physiological regulatory processes. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding a bHLH-PAS domain transcription factor trachealess gene (designated as As-trh) was cloned and characterized from brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) for the first time. The full-length cDNA of As-trh was 2,698 bp with a 2,319 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 772 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 86.02 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.87. Sequence alignment revealed that As-trh had high homology with other species trh gene, including the D-trh gene in Drosophila melanogaster and Bm-trh in Bombyx mori. The early and persistent expression of As-trh in the naupliar stages by whole-mount embryonic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry suggest that As-trh functions very early in the salt gland and may be required continuously in this tissue. Later in development, expression of As-trh begins to decrease and disappear in salt gland of the older nauplius and appears in the thoracic epipods of the sub-adult Artemia. These results indicated that As-trh might play an important role in osmoregulatiory organ development from the larvae stages through adult stages.

  16. beta-Hydroxybutyrate in developing nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana K.) under feeding and non-feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzien, F A; Hemre, G I; Evjemo, J O; Olsen, Y; Fyhn, H J

    2000-01-01

    Body content of beta-hydroxybutyrate, and individual dry mass, carbon content, and survival rate, were studied in developing nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana K. from hatching to 96-97 h post hatching at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. The effect of two diets was studied in the experiment: Super Selco (SS) with a high lipid content; and Protein Selco (PS) with a high protein content. A starving group (S) was used as reference. The level of beta-hydroxybutyrate at hatching was 0.6 nmol.ind-1; it increased to 1.0-1.5 nmol.ind-1 in the SS- and S-groups, while in the PS-group it remained stable between 0.6-0.8 nmol.ind-1. At 60-80 h post hatch in the SS- and S-groups, the levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar to the initial levels. The survival rate remained higher than 95% until 24 h post hatching in all groups. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate was 63% in the PS-group, 13% in the S-group and 3% in the SS-group. The Artemia nauplii individual dry mass and carbon content remained relatively stable in the SS-group; both parameters showed a significant increase in the PS-group and a significant decrease in the S-group. The results suggest that Artemia nauplii utilise ketone bodies as a fuel during development and growth, but that ketone catabolism may be overloaded by excessive lipid feeding resulting in increased mortality and possibly a ketotic acidosis.

  17. The gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) model system reveals that the phenolic compound pyrogallol protects against infection through its prooxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Duy Phong, Ho Phuong Pham; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phenolic compound pyrogallol is the functional unit of many polyphenols and currently there has been a growing interest in using this compound in human and animal health owing to its health-promoting effects. The biological actions of pyrogallol moiety (and polyphenols) in inducing health benefitting effects have been studied; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear yet. Here, we aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanism of action behind the protective effects of pyrogallol against bacterial infection by using the gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi as host-pathogen model system. The gnotobiotic test system represents an exceptional system for carrying out such studies because it eliminates any possible interference of microbial communities (naturally present in the experimental system) in mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We provided clear evidences suggesting that pyrogallol pretreament, at an optimum concentration, induced protective effects in the brine shrimp against V. harveyi infection. By pretreating brine shrimp with pyrogallol in the presence or absence of an antioxidant enzyme mixture (catalase and superoxide dismutase), we showed that the Vibrio-protective effect of the compound was caused by its prooxidant action (e.g. generation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). We showed further that generation of prooxidant is linked to the induction of heat shock protein Hsp70, which is involved in eliciting the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune responses. The ability of pyrogallol to induce protective immunity makes it a potential natural protective agent that might be a potential preventive modality for different host-pathogen systems.

  18. Effects of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants on the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta and cysts, larvae and adults of the brine shrimp Artemia salina: a prospective treatment to eradicate invasive organisms from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavand, Meghana R; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Peters, Robert W; Angus, Robert A

    2007-11-01

    Uptake and release of ship-borne ballast water is a major factor contributing to introductions of aquatic phytoplankton and invasive macroinvertebrates. Some invasive unicellular algae can cause harmful algal blooms and produce toxins that build up in food chains. Moreover, to date, few studies have compared the efficacy of ballast water treatments against different life history phases of aquatic macroinvertebrates. In the present study, the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, and three discrete life history phases of the brine shrimp Artemia salina, were independently used as model organisms to study the efficacy of sonication as well as the advanced oxidants, hydrogen peroxide and ozone, as potential ballast water treatments. Algal cells and brine shrimp cysts, nauplii, and adults were subjected to individual and combined treatments of sonication and advanced oxidants. Combined rather than individual treatments consistently yielded the highest levels of mortality in algal cells (100% over a 2 min exposure) and in brine shrimp (100% and 95% for larvae and adults, respectively, over a 2 min exposure). In contrast, mortality levels in brine shrimp cysts (66% over 2 min; increased to 92% over a 20 min exposure) were moderately high but consistently lower than that detected for larval or adult shrimp. Our results indicate that a combination of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants may be a promising method to eradicate aquatic unicellular algae and macroinvertebrates in ballast water.

  19. Effects of rotenone and other mitochondrial complex I inhibitors on the brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehovszky, Agnes; Szabó, Henriette; Acs, A; Gyori, J; Farkas, Anna

    2010-12-01

    (Artemia) nauplii was used to asses the toxicity of rotenone, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), MP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) and the effect of L-DOPA co-treatment with rotenone. Rotenone had a dose dependent effect on mortality (LC₅₀: 0.37 ± 0.04 μM mean ± S E, n = 24), while MPTP and MP+ proved to be toxic in millimolar range (LC₅₀: 0.21 ± 0.09 mM and 0.20 ± 0.08 mM, respectively, n = 4). L-DOPA (50-200 μM) co-treatment increased the survival of the rotenone-treated animals (LC₅₀: 0.51 ± 0.23 μM, 1.03 ± 0.66 μM, and 0.76 ± 0.52 μM, respectively). In the whole body tissue homogenates of Artemia, sublethal (up to 0.3 μM) concentrations of rotenone increased the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity by up to 50 about percent (LC₅₀: 53.3 ± 6.8 nM/min/mg protein, against 34.7 ± 3.6 nM/min/mg protein, n = 4). Nauplii treated in 100 mM L-DOPA and rotenone together showed further increase of GST activity all across the range of rotenone concentrations. These results on Artemia nauplii show similarities with other animal models, when complex I inhibitors were tested. Biochemical measurements suggest a protective role of L-DOPA by increasing the GST activity as part of the intracellular defences during toxin-evoked oxidative stress.

  20. In vitro and in vivo expression of virulence genes in Vibrio isolates belonging to the Harveyi clade in relation to their virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Defoirdt, Tom; Bhowmick, Patit Paban; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya; Bossier, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade are pathogenic marine bacteria affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, thereby causing a severe threat to the aquaculture industry. In this study, the expression of haemolysin, metalloprotease, serine protease, the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR and the virulence regulator ToxR in different Harveyi clade isolates was measured with reverse transcriptase real-time PCR with specific primers. There was relatively low variation in the in vitro expression levels of the quorum sensing master regulator luxR (sevenfold), whereas for the other genes, the difference in expression between the isolates showing lowest and highest expression levels was over 25-fold. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between expression levels of toxR and luxR and between the expression levels of these regulators and the protease genes. The expression levels of luxR, toxR and haemolysin were negatively correlated with the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with the isolates. Finally, a non-virulent, a moderately virulent and a strongly virulent isolate were selected to study in vivo expression of the virulence genes during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae. The in vivo gene expression study showed a clear difference in virulence gene expression between both virulent isolates and the non-virulent isolate.

  1. Further characterization of the cathepsin L-associated protein and its gene in two species of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqian; Warner, Alden H

    2006-12-01

    The major cysteine protease in embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is a heterodimer composed of a cathepsin L-like polypeptide of 28.5 kDa and a 31.5 kDa polypeptide called the cathepsin L-associated protein or CLAP. In a previous study, CLAP was shown to be a cell adhesion protein containing two Fas I domains and two GTP/ATP binding sites known as Walker A and B motifs. Here, we have characterized CLAP and its genes to better understand the role of this protein in Artemia development. The polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the structure of the CLAP gene in two species of Artemia, the New World bisexual diploid A. franciscana and the Old World parthenogenetic tetraploid Artemia parthenogenetica. The protein coding region of the CLAP gene from each species was 99.5% identical for a protein of 332 amino acids, while the 3' non-coding region, representing nearly 45% of the gene, was only 86% identical between the two related species. However, while the CLAP gene is intronless in A. franciscana, in A. parthenogenetica the gene contained a mini-intron of 30 base pairs in the 3' non-coding region. The sequences representing the CLAP gene in A. franciscana and A. parthenogenetica have been entered into the NCBI database as AY757920 and DQ100385, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that while the cathepsin L gene is expressed constitutively in Artemia franciscana embryos and young larvae, the CLAP gene is not expressed in late embryos and young larvae. In contrast, Western blots indicated that CLAP is present in developing embryos and young larvae, at least to the first larval molt, supporting results obtained previously showing CLAP's resistance to degradation by its dimeric partner, cathepsin L. At the protein level we showed that the GTP/ATP binding sites in CLAP are functional with rate constants of 0.024 and 0.022 for GTP and ATP hydrolase activity, respectively. GTP but not ATP also had a slight stimulatory effect on

  2. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

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    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  3. Brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach bioassay of extracts from Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum and different Lychnophora species

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    Z.S Ferraz Filha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate on Artemia salina the citotoxicity of twenty-two extracts from five species of the genus Lychnophora and one species of the genus Lychnophoriopsis. The extracts solubilized in DMSO and prepared at the final concentrations of 100, 250, 375, 500 and 600 μg mL-1 were added to tubes containing Artemia salina nauplii (10 units each and filled to 5 mL total volume with artificial salt water. Lapachol and 5% DMSO were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The samples were kept under light and dead larvae were counted after 24 hours of contact. LC50 was calculated by using Probit software. The crude ethanol extracts from five species showed low lethality in the following order: Lychnophora trichocarpha (LC50 = 672.38 μg mL-1 > Lychnophora pinaster (LC50 = 678.73 μg mL-1 > Lychnophora ericoides (LC50 = 738.09 μg mL-1 > Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum (LC50 = 812.57 μg mL-1 > Lychnophora passerina (LC50 = 921.78 μg mL-1. All tested extracts from L. candelabrum and chloroform extract from L. staavioides showed light toxicity on A. salina. Results indicated that there are substances with potential pharmacological activity in all tested species.O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a citotoxicidade sobre Artemia salina de vinte e dois extratos de cinco espécies do gênero Lychnophora e de uma espécie de Lychnophoriopsis. Os extratos solubilizados em DMSO, preparados nas concentrações finais de 100, 250, 375, 500 e 600 μg mL-1, foram adicionados a recipientes contendo náuplios de Artemia salina (10 unidades cada e completou-se o volume para 5 mL com solução marinha. Lapachol e DMSO 5% foram usados como controles positivo e negativo, respectivamente. As amostras foram mantidas sob iluminação e as larvas mortas foram contadas após 24 horas de contato. O cálculo da LC50 foi feito utilizando-se o programa Probitos. Os extratos etanólicos brutos de cinco espécies apresentaram baixa

  4. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

  6. Synthesis, toxicity towards brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach and antimicrobial activity evaluation of 3,5-diphenylchlorinated-1,2,4- oxadiazoles = Síntese, toxicidade frente a Artemia salina Leach e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de 1,2,4-oxadiazóis-3,5-difenilclorados

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    Silvio Luiz Machado

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The known oxadiazoles 3,5-bis-(phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole (3a; the 3-(4-chlorophenyl-5-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole (3b; and the new 3,5-diphenylchlorinated-1,2,4-oxadiazoles 3c-e were synthesized from the reaction of benzamidoximes with an appropriated acid chloride and cyclisation of the resulting O-acylbenzamidoxime intermediate. The compounds synthesized were characterized on the basis of their IR, NMR (1D and 2D and mass spectral data. Compounds 3a-e were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and for their toxicity towards brineshrimp (Artemia salina Leach. Os oxadiazóis 3,5-bis-(fenil-1,2,4- oxadiazol (3a e 3-(4-clorofenil-5-fenil-1,2,4-oxadiazol (3b, já descritos na literatura, e, os 1,2,4- oxadiazóis-3,5-fenilclorados inéditos 3c-e, foram sintetizados pela reação de bezamidoximas com um cloreto de ácido apropriado, seguido da ciclização do intermediário O-acilíco resultante. Os compostos obtidos foram caracterizados com base nas análises dos dados espectroscópicos de IV, EM e RMN (uni- e bidimensionais. Os compostos 3a-e foram submetidos a bioensaios paraavaliação de atividade antimicrobiana e, de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach.

  7. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara(L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods: The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions:Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure.

  8. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (pneon shrimp.

  9. Toxicity of Nanoparticles to Brine Shrimp: An Introduction to Nanotoxicity and Interdisciplinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Love, Sara A.; Meierhofer, Sharon; Marquis, Bryce J.; Liu, Zhen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotoxicity is an area of intense research, stimulated by increased use of nanoparticles in commercially available products. Herein, using nanotoxicity as a platform, we describe an experiment that emphasizes interdisciplinary science in a collaborative work setting while expanding the traditional realm of chemistry and chemistry research.…

  10. Molecular analysis and its expression of a pou homeobox protein gene during development and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Qing; Hou, Lin; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Riu-Feng; Zou, Xiang-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia are aquatic species of economic importance because of their important significance to aquaculture and are used as a model species in physiology and developmental biology. Research on Artemia POU homeobox gene function will enhance our understanding of the physiological and developmental processes of POU homeobox gene in animals. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding an Artemia POU homeobox protein gene 1 (APH-1) from Artemia sinica (designated as As-APH-1) was cloned and characterized by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. The As-APH-1 gene encoded a protein of 388 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 42.85kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.90 and the protein belongs to the POU III family. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that A. sinica As-APH-1 protein sequence shared a conserved POU homeobox domain with other species. The early and persistent expression of As-APH-1 in the naupliar stages by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and whole-mount embryonic immunohistochemistry suggest that As-APH-1 functions very early in the salt gland and may be required continuously in this organ. Later in development, expression of As-APH-1 begins to dramatically decrease and disappear in salt gland of the sub-adult Artemia. In addition, we also discovered that As-APH-1 increased obviously as the salinity increased, indicating that As-APH-1 might be used as a good indicator of salinity stress. In summary, we are the first to identify the As-APH-1 gene and to determine its gene expression patterns in early embryogenesis stages and in different salinity stress in brine shrimp, A. sinica. The result of expression of As-APH-1 affected by salinity changes will provide us further understanding of the underlying mechanisms of osmoregulation in Artemia early embryonic development.

  11. Comparison of the acute toxicity for gamma-cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin to zebra fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cai, D J; Shan, Z J; Chen, W L; Poletika, Nick; Gao, X W

    2007-03-01

    Gamma-cyhalothrin 15CS (GCH) contains only the active stereoisomer of the two isomers found in lambda-cyhalothrin 25EW (LCH). GCH (0.5 x rate) provides equivalent overall insect control as LCH (1 x rate). Both formulations showed high acute toxicity to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio H.B.) and shrimp (Macrobrachium nippoensis de Haan). The 96-h LC(50(zebra fish,GCH)) is 1.93 microg a.i/L and LC(50(zebra fish,LCH)) is 1.94 microg a.i/L. LC(50(shrimp,GCH)) is 0.28 microg a.i./L and LC(50(shrimp,LCH)) 0.04 microg a.i./L. This indicates that the toxicity to shrimp is likely stereochemistry-dependent. The fates of GCH and LCH are similar in laboratory simulated rice paddy water and their concentrations decrease rapidly, with no GCH or LCH detected after 3 or 4 days. Both are toxic to shrimp in a simulated paddy irrigation reservoir even though treated return water is diluted 5 times. No shrimp fatality is shown in the GCH-treated paddy water after a 4-day holding period, and longer than 5 days is necessary to reach a zero fatality rate for LCH. This is compatible with the 7-day water holding period considered reasonable in agricultural practice.

  12. A first AFLP-based genetic linkage map for brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and its application in mapping the sex locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map. Eight sex-linked AFLP marker alleles were inherited from the female parent, supporting the hypothesis of a WZ-ZZ sex-determining system. The haploid Artemia genome size was estimated to 0.93 Gb by flow cytometry. The produced Artemia linkage maps provide the basis for further fine mapping and exploring of the sex-determining region and are a possible marker resource for mapping genomic loci underlying phenotypic differences among Artemia species.

  13. A new look at an old visual system: structure and development of the compound eyes and optic ganglia of the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Branchiopoda, anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, Miriam; Harzsch, Steffen

    2002-08-01

    Compared to research carried out on decapod crustaceans, the development of the visual system in representatives of the entomostracan crustaceans is poorly understood. However, the structural evolution of the arthropod visual system is an important topic in the new debate on arthropod relationships, and entomostracan crustaceans play a key role in this discussion. Hence, data on structure and ontogeny of the entomostracan visual system are likely to contribute new aspects to our understanding of arthropod phylogeny. Therefore, we explored the proliferation of neuronal stem cells (in vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine) and the developmental expression of synaptic proteins (immunohistochemistry against synapsins) in the developing optic neuropils of the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea, Entomostraca, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from hatching to adulthood. The morphology of the adult visual system was examined in serial sections of plastic embedded specimens. Our results indicate that the cellular material that gives rise to the visual system (compound eyes and two optic ganglia) is contributed by the mitotic activity of neuronal stem cells that are arranged in three band-shaped proliferation zones. Synapsin-like immunoreactivity in the lamina ganglionaris and the medulla externa initiated only after the anlagen of the compound eyes had already formed, suggesting that the emergence of the two optic neuropils lags behind the proliferative action of these stem cells. Neurogenesis in A. salina is compared to similar processes in malacostracan crustaceans and possible phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  14. Inbred strains of brine shrimp derived from Artemia franciscana: lineage, RAPD analysis, life span, reproductive traits and mode, adaptation, and tolerance to salinity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Fumiko; Tanaka, Shin; Nambu, Ziro

    2007-02-01

    Inbred strains of the brine shrimp were developed from dry dormant cysts of wild-type Artemia franciscana produced in the Great Salt Lake, U.S.A. The established strains were named GSL2, 4, and 7. They were raised in 2% natural sea salt solution at 28 degrees C under a long-day condition, and fed on food sold for Artemia. Ovoviviparous offspring (free-swimming nauplii) in each brood derived from full sib (sister x brother) matings were used for succeeding generations. The ordinal number of the filial generation increased at a rate of ten generations per year. The number was over 60, and the lineage was recorded. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of the inbred strains revealed the uniqueness, homogeneity, and genetic similarity among them. Their life span, the time required to become sexually mature, brood size, mode of reproduction, and adaptation and tolerance to salinity changes were investigated. The inbred strains usually released free-swimming nauplii rather than spawning encysted gastrulae (dormant cysts). On the other hand, the opposite results were obtained from wild-type Artemia under the same conditions. Both adults and nauplii of the inbred strains appeared to be less adaptive and less tolerant to salinity changes compared to those of the wild type. The established inbred strains should provide a wider and deeper scope for Artemia biology in particular, and the life sciences in general.

  15. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina Evaluation of macroalgae from Santa Catarina’s coast with the brine shrimp assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lhullier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.Samples of 19 macroalgae species (4 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 10 Rhodophyta have been collected from two points of Santa Catarina's coast. The ethanolic extracts were avaluated with the brine shrimp assay in order to perform a screening for potential toxicity. A total of 25 extracts presented significant results in one or more of the tested concentrations. The phylum Rhodophyta presented more statistically significant results with the chi-square test, as well as lower values of LC50. The extracts of Acanthophora spicifera (from Canasvieiras and Ilha do Francês, Hypnea musciformis and Pterocladiella capillacea (both from Ilha do Francês presented LC50 below 50 mg/mL. Differences between the species of same genus (Codium decorticatum and Codium isthmocladium and the influence of environmental factors (Hypnea musciformis were observed.

  16. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation.

  17. A novel model of early development in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, and its use in assessing the effects of environmental variables on development, emergence, and hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gerlach, Jamie L; Ruggiero, Kristin M; Covi, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to the lack of a comprehensive developmental model that is applicable to observations of live specimens. The objective of this study was to build and test a descriptive model of post-diapause development in Artemia franciscana using observations made with a standard dissecting microscope. The working model presented is the first to comprehensively place all known "abnormal" embryonic and naupliar phenotypes within the context of a classic hatching profile. Contrary to previous reports, embryos and nauplii with aberrant phenotypes often recover and develop normally. Oval prenauplii may emerge as normal prenauplii (E2 stage). A delay of this transition leads to incomplete hatching or direct hatching of first instar larvae with a curved thoracoabdomen. When hatching is incomplete, retained cuticular remnants are shed during the next molt, and a "normal" second instar larva is produced. By differentiating between molting events and gross embryonic patterning in live embryos, this new model facilitates fine time-scale analyses of chemical and environmental impacts on early development. A small increase in salinity within what is commonly believed to be a permissive range (20‰-35‰) produced aberrant morphology by delaying emergence without slowing development. A similar effect was observed by decreasing culture density within a range commonly applied in toxicological studies. These findings clearly demonstrate that morphological data from end-point studies are highly dependent on the time points chosen. An alternate assessment method is proposed, and the potential impact of heavy metals, hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, and cis

  18. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay and evaluation of their total phenolic content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Biradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plant-derived cytotoxic constituents and polyphenolic compounds have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. In this context, we have selected six Indian medicinal plants based on the literature claims and an attempt was made to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and total phenolic content (TPC of their methanol extracts and fractions. Materials and Methods: Six plants have been selected for the study, namely, Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae, Oroxylum indicum (Linn. Vent. (Bignoniaceae, Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb. Kunth. (Araceae, Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae, and Premna serratifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae. Authenticated plant materials were subjected to extraction with methanol by cold maceration and hot percolation methods. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out for all extracts and fractions. All extracts and their fractions were subjected to cytotoxicity screening by brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay. The plants with significant cytotoxicity were evaluated for TPC by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium and P. serratifolia and F1 fraction of M. pudica have shown significant cytotoxicity (lethal concentration (LC 50 < 100 ppm compared with other fractions. F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium show the LC 50 values 32.52, 14.27, and 24.02, respectively; F1, F2, and F3 of P. serratifolia show LC 50 values 7.61, 4.01, and 10.91 and same for F1 fraction of M. pudica was 34.82 μg/ml, respectively. TPC was found to be significantly higher (39.11 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g in P. serratifolia compared with other two plants. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity screening system confirmed the proposed anticancer plants used by traditional healers and literature claims.

  19. Molecular characterization of gap region in 28S rRNA molecules in brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and planarian Dugesia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhong; Xie, Hui; Sun, Yan; Song, Jing; Li, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    In most insects and some other protostomes, a small stretch of nucleotides can be removed from mature 28S rRNA molecules, which could create two 28S rRNA subunits (28Sα and 28Sβ). Thus, during electrophoresis, the rRNA profiles of these organisms may differ significantly from the standard benchmark since the two subunits co-migrate with the 18S rRNA. To understand the structure and mechanism of the atypical 28S rRNA molecule, partial fragments of 28Sα and 28Sβ in brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica and planarian Dugesia japonica were cloned using a modified technology based on terminal transferase. Alignment with the corresponding sequences of 28S rDNAs indicates that there are 41 nucleotides in A. parthenogenetica and 42 nucleotides in D. japonica absent from the mature rRNAs. The AU content of the gap sequences of D. japonica and A. parthenogenetica is high. Both the gaps may form stem-loop structure. In D. japonica a UAAU cleavage signal is identified in the loop, but it is absent in A. parthenogenetica. Thus, it is proposed that the gap processing of 28S rRNA was a late enzyme-dependent cleavage event in the rRNA maturational process based on the AU rich gap sequence and the formation of the stem-loop structure to expose the processing segment, while the deletion of the gap region would not affect the structure and function of the 28S rRNA molecule.

  20. 高原盐湖盐藻和卤虫资源的开发和利用%Development and Utilization of Salt Algae (Dunaliella salina) and Brine Shrimp (Artemia spp.) in the Plateau Salt Lake of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印象初; 印红; 周可新; 张道川; 施鉴屏

    2001-01-01

    叙述了我国高原盐湖的名称、地理位置、面积、水深、海拔和盐湖类型等基本情况;盐湖中盐藻和卤虫的种类、生物学和生态学特性。并对它们的经济价值和开发利用作了初步的讨论。%In the paper, the name, geographical position, area, depth ofwater, altitude, brine type of salt lake from Plateau; ecology, biology and economy of salt algae (Dunaliella salina) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) are described. The development and utilization of the sources of salt lake are preliminarily discussed.

  1. THE SCREENING ACTIVITY PARTS OF ACER TRUNCATUM BUNGE.AND OTHER PLANTS OF THE SAME GENUS BY THE BRINE SHRIMP LETAITY BIOASSAY%采用BSLB(Brine Shrimp Letality Bioassay)法对元宝枫(Acer truncatum Bunge.)及同属植物活性部位的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏希颖; 吕居娴; 李映丽; 贺浪冲

    2004-01-01

    本文通过BSLB法对元宝枫及同属植物不同部位的水提物进行了活性试验,得知:元宝枫的幼技、种皮的水提物具一定的生物致死活性;同属植物青榨槭叶和种子,秦岭槭、杈叶槭果翅的水提物也具一定的生物致死活性.本实验为元宝枫及同属植物进行进一步肿瘤细胞的体外培养试验及动物模型试验提供了科学依据.%By means of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay the authors study the watering abstracts activity of the A. truncatum Bunge. and the other plants of the same genus. The results indicate that the tender bark and seed skin of A. truncatum Bunge have the bioactivity. The leaves and seeds of A. dervidii Fr, the seed skin of A. robustum pax. have the same activity. The test offers some scientific basis for the further researches of anticancer experiments and animal model test outside the body of cell.

  2. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  3. Environmental mutagenicity and toxicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea shrimp harvesting in Piauí, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Machado Matos Carvalho, Ivana Mara; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia Melo; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Pereira, Danilo Leôncio Aguiar; Rocha, Francisco Cézar Costa; Oliveira, Francisco Massal de; Da Silva, Juliana

    2011-02-01

    Sodium metabisulfite is used in marine shrimp harvesting to prevent the occurrence of black spots. Shrimps are soaked in a sodium metabisulfite solution in ice, which is disposed of in sewages that run into marine canals, creating an environmental hazard. This study evaluates the toxicity and mutagenicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea waters and sediments collected in a shrimp farm in Cajueiro da Praia (Luis Correia), state of Piauí, Brazil, using the Allium cepa assay. Water and sediment samples were collected in the dry and in the rainy seasons, in three sites: upstream the shrimp farm (Site 1), at the point sodium metabisulfite is discharged (Site 2), and 100 m downstream the farm (Site 3). Three sample dilutions were used (50%, 25% and 10%) for all samples. A negative control (well water) and a positive control (copper sulfate 0.0006 mg mL⁻¹) were used in each experiment. At the end of the 72-h exposure period, onion roots were measured and removed. Mutagenicity analysis included the determination of mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and the detection of micronuclei; analysis of root size and mitotic index were used as an index of toxicity. The A. cepa assay revealed that the water and sediments samples collected in the Piauí coast contaminated with sodium metabisulfite induce toxicity. The results demonstrate that the assay may be used as a regular tool in the analysis of water parameters in shrimp farms in the coast of Piauí state, and in strategies to preserve the region's marine ecosystem.

  4. 鱼藤卤虫致死活性成分的分离和结构鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Brine Shrimp Lethal Activities from Derris trifoliata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋诚; 熊本强; 邱细敏; 刘胜姿; 张偲; 尹浩

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究鱼藤Derris trifoliata Lour.根和茎乙酸乙酯提取物的卤虫致死活性成分.方法:以卤虫2龄幼虫为试虫,采用活性跟踪指导,使用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20和半制备液相色谱分离纯化,根据理化性质和光谱学数据进行结构鉴定.结果:分离鉴定了11个化合物,其中12a-羟基鱼藤酮、灰叶素、鱼藤酮和鱼藤素的卤虫致死活性LD50分别为0.365、0.236、0.060和0.734 μg/mL.结论:活性测试表明,12a-羟基鱼藤酮、灰叶素、鱼藤酮和鱼藤素均具有显著的卤虫致死活性.%Objective:To study the brine shrimp lethal activities of the roots and stems from Denis trifoliata. Methods:The biological activity of the athyl acetate extract was tested by the 2nd-inslar of Artemia franciscana by the method of Silica gel column chromatog-raphy,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography,Semipreparative HPLC,and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Results: Eleven compounds were isolated from the athyl acetate extract,and LD50s of 12a-hydroxyrotenone,tephrosin,rotenone and deguelin were 0. 365,0. 236,0.060 and 0.734 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results of bioassay show that 12a-hydroxyrotenone, tephrosin,rotenone and deguelin have strong brine shrimp lethal activity.

  5. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. PMID:21575699

  6. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (7 dph and 40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  7. Reproduction path and effect factors of Brine Shrimp%卤虫的生殖途径和影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍鹰; 逄少军

    2007-01-01

    有关卤虫的第一篇报道发表于1755年,标本采自英国的Lymington。1758年经林奈定名为Artemia salina。卤虫(Brine Shrimp)隶属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、鳃足亚纲(Branehiopoda)、卤虫科(Artemiidae)。卤虫分布广泛,世界各地的许多自然盐湖和人工盐池中均有分布。

  8. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  9. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  10. Click one pot synthesis, spectral analyses, crystal structures, DFT studies and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay of two newly synthesized 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Ayub, Khurshid; Mahmood, Tariq; Tahir, M. Nawaz; Khan, Bilal Ahmad; Hafeez, Muhammad; Ahmed, Madiha; ul-Haq, Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Methyl-2-(1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)-2-oxoacetate (1) and ethyl-2-(1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)-2-oxoacetate (2) were synthesized by one pot three component strategy, and characterized by FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy and TOF-MS spectrometry. Finally, the structures were unequivocally confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Both compounds, 1 and 2 exist in monoclinic crystal packing having space group P21/n and P21/c, respectively. Crystal structures investigations revealed that the molecular structures of the title compounds are stabilized by weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions to form dimers. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed not only to compare with the experimental spectroscopic results but also to probe structural properties. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapped over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules delivered information about the electrophilic and nucleophilic sites. Furthermore, frontier molecular orbital analysis gave the idea about stability and reactivity of compounds. Both compounds were also screened for brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay.

  11. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. (Monterrey Institute of Technology, Sonora (Mexico))

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  12. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic.

  13. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  14. Physiological effects of metal toxicity on the tropical freshwater shrimp Microbrachium carcinus (Linneo, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M

    1987-01-01

    Pilot tests were performed to determine the level at which Zn(++) and Cu(++) ceased to be acutely toxic in Macrobrachium carcinus. The data indicated that the static 96h-LC(50) values for Zn(++) and Cu(++) were 0.2 and 0.1 mg litre(-1) respectively. A differential reduction in respiration and ammonia excretion rates was noted with increasing concentrations of these metals in the water. These levels may in a toxic body burden and a progressive deterioration of gill efficiency. A decrease in respiration and ammonia excretion rates resulted in a decrease in O:N ratios, upon exposure to Zn(++) and Cu(++) concentrations. The ratios obtained indicate that these metals, also increased dependence on carbohydrate or lipid reserves.

  15. Molecularly characterized solvent extracts and saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L show high anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, brine shrimp and fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAyaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, GC-MS to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex, chloroform (Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc, n-Butanol (Ph.Bt, aqueous (Ph.Aq, saponins (Ph.Sp were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed on Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line using brine shrimps and MTT cells viability assays. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131 and 164 compounds respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75 and 461.53 µg/ml respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19 and 342.53 µg/ml respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50 and 71.50% cytotoxicity respectively at 1000 µg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160 and 175 µg/ml respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer.

  16. Brine shrimp bioassay of some species of Solanum from Northestern Brazil Bioatividade em Artemia salina de várias espécies de Solanum do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria S. Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extracts of 13 Specieis of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae have been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina. The extracts investigated were prepared from various parts (aerial parts, roots and fruits of S. asperum, S. capsicoides, S. palinacantum, S. paludosum, S. paniculatum, S. paraibanum, S. sisymbriifolium, S. crinitum, S. diamantinense, S. megalonyx, S. torvum, S. asterophorum and S. stipulaceum. The lethal concentrations were determined for the extracts and among thirteen plants tested, four appear to be inactive. The extracts of the fruits of S. asperum (LC50 = 420.5 µg/mL and S. paludosum (LC50 = 548.0 µg/mL, aerial parts of S. diamantinense (LC50 = 481.0 µg/mL and S. sisymbrifolium (LC50 = 382.7 µg/mL, and the roots of S. asperum (LC50 = 593.4 µg/mL and S. stipulaceum (LC50 = 823.1 µg/mL, all of which previously showed molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata were also found to be active in the present study with brine shrimp.Os extratos metanólicos de 13 espécies de Solanum (Solanaceae foram testados para verifificação da bioatividade em Artemia salina. As espécies testadas (partes aéreas, raízes e frutos foram: S. asperum, S. capsicoides, S. palinacantum, S. paludosum, S. paniculatum, S. paraibanum, S. sisymbriifolium, S. crinitum, S. diamantinense, S. megalonyx, S. torvum, S. asterophorum e S. stipulaceum. Das treze espécies testadas, quatro foram inativas. Os extratos dos frutos de S. asperum (CL50 = 420,5 µg/mL e S. paludosum (CL50 = 548,0 µg/mL, partes aéreas de S. diamantinense (CL50 = 481,0 µg/mL e S. sisymbrifolium (CL50 = 382,7 µg/mL, e das raízes S. asperum (CL50 = 593,4 µg/mL e S. stipulaceum (CL50 = 823,1 µg/mL que mostraram atividade moluscicida contra Biomphalaria glabrata também mostraram atividade tóxica em Artemia salina.

  17. Toxicity of Polychlorinated Diphenyl Ethers in Hydra Attenuata and in Rat Whole Embryo Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    were fed freshly hatched Artemia naupii ( brine shrimp ) once a day. The shrimp eggs (approximately 15 ml) were hydrated in 1% NaCl for approximately 2...all other chemicals were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO.). Brine shrimp eggs were purchased from Carolina Biological Supply, Burlington, NC. The original...days at room temperature. Eggs were aerated throughout the hatching period. Prior to feeding to the hydra, brine shrimp were siphoned into a fish net

  18. Piperonyl butoxide enhances the bioconcentration and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene to larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John E; Garner, Thomas R

    2008-04-08

    Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a commonly used synergist in many pyrethroid formulations due to its ability to interfere with cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases. Because PBO can co-occur in the estuarine environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of compounds metabolized by CYP isozymes, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the influence of PBO on the bioconcentration and photoinduced toxicity of two common PAH contaminants, fluoranthene (FLU) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), on the larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). PBO alone was not particularly toxic to grass shrimp larvae. In dark exposures and under simulated sunlight (UV-A=211.0+/-7.0 microW/cm(2), UV-B=9.8+/-2.4microW/cm(2)), 96-h LC(50) values were similar (814.4 and 888.6 microg/L, respectively), suggesting that PBO toxicity is not enhanced in the presence of sunlight. The presence of sublethal concentrations of PBO in single PAH toxicity tests increased the bioconcentration of the two tested PAHs, and these increases were greatest at the lowest tested PAH concentrations. Mean bioconcentration factors (BCF) at the three lowest FLU and BaP treatments increased 14.3- and 7.1-fold, respectively, in the low PBO (127 microg/L) exposure compared to that of the no PBO exposure. Under simulated sunlight, PBO exposure also increased the photoinduced toxicity of the two tested PAHs, and this increase occurred in a PBO concentration-dependent fashion. For FLU, 96-h LC(50) values decreased from 2.35 microg/L in the absence of PBO to 0.76 microg/L in the high PBO (256 microg/L) exposure. For BaP, 96-h LC(50) values similarly decreased from 1.02 microg/L in the absence of PBO to 0.30microg/L in the high PBO exposure. The presence of PBO also influenced the PAH tissue residue-response relationship, but in different ways for FLU and BaP. For FLU, slopes of the tissue residue-response relationship decreased in the presence of PBO, and for BaP, there was a trend towards

  19. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the toxicity of some synthetic furan derivatives in two cell lines and Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, María I; Monasterios, Melina; Avendaño, Milagros; Charris, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the preliminary toxicity evaluation of five new furan derivatives, 2-[2-acetylamino-2-[(benzothiazolyl-substituted)aminocarbonyl]vinyl]-5-nitro furane (compounds A, B, D and E) and 2-[2-phenylamino-2-[benzothiazolylaminocarbonyl]vinyl]furane (compound C). Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT (tetrazolium salt) method over BHK21 (Syrian baby hamster kidney) and Hep-2 (human larynx carcinoma) cells, which had previously been used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the 5-nitrofuran derivatives. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was determined using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay. Nitrofurantoin was used as reference compound. The results demonstrate that BHK21 cells are more sensitive than Hep-2 cells. This structurally related serial of compounds shows a differential toxicity, which is an indication that the toxicity naturally arising from the nitro group can be modulated by the substituents over the furan ring. Additionally, compound C, the only derivative with no nitro group, was least toxic to Hep-2, but exhibits toxicity to BHK21 cells and brine shrimp. The LC(50 )brine shrimp test (BST) bioassay results were as follows: A, 654.2 microg ml(-1); B, 50.0 microg ml(-1); C, 533.4 microg ml(-1); D, 172.1 microg ml(-1); E, 76.4 microg ml(-1), and NF, >1000 microg ml(-1).

  1. In vivo Toxicity Studies on Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    The galls of Terminala chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae) are used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine and has been found to posses anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging activities. Considering the ethano-botanical and diverse pharmacological applications of galls of T. chebula, in this study, we investigate the possible toxic effects of different gall extracts of T. chebula by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity assay. The cytotoxicity test of leaf gall extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of T. chebula was evaluated by Brine shrimp (A. salina) toxicity assay, which is based on the ability to kill laboratory cultured Artemia nauplii (animals eggs) and also total content of polyphenols, flavonoids with other qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. It was observed that the petroleum ether extract was virtually nontoxic on the shrimps, and exhibited very low toxicity with LC50 value of 4356.76 μg/ml. Furthermore, the chloroform extract exhibited very low toxicity, giving LC50 value of 1462.2 μg/ml. On the other hand, the ethanol extract was very toxic to brine shrimps with LC50 value of 68.64 μg/ml. The ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 136 ± 1.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 113 ± 1.6 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. The higher toxicity effect was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids in the extract. This significant lethality of different extracts to brine shrimp is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of

  2. Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD50 values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD50 determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R2 values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05 for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  3. Coadaptation: lessons from the brine shrimp Artemia, "the aquatic Drosophila" (Crustacea; Anostraca Coadaptación: lecciones desde el camarón de salmuera Artemia, "la Drosophila acuática" (Crustacea; Anostraca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO GAJARDO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During the fifties Brncic and the Dobzhansky's school, using the fruit fly Drosophila as a test organism, introduced the term integration of the genotype, or genetic coadaptation, which has had great impact on thinking in today's evolutionary biology. In this work we use the brine shrimp Artemia - in many respects a sort of aquatic Drosophila- as a model organism to evaluate the relationship between population structure, potential for divergence and the degree of morphological and/or genetic change. These aspects, tightly linked with the organization of the genotype, are important to understanding how recombination and adaptive release of genetic and phenotypic variation affect the speciation process in Artemia. Analysis of genetic (allozyme, diploid and chromocentre numbers, morphological (Mahalanobis distances and reproductive data (cross-fertility tests available for populations of the bisexual, endemic species of the Americas, Artemia franciscana and A. persimilis, indicate that: (i A. franciscana and A. persimilis are morphologically distinct in correspondence with observed genetic differences (D Nei > 1; 2n = 42 and 44; 12.5 and 1.5 mean chromocentre numbers, respectively; (ii populations from Chile and other South American localities (mainly A. franciscana display high levels of genetic variability and a trend to develop large genetic distances between populations; (iii the plasticity of Artemia gene pool is associated, at least in part, with ecological heterogeneity. Hence an adaptive divergence mode is thought to best define the speciation process in Artemia; (iv the succesful production of laboratory hybrids in the allopatric Artemia populations studied in the Americas, a feature seen in other anostracods, could be explained by the fact that formerly allopatric populations have not achieved later sympatry, as required by the allopatric speciation paradigmEn los años cincuenta Brncic y la escuela de Dobzhansky introdujeron el t

  4. Crystal Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: One egg white, 500 grams of shredded river shrimp, 10 grams of soda, 750 grams of cooking oil, sesame oil, sugar, salt, corn starch and hot pepper, and half ladle of soup-stock. Directions: 1. Clean the shrimp with salt, then wash away the salt and strain off the

  5. Further data on the production of beauvericin, enniatins and fusaproliferin and toxicity to Artemia salina by Fusarium species of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A; Mulè, G; Ritieni, A; Logrieco, A

    2007-09-15

    The knowledge of toxigenic profiles of fungal plant pathogens is of extreme importance for evaluating the potential toxicity of infected plant products. Ninety-six fungal isolates belonging to 28 species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were studied for the production of beauvericin, enniatins and fusaproliferin in rice cultures. Toxin production ranged from 5 to 3000 microg/g for beauvericin, 2 to 131 microg/g for enniatins, and 4 to 440 microg/g for fusaproliferin. Beauvericin was the most common metabolite produced by 16 species followed by fusaproliferin with 11 species and enniatins with 4 species. The production of beauvericin by F. bulbicola, F. denticulatum, F. lactis, F. phyllophilum, F. pseudocircinatum, and F. succisae and fusaproliferin by F. antophilum, F. begoniae, F. bulbicola, F. circinatum, F. concentricum, F. succisae, and F. udum is reported here for the first time. Brine shrimp larvae were most sensitive to culture extracts of F. acutatum (up to 94+/-3%), F. concentricum (up to 99+/-1%), F. denticuatum (up to 100%) and F. sacchari (up to 100%). Toxicity towards brine shrimp was significantly correlated with the beauvericin content of the fungal extracts with few exceptions. These data indicate that beauvericin and fusaproliferin are common metabolites of species of the G. fujikuroi complex and pose a risk for a possible toxin accumulation in their respective host plant products. However, data from the brine shrimp bioassay showed that further toxic metabolites within this complex need to be characterized.

  6. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  7. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  8. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi Chahardehi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51±1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10±0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14±0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml. Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry.

  9. Toxicity and Antioxidant Tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. West

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate Morinda citrifolia (noni seed extract, a food ingredient, for potential toxicity and antioxidant activity. Nitrates, nitrites, phytic acid, oxalic acid, as well as aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were not detected in the extract. The extract was also non-cytoxic (LC50 > 1 mg/mL in the 24 and 40 h brine shrimp toxicity test. There were no symptoms of toxicity in a subacute (28 day oral toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats. Noni seed extract did not display any genotoxic potential in a primary DNA damage test in E. coli PQ37. The extract did exhibit significant antioxidant activity in the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP tests.

  10. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  11. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abu Basma Rajeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae, which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC 50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control had LC 50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (% and absolute (g organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05. Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions : E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice.

  12. Molecularly Characterized Solvent Extracts and Saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L. Show High Anti-Angiogenic, Anti-Tumor, Brine Shrimp, and Fibroblast NIH/3T3 Cell Line Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Mir Azam; Ahmad, Waqar; Ali, Gowhar; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed against Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line following contact toxicity and MTT cells viability assays, respectively. The GC–MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt, and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131, and 164 compounds, respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75, and 461.53 μg/ml, respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19, and 342.53 μg/ml, respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50, and 71.50% cytotoxicity, respectively, at 1000 μg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160, and 175 μg/ml, respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:27065865

  13. Treatment methods for geothermal brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Mathur, A.K.; Garrison, W.

    1979-04-01

    A survey is made of commercially available methods currently in use as well as those which might be used to prevent scaling and corrosion in geothermal brines. More emphasis is placed on scaling. Treatments are classified as inhibitors, alterants and coagulants; they are applied to control scaling and corrosion in fresh and waste geothermal brines. Recommendations for research in brine treatment are described.

  14. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  15. Toxicity and effects of mosquito larvicides methoprene and surface film (Agnique® MMF) on the development and fecundity of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Jiang, Yonxing; Mulla, Mir S

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the interactions of tadpole shrimp, a mosquito biological control agent, with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene and a monomolecular surface film. In laboratory assays, the tadpole shrimp (TPS) Triops newberryi (Packard) was able to tolerate high concentrations of methoprene without negative impacts on its growth, longevity, and fecundity when exposed to 1 to 10 mg/liter, or 90-900 fold, of the IE(90) levels against a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The same held true in field trials when the habitats were treated with Altosid(®) Liquid Larvicide (Altosid(®) LL, 5% methoprene) at 0.3-1.2 liters/ha. or 1-4 fold of the label rates for mosquito control. However, some significant impacts on the TPS occurred when they were exposed to Agnique(®) Monomolecular Film (Agnique(®) MMF) at the label rates for mosquito control ranging from 1.89-9.45 liters/ha. under laboratory and field conditions. To avoid the negative impact of Agnique MMF on tadpole shrimp, it appears that 1.89 liters/ha. would be the maximum rate when Agnique MMF is used to control mosquitoes in the habitats where the TPS is employed as a biological control agent, or prevailing in the aquatic habitats with potential for suppressing mosquito larval populations.

  16. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  17. Study on the Toxicity of Extract from Seed Cake of Camellia oleifera Abel to Freshwater Fishes, Shrimps and Snails%油茶饼粕浸出液对淡水鱼·虾·螺的毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶显峰; 郑世雄; 祖国掌; 徐启龙; 赵同德; 谢士峰; 李国峰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]进一步探讨油茶饼粕在淡水鱼虾蟹病害防治中的应用.[方法]采用单因子梯度法,利用不同浓度的油茶饼粕浸出液对5种有鳞鱼和2种无鳞鱼及青虾和螺蛳等水产动物进行毒性试验.[结果]油茶饼粕浸出液对有鳞鱼鲢、鳙、草鱼、鲤、鲫鱼24和48 h的LC50分别为6.25和5.16 mg/L、5.26和5.12 mg/L、9.74和5.87 mg/L、9.29和7.64 mg/L、11.3和7.55 mg/L;油茶饼粕浸出液对无鳞鱼斑点叉尾鮰、泥鳅在24和48 h的LC50分别为:7.47和5.00 mg/L、26.42和16.80 mg/L;青虾和螺蛳在90 mg/L油茶饼粕浸出液的情况下48 h存活率达100%.油茶饼粕浸出液对淡水鱼类具有显著的毒杀性,而淡水青虾和螺蛳对油茶饼粕浸出液具有较高的耐受性.[结论]利用油茶饼粕浸出液控制混入淡水虾蟹养殖池的野杂鱼和防治病害,具有较好的前景.%[Objective] The research aimed to further discuss the application of seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel in the disease prevention and control of freshwater fishes, shrimps and snails. [ Method] The toxicity of different concentrations of extract from seed cake from C. oleifera to aquatic animals such as five species of fishes with squama, two species of fishes without squama, black shrimp and snails was studied. [ Result] 24 h and 48 h LC50 of extract from C. oleifera to fishes with squama Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis, Ctenopharyng-odon idellus, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, Carassius auratus were 6.25 and 5. 16 mg/L, 5.26 and 5.12 mg/L,9.74 and 5. 87 mg/L,9. 29 and 7.64 mg/L, 11.3 and 7.55 mg/L respectively. 24 h and 48 h LC50 of extract from C. oleifera to fishes without squama Lctalurus punctatus and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were 7.47 and 5.00 mg/L,26.42 and 16. 80 mg/L. The survival rates of black shrimps and snails in 90 mg/L extract from C. oleifera reached 100%. The extract from C. oleifera had significant toxicity to freshwater fishes, but freshwater black shrimps and

  18. Toxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Lithuanian Wormwood (Artemisiaabsinthium L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity tests of wild wormwood essential oils were performed using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp. test. N auplii lethality (LC 50 ranged 15.7-31.9 µg/mL, depending on oil composition. The most toxic A. absinthium oils were found to be those containing appreciable amount of trans-sabinyl acetate (45.2% and (cis+trans thujones (12.3%, while other samples with equivalent amounts of sabinyl acetate, but without thujones were determined to be notably less toxic. Herb material for the tests was collected in Lithuania, the volatile oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant organs (inflorescences and leaves and analysed by GC-MS.

  19. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Purification and characterization of phenoloxidase from brine shrimp Artemia sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingjun Fan; Zhao Jing; Xianyuan Fan; Miaomiao Yu; Guojian Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Phenoloxidase from Artemia sinica (AsPO) was purified by Superdex 200 gel-filtration and Q Sepharose fast flow ionexchange chromatography,and its properties were characterized biochemically and enzymatically by using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the specific substrate.Results showed that AsPO was isolated as a monomeric protein of 125.5 kDa in molecular mass.The optimal pH value and temperature are 7.0 and 50℃,respectively,for its PO activity.The AsPO had an apparent Km value of 4.2 mM on L-DOPA,and 10.9 mM on catechol,respectively.Oxidase inhibitor on PO activity showed that the AsPO was extremely sensitive to ascorbic acid,sodium sulfite,and citric acid; and was very sensitive to cysteine,benzoic acid,and l-phenyl-2-thiourea.Combined with its specific enzyme activity on L-DOPA and catechol,it can be concluded that AsPO is most probably a typical catechol-type O-diphenoloxidase.Its PO activity was also sensitive to metal ions and chelators,and 20 mM DETC-inhibited PO activity was obviously recovered by 15 mM Cu2+,indicating that AsPO is most probably a copper-containing metalloenzyme.All these data about specific substrate,sensitivity to oxidase inhibitor metal ions and chelators indicate that the AsPO has the properties of a catechol-type copper-containing Odiphenoloxidase that functions as a vital humoral factor in host defense via melaninization as in other Crustaceans.

  1. Purification and characterization of phenoloxidase from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingjun; Jing, Zhao; Fan, Xianyuan; Yu, Miaomiao; Jiang, Guojian

    2011-09-01

    Phenoloxidase from Artemia sinica (AsPO) was purified by Superdex 200 gel-filtration and Q Sepharose fast flow ion-exchange chromatography, and its properties were characterized biochemically and enzymatically by using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the specific substrate. Results showed that AsPO was isolated as a monomeric protein of 125.5 kDa in molecular mass. The optimal pH value and temperature are 7.0 and 50°C, respectively, for its PO activity. The AsPO had an apparent K(m) value of 4.2 mM on L-DOPA, and 10.9 mM on catechol, respectively. Oxidase inhibitor on PO activity showed that the AsPO was extremely sensitive to ascorbic acid, sodium sulfite, and citric acid; and was very sensitive to cysteine, benzoic acid, and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea. Combined with its specific enzyme activity on L-DOPA and catechol, it can be concluded that AsPO is most probably a typical catechol-type O-diphenoloxidase. Its PO activity was also sensitive to metal ions and chelators, and 20 mM DETC-inhibited PO activity was obviously recovered by 15 mM Cu(2+), indicating that AsPO is most probably a copper-containing metalloenzyme. All these data about specific substrate, sensitivity to oxidase inhibitor metal ions and chelators indicate that the AsPO has the properties of a catechol-type copper-containing O-diphenoloxidase that functions as a vital humoral factor in host defense via melaninization as in other Crustaceans.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics and asexuality in the brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, Athanasios D; Kappas, Ilias; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2006-09-01

    Explaining cases of long-term persistence of parthenogenesis has proven an arduous task for evolutionary biologists. Interpreting sexual-asexual interactions though has recently advanced owing to methodological design, increased taxon sampling and choice of model organisms. We inferred the phylogeny of Artemia, a halophilic branchiopod genus of sexual and parthenogenetic forms with cosmopolitan distribution, marked geographic patterns and ecological partitioning. Joint analysis of newly derived ITS1 sequences and 16S RFLP markers from global isolates indicates significant interspecific divergence as well as pronounced diversity for parthenogens, matching that of sexual ancestors. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods were largely congruent in reconstructing the phylogeny of the genus. Given the current sampling, at least four independent origins of parthenogenesis are deduced. Molecular clock calibrations based on biogeographic landmarks indicate that the lineage leading to A. persimilis diverged from the common ancestor of all Artemia species between 80 and 90 MYA at the time of separation of Africa from South America, whereas parthenogenesis first appeared at least 3 MYA. Common mitochondrial DNA haplotypes delineate A. urmiana and A. tibetiana as possible maternal parents of several clonal lineages. A novel topological placement of A. franciscana as a sister clade to all Asian Artemia and parthenogenetic forms is proposed and also supported by ITS1 length and other existing data.

  3. Determination and toxicity evaluation of the generated products in sulfamethoxazole degradation by UV/CoFe2O4/TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Chu, Wei

    2016-08-15

    The photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UV radiation with a recyclable catalyst CoFe2O4/TiO2 was examined. The reaction mechanism during the treatment was determined. The toxicity of the degradation intermediates to aquatic organisms, including the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and the brine shrimp Artemia salina was investigated. SMX was completely removed and about 50% TOC was degraded in 5h. Sixteen intermediates were detected, from which four of them were reported for the first time in this study. Four main decay pathways, i.e., hydroxylation, cleavage of SN bond, nitration of amino group, and isomerization were proposed. About 45% of the total mass sulfur source transformed to sulfate ion, and around 25%, 1%, and 0.25% of the total nitrogen transformed to ammonium, nitrogen, and nitrite ions. The toxicity of the treated solution was significantly reduced compared to that of the parent compound SMX. A variation of the algae growth was observed, which was due to the combination of generation of toxic intermediates (i.e., sulfanilamide) and the release of inorganic substances and carbon source as additional nutrients. The adverse effect on the clearance rate of the brine shrimp was also observed, but it can be eliminated if longer degradation time is used.

  4. Evaluation of metabolic responses of Artemia salina to oil and oil dispersant as a potential indicator of toxicant stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Xatzispirou, A.

    1986-03-01

    Oil represents an obvious hazard for the coastal environment and studies on its impact on marine organisms are necessary. Solvent based oil dispersants constitute one of the most important means for removing oil from shores. Although recently new dispersants have been developed, which are much less toxic than the first ones, dispersants still remain toxic substances. Since in the case of oil pollution treatment, oils and detergents are acting in combination, a realistic approach of laboratory studies must also include the combined action of these substances on marine organisms. Although acute toxicity studies are very useful for the determination of the range of animal tolerance, other effects causing physiological alterations may be detrimental to a population's survival. This paper concerns research on the effects of an oil, an oil dispersant and of the mixture of oil and dispersant on a physiological process, the respiration of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

  5. Toxicity assessment from electro-coagulation treated-textile dye wastewaters by bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palácio, Soraya M; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Borba, Fernando H; Silva, Fernando G

    2009-12-15

    In this study the pollutant removal from a textile dyeing wastewater has been investigated by using the electro-coagulation technique with iron electrodes. In order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables, a 3(3) full factorial experimental design was applied. The electro-coagulation (EC) process response was evaluated on the basis of COD removal and decolourization values. The electrolysis time and density current were statistically significant for the COD removal and decolourization. Based on the lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the lowest toxicity level was achieved in 5 min of electrolysis time. Due to the remaining high toxicity level above 30 min of electrolysis time, the EC process is not adequate to be used in a single effluent treatment, suggesting that this electrochemical process of up to 5 min could be used as part of a complete effluent treatment system.

  6. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  7. 有毒亚历山大藻对卤虫存活率和摄食率的影响%The effects of toxic Alexandrium species on the survival and feeding rateof brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振兴; 邹迎麟; 朱明远; 王宗灵; 王丹

    2006-01-01

    研究了有毒亚历山大藻对卤虫存活率和摄食率两方面的影响,得出以下结论:在卤虫存活率实验中,有毒亚历山大藻在2000 cells/ml的密度下,对卤虫具有致死效应,卤虫在24~168 h内全部死亡;在摄食实验中,有毒亚历山大藻对卤虫的摄食产生明显的抑制作用,卤虫对有毒藻的平均摄食率明显低于无毒藻组和混合实验组.在加入无毒藻东海原甲藻的混合培养状态下,卤虫存活率上升,30~60min摄食率增加,东海原甲藻在一定程度上可以减轻塔玛亚历山大藻对卤虫的毒害作用.有毒藻产生的PSP毒素并非导致卤虫死亡的主要原因,毒害作用可能与出现在卤虫体外的黏附物质有关.通过对3个不同生长期卤虫的研究发现,后无节幼体卤虫对有毒亚历山大藻的毒害作用最为敏感.

  8. Choice of test organisms for determination of oil dispersant toxicity in marine waters. Auswahl von Testorganismen zur Bestimmung der Toxizitaet von Dispergatoren bei der Oelbekaempfung in marinen Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Several marine organisms were investigated regarding their qualification for oil dispersant toxicity determination. Appropriate organisms were chosen for two different test procedures: Using mortality as a test criterion an acute toxicity test can be carried out very easy with larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. The sensitivity for different dispersants ranges over several orders of magnitude. Another test indicator is the cell multiplication-inhibition test, conducted with the microalga Scrippsiella trochoidea, a representative of phytoplankton. The sensitivity for a common dispersant ranges a hundredfold higher than the acute toxicity test. Both test procedures are also practicable for other water-soluble substances, as well. One oil-spill dispersant efficiency test is proposed provisionally. (orig.) With 62 refs., 20 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher; Daigle, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from 3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of 500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of 330 nm.

  10. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  11. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  12. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  13. Double Taste of Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinvao Restaurant

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 8 shrimp (about 500g), 50 grams of oil, 150 grams of egg white, a little salt, MSG, pepper powder, Shaoxing wine, coriander, sesame, flour and sugar. Directions: 1. De-vein and wash the shrimp. Cut in half, separating the head from the tail. 2. Soak the shrimp tails in the salt, Shaoxing wine, pepper powder and MSG. Baste the tails with flour and coat with egg white and sesame. 3. Mix the starch in with egg white and stir until smooth. Spread the paste on the tails without the sesame, then sprinkle with coriander.

  14. Some biological aspects of Mysidopsis juniae (Crustacea:Mysidacea) and its use in chronic toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaro-Pedroso, C. [USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] Nipper, M.G. [NIWA, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1995-12-31

    As part of the joint effort to develop marine toxicity tests with organisms abundant at the Brazilian coast, some aspects for the laboratory culture of M. juniae and its sensitivity to single chemicals were studied. Organisms fed a mixture of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana reached sexual maturity 10 days before animals fed brine shrimp nauplii only. Under best conditions, sexual maturity was reached on the 9th--11th day and newborn mysids hatched on the 16th--18th day, Short-term chronic toxicity tests were initiated with 7-day old mysids and exposure time was 11 days, with growth (length and dry weight) as test endpoints. Experiments were undertaken with zinc, copper, and ammonia. Zinc did not affect the organisms at concentrations between 0.018 and 0.1 mg/L, which were one order of magnitude lower than the average 96-h; LC50 value. The NOEC and LOEC values were the same for length and weight in some tests with copper and ammonia (Cu: 0.006 and 0.015 mg/L; NH{sub 3}: 0.32 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively), but revealed length as a more sensitive endpoint than weight in others (length NOEC and LOEC: 0.23 and 0.53 mgNH{sub 3}/L; weight: 0.53 and 0.99 mgNH{sub 3}/L, respectively). The authors speculate that this could be caused by time-dependent variations in the lipid content of the organisms. Length would be a steadier and more reliable endpoint for chronic toxicity tests with M. juniae. The results show that the method has potential applications for the evaluation and monitoring of contaminated marine systems along the Brazilian coast.

  15. Pharmacological activity, phytochemical analysis and toxicity of methanol extract ofEtlingera elatior (torch ginger) flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanion Jo Thy Lachumy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Vello Sumathy; Zakaria Zuraini

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate its pharmacological activities and medicinal potential of extract of Etlingera elatior (E. elatior).Methods: Phytochemical screening of the flower extract was done to determine the phytochemical in the extract. The pharmacological study included the determination of antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of metabolic flower extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against medically important bacterial, yeast and fungal strains. Apart from that, the methanolic extract ofE. elatior flower was further testedin vivo toxicity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Moreover, the flower extract was qualitatively screened for their free radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay.Results:The extract was effective on tested microorganisms andMIC values were in the range of1.563-50.000 mg/mL. The brine shrimp lethality test exhibited no significant toxicity (LC50 = 2.52 mg/mL) againstArtemia salina. TheE. elatior flower extract with highLC50 value signified that this plant is not toxic to humans. While the phytochemical screening of the flower extract revealed the presence of the following compounds: flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin, tannins and carbohydrates whereas, alkaloids, anthraquinone and reducing sugars were absent. The concentration of the flower extract required for50% inhibition ofDPPH radical scavenging effect (IC50) were9.14 mg/mL and8.08 mg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene8.08 mg/mL.Conclusions:These findings indicate that the extract ofE. elatior flower possesses pharmacological properties and potential to develop natural products based pharmaceuticals products.

  16. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  17. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  18. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments.

  19. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  20. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  1. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  2. Sensitivity of Some Explosive/Brine Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    concentration in brine mixtures. 3 Friction test results of brine mixtures. 10 4 Thermal test results of brine mixtures. 11 Li 71 - INTRODUCTION A...also carried out on these impact insensitive mixtures. Of the seven mixtures only the 15% M28-Comp. B sample passed the thermal test , since smoking

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, TOXICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF DENDROPTHOE PENTANDRA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Aina Syazana Nik Zainuddin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrophthoe pentandra known as mistletoe is a semi-parasitic plant with traditional claims for some medicinal properties. This research was done to determine phytochemical constituents of Dendropthoe petandra (DP leaves extract, to evaluate toxicity of extracts by brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT and to confirm cytotoxicity activity of DPME against various normal cell lines. The most potent extract was then evaluated by GC-MS. DP leaves that have been extracted with petroleum ether (DPPEE, methanol (DPME and water (DPWE were screened for phytochemical constituents. BSLT was carried out to determine the lethality concentration that kills 50% of tested population (LC50. The cytotoxicity was assessed by Methylene Blue Assay (MBA that evaluates the inhibition concentration for cell growth by 50% (IC50. The normal cell lines used were MDCK, L929 and Vero. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin and terpenoid in those extracts. Highest total phenolic content was found in DPME (471.63±2.02 mg GAE/g. BSLT have determined the lowest LC50 value is 2.74±1.23 ppm in DPME. No IC50 detected when MDCK, L929 and Vero cell line were treated with all extracts. Therefore, this can be concluded that DP extracts did not show any harmful effects towards MDCK, L929 and Vero cell lines although the DPME, DPPEE and DPWE are toxic towards brine shrimp. Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester are among compounds present in DPME. Further studies using mammalian cancer cell lines should be conducted on DP extracts to know if they posses anticancer potential.

  4. Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. (Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Elk Grove, CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  6. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 22 December 1977 - 30 September 1979 (NODC Accession 7900336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  7. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and other data from current meters and grab casts from the GUSS III and other platforms in support of the Brine Disposal project from 20 October 1977 to 16 April 1979 (NODC Accession 8000029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and other data from were collected from current meters and grab casts from the GUSS III and other platforms from 20...

  8. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 02 June 1978 - 02 June 1979 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2, 1978...

  9. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 15 September 1977 - 30 June 1979 (NODC Accession 7900295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  10. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 09 September 1978 - 19 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  11. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 30 August 1979 - 21 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  12. Shrimp Ball Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Press the spring onion and ginger, add 25 grams water, soak for ten minutes, filter and remove the residue.Mince the shrimp meat and add pork fat. Add Shaoxing wine, egg white, spring onion and ginger juice, salt, MSG, and cornstarch, and blend. Slice the ham, and clean the bean sprouts. Put clear stock in a wok and heat.

  13. Stabilization of high mercury contaminated brine purification sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J Ming; Lo, Tony; Walsh, Tony; Lam, Tak

    2004-09-10

    The highly leachable mercury contaminants of brine purification sludge (BPS) generated from the Hg-cell electrolysis process in chlorine production can be stabilized in the treatment procedure employing ferric-lignin derivatives (FLD) (Ligmet binder) and Portland cement (PC). The stabilization effectiveness has been examined by time-based multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests and sequential TCLP tests. In a period of 50 days, the multiple TCLP tests showed a variation of less than 90 microg l(-1) for the leachable mercury level, and the sequential TCLP tests for the same sample displayed a declining TCLP mercury level. Based on this study, the stabilization of approximately 2000 t of brine purification sludge has been successfully processed with the ferric-lignin derivatives treatment.

  14. Development of protein enriched shrimp croquette from shrimp industry wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M.; Rahman, M.L.; Nowsad Alam, A.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein fortified and tasty shrimp croquette was developed from different component parts of shrimp wastes by using a combination of vegetables (potato, Colocasia, green banana, green papaya and spinach), spices (green chili, onion, garlic, turmeric, red pepper and ginger) and other ingredients (salt, wheat flour, egg, sugar and milk powder). The ingredients were mixed with variable quantities of shrimp shell powder (3, 5 and 10%), shaped and covered with egg and bread crumb. Proximate compos...

  15. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  16. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  17. Biological Parameters for Evaluating the Toxic Potency of Petroleum Ether Extract of Wattakaka volubilis in Wistar Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmani Gopal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the toxic properties of petroleum ether extract of Wattakaka (W. volubilis in Wistar female rats. Methods: An in vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay was studied in A. Salina nauplii, and the lethality concentrations were assessed for petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. A water soluble portion of the test extract was used in different concentrations from 100-1000 μg/mL of 1 mg/mL stock solution. A 24-hours incubation with a 1-mL aliquot in 50 mL of aerated sea water was considered to calculate the percentage rate of dead nauplii with test extract administration against a potassium-dichromate positive control. The acute and the sub-acute toxicities of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were evaluated orally by using gavage in female Wistar rats. Food and water intake, body weight, general behavioral changes and mortality of animals were noted. Toxicity or death was evaluated following the administration of petroleum ether extract for 28 consecutive days in the female rats. Serum biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and α-amylase levels, were measured in the toxicity evaluations. Pathological changes in isolated organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, were also examined using hematoxylin and eosin dye fixation after the end of the test extract’s administration. Results: The results of the brine-shrimp assay indicate that the evaluated concentrations of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were found to be non-toxic. In the acute and the sub-acute toxicity evaluations, no significant differences were observed between the control animals and the animals treated with extract of W. volubilis. No abnormal histological changes were observed in any of the animal groups treated with petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis

  18. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  19. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  20. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  1. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  2. Toxicity and antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Lonchocarpus filipes root bark; Toxicidade e atividade antioxidantes de flavonoides das cascas das raizes de Lonchocarpus filipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Erica L.; Costa, Emmanoel V.; Marques, Francisco A.; Vaz, Nelissa P.; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N. Sales [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Magalhes, Eva G.; Tozzi, Ana Maria A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of dichloromethane extract from root bark of Lonchocarpus filipes Benth (Leguminosae) afforded four flavonoids including three dibenzoylmethane derivatives rarely found in nature. The structures were established based on their spectral data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, 2D-NMR) as being: lanceolatin B (1), pongamol (2), (E)-7-O-methylpongamol (3) and (E)-9-O-methylpongamol (4). Compound (4) is described herein for the first time as a natural product. The extracts and the isolated compounds (1), (2) and (3) displayed high toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality assay. Only compound (2) showed antioxidant activity using a DPPH radical scavenging assay. This is the first report on the phytochemical study of Lonchocarpus filipes. (author)

  3. Comparison of Artemia-bacteria associations in brines, laboratory cultures and the gut environment: a study based on Chilean hypersaline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Mauricio; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Gajardo, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea) and a diversity of halophilic microorganisms coexist in natural brines, salterns and laboratory cultures; part of such environmental microbial diversity is represented in the gut of Artemia individuals. Bacterial diversity in these environments was assessed by 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting. Eight natural locations in Chile, where A. franciscana or A. persimilis occur, were sampled for analysis of free-living and gut-associated bacteria in water from nature and laboratory cultures. The highest ecological diversity (Shannon's index, H') was found in brines, it decreased in the gut of wild and laboratory animals, and in laboratory water. Significant differences in H' existed between brines and laboratory water, and between brines and gut of wild animals. The greatest similarity of bacterial community composition was between brines and the gut of field animals, suggesting a transient state of the gut microbiota. Sequences retrieved from DGGE patterns (n = 83) exhibited an average of 97.8% identity with 41 bacterial genera from the phyla Proteobacteria (55.4% of sequences match), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.9%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Environment-exclusive genera distribution was seen in Sphingomonas and Paenibacillus (gut of field animals), Amaricoccus and Ornithinimicrobium (gut of laboratory animals), and Hydrogenophaga (water of laboratory cultures). The reported ecological and physiological capabilities of such bacteria can help to understand Artemia adaptation to natural and laboratory conditions.

  4. Study of brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Available information pertinent to the treatment of geothermal brines was collected by literature search and then evaluated and summarized for use by the electric utility and geothermal industries. The information was screened from the geothermal, oil and gas, wastewater disposal, and boiler water treatment industries. The current state of knowledge and methodology concerning the treatment of geothermal brines to control scaling and corrosion in geothermal electric power production was assessed. Currently, geothermal scale in pipes and wells is removed by physical or chemical methods. There is a growing effort on developing methods to control scale formation for both fresh and spent brines, including pH adjustment and application of an electrical potential for fresh fluids, and coagulation to treat spent fluids. Current methods of corrosion control center around planned replacement of piping and other plant components, with efforts focused primarily on development of materials with improved corrosion resistance. Recommendations for additional work to improve brine treatment include the following: (1) chemical and physical characterization of brine and scale compositions, (2) basic data on the mechanism of scale formation and the effects of inhibitors, (3) development of instrumentation to monitor geothermal brine constituents, (4) correlation of laboratory results with field test data, and (5) screening of currently available commercial inhibitors for application to geothermal brines. An annotated bibliography of the reference material used in this study is included.

  5. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hitzman, Murray W.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  6. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  7. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50=10.9±1.1 μg/mL in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50=5.3±0.2 μg/mL against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0±0.1 μg/mL. All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 >100 in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  8. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  9. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk.

  10. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  11. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  12. Dredged Material Analysis Tools; Performance of Acute and Chronic Sediment Toxicity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    containing 175 mL sediment, 775 mL overlying water, and 20 organisms (Table 2). The A. bahia received a daily feeding ration of brine shrimp ( Artemia ...treatment 5 5 5 Organisms/treatment 100 100 100 Feeding regime None ~150 Artemia daily None Test chamber cleaning None None None Test solution

  13. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  14. The Effect of Synthetic Brine Constituents on the Rate of Arsenic Release from Arsenopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, H.; Dzombak, D. A.; Karamalidis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide storage (GCS) in deep saline sedimentary formations is a potential method for mitigating increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Injection of CO2 in those formations may induce dissolution of reservoir minerals. Leakage of CO2-saturated brines and native brines could impact overlying drinking water aquifers by contaminating them with toxic constituents. Of particular concern is the effect of CO2 on the rates of dissolution of arsenic and other toxic metals from reservoir minerals. The most common pure phase arsenic mineral in sedimentary geologic formations is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Natural brines have high salinities (up to 7M), with high concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+. The focus of this study is to examine the effect of brine components on the dissolution rate of arsenic from arsenopyrite. A small-scale flow-through column system was constructed for this purpose and is being used to measure arsenic release rates from arsenopyrite. Influent solutions of NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 at equal ionic strengths were used to examine the effect of the cationic species. A cleaning procedure to remove prior surface oxidation on the surface of the arsenopyrite particles was also developed. Preliminary results with NaCl and CaCl2 at an ionic strength of 0.011M indicate that the rate of dissolution of arsenic is dependent on the cationic species but independent of ionic strength.

  15. Toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense induces oxidative stress and up-regulae Caspase gene (FcCasp) expression in gills of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis%塔玛亚历山大藻对中国明对虾鳃组织的氧化胁迫和对 Caspase 基因(FcCasp)表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁忠秀; 李健; 任海; 葛倩倩; 葛红星; 李吉涛

    2014-01-01

    Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Chinese aquaculture industry, including the aquaculture of shrimp. Blooms that involve phycotoxins, especially paralytic shellfish poison(PSP), are dangerous, harm the shrimps and cause losses in marine production. Previous studies mainly focused on the toxic ef-fects on shellfish and fish, rather than shrimp. This study investigated the inductive effect of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense(ATHK), a producer of PSP, on oxidative stress and the expression of a caspase gene (FcCasp) in the gills of the Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an important mariculture species in China. F. chinensis individuals were exposed to 200 and 1 000 cells/mL of A. tamarense, and F. chinensis individuals cultured with filtered seawater were set as control. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and FcCasp expression in the gills were analyzed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exposure. The results showed that SOD activity, GST activity, MDA content and FcCasp expression exposed to 200 cells/mL of A. tamarense generally increased at first and then decreased with increasing exposure time. However, when exposed to 1000 cells/mL of A. tamarense, SOD activity increased and then decreased with increasing exposure time, and was significantly(P<0.05) inhibited between 24 and 96 h. GST activity was significantly(P<0.05) inhibited, except at 3-and 48 h-post treatment. The changes in SOD and GST activities of F. chinensis in this study suggest that these enzymes were actively involved in the detoxification process in gills of F. chinensis. The MDA content and FcCasp expression of F. chinensis exposed to 1 000 cells/mL of A. tamarense increased with increased exposure time, and displayed a time-dependent response relationship. The FcCasp transcript level in the gills of F. chinensis exposed to A. tamarense was positively and

  16. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Landings Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual shrimp landings at the permit level from 2005-current fishing year. This also contains annual value of permit holders shrimp landings by...

  17. Acute sensitivity of the vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi (Anostraca; Branchinectidae), and surrogate species to 10 chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Rogers, Christopher; Raimondo, Sandy; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. Because few data exist about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, it is difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24-h) lethality/immobilization tests was conducted with 3 species of fairy shrimp (B. lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor. The same chemicals were tested in 48-h tests with other branchiopods (the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and in 96-h tests with snails (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea stagnalis). Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for B. lynchi were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.975) with EC50s for the commercially available fairy shrimp species T. platyurus for most chemicals tested. Comparison of EC50s for fairy shrimp and EC50s for invertebrate taxa tested concurrently and with other published toxicity data indicated that fairy shrimp were relatively sensitive to potassium and several trace metals compared with other invertebrate taxa, although cladocerans, amphipods, and mussels had similar broad toxicant sensitivity. Interspecies correlation estimation models for predicting toxicity to fairy shrimp from surrogate species indicated that models with cladocerans and freshwater mussels as surrogates produced the best predictions of the sensitivity of fairy shrimp to contaminants. The results of these studies indicate that fairy shrimp are relatively sensitive to a range of toxicants, but Endangered Species Act-listed fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta were not consistently more sensitive than other fairy shrimp taxa. Environ Toxicol Chem

  18. Acute sensitivity of the vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi (Anostraca; Branchinectidae), and surrogate species to 10 chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Chris G; Wang, Ning; Rogers, D Christopher; Raimondo, Sandy; Bauer, Candice R; Hammer, Edward J

    2017-03-01

    Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. Because few data exist about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, it is difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24-h) lethality/immobilization tests was conducted with 3 species of fairy shrimp (B. lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor. The same chemicals were tested in 48-h tests with other branchiopods (the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and in 96-h tests with snails (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea stagnalis). Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for B. lynchi were strongly correlated (r(2 ) = 0.975) with EC50s for the commercially available fairy shrimp species T. platyurus for most chemicals tested. Comparison of EC50s for fairy shrimp and EC50s for invertebrate taxa tested concurrently and with other published toxicity data indicated that fairy shrimp were relatively sensitive to potassium and several trace metals compared with other invertebrate taxa, although cladocerans, amphipods, and mussels had similar broad toxicant sensitivity. Interspecies correlation estimation models for predicting toxicity to fairy shrimp from surrogate species indicated that models with cladocerans and freshwater mussels as surrogates produced the best predictions of the sensitivity of fairy shrimp to contaminants. The results of these studies indicate that fairy shrimp are relatively sensitive to a range of toxicants, but Endangered Species Act-listed fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta were not consistently more sensitive than other fairy shrimp taxa. Environ Toxicol

  19. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA and deoxynivalenol (DON, naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented with DON caused no effect on growth or survival rate of the shrimp. However, shrimps fed DON feed diet with 1,000 ppb showed significantly higher growth performance. No significant difference in total haemocyte counts (THC was found in shrimp fed mycotoxins-supplemented feed. Feeding high level of OTA (1,000 ppb caused a decrease in phenoloxidase (PO activity. Although no histopathological change was observed, decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels in shrimp fed OTA or DON indicated that mycotoxin may impair the functioning of hepatopancreatic cells. Since no adverse effect occurred with the highest levels of OTA and DON (1,000 and 2,000 ppb, respectively on haemolymph parameters and no residue was detected at the completion of the 8-week feeding period, it can be concluded that shrimp feeds occasionally contaminated with OTA or DON have no negative impact on the shrimp culture industry.

  20. Toxic, antimicrobial and hemagglutinating activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo V.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, hemagglutinating and toxic activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela are described. Intact or dialyzed purple fluid inhibited the growth of species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the action was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. The active factor or factors were heat labile and sensitive to extreme pH values. The fluid preferentially agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and, to a lesser extent, human blood cells, and this activity was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, a fact suggesting the presence of a lectin. The fluid was also toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LD50 141.25 µg protein/ml and to mice injected intraperitoneally (LD50 201.8 ± 8.6 mg protein/kg, in a dose-dependent fashion. These toxic activities were abolished when the fluid was heated. Taken together, the data suggest that the activities of the purple fluid are due primarily to substance(s of a protein nature which may be involved in the chemical defense mechanism of this sea hare.

  1. Primary screening of the bioactivity of brackishwater cyanobacteria: toxicity of crude extracts to Artemia salina larvae and Paracentrotus lividus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Viviana R; Fernández, Nuria; Martins, Rosário F; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2010-03-05

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  2. Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana R. Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  3. Toxicity of plant essential oils to different life stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    Seven essential oils with potential as acaricides for use against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), were selected for study. These products (essential oils of manuka, cade, pennyroyal, thyme, garlic, clove bud and cinnamon bark) were deployed against different life stages of D. gallinae in laboratory tests at the (lethal concentration) LC(50) level for adult mites. For all essential oils tested, toxicity to D. gallinae juveniles was as high as toxicity to adults, if not higher. However, at the LC(50) level determined for adults, some oils were ineffective in preventing hatching of D. gallinae eggs. The essential oils were also tested under laboratory conditions at their LC(90) levels for D. gallinae adults on two model non-target species, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results showed that not all essential oils were as toxic to A. salina and T. molitor as they were to D. gallinae, suggesting that it may be possible to select certain oils for development as acaricides against D. gallinae that would have minimal impact on non-target organisms. However, the level of toxicity to A. salina and T. molitor was not consistent across the selected essential oils.

  4. Development of a bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments to pike (Esox lucius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pike (Esox lucius) are a commercially sought fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River, which flows through the Athabasca oil sands. The fish are exposed to natural sources of bitumen from the McMurray formation. This study was conducted to design and implement a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands to this fish species and to obtain information regarding the development of pike exposed to bitumen. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild pike captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish, approximately 15 days post-hatch. For the rest of the experiment, brine shrimp were fed to the walleye embryos every day after hatching. The developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length. The research findings indicated that pike is less sensitive than walleye and fathead minnow to the toxicity of oil sands sediments.

  5. Effects of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growth performance and immuno-physiological parameters in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented wit...

  6. Effect of irradiance spectra on the photoinduced toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, S.A.; Mount, D.R.; Burkhard, L.P.; Ankley, G.T.; Makynen, E.A.; Leonard, E.N.

    2000-05-01

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light received. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events underlying phototoxicity. This suggests that variation in light spectra present in natural waters, arising from variation in dissolved organic carbon composition, is an important determinant of phototoxicity risk in specific, PAH-contaminated waterbodies. To quantify the effect of environmentally realistic variation in light spectra on toxicity, brine shrimp (Artemia salina) assays were conducted under various light spectra and with three PAHs (pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) of known phototoxicity potential. In these spectral assays, the total ultraviolet light present was equivalent; only the spectral characteristics varied. Based on the absorbance spectra of these PAHs, it was predicted that toxicity, quantified using immobilization as the endpoint, would vary significantly among light spectra in pyrene assays, but not in anthracene assays, and that variation in toxicity in fluoranthene assays would be intermediate. The results supported these assumptions. In the pyrene exposures, the glass filter time to 50% population immobilization (IT50) (39.5 min) was 117% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (18.2 min). In the fluoranthene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (49.5 min) was 27% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (39.1 min). In the anthracene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (62.2 min) was not statistically different from the KCr filter IT50 (63.8 min). Comparison of these results with the results of assays conducted under neutral-density filters (that change intensity but not spectral distribution) demonstrate that multiplying spectral intensity by wavelength-specific absorbance accurately predicts relative photoinduced toxicity among the experimental treatments. These results indicate

  7. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  8. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  9. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming.

  10. Mercury antagonists: loss of photoactive response in the brine shrimp Artemia and its prevention by thiamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaeger, E.; Siegel, B.Z.; Siegel, S.M.; Lasconia, M.; Correal, T.

    1986-01-01

    The positive photoatactic behavior of Artemia was disturbed when larvae cultured in 0.25 M NaCl were introduced into 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -5/ M HgCl/sub 2/. At 10/sup -8/ M, and in controls, Hg had no effect either on orientation or mortality, and 65% of the larvae were collected at the light source in 30 min or less. In contrast, at 10/sup -6/ M, only 29% were able to do so. The presence of 10/sup -4/ M thiamine hydrochloride in the excystment medium prevented fully the loss of light-sensitivity.

  11. 卤虫的营养%Nutrition in Brine Shrimp Artemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭雄

    2007-01-01

    卤虫(Aremia)是水产经济动物苗种生产中重要的活饵料之一,卤虫营养价值的高低直接影响到苗种生产的成败与效益。笔者拟就卤虫的营养价值研究作—综述,供学者参考。

  12. Purification and characterization of hatching enzyme from brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingjun; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Wenpeng; Zhong, Qiwang; Shi, Ying; Cong, Rishan

    2010-02-01

    By using Artemia chorion as a specific substrate, the hatching enzyme from Artemia salina (AHE) was purified by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, and characterized biochemically and enzymatically in this study. It was found that the AHE had a molecular weight of 82.2 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and often contained 73.3 kDa molecules in preparation. The AHE had obvious choriolytic activity, which was optimal at pH 7.0 and a temperature of 408C. The Km value of the AHE for dimethyl casein was 8.20 mg/ml. The AHE activity was almost completely inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor and p-amidinophenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, greatly inhibited by N-tosyl-L-lysyl chloromethyl ketone, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, and lima bean trypsin inhibitor, slightly inhibited by pepstatin, N-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone, leupeptin, N-ethylmaleimide, and iodoacetamide, and not inhibited by chymostatin and bestatin. All these results imply that AHE is most probably a trypsin-type serine protease. Besides of these, AHE was also sensitive to EDTA and Zn21. Combined with the results that the EDTA-pre-treated HE activity could be perfectly recovered by Zn21, it is indicated that AHE might be also a kind of Zn-metalloprotease.

  13. Unique chimeric composition of the trehalase gene from brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shin; Nambu, Fumiko; Nambu, Ziro

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the exon/intron structure of the Artemia trehalase gene, four overlapping clones were isolated from a genome library derived from an inbred strain of crustacean Artemia franciscana, and a 49 kb genetic area was re-constructed. The re-constructed area contained eight exons corresponding to the trehalase cDNA sequence that we had previously reported [1]. Comparative analysis of the Artemia trehalase gene with other animal trehalase genes revealed the existence of conserved exon/intron boundaries among different phyla. Comparison of the 5' UTR region of trehalase mRNA obtained by the 5' RACE method with the trehalase genes indicated the existence of a novel exon/intron boundary in the region designated "Exon I". Surprisingly, a part of a mitochondrial ribosomal protein gene (MRP-S33) was found to be inserted in the 5' UTR region of the trehalase gene. This sequence had the same polyadenylation signal that the Artemia MRP-S33 cDNAs did. Using the 3' RACE method, it was demonstrated that the poly (A) additional signal is still functional and that the chimeric mRNAs composed of the 5' UTR of the trehalase mRNA and of the 3' end derived from the MRP-S33 gene are transcribed.

  14. Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougué, Odrade; Gallet, Romain; Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lenormand, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Symbiosis generally causes an expansion of the niche of each partner along the axis for which a service is mutually provided. However, for other axes, the niche can be restricted to the intersection of each partner's niche and can thus be constrained rather than expanded by mutualism. We explore this phenomenon using Artemia as a model system. This crustacean is able to survive at very high salinities but not at low salinities, although its hemolymph's salinity is close to freshwater. We hypothesized that this low-salinity paradox results from poor performance of its associated microbiota at low salinity. We showed that, in sterile conditions, Artemia had low survival at all salinities when algae were the only source of carbon. In contrast, survival was high at all salinities when fed with yeast. We also demonstrated that bacteria isolated from Artemia's gut reached higher densities at high salinities than at low salinities, including when grown on algae. Taken together, our results show that Artemia can survive at low salinities, but their gut microbiota, which are required for algae digestion, have reduced fitness. Widespread facultative symbiosis may thus be an important determinant of niche limits along axes not specific to the mutualistic interaction.

  15. Sharp Phylogeographic Breaks and Patterns of Genealogical Concordance in the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Farmaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genealogical concordance is a critical overlay of all phylogenetic analyses, irrespective of taxonomic level. To assess such patterns of congruence we have compiled and derived sequence data for two mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI and two nuclear (ITS1, p26 markers in 14 American populations of the hypersaline branchiopod Artemia franciscana. Cladistic analysis revealed three reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial clades. For nuclear DNA, incomplete lineage sorting was evident presumably as a result of slower coalescence or male-mediated dispersal. Our findings capture the genealogical interval between gene splitting and population divergence. In this sense, strong indications are provided in favour of a superspecies status and ongoing speciation in A. franciscana.

  16. Identification of a novel DNA methyltransferase 2 from the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chen-Zhuo; Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Dai, Zhong-Min; Liu, Feng-Qi; Xiang, Jian-Hai; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2007-06-01

    DNA methyltransferase 2 (Dnmt2) is a dual-specificity DNA methyltransferase, which contains a weak DNA methyltransferase and novel tRNA methyltransferase activity. However, its biological function is still enigmatic. To elucidate the expression profiles of Dnmt2 in Artemia franciscana, we isolated the gene encoding a Dnmt2 from A. franciscana and named it as AfDnmt2. The cDNA of AfDnmt2 contained a 1140-bp open reading frame that encoded a putative Dnmt2 protein of 379 amino acids exhibiting 32% approximately 39% identities with other known Dnmt2 homologs. This is the first report of a DNA methyltransferase gene in Crustacean. By using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, AfDnmt2 was found to be expressed through all developmental stages and its expression increased during resumption of diapause cysts development. Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of multiple copies of AfDnmt2 genes in A. franciscana.

  17. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on th

  18. Sharp phylogeographic breaks and patterns of genealogical concordance in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Kappas, Ilias; Baxevanis, Athanasios D; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2009-12-18

    Genealogical concordance is a critical overlay of all phylogenetic analyses, irrespective of taxonomic level. To assess such patterns of congruence we have compiled and derived sequence data for two mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI) and two nuclear (ITS1, p26) markers in 14 American populations of the hypersaline branchiopod Artemia franciscana. Cladistic analysis revealed three reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial clades. For nuclear DNA, incomplete lineage sorting was evident presumably as a result of slower coalescence or male-mediated dispersal. Our findings capture the genealogical interval between gene splitting and population divergence. In this sense, strong indications are provided in favour of a superspecies status and ongoing speciation in A. franciscana.

  19. [Environmental Education Units.] Succession in a Micro-Aquarium. Minnows and Models. Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These three booklets are outlines of teaching procedures, using living material, designed for elementary school children. While emphasizing science, many opportunities are provided for exercises in mathematics, art, and writing, thus integrating the curriculum. All booklets contain exercises on data collection and organization; two have exercises…

  20. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor...

  1. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  2. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  3. Experimental confirmation of liquid brines on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of water ice and perchlorates in the shallow subsurface of Mars [1,2] is interesting because they could produce aqueous liquid solutions under Mars' present-day environmental conditions. We used the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber [3] to simulate the pressure, temperature and relative humidity during the full diurnal cycle of sol 19 at the Phoenix landing site. Sol 19 was chosen because on this sol ice found in a shallow trench (Dodo-Goldilocks) at a depth of ~5 cm was removed with little effort [4], suggesting that it was a frozen brine (softer than freshwater ice), and because oblate spheroids found on a strut of the lander, possibly a saline mud, were observed to grow and darken (suggesting liquefaction) [4]. The results of our simulations show that early in the mission the frozen brine likely found in the Dodo-Goldilocks trench could melt in the morning, temporarily forming aqueous liquid solutions when the temperature in the trench was above the eutectic temperature of the Ca(ClO4)2 salt (~199 K). In addition, the results of our simulations indicate that the spheroids observed on a strut of the Phoenix lander were most likely droplets of liquid brines. Since halophilic terrestrial bacteria thrive in brines [5], our results suggest that Mars' polar region could potentially be a habitat for microorganisms. In addition, it has been suggested that frost could form on fine-grained terrains at Gale crater during the winter [6]. If this frost gets in contact with perchlorate salts, it could melt temporarily forming liquid brines.

  4. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) monitoring of the photolysis of diazinon in aqueous solution: degradation route and toxicity of by-products against Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amauri G; Cardeal, Zenilda L; Augusti, Rodinei

    2013-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of diazinon, an organophosphorus pesticide, in aqueous medium under assorted pH values was continuously monitored by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results indicated that the UV radiation was quite efficient in promoting the pesticide degradation at the three pH levels evaluated (5, 7 and 8). The m/z of the most abundant ions observed in the mass spectra (MS), in conjunction with the fragmentation patterns of such ionic species (MS/MS data), made possible the proposition of chemical structures for the main by-products formed. As a result, routes for the photodegradation of diazinon in aqueous solution could thus be suggested. In the assays using Artemia salina (brine shrimp) it was verified that the photodegradation products exhibited much lower toxicity than the primary substrate. Aiming at mimicking the conditions ordinarily found in water treatment plants, an additional series of tests was conducted with a solution containing sodium hypochlorite and diazinon. This solution, when not exposed to UV radiation, exhibited high toxicity against the microorganisms. Under the influence of UV radiation, however, the toxicity rates decreased dramatically. This result is relevant because it points toward the confident application of UV radiation to neutralize the deleterious effects caused by diazinon (and perhaps other organophosphorus pesticides) as well as sodium hypochlorite to the environment.

  5. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  6. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. (Departamento de Geotermia, Division de Fuentes de Energia, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Justo Sierra y Herreros Sur 2098-Altos C.P. 21020, Mexicali, B.C. (MX))

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  7. Predicted sub-populations in a marine shrimp proteome as revealed by combined EST and cDNA data from multiple Penaeus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotewong Rattanawadee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda, the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used. Findings Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins. Conclusions Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their

  8. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, two thermoclines were observed, one directly below the brine-seawater interface and a second about one meter below the first. At the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being either slightly (~2°C in 1997 or substantially (19°C in 1998 elevated above bottom water temperature. Geochemical samples were obtained using a device called the "brine trapper" and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined using standard techniques. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggests that the fluids are derived from different sources or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano than the brine pool. Substantial concentrations of methane and ammonium were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of methane and dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the surrounding environment.

  9. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bestha Lakshmi; Buddolla Viswanath; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are ch...

  10. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  11. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  12. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar and R. K. Umesha Department of Fishery Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, College of Fisheries, Mangalore-575 002, India Introduction Aquaculture is one of the fastest... growing food production sectors in the world (Subasinghe et al. 1998). According to FAO statistics, over 80% of fish produced by aquaculture comes from Asia, with the production valued at $ 38.855 billion (FAO, 1996). However, disease outbreaks have caused...

  13. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  14. Development of a bioassay using walleye (Sander vitreus) to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of sediments from the Athabasca oil sands area on fish development and survival. Walleye (Sander vitreus) which inhabit the Athabasca River are exposed to natural sources of bitumen eroding from the McMurray formation. This study described the design and implementation of a daily-renewal bioassay to evaluate the potential effects of toxicants on walleye development. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild walleye captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish. The walleye embryos were fed brine shrimp daily after hatching and the developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length between treatments. Organics concentrations in fish tissues and water were measured when possible. Fathead minnows and northern pikes will also be exposed to the same sediments in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the three species.

  15. Urea as a Nitrogen Source in a Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Closed Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supannee SUWANPAKDEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urea [(NH22CO] is an organic compound that serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compound by animals. Urea is widely used in aquaculture systems. This study investigated the effects of urea on growth of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were reared in 500 l fiber tanks. There was no exchange of water throughout the experiment. Shrimp with an average body weight of 10.99 ± 0.19 g were stocked at a density of 32 shrimp/m2 in 20 ppt diluted seawater and fed with 38 % protein diet for 9 weeks. Urea was added into the culture tanks at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week. The results show that urea slightly affects growth and survival of shrimp. Shrimp reared in the culture pond with added urea had a marginal better growth rate (p > 0.05 while the survival rate was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05. The urea in the closed culture tanks was shown to reduce the toxicity of ammonia in soil and promoted growth of plankton communities. Adding urea has no effect on water quality. This study concluded that urea is a potential nitrogen source in closed culture systems when the nitrogen input through the feeding regime is limited. It suggests that urea should be added at a concentration of 1.25 ppm once a week into culture systems with limiting nitrogen sources.

  16. Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp.

  17. Brines as Sources of Long-term Subsurface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, T. C.; Hunt, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Concentrated salt solutions, i.e. brines, are source terms for environmental contaminants released into surface waters and groundwaters. Brines arise from both natural and industrial processes such as natural salt deposits, solid rocket fuel production, landfill leachates, nuclear fuel reprocessing, and acid rock drainage. Additionally, many of the in-situ remediation fluids that have been implemented at the pilot or the field scale are also classified as brines. While brines are miscible with water, mixing processes are slow in the subsurface and this constrains the dilution of contaminants present within brines and the delivery of remediation fluids to sites where reactions are needed. The mixing of brines during their vertical migration through aquifers is determined by aquifer permeability as well as differences in density and viscosity between the brine and the ambient groundwater. The stability criterion for brine displacement was predicted in 1952 by Hill and the resulting dispersion at the mixing front is quantified by a compilation of literature data and the acquisition of new experimental data. As brines sink through aquifers, they become emplaced in less accessible locations where mass transfer models predict that contaminants within brines are slowly released into flowing groundwater. For radioactive wastes and environmental contaminants with very low acceptable concentrations, groundwater quality can be impacted for decades. Field data from a cooling water disposal site suggest that a dense brine is likely still present as a source term 40 years after waste disposal was stopped. Overall, analysis of pollution sources, quantification of transport processes, generalization of laboratory data, and limited evaluation of field data indicate that brines represent long-term sources of groundwater contamination and that source control has not been seriously addressed.

  18. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  19. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Biology Dept.; Bidwell, J.R. [Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia). School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  20. Distribution and abundance of Dungeness crab and crangon shrimp, and dredging-related mortality of invertebrates and fish in Grays Harbor, Washington

    OpenAIRE

    David A Armstrong; Stevens, Bradley G.; Hoeman, James C.

    1981-01-01

    The impacts of widening and deepening the existing navigation channel in Grays Harbor on Dungeness crab, crangon shrimp and fish was investigated. The spatial and temporal distribution of these organisms was studied using an otter trawl and ring nets, and the uptake of organisms by dredges was estimated from samples collected on working hopper and pipeline dredges. ... Impacts of the dredging project on crabs, shrimp and fish could be associated with entrainment, food loss and toxicants relea...

  1. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  2. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  3. IN VITRO ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITIES OF INDONESIAN MARINE SPONGE AAPTOS AAPTOS AND CALLYSPONGIA PSEUDORETICULATA EXTRACTS AND THEIR TOXICITY AGAINST Vibrio spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibriosis is one of diseases which often results in mass mortality of Penaeus monodon larval rearing systems. It attacks shrimp of all stages in zoea, mysis and shrimp postlarva stage. This disease is caused by Vibrio spp, particularly Vibrio harveyi (a luminescent bacterium. Several kinds of antibiotics and chemical material have been used to overcome the disease but they have side effects to environment and human. The searching of bioactive compounds as an alternative treatment has been done for multi purposes. In this study diethyl eter, butanol and aqueous extract of Indonesian sponges Aaptos aaptos and Callyspongia pseudoreticulata were tested for in vitro activity against Vibrio spp. and Vibrio harveyi by using disc diffusion method. The result showed that all extracts of Aaptos aaptos gave a positive antibacterial activity towards those pathogenic bacteria. Meanwhile, only butanol extract of Callyspongia pseudoreticulata obtained to exhibit an antibacterial activity on those pathogenic bacteria. The strong anti-vibrio activity were shown by butanol and aqueous extract of Aaptos aaptos with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 0.313 and 0.625 mg/mL, respectively. Whilst, the butanol extract of Callyspongia pseudoreticulata indicated a low antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 10 mg/mL. Toxicity of those active extracts was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Interestingly, butanol and aqueous extracts of Aaptos aaptos did not show any toxic effect in Artemia salina larvae up to 8 x MIC (2.504 mg/mL and 5.000 mg/mL. It is the first report for the anti-vibr io activity of both Aaptos aaptos and Callyspongia pseudoreticulata. This results suggest that Aaptos aaptos has a potential to be used as a source of alternative compound to vibriosis prevention for mariculture.

  4. Comparison of the Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana bioassays for toxicity of Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangapandi Veni; Thambusamy Pushpanathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate leaves extract of Azima tetracantha and Gmelina asiatica for lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana). Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradients of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their cytotoxic potential. Results: In the brine shrimp lethality assay of all extracts, exception of acetone, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts Gmelina asiatica displayed 100%mortality at 1 000 μg/mL by Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana. Chloroform extract was the most potent and presented the highest percentage of mortality with the lowest LC50 values by both assay too. Conclusions:The results of the present study suggest the presence of photochemical possessing cytotoxic agents.

  5. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  6. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  7. Structural Elucidation and Toxicity Assessment of Degraded Products of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aqueous Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e., 92.8 and 91.9% respectively. However, T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  8. Structural elucidation and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by aqueous extracts of Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha eIram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1 by In Vitro and In Vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05 in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 92.8% and 91.9% respectively. However T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30˚C and incubation period of 72h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  9. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  10. Structural analysis and biological toxicity of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 degradation products following detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha Iram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves & branch aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1 by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05 in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 90.4% and 88.6% respectively. However O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30˚C and incubation period of 72h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates i.e., 82 – 87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  11. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources.

  12. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  13. Influence of pH on Inhibitory Activity of Acetic Acid on Osmophilic Yeasts Used in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1982-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of acetic acid on osmophilic yeasts (Saccharomyces rouxii and Torulopsis versatilis) used for the brine fermentation of soy sauce increased remarkably as the pH of the medium was lowered. This increased toxicity could not be attributed to a hydrogen ion effect alone.

  14. A model for discrimination freshness of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linong Du

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp is popular for its nutrition and dainty, however, it is easy to decay, and its freshness degrades, so, it is important to assess its freshness. The shrimp gives off unpleasant odor with its freshness change, detecting its odor difference can evaluate its freshness. The feasibility of using electronic nose for evaluating the freshness of shrimp (Penaeus vanmamei is explored in this paper. The odor of shrimp, stored at 5 °C, was detected by the electronic nose. Combined with the sensory evaluation and TVBN, a model based on the electronic nose was constructed to evaluate the shrimp freshness. In principal components analysis, the first three principal components accounted for 86.97% of total variation, and they are used to establish a model to estimate the shrimp freshness with Fisher Liner Discriminant. The discriminant rates were 98.3% for 120 modeling sample data, and 91.7% for 36 testing sample data. The model could be easily used to evaluate the freshness of shrimp with better accuracy.

  15. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  16. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  17. The Effects of Shrimp Gut Probiotic Bacteria on the Shrimp Larvae (Penaeus Chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The survival rates of shrimp larvae in different stage are higher than those of control groups when probiotic bacteria strains X4B-1 and X1B-1 which are isolated from gut of adult shrimp are added into the little volume rearing sea water of shrimp larvae. The effects of probiotic bacteria are evaluated by challenge test (pathogenic bacteria Z3G2 isolated from disease shrimp larvae in the hatchery of Jimo town) and low salinity stress resistance tests on shrimp larvae, the survival rate and lengths of the shrimp larvae in the experiment are determined. Results indicate that 1. The survival rate, ability of resistant to low salinity, lengths of the delivered shrimp larvae are improved after the strains of probiotic bacteria, X4B-1 or X1B-1, are added into the rearing sea water of hatchery. 2. The addition of the probiotic bacteria could not influence the change of the bacteria number, NH3-N and COD value in the rearing sea water. 3. The probiotic bacteria used in the experiment have many enzymes such as Lipase, Amylase, Gelatinase and Lecithinase. These enzymes may help the probiotic bacteria to digest the food components fed to shrimp larvae and increase the digestive efficiency of post larvae. This may be one of the reasons why these probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the shrimp larvae.

  18. Phytochemistry study from bark of stem of Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using toxicity assays for Artemia salina; Estudo fitoquimico das cascas do caule de Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, biomonitorado pelo ensaio de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Joao Maximo de; Ziminiani, Maria Graziela [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia Bioquimica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2001-04-01

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10 {beta}, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained. (author)

  19. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  20. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed.

  1. Observer Coverage of the Southeastern Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessel, gear and biological data collected by fishery observers from the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic commerical shrimp fishery.

  2. Levels of PAHs in the Waters, Sediments, and Shrimps of Estero de Urias, an Estuary in Mexico, and Their Toxicological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foday M. Jaward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PAHs were measured in water, sediment, and shrimps of Estero de Urias, an estuary in Sinaloa, Mexico, during the rainy and dry seasons, and analyzed for eleven PAHs routinely detected in samples. Phenanthrene was the most dominant congener in the water, sediment, and shrimp samples comprising about 38, 24, and 25%, respectively, of the eleven PAHs detected, followed by pyrene and naphthalene in water and sediment samples, and pyrene and fluorine in the shrimp samples. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 9 to 347 ng/L in water, 27 to 418 ng/g in sediments, and 36 to 498 ng/g in shrimps. The sources of contamination are closely related to human activities such as domestic and industrial discharge, automobile exhausts, and street runoff. High concentrations were also measured during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. Toxicity tests were also carried out, exposing fish embryos and juvenile shrimps to some of these PAHs. Fish embryos exposed to PAHs showed exogastrulation, while juvenile shrimps showed significantly lower growth rates than controls. DNA and protein alterations were also observed. These toxicity tests indicate that PAH concentrations measured could be dangerous to some aquatic organisms, particularly during early stages of development.

  3. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Rebecca L. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.l.taylor@ncl.ac.uk; Caldwell, Gary S. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bentley, Matthew G. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD{sub 50} values of 7 and 20 {mu}M for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 {mu}M of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 {mu}M of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 {mu}M zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 {mu}M copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  4. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Caldwell, Gary S; Bentley, Matthew G

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24h LD(50) values of 7 and 20 microM for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 microM of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24h LD(50) of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 microM of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24h LD(50) of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 microM zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 microM copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  5. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  6. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  7. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  8. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exposure over a specified period of time. (4) “Loading” means the ratio of test organisms biomass (grams... as hydrolysis and oxidation products, give positive or negative interferences which cannot be..., pH, etc.) and a description of any pretreatment. (2) Detailed information about the test...

  9. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) “Loading” means the ratio of test organism biomass (gram, wet weight) to the volume (liters) of test... substance, such as hydrolysis and oxidation products, give positive or negative interferences which cannot... characteristics (e.g., salinity, pH, etc.) and a description of any pretreatment. (2) Detailed information...

  10. Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    The refractive index of freezing brine is important for example in order to estimate oceanic scattering as sea ice develops. Previously, no simple continuous expression was available for estimating the refractive index of brine at subzero temperatures. I show that extrapolation of the empirical...... formula for the refractive index of seawater by Quan and Fry [Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3477-3480 (1995)] provides a good fit to the refractive index of freezing brine for temperatures above -24 degrees celsius and salinities below 180 parts per thousand....

  11. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  12. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  13. Development of Researches on Preservation and Storage Technology of Shrimps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海玲; 杨春莉; 杨春瑜

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the world’s fisheries, shrimp consumption and trade are occupying an increasingly important position in the international aquatic products market. China is the world’s largest producer of shrimp and is also the main exporter of shrimp, however, compared with developed countries, technology level of shrimp production and processing in our country is still low at present, especially in aspect of shrimp preservation and storage techniques. So it is necessary to study various technologies and applications of sterilization and conclude the effective methods of shrimp preservation and storage. Traditional storage, chemical and biological technology, low temperature preservation, heat treatment, gas preservation and physical sterilization technology are reviewed in this paper based on shrimp preservation aiming to provide certain theoretical reference and practical basis for shelf life extension of shrimp.

  14. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  15. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  16. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  17. TOXIC ACTIVITIES OF HEXANE EXTRACT AND COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY FRACTIONS OF RODENT TUBER PLANT (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. ON Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesti F. Sianipar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. is a medicinal plant  particularly found in Java. The plant is used as an ingredient for  conventional cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic activities of crude extracts and column chromatography fractions of  rodent tuber on Artemia salina larvae. Rodent tuber plant was obtained  from the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute in  Bogor, West Java. The experiment was conducted in the Biology  Laboratory of Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Banten. Leaves and petioles of the plant were macerated with acetone and the filtrates were evaporated (40°C to obtain crude extracts. The crude extracts were partitioned with ethyl acetate, followed with hexane, chloroform and  butanol. Toxicity test of the extracts was performed using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT method on A. salina larvae. Extract showing the most toxic was fractioned using column chromatography and then tested on the larvae. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized  factorial, four replicates for crude extracts and two replicates for the fractions. Treatments were different types of extracts (hexane, chloroform and butanol at various concentrations (500, 1,000 and 1,500 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Fractions of the column chromatography used were taken from the column number 1, 3 and 10, and tested their toxicities at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 μg ml-1 of 5% Tween solution. Parameters observed were the death of A. salina expressed as LC50. The study  showed that hexane extract of the petioles had the most toxic to A. salina (LC50 = 762.08 μg ml-1. Fraction number 10 showed the highest toxic (LC50 = 381.07 μg ml-1, whereas the lowest was fraction number 3 (LC50 = 653.13 μg ml-1. The study indicates that rodent tuber plant from Bogor is toxic to A. salina and further test for its cytotoxic activity is justified.

  18. Modeling the morphogenesis of brine channels in sea ice

    CERN Document Server

    Kutschan, B; gemming, S

    2009-01-01

    Brine channels are formed in sea ice under certain constraints and represent a habitat of different microorganisms. The complex system depends on a number of various quantities as salinity, density, pH-value or temperature. Each quantity governs the process of brine channel formation. There exists a strong link between bulk salinity and the presence of brine drainage channels in growing ice with respect to both the horizontal and vertical planes. We develop a suitable phenomenological model for the formation of brine channels both referring to the Ginzburg-Landau-theory of phase transitions as well as to the chemical basis of morphogenesis according to Turing. It is possible to conclude from the critical wavenumber on the size of the structure and the critical parameters. The theoretically deduced transition rates have the same magnitude as the experimental values. The model creates channels of similar size as observed experimentally. An extension of the model towards channels with different sizes is possible...

  19. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  20. Geochemical implications of brine leakage into freshwater aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Assaf; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E

    2013-01-01

    CO(2) injection into deep saline formations as a way to mitigate climate change raises concerns that leakage of saline waters from the injection formations will impact water quality of overlying aquifers, especially underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). This paper aims to characterize the geochemical composition of deep brines, with a focus on constituents that pose a human health risk and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A statistical analysis of the NATCARB brine database, combined with simple mixing model calculations, show total dissolved solids and concentrations of chloride, boron, arsenic, sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese may exceed plant tolerance or regulatory levels. Twelve agricultural crops evaluated for decreased productivity in the event of brine leakage would experience some yield reduction due to increased TDS at brine-USDW ratios of United States are almost three times higher than public and domestic withdrawals.

  1. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  2. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant, thermophilic esterase from a Red Sea Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2013-11-28

    The Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that displays multiple harsh conditions such as high temperature, high salinity and high concentrations of multiple, toxic heavy metals. The survival of microbes in such an environment by utilizing resistant enzymes makes them an excellent source of extremophilic enzymes. We constructed a fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the deepest and most secluded layer of this pool. We report the isolation and biochemical characterization of an unusual esterase: EstATII. EstATII is thermophilic (optimum temperature, 65 C), halotolerant (maintains its activity in up to 4.5â€...M NaCl) and maintains at least 60% of its activity in the presence of a wide spectrum of heavy metals. The combination of biochemical characteristics of the Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool esterase, i.e., halotolerance, thermophilicity and resistance to heavy metals, makes it a potentially useful biocatalyst.

  3. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

  4. The effects of brine disposal on a subtidal meiofauna community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Tuya, Fernando; Sacramento, Alicia; Ramos, Eva; Rodríguez, Myriam; Monterroso, Óscar

    2011-07-01

    Desalination plants generate notable (>1,000 s m 3) quantities of hypersaline brine which potentially affect the biological communities in the receiving area. We assessed whether proximity to a brine discharge point located off Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic) altered patterns in the abundance and assemblage structure of subtidal, soft-bottom, meiofauna. Samples were collected twice (May 2008 and January 2009) at 0, 15 and 30 m away from the brine discharge point, corresponding to a change in salinity from 45 to 36. Proximity to the brine discharge point affected overall meiofaunal abundances: lowest abundances were observed at 0 m (64.55 ± 39.86 ind 10 cm -2, mean ± SD) than at 15 (210.49 ± 121.01 ind 10 cm -2) and 30 m (361.88 ± 102.64 ind 10 cm -2) away from the brine discharge point. This pattern was particularly notable for the most conspicuous meiofaunal groups: nematodes and copepods, and meiofaunal assemblage structure also differed with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Although multivariate techniques identified changes in salinity as a relevant driver of patterns in meiofaunal assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine outfall, a shift in particle size composition between May 2008 and January 2009 also contributed to explain differences in meiofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Hence, meiofauna can be considered a suitable tool to monitor environmental impacts derived from the discharge of hypersaline effluents on subtidal, soft-bottom, assemblages if potential confounding drivers, i.e. here temporal changes in particle size composition, are accounted for to avoid possible confusing interpretations.

  5. Phytochemical constituents and preliminary toxicity evaluation of leaves from Rourea induta Planch. (Connaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kalegari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most active plants are toxic at high doses and it is therefore important to investigate the preliminary toxicity of plant extracts. The Rourea induta species is a potential drug with no phytochemical or biological studies registered in the literature. Thus, a phytochemical study and a toxicity analysis of the ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae, was run. A long chain hydrocarbon, n-tetracosane, and four flavonoids were identified: quercetin, and three glycosylated derivates, quercetin-3-O-α-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-xyloside and quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside. This is the first time these have been isolated in this species. The structures were elucidated by 13C NMR, ¹H NMR, UV and IR spectroscopy. The toxicity evaluation of extracts was performed by the brine shrimp method and determination of hemolytic activity. The samples demonstrated no toxic potential by the analyzed methods.A maioria das plantas ativas é tóxica em doses elevadas, portanto, é importante a investigação da toxicidade preliminar dos extratos das plantas. A espécie Rourea induta é uma droga potencial que não apresenta estudo fitoquímico ou biológico descrito na literatura. Assim, um estudo fitoquímico e análises toxicológicas foram realizados com o extrato etanólico obtido das folhas de Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae. Foram obtidos um hidrocarboneto de cadeia longa, n-tetracosano, e quatro flavonóides, quercetina e três derivados glicosilados, quercetina-3-O-α-arabinofuranosideo, quercetina-3-O-β-xilosideo e quercetina-3-O-β-galactosideo. Esta é a primeira vez que estes compostos são isolados nesta espécie. As estruturas foram elucidadas por espectroscopia de RMN-13C, RMN-¹H, ultravioleta e infravermelho. A avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi analisada pelo método da Artemia salina e atividade hemolítica. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentou um potencial tóxico pelos m

  6. Trichloroethylene Volatilization Enhancement by the Addition of a Brine Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, M. L.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most widely detected organic contaminants at National Priority List (NPL) sites. In many sites, TCE is trapped as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in formations of low permeability, and serves as long-term source of contamination. Cost effective remediation technologies that can be applied to tight formations need to be developed. This study investigates the enhancement of TCE volatilization from unsaturated clayey soils by adding a NaCl brine solution. It is postulated that the overall effect of the brine solution causing structured water around soil particles, increased relative permeability, and increased fugacity into the vapor phase, is to enhance TCE volatilization. TCE removal through the soil vapor extraction (SVE) technique can then be enhanced. Preliminary experimental work involves the use of static and dynamic flux reactors, containing TCE, water and clay. NaCl brine solution is added at different concentrations to evaluate the effect on TCE concentrations and volatilization rates. In the static flux mode, vapor concentrations in the headspace of sealed reactors are measured after a two-day period. In the dynamic flux mode, air is swept through the headspace of the reactors and TCE vapor concentrations are measured over time. Plots relating static TCE vapor concentration to brine concentration are used to show the effect of brine concentrations on TCE fugacity. Temporal concentration distributions of TCE show the effect of brine on the rate of volatilization. Keywords: Trichloroethylene (TCE), Soil vapor extraction (SVE), clay

  7. Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Quetel, C. R.; Munoz, R.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted...... by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary producing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, contained arsenic at 13 mu g g(-1) almost exclusively as arsenobetaine (AsB). Arsenic was present in the soft:issues of the mussel at 40 mu g g(-1) and the major...... part of the extractable arsenic species in the adductor muscle/mantle tissues and in the gill were present as dimethylarsinylriboside-derivatives (arsenosugrars), while AsB was present at 16 and 3.6%, respectively, in these tissues. In spite of the absence of biosynthetically active algae, the pattern...

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of furazolidone in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G R; Plakas, S M; el Said, K R

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the quantitation of furazolidone residues in shrimp muscle. The shrimp homogenate (1.0 g) is extracted with acetonitrile, and the extract is taken to dryness. The residue is dissolved in acetonitrile, and the solution is passed through alumina and C18 cleanup columns. The eluate is taken to dryness and reconstituted in a suitable solvent for reversed-phase (C18) LC with UV detection at 365 nm. Recoveries of furazolidone from shrimp homogenates spiked from 5 to 80 ng/g ranged from 74.3 to 79.7%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 5.0-8.9%. RSDs for incurred furazolidone quantitated at 5.9 and 9.2 ng/g were 6.6 and 7.6%, respectively.

  9. Genesis of underground brine along south coast of Laizhou Bay: hydrochemical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xueyan; YU Zhigang; NING Jinsong; CHEN Hongtao; MI Tiezhu

    2006-01-01

    Hydrochemistry of underground brines along south coast of Laizhou Bay, Shandong, China has been analyzed. Brine samples were collected from 43 wells in this area. It was considered that the brines were originated from seawater. However, whether they were formed by seawater evaporation or seawater freezing was not fully sure. We created a simple method by plotting Na/Cl vs. seawater concentration factor (SCF) and Ca/Mg vs. SCF to determine the brine formation geochemically. Comparison of our results to previous seawater freezing and evaporation experiments indicated that the brines were formed by seawater evaporation. The ratios of HCO3/Cl of some low salinity brines in the study area were relatively higher, indicating that the brines may have mixed with other waters after the generation. The Br/Cl ratios of the brines decreased annually in the past 20 to 30 years of exploitation, indicating downward permeation of the brine from which bromine was extracted.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Acute Ammonia Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Dai, Ping; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which usually brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens, reducing growth, decreasing osmoregulatory capacity, increasing the molting frequency, and even causing high mortality. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-challenged and control groups from the same family of L. vannamei to identify the key genes and pathways response to ammonia stress. The comparative transcriptome analysis identified 136 significantly differentially expressed genes that have high homologies with the known proteins in aquatic species, among which 94 genes are reported potentially related to immune function, and the rest of the genes are involved in apoptosis, growth, molting, and osmoregulation. Fourteen GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were identified to be significantly changed by ammonia stress. In these GO terms, 13 genes have been studied in aquatic species, and 11 of them were reported potentially involved in immune defense and two genes were related to molting. In the significantly changed KEGG pathways, all the 7 significantly changed genes have been reported in shrimp, and four of them were potentially involved in immune defense and the other three were related to molting, defending toxicity, and osmoregulation, respectively. In addition, majority of the significantly changed genes involved in nitrogen metabolisms that play an important role in reducing ammonia toxicity failed to perform the protection function. The present results have supplied molecular level support for the previous founding of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp, which is a prerequisite for better understanding the molecular

  11. Effects of the apple mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris on antimicrobial, immunostimulatory and histological responses in black tiger shrimp postlarvae fed at varying feeding frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Avenido

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate extracts of the apple mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris as agentof prophylactic/therapeutant for the culture of Penaeus monodon. General types of compounds detectedin the leaf and twig extracts were glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, sterols and flavonoids as determinedby Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Based on the mean clear zone of inhibition, twig extract exhibitedhigher antibacterial activity than did the leaf extract. Furthermore, the methanolic extract of the twiggave the highest antibacterial activity and was thus employed for further tests. It was incorporated inthe basal diet (commercially available shrimp starter feed and was tested at three feeding frequencies(twice, three and four times daily for its effects on the immune responses against a control treatment(pure basal diet fed three times daily. There were no significant differences in respiratory burstactivities between treatments but shrimps fed medicated diets exhibited considerably higher values thandid the control group of shrimps. Phagocytic and phenoloxidase activities were significantly higher inshrimps fed medicated diets at all feeding frequencies than did those fed the control diet; activities werenot significantly different between those fed medicated diets. Bacterial survival index was significantlyhigher in shrimps fed the control diet than did those fed medicated diets; indices of shrimps fedmedicated diets were not significantly different. There were no signs of toxicity or any adversehistological changes in shrimps fed medicated diets at 1000 μg mL-1 apple mangrove extractconcentration.

  12. Biophysics. For certain shrimp, life's a snap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2000-09-22

    On page 2114 of this issue, physicists report that a collapsing bubble outside the claw of the snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis causes its characteristic clack. According to this new study, A. heterochaelis clamps its claw so rapidly that a water jet gushing from the claw first loses and then gains pressure, causing an air bubble in the jet to swell and collapse with a pronounced "snap!" The imploding bubble generates shock waves that stun nearby prey and ward off other shrimp, who have learned to keep their distance.

  13. Feeding ecology of penaeid shrimp in Kenyan mangrove ecosystems: implications for biological shrimp aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gatune, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological shrimp aquaculture derives its feed input from the naturally occurring food sources. This practice has an environmental advantage of reducing the use of fish meal as the main food input. Use of fish meal in aquaculture has a negative effect on the coastal fisheries in the sense of depleting fish stocks. It also has a tendency to discharge wastes that pollutes the receiving coastal ecosystems. Ecological shrimp aquaculture therefore impacts low burden to the coastal ecosystems since...

  14. Redox states of underground brine system along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xueyan; YU Zhigang; NING Jinsong; CHEN Hongtao; MI Tiezhu

    2008-01-01

    Underground brine samples were collected along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay,Shangdong,China in two field investigations in 2003.The brines are confined in the Quaternary sediment and underwent a series of geochemical changes.The redox states of these brines were assessed qualitatively based on the measurements of Eh and redox-sensitive species such as DO,NO NO3,Mn2+,Fe2+,SO2-4 in the brines.The redox condition of the underground brine is anoxic,and the redox reactions that controlled the redox potential of brines should be Fe (Ⅲ) reduction and sulfate reduction.

  15. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  16. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar-Ruso, Yoana del [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: yoana.delpilar@ua.es; Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio de la; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sanchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family. - The Polychaete assemblage is affected by the brine discharge of the Alicante desalination plant and we detect different sensitivity levels in polychaete families to brine impact.

  17. Endemic shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense as a test species to assess potential contamination by pesticides in Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mayara Pereira; Jesus, Fátima; Almeida, Ana Rita; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Domingues, Inês; Hayd, Liliam

    2017-02-01

    Pantanal is a biome characterized by an extraordinary diversity and abundance of wildlife and houses several endemic species such as the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense. However, the increase in agriculture and husbandry activities in the region has contributed with residues of pesticides reaching aquatic systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the sensitivity of the endemic shrimp M. pantanalense compared with other freshwater species: the shrimp M. amazonicum, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the fish Danio rerio. The sensitivity of these organisms was assessed through acute exposure to copper and cypermethrin (through the formulation Barrage(®), widely used in Pantanal). For copper the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: D. similis (48 h-EC50 0.051 mg/L) > M. pantanalense > D. rerio > M. amazonicum (48 h-LC50 26.34 mg/L). Copper caused reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish and reduced heartbeat of zebrafish embryos. For cypermethrin the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: M. pantanalense (96 h-LC50 0.05 μg/L) > M. amazonicum > D. similis > D. rerio (144 h-LC50 1680 μg/L). Major effects of cypermethrin included reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish, as well as early hatching and increased incidence of developmental deformities in zebrafish embryos. This study highlights the importance of using endemic species for risk evaluations in sensitive biomes such as Pantanal. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of testing pesticides toxicity as commercial formulations. Furthermore, we suggest that the endemic shrimp species M. pantanalense can be successfully used as a test species in ecotoxicology.

  18. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  19. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  20. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  1. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  2. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in recruit

  3. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound Site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report of predisposal studies. Chapter 4. Appendix 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hann, Jr, Roy W.; Randall, Robert E. [eds.

    1981-02-01

    This report describes nekton communities off Freeport, Texas prior to brine disposal based on trawl studies in the period October 1977 to February 1980. Trawling was conducted aboard chartered commercial shrimp trawlers along a transect in depths of 3 to 25 fathoms to describe the general background of nekton communities off Freeport. An array of stations were occupied at the diffuser site in 12 fathoms of water to describe in detail nekton communities near the diffuser. Collections at each station, in general, were made once a month during the day and once a month at night, cruises being about two weeks apart in time. Projected diffuser locations, stations occupied, etc., changed during the course of the project, and the Materials and Methods (Section 4.2) should be consulted for details.

  4. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus

  5. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  6. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment.

  7. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  8. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  9. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  10. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic and

  11. Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, M.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Pommerol, A.; McEwen, A.; Chevrier, V.; Brissaud, O.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent geomorphological observations as well as chemical and thermodynamic studies demonstrate that liquid water should be stable today on the Martian surface at some times of the day. In Martian conditions, brines would be particularly more stable than pure water because salts can depress the freezing point and lower the evaporation rate of water. Despite this evidence, no clear spectral signature of liquid has been observed so far by the hyperspectral imaging spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM. However, past spectral analysis lacks a good characterization of brines' spectral signatures. This study thus aims to determine how liquid brines can be detected on Mars by spectroscopy. In this way, laboratory experiments were performed for reproducing hydration and dehydration cycles of various brines while measuring their spectral signatures. The resulting spectra first reveal a very similar spectral evolution for the various brine types and pure water, with the main difference observed at the end of the dehydration with the crystallization of various hydrated minerals from brines. The main characteristic of this spectral behavior is an important decoupling between the evolution of albedo and hydration bands depths. During most of the wetting/drying processes, spectra usually display a low albedo associated with shallow water absorption band depths. Strong water absorption band depth and high albedo are respectively only observed when the surface is very wet and when the surface is very dry. These experiments can thus explain why the currently active Martian features attributed to the action of a liquid are only associated with low albedo and very weak spectral signatures. Hydration experiments also reveal that deliquescence occurs easily even at low temperature and moderate soil water vapor pressure and could thus cause seasonal darkening on Mars. These experiments demonstrate that the absence of water absorptions in CRISM in the middle afternoon does not rule out water

  12. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  13. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  14. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    . The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. The spread pattern for every spreader, tested in The County of Funen, has been meassured 3 hours after...... spreading on a highway with traffic. A total of 800 spots were measured for residual salt for every spreader. The measurements and the spread pattern for brine spreading with nozzles were so precisely, that we learned: “When there is moisture, water or ice on the road, we need to take into account...

  15. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-02-15

    The invertebrate's innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia's immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity.

  16. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  17. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp,Artemia sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茜; 吴长功; 董波; 李富花; 刘凤岐; 相建海

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica.Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified.Three spots were up-expressed and identified:actin, heat shock protein 70,and chaperone subunit 1;three down-regulated proteins were identified:arginine kinase,elongation factor-2,and glycine-rich protein;and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin....

  18. FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK METANOL KULIT BATANG KETAPANG (Terminalia catappaLinn. DAN UJI TOKSISITASNYA DENGAN METODE BSLT (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Chasani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketapang (Terminalia catappa Linn. merupakan salah satu tumbuhan anggota famili Combretaceae. Hasil uji senyawa metabolit sekunder pada kulit batang ketapang diketahui mengandung flavonoid, terpenoid, polifenol, steroid dan saponin. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menemukan fraksi ekstrak dari kulit batang ketapang yang memiliki toksisitas tertinggi terhadap larva udang Artemia salina Leach dengan menggunakan metode BSLT serta mengidentifikasi senyawa metabolit sekundernya. Kulit batang ketapang diekstraksi secara maserasi menggunakan pelarut metanol. Ekstrak metanol yang diperoleh diekstraksi cair-cair dengan pelarut n-heksana, dan etil asetat. Ekstrak metanol (EM, fraksi n-heksana ekstrak metanol (FH, fraksi etil asetat ekstrak metanol (FE, dan residu etil asetat ekstrak metanol (FR diuji toksisitasnya. Fraksi ekstrak dengan toksisitas tertinggi diuji kandungan senyawa metabolit sekundernya menggunakan pereaksi warna pada plat KLT. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa EM, FH, FE, dan FR bersifat toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina Leach dan FE bersifat paling toksik dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 61,675 ppm. Hasil uji metabolit sekunder menunjukkan FE mengandung senyawa golongan flavonoid, fenolat, terpenoid, dan saponin.

  19. Global biodiversity and geographical distribution of diapausing aquatic invertebrates: the case of the cosmopolitan brine shrimp, Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Pacios, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    and geographic information. Our results indicate there are three Artemia complexes, A. franciscana, A. tibetiana and A. salina, suggesting at least three undescribed, and one unidentified to date, highly isolated lineages, to be re-evaluated taxonomically. Additionally, at a global scale, our data set shows two......The genus Artemia comprises passively dispersed anostracan species with a distribution all around the world, except in Antarctica. We used both published and personal data to assess and update existing knowledge on the diversity and distribution of Artemia, in particular compiling also genetic...

  20. Formation of diapause cyst shell in brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, and its resistance role in environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Lei; Zhao, Yang; Dai, Zhong-Min; Chen, Han-Min; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2009-06-19

    Artemia has attracted much attention for its ability to produce encysted embryos wrapped in a protective shell when subject to extremely harsh environmental conditions. However, what the cyst shell is synthesized from and how the formative process is performed remains, as yet, largely unknown. Over 20 oviparous specifically expressed genes were identified through screening the subtracted cDNA library enriched between oviparous and ovoviviparous Artemia ovisacs. Among them, a shell gland-specifically expressed gene (SGEG) has been found to be involved in the cyst shell formation. Lacking SGEG protein (by RNA interference) caused the cyst shell to become translucent and the chorion layer of the shell to become less compact and pultaceous and to show a marked decrease of iron composition within the shell. The RNA interference induced defective diapause cysts with a totally compromised resistibility to UV irradiation, extremely large temperature differences, osmotic pressure, dryness, and organic solvent stresses. In contrast, the natural cyst would provide adequate protection from all such factors. SGEG contains a 345-bp open reading frame, and its consequentially translated peptide consists of a 33-amino acid residue putative signal peptide and an 81-amino acid residue mature peptide. The results of Northern blotting and in situ hybridization indicate that the gene is specifically expressed in the cells of shell glands during the period of diapause cyst formation of oviparous Artemia. This investigation adds strong insight into the mechanism of cyst shell formation of Artemia and may be applicable to other areas of research in extremophile biology.

  1. Is polyploidy a persevering accident or an adaptive evolutionary pattern? The case of the brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Baxevanis, Athanasios D; Kappas, Ilias; Deligiannidis, Panagiotis; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Papakostas, Spiros; Bougiouklis, Dimitrios; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2011-02-01

    Asexual organisms are confronted with substantial drawbacks, both immediate and delayed, threatening their evolutionary persistence. Yet, genetic associations with asexuality may refresh the gene pool promoting adaptation of clonal lineages; polyploidy is one of them. Parthenogenesis itself and/or polyploidy are responsible for the maintenance and spread of clones in Artemia, a sexual-asexual genus of halophilic anostracans. We applied flow cytometry, microsatellite genotyping, and mtDNA sequencing to 23 asexual populations. Artemia parthenogens have evolved multiple times either through hybridization or spontaneously. Nine out of 23 populations contained clones of mixed ploidy (2n, 3n, 4n). Most clones were diploid (20/31) while two and nine clones were triploid and tetraploid, respectively. Apomictic triploids and tetraploids formed two distinct groups of low genetic diversity compared with the more divergent automictic diploids. Polyploidy is also polyphyletic in Artemia, with triploids and tetraploids having independent origins from different sexual ancestors. We discern a pattern of geographical parthenogenesis with all clonal groups being more widespread than their closest sexuals. In favour of a specialist model, asexual diploids are restricted to single locations and are strikingly segregated from generalist triploids and tetraploids occupying a variety of sites. This is a rare pattern of mixed life-history strategies within an asexual complex.

  2. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ofelio

    2014-06-01

    The results obtained in the first test showed that the L. rhamnosus was able to survive in seawater during the whole experiment (30h, maintaining densities of 10e7 CFU/ml during the first 6h although decreasing progressively afterwards (10e3 CFU/ml at 30h. This allows adequate levels at sufficient time for Artemia to incorporate the probiotic. In fact, bioencapsulation test demonstrated that Artemia metanauplii were able to bioencapsulate the probiotic, reaching the highest concentration in Artemia after 30 min of bioencapsulation (10e4 CFU/Artemia. A slight further decrease (10e3 CFU/Artemia was observed after 24h. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus reduced in 1Log total Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia during the 3 first hours. Therefore, 3 hours was the time established for the bioencapsulation protocol and further studies are in progress to determine the ability of Artemia metanauplii to maintain bioencapsulated L. rhamnosus once transferred to rearing tanks. Also, the capability of the probiotic to inhibit potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria will be assessed.

  3. Ultrastructure of cyst shell and underlying membranes of three strains of the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, V; Munuswamy, N

    2006-12-01

    The cyst of Artemia has shell and membranous coverings over the embryo. The membranous coverings have special adaptive features to allow the physical changes accompanying repeated hydration and dehydration cycles that might occur and adversely influence postembryonic development. Whole and slices of cryptobiotic cysts were processed for electron microscopy to study the internal details and to compare the morphological architecture of three Artemia strains of South India. Surface topography of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies revealed distinct button shaped structures on the cyst of Puthalam strain. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies of the cysts displayed the conventional pattern of anostracan crustaceans with outer cortex and alveolar layer, cuticular membranes, and the cytoplasmic inclusions namely nucleus, yolk droplets, lipoid bodies, and mitochondria. The prominent wavy outer cortex layer of Puthalam cysts corroborates the results of SEM studies.

  4. Brine shrimp Artemia in coastal saltworks: inexpensive source of food for vertically integrated aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P

    1983-01-01

    Proper Artemia introduction and management should lead not only to optimal salt production outputs but at the same time provide opportunities for the exploitation of valuable by-products, i.e. Artemia cysts and adult biomass as cheap sources of high quality food for intensive fish or crustacean farming.

  5. Formation of a covalent Nepsilon2-guanylylhistidyl reaction intermediate by the GTP:GTP guanylyltransferase from the brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J L; McLennan, A G

    1999-01-01

    The chemical nature of the enzyme-nucleotide phosphoramidate reaction intermediate employed by the unique GTP:GTP guanylyltransferase from yolk platelets of Artemia franciscana cysts to synthesize diguanosine tetraphosphate (Gp4G) has been investigated. Labeling of the enzyme with [alpha-32P]GTP followed by isolation of the labeled phosphoamino acid by periodate treatment and alkaline hydrolysis and comparison of the product with phosphoamino acid standards by thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatography showed that the linkage involves the Nepsilon2 ring nitrogen of an enzyme histidyl residue. Thus, this enzyme is distinct from the mRNA capping enzymes which can also synthesize Gp4G but which employ a lysyl-nucleotide intermediate. Based on its reaction mechanism and substrate specificity, GTP:GTP guanylyltransferase may belong to the GAFH superfamily which includes the histidine triad proteins, Ap4A phosphorylases, and galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.

  6. 卤虫等位酶的遗传控制%GENETIC CONTROL OF ALLOZYMES IN THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董树刚; 付成秋; 程继军; 高明君

    2000-01-01

    应用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术分析了孤雌生殖卤虫产生的罕见雄体、两性卤虫及其杂交后代(F1)的酯酶(EST)、超氧物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(PRX)、碱性磷酸酶( ALP)、四唑氧化酶(TO)和乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)的同工酶酶谱表型.对编码五种酶的19个位点、35个等位基因的表达进行了遗传分析.结果表明,在EST、PRX和TO酶谱中既有共显性等位基因,又有沉默等位基因的表达;卤虫PRX、ALP和SOD为单体酶,在EST和TO酶谱中还存在着二聚体同工酶;除LDH为单态外,其余五种同工酶为多态酶.

  7. The influence of closed brine pockets and permeable brine channels on the thermo-elastic properties of saline ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

    2017-02-13

    A model of the thermo-elastic behaviour of saline ice is formulated, and model solutions describing thermo-elastic waves (TEW) propagating into a half-space of the ice are investigated. The model is based on a proposal that saline ice is a matrix, which encompasses both closed brine pockets and permeable channels filled with brine. Experiments on the thermal expansion of saline ice samples, and on TEW in saline ice, have been performed in the cold laboratories of the University Centre in Svalbard and in University College London. The experimental data are compared with theoretical conclusions. The experimental data support our hypothesis that the brine in saline ice is divided between closed pockets and open, permeable channels.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  8. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  9. Homogeneous sample preparation of raw shrimp using dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, E A; Altwein, D M; Johnson, L E; Farley, J R; Hammersmith, A A

    1995-01-01

    Sample homogeneity is critical to accurate and reproducible analysis of trace residues in foods. A method of uniform sample preparation using dry ice is described for shrimp. Other sample preparation techniques for raw shrimp produce nonhomogeneous samples. Sample homogeneity was determined through analysis of chloramphenicol added to intact tiger or white shrimp prior to sample preparation. Simulated chloramphenicol residue levels were 50, 15, 10, and 5 ppb. No significant differences were noted when analyses of shrimp inoculated with chlor-amphenicol prior to sample preparation with dry ice were compared with analyses of shrimp spiked after grinding with dry ice. Grinding shrimp with dry ice produced samples with homogeneous chloramphenicol residues. This technique should be applicable to other tissues and vegetable products.

  10. Echinoside-B from the Lakshadweep sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B; Kamat, S.Y.

    Brine-shrimp assay guided purification of the methanolic extract of the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana yields echinoside-B as a major toxic constituent. The compound has been characterized based on its spectral data....

  11. Bacterial Selection from Shrimp Ponds for Degradation of Organic Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Powtongsook, S.; Chanpun, K.; Suntornsuk, W.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of ammonia, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in a shrimp pond is generally caused by incomplete degradation of residual organic matters from overfeeding and from organic wastes released by shrimps. The phenomenon affects shrimp growth and survival rate. The objectives of this investigation were to screen for a bacterial strain able to digest organic residues and to evaluate the changes of residues by bacterial activities under natural conditions. The results from this work showed tha...

  12. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki; Parisa Sadighara; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mahmood Alimohammadi; Naiema Vakili Saatloo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal) treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged. ...

  13. Governance and the study of shrimp revitalization program in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dyspriani, Polite

    2007-01-01

    Shrimp world production in the last few years has shown very high growth rates. It is marked by an increasing of production volume, and by shifting from capture to aquaculture fisheries within the production system. This has occurred mostly regarding to the brackish water pond. For some years, the government has had to face hard choices in order to ensure shrimp aquaculture developed sustainable. The desire and temptation to pursue the excessive development of shrimp production as a source of...

  14. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health.

  15. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    from 3.65 - 4.63 ppm. The definite volumes of seawater samples (3.7 litres) taken in stills for desalination correspond to 13.08 - 31.16 mg of net boron content. Analyses on the recovery of the total content of boron in brines as well as in the bitterns...

  16. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  17. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-07-01

    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery.

  18. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, Jean-francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  19. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75% was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n=42, cross-resistance to β-lactams (n=20 and multiple resistance (n=13. Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n=11, penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1, penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1, and ampicillin (n = 1. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n=86 was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline.

  20. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats).

  1. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy De Grave

    Full Text Available We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT. Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats.

  2. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  3. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  4. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  5. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  6. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducing the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a "pen-closing" method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  7. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  8. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses.

  9. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pHDead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  10. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects.

  11. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  12. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  13. Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter

  14. Environmental Quality Research-Fate of Toxic Jet Fuel Components in Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    literature suggests that the maximum growt rate of Chlorella vulgaris is almost certainly between 1.5 and 2.5 days at water temperatures near 25°C...and D.A. Bengtson. 1980. Nutrition in aquatic toxicology: diet quality of geographical strains of brine shrimp, Artemia app. Proc. Symp. Aquatic...et physiologique sur le d6veloppement d’Artemia salina Leach. Archs. Zool. exp. gen. 99: 1-134. Goulden, C.E. and L.L. Hornig. 1980. The nutrition of

  15. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  16. Reúso da água da despesca na produção de camarão Reuse of the shrimp farm effluents in the production of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Leitão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A carcinicultura causa impactos ambientais significativos devidos, sobremaneira, à elevada demanda de água e ao descarte de efluentes, agravando o problema de assoreamento e poluição dos mananciais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo buscar uma alternativa para o reaproveitamento do efluente da carcinicultura na própria atividade e assim mitigar os impactos causados. Os experimentos foram realizados em três etapas, a primeira relacionada à toxicidade, para as pós-larvas das águas de despesca, a segunda com a mortalidade das pós-larvas em curto prazo e a terceira relacionada com a sobrevivência em longo prazo e produtividade do camarão ao longo de um ciclo de engorda, utilizando-se água de despesca. Os resultados mostraram que o índice de sobrevivência é de 42,1% quando o camarão é cultivado em águas de despesca; no entanto, a maior mortalidade dos camarões ocorre principalmente na primeira semana do ciclo de engorda, indicando que uma mudança de estratégia na produção de camarão pode aumentar a produtividade da fazenda.The shrimp farming cause significant environmental impacts due to high water consumption and effluent discharge, which worsen problems of sediment deposition and water pollution. This study aims to find an alternative for the use of shrimp farming effluent, and to mitigate the aforementioned impacts. The experiments were carried out in three phases, where the first dealt with the toxicity of the reused effluent on the post-larvae of shrimp, the second dealt with the short term mortality of the shrimps and the third dealt with the long-term survival and productivity of the shrimps along the entire growing cycle. The results show that the survival index is 42.1% when the shrimps are cultivated in shrimp farm effluent. However, most of the mortality occurred within the first week of the growing cycle. This indicates that a change in production strategy can increase productivity of the farm.

  17. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  18. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  19. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  20. Controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp: a contribution to its improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation deals with controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp. New knowledge about natural reproductive activity of Penaeus occidentalis in Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, is presented. Since in vitro fertilization of open thelycum shrimp proved unsuccessful, a hypothesis is given to explain ex

  1. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  2. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7%-83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2%-7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8%-24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2%-60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9%-6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9%-8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7%-13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐振雄; 李德尚; 张曼平; 董双林

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studios on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% - 83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2% - 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% - 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polycultttre systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems.All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrngen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% -60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highost percentage in shrimp-scallop systems.During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% - 6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% - 8.9% of the total.The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% - 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polycul-ture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen

  5. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1,...

  6. A Bioeconomic model of ocean acidification in the Baffin Bay/ Davis Strait Shrimp Fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We examine the case of the shrimp fishery in Baffin Bay/Davis Straight for potential effects of Ocean Acidification (OA), including: 1. the overall productivity of the shrimp fishery, 2. the spatial spread of the shrimp fishery, 3. the quality of the shrimp brought to market, and hence price...

  7. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY... for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form may be found at 50 CFR 622.5(a)(1)(iii)(C... shrimp must complete an annual Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Form. The form will...

  8. 78 FR 13324 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... the domestic like product to include dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil... Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China:...

  9. 78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., 77 FR 53856 (``PRC Shrimp AR6 Final''). \\3\\ In the final results of the recently completed seventh... product to include dusted shrimp. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's... Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005). Analysis of...

  10. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    , increase efficiency and profits. Community-based management using partnerships, stewardships or multilateral cooperation schemes, together with integrated, mixed or mangrove-friendly aquaculture practices and mangrove rehabilitation should also be promoted. Introduction of certification schemes may further......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  11. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453.

  12. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  13. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  14. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  15. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  16. Analysis of anions in geological brines using ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, R.M.

    1985-03-01

    Ion chromatographic procedures for the determination of the anions bromide, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and iodide in brine samples have been developed and are described. The techniques have been applied to the analysis of natural brines, and geologic evaporites. Sample matrices varied over a range from 15,000 mg/L to 200,000 mg/L total halogens, nearly all of which is chloride. The analyzed anion concentrations ranged from less than 5 mg/L in the cases of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate, to 20,000 mg/L in the case of sulfate. A technique for suppressing chloride and sulfate ions to facilitate the analysis of lower concentration anions is presented. Analysis times are typically less than 20 minutes for each procedure and the ion chromatographic results compare well with those obtained using more time consuming classical chemical analyses. 10 references, 14 figures.

  17. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  18. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  19. Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

  20. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  1. Uranium(VI) solubility in carbonate-free WIPP brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, J.F.; Borkowski, M.; Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    2013-08-01

    The solubility of uranium(VI) was determined in WIPP-relevant brines as a function of pC{sub H+} and ionic strength, in the absence of carbonate. Carbonate concentration was below 2 x 10{sup -5} M, measured using the gas chromatography method. In the absence of carbonate, the uranium(VI) solubilities were about x 10{sup -6} M in GWB at pC{sub H+} {>=} 7 and about 10{sup -8}-10{sup -7} M in ERDA-6 brine at pC{sub H+} {>=} 8. Solubility of uranium(VI) was also measured in NaCl media at the same levels as in ERDA-6 brine. The data established a uranium solubility that was 10-100 times lower than published results from Diaz-Arocas and Grambow, and they are in good agreement with modeling results and other literature data. In the absence of carbonate, hydrolysis was the main complexation and precipitation mechanisms for uranium(VI) solubility at high ionic strength and pC{sub H+} {>=} 7. However, the effect of borate complexation was noticeable at pC{sub H+} {proportional_to} 8-9. (orig.)

  2. On the sound of snapping shrimp

    CERN Document Server

    Versluis, Michel; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video: Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Our high speed imaging of the claw closure has revealed that the sound is generated by the collapse of a cavitation bubble formed in a fast flowing water jet forced out from the claws during claw closure. The produced sound originates from the cavitation collapse of the bubble. At collapse a short flash of light is emitted, just as in single bubble sonoluminescence. A model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation can quantitatively account for the visual and acoustical observations.

  3. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  4. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumaran Subramanian; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Rajasekar Thirunavukarasu; Suresh Gopal; Pugazhvendan Sampath Renuka; Alagappan Kumarappan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii). Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control.Conclusions:The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.

  5. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-min PAN; Jian-ping LI; Gu-lai LV; Hui YANG; Song-ming ZHU; Jian-zhong LOU

    2009-01-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp.

  6. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  7. Legal aspects and technical alternatives for the treatment of reservoir brines at the Activo Luna oilfield, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkle, Peter; Cid Vázquez, Adolfo L; Fong Aguilar, J L

    2005-01-01

    Deep formation water, extracted as an undesired byproduct from on-shore production wells at the Activo Luna oilfield and processed in adjacent oil fields, are highly enriched in salt minerals, especially in sodium chloride (NaCl) (262 000 mg/L), but also in metals and nonmetals, such as strontium (Sr) (2068 mg/L), bromine (Br) (2034 mg/L), boron (B) (396 mg/ L), iodine (I) (43.4 mg/L), selenium (Se) (3.74 mg/L), and arsenic (As) (0.55 mg/L). Direct reinjection of the brine underground is not possible because of elevated pressure conditions within the petroleum reservoir. The disposal into near shore areas of the Gulf of Mexico without treatment must be rejected because of a) elevated concentrations of some toxic elements, such as B, silver (Ag), thallium (Tl), Se and cadmium (Cd), which exceed permissible limits of environmental legislation for surface discharge (Official Mexican norms NOM-001-ECOL-1998 and CE-CCA-001/89), and b) differences in density that could cause the descent of hypersaline fluid to the ocean floor, potentially affecting the diversity and survival of the benthic ecosystem. Conventional treatment techniques, such as microfiltration or reverse osmosis, are not suitable for the Activo Luna brines because of their extreme mineralization, which will cause pressure conditions exceeding 200 bars across the membrane. As an alternative process, the evaporation of the entire brine volume of approximately 200 m3/day by solar ponds or industrial crystallization plants is suggested. The residual precipitated residuals are composed mainly of chlorine (Cl) (9460 tons/year), sodium (Na) (4230 tons/ year), calcium (Ca) (1028 tons/year), potassium (K) (207 tons/year), and magnesium (Mg) (65.8 tons/year). As an alternative to its disposal on a dumpsite, some special minerals (especially NaCl, Mg, Sr, and Br) could be recovered for its economic value.

  8. Thermal and microwave energy for shrimp processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.R.R.; Novak, A.F.

    1975-12-01

    Gulf Coast shrimp were processed by 2450 MHz microwave energy and conventional boiling to determine if differences existed in organoleptic evaluation and vitamin retention. Chemical tests for vitamin A and ..beta..-carotene, and microbiological assays for niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid were used to determine vitamin retention. Statistical analyses of all results were accomplished with the use of a 360 IBM computer. Results of the organoleptic tests showed no significant difference between the two processes; the only significant difference was among the judges, showing evidence of an untrained test panel which is typical of the consuming public. Vitamin A was not found in the tailmeat and thereafter samples were analyzed for ..beta..-carotene, one of the most important provitamins A. Apparent percent retentions were calculated from the mean values of the replicas for each vitamin and varied between 77.48 and 115.0 percent for different vitamins and processes and were based on values found for the raw control. The highest value, 115.0 percent, was found in the microwave samples assayed for thiamine, and was probably caused by thiaminase found in raw shrimp, which is responsible for destruction of thiamine.

  9. Shrimp thioredoxin is a potent antioxidant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aispuro-Hernandez, Emmanuel; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Del-Toro-Sanchez, Lizette; Robles-Sanchez, Rosario M; Hernandez, Jesus; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2008-07-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a main component of the redox homeostasis machinery in the cell and it is required for ribonucleotide reductase function among others. In invertebrates, the redox balance is compromised during disease and changes in the physiological state and it is one of the components of the innate immune response. In this work, the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) LvTRX cDNA was sequenced, cloned and over-expressed in bacteria to further characterize the function of the recombinant protein. LvTRX was able to reduce insulin disulfides and it was a better antioxidant compared to reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid, by means of the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. Interestingly, LvTRX contains aside of the canonical active site CXXC disulfide motif, one Cys (C73) residue in the interface of a putative dimer previously reported for human TRX. Using qRT-PCR, we found that shrimp LvTRX is mainly expressed in gills and pleopods; the variation of LvTRX mRNA upon hypoxia and re-oxygenation is not statistically significant. LvTRX stands as an important antioxidant that must be considered in future physiological and immune challenges studies.

  10. A new baculovirus of cultured shrimps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈细法; 陈平; 吴定虎; 黄槐; 池信才

    1997-01-01

    By means of ultrathin section, negative staining and sucrose gradient ultra-centrifugation, a new baculovirus has been discovered and purified in lymphoid organs and such tissues as muscles of the shrimps which have been spontaneously attacked by diseases and artificially infected. With a diameter of 96-112 nm, this is the thickest baculovirus of shrimps ever known. In the center is the high-density nucleus. Between the capsid and the envelope is a broad space, which is not found in any of the baculoviruses of the prawns ever reported. On the surface of the puri-fied nucleocapsid, there is a subunit of the spiral arrangement, which is also characteristic of this virus. It has not been observed and found in the epithelial cells of the livers, intestines and cheeks, which is quite different from the fact that prawn baculoviruses infect a certain epithepilial cell of the above-mentioned ones without exception. The viruses only multiplicate inside the core of target cells, which will not form occluded bodie

  11. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of brines from three oil- and gas-producing sandstones in eastern Ohio, with applications to the geochemical tracing of brine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, K.J.; Angelo, Clifford G.; Masters, Robert W.; Sedam, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic characteristics of selected inorganic constituents are reported for brines from the Berea Sandstone of Mississippian age, the Clinton sandstone, Albion Sandstone of Silurian age, and the Rose Run formation of Cambrian and Ordovician age in 24 counties in eastern Ohio. Ionic concentrations of dissolved constituents in brines from these formations generally fall in the following ranges (in millimoles per kilogram of brine): Na, Cl > 1,000; 100 Al, I, HCO3, SiO2 Mg, Na, Cl, K, SO4 and Br, and mean values of density and dissolved solids are significantly different at the 95-percent confidence level in each formation. Only potassium has a unique concentration range in each formation. Selected concentration ratios are identified as potential indicators for geochemical tracing of brines having some history of dilution. The k:Na ratios work best for identifying the source formation of an unidentified brine. Isotopic characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen indicate a meteoric origin for the water matrix of the brines. Sulfur isotopes may have utility for differentiating brines from oxidizing ground water.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCY AGAINST MICROBES FOUND IN CLINICAL SAMPLES AND TOXICITY STUDIES ON SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Jahan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Terminalia arjuna, Tephrosia purpurea and Thuja occidentalis extracts were investigated against the standard drugs, which are presently available in the market as Gentamicin, Cephradine, Amoxicillin clavulanate, Norfloxacin and Itraconazole. Well method was used for antimicrobial activity and the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The antibacterial activity was observed on three gram negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one gram positive bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity was investigated against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The cytotoxic effects (LD50 of the crude extracts were also observed on brine shrimps (Artemia salina using Etoposide as an internal standard. The crude extract of T. arjuna bark exhibited less potent antimicrobial activity as compared to crude extract of T. arjuna heart wood. Bark extract of T. arjuna showed no cytotoxic activity but heart wood extract showed this activity in brine shrimp bioassay technique. The crude extract of T. purpurea showed positive cytotoxic, potent antibacterial but no antifungal activity. The crude extract of T. occidentalis showed good antibacterial low antifungal and low cytotoxic activity. T. arjuna showed most potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity while T. Purpurea and T. oocidentalis posses less potent activities.

  13. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  14. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  15. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  16. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY... turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced five public hearings to be held in...

  17. Shrimp culture in Thailand: environmental impacts and social responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronski, R

    2000-01-01

    Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a major aquaculture commodity among Southeast Asian producers and remains a popular food export world-wide. Food brokers in Japan and the United States purchase huge quantities of these farmed shrimp and return significant foreign exchange earnings to developing nations like Thailand, a major producer and exporter since the early 1990s. However, coastal areas cannot sustain intensive shrimp farm production and local growers often end up in debt. Can the needs of farm communities around the world be suitably met when they join into a corporate-managed and export-oriented food system? What are the sustainable benefits and eventual costs to susceptible localities? The shrimp industry in Thailand reveals the difficult terrain to cross and powerful obstacles to overcome if authentic sustainable development is to be realized.

  18. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  19. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  20. Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen

    2013-11-19

    The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp.

  1. Electrically Conducting, Ca-Rich Brines, Rather Than Water, Expected in the Martian Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, D. M.; Knauth, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    If Mars ever possessed a salty liquid hydrosphere, which later partly evaporated and froze down, then any aqueous fluids left near the surface could have evolved to become dense eutectic brines. Eutectic brines, by definition, are the last to freeze and the first to melt. If CaC12-rich, such brines can remain liquid until temperatures below 220 K, close to the average surface temperature of Mars. In the Martian subsurface, in intimate contact with the Ca-rich basaltic regolith, NaC1-rich early brines should have reacted to become Ca-rich. Fractional crystallization (freezing) and partial melting would also drive brines toward CaC12-rich compositions. In other words, eutectic brine compositions could be present in the shallow subsurface of Mars, for the same reasons that eutectic magma compositions are common on Earth. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, a CaC12-rich eutectic brine, provides a possible terrestrial analog, particularly because it is fed from a basaltic aquifer. Owing to their relative density and fluid nature, brines in the Martian regolith should eventually become sandwiched between ice above and salts beneath. A thawing brine sandwich provides one explanation (among many) for the young gullies recently attributed to seepage of liquid water on Mars. Whether or not brine seepage explains the gullies phenomenon, dense, CaC12-rich brines are to be expected in the deep subsurface of Mars, although they might be somewhat diluted (temperatures permitting) and of variable salt composition. In any case, they should be good conductors of electricity.

  2. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.berti@unibs.it [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, 22060 Novedrate, CO (Italy); Bochicchio, Ivana, E-mail: ibochicchio@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universitá degli Studi di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Fabrizio, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.fabrizio@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bologna, Piazza di Porta S. Donato, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  3. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  4. Bacterial Selection from Shrimp Ponds for Degradation of Organic Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powtongsook, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of ammonia, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide in a shrimp pond is generally caused by incomplete degradation of residual organic matters from overfeeding and from organic wastes released by shrimps. The phenomenon affects shrimp growth and survival rate. The objectives of this investigation were to screen for a bacterial strain able to digest organic residues and to evaluate the changes of residues by bacterial activities under natural conditions. The results from this work showed that the isolated strain, Bacillus cereus S1, had the highest protease activity (57.1 U/ml with the presence of glucoamylase and lipase activities (4.5 and 0.13 U/ml, respectively. Under an aseptic condition in 1-L flasks containing seawater with 0.1% shrimp feed, B. cereus S1 degraded organic matters and significantly reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD (70.8%. An amount of ammonia-nitrogen was increased during the first 5 days of incubation due to the degradation of organic compounds in shrimp feed. However, it declined afterward with nitrate-nitrogen increase and unchanged nitrite nitrogen content. Under natural conditions in 10-L glass jars containing seawater with 0.05% shrimp feed and 0.05% sediment, B. cereus S1 and a commercial bacterial product (Inpicin-G could reduce COD (4.5% and 15.8%, respectively and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD (35.1 and 11.4%, respectively. However, similar changes of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen contents in water samples were observed. The results indicate that this selected bacterium could reduce organic compound accumulations on a laboratory scale. In addition, the strain did not produce any enterotoxins compared to a toxin standard. Therefore, the bacterium, Bacillus cereus S1, could be applied to decrease organic matters accumulated in shrimp pond without any harm to shrimps or consumers.

  5. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  6. The detoxification process, bioaccumulation and damage effect in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to chrysene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chrysene (CHR) on detoxification enzymes, bioaccumulation and effect of CHR on biomolecule damage in different organs of the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed to CHR for 21 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.3, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L. Results showed that CHR bioaccumulation increased rapidly at first then reached a plateau. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were induced and then became stable gradually. Moreover, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L CHR treatments increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in gills and hepatopancreas, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and GSH/GSSG were suppressed after CHR exposure. Additionally, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA damage were induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. Overall, these novel findings of CHR bioaccumulation and resulted toxicity demonstrate that CHR could affect the physical status of L. vannamei. This study will form a solid basis for a realistic extrapolation scientific data for aquaculture water monitoring and food security.

  7. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... 1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae...

  8. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae......Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...

  9. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  10. A study of corrosion inhibition of steel AISI-SAE 1020 in CO2-brine using surfactant Tween 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M. L.; L, E. Vera; Pineda T, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Surfactant inhibitors also called active surface agents are molecules composed of a polar hydrophilic group and a non-polar hydrophobic group, with characteristics of adsorption on metal surfaces, high efficiency of inhibiting, low price, low toxicity and easy production. In this work, the corrosion inhibition was study by CO2 steel AISI-SAE 1020 with the addition of 0.01M Tween 80 surfactant to a brine solution (3% NaCl). Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization testing investigated the phenomenon. The results revealed that the surfactant studied acts as an excellent corrosion inhibitor and inhibition efficiency (E%) increases with increasing fluid velocity. The morphology of the steel surface after exposure to the solution of 3% NaCl with and without surfactant indicates the inhibition phenomenon is due to the adsorption of the surfactant molecules, which insulate the surface of the corrosive medium and reduces the attack surficial.

  11. Precipitation of halite from supersaline brine from Tønder formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arturi, Kasia; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    This project deals various treatments for geothermal brine, which is a highly salty solution containing more that 50 TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). This project focuses on the brine from Tønder formation (T=73°C), which has an extraordinarily high salt content NaCl ([C] = 300-310 g/l). According...

  12. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle;

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into <10 kDa fractions using dialysis and further into 94 fractions...

  13. Laboratory monitoring of CO2 migration within brine-saturated reservoir rock though complex electrical impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirichek, O.; Ghose, R.; Heller, H.K.J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the ability of complex electrical measurements to monitor the CO2 front propagation within brine-saturated reservoir rock. A laboratory facility has been developed to perform CO2-brine substitution experiments under reservoir conditions. In the present study, CO2 is injected into a br

  14. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing: Alternate ammonia removal, Advanced oxidation, Brine purification technologies. KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  16. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  17. Determination of storage conditions for shrimp extracts: analysis of specific IgE-allergen profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piboonpocanun, Surapon; Boonchoo, Siribangon; Pariyaprasert, Wipada; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2010-03-01

    The consumption of shrimp is a common cause of food hypersensitivity reactions. Shrimp allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) as well as by food challenges. Due to the lack of a wide variety of commercial shrimp extracts for SPTs, we selected various shrimp species for the preparation of local shrimp extracts. However, optimal storage conditions for the shrimp extracts which also maintains allergenic potency has not yet been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the potency of the shrimp extracts under different storage conditions and durations. Specific IgE-allergen profiles of eight shrimp-allergic patients were investigated by using sera incubated with extracts prepared from lyophilized raw or boiled shrimp, which were stored at 4 degress C or -20 degress C for up to 4 weeks. When stored at -20 degress C, most allergens were preserved after 4 weeks. However, storage at 4 degress C results in few allergens remaining after 2 weeks. Boiled-shrimp extracts stored at 4 degree C and -20 degress C contained higher amounts of IgE-allergen complexes than raw-shrimp extracts. Moreover, in both raw and boiled shrimp extracts, the IgE bound 36-40 kDa allergens constituted the major proteins since they were observed in all IgE-allergen profiles. In conclusion, we recommend that shrimp extracts are stored at -20 degress C for 4 weeks to prevent the loss of allergens.

  18. BELL PEPPER CULTIVATION WITH BRINE FROM BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE MOURA ARRUDA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and pollutant water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing crops since it is carefully monitored. In order to test this hypothesis, bell pepper plants, cv. 'Margarita', were grown in coconut fiber substrate under greenhouse and were irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap water, brine from desalination plant, and its dilution with tap water at 75, 50 and 25%, giving a range of electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (ECs of 2.6, 3.1, 6.6, 10.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 after the dilutions and fertilizers addition. Completely randomized blocks design was used with 5 treatments (salinity levels of the nutrient solutions and six replications. Leaf area, number of marketable fruit, total and marketable yield were reduced with ECs increase. The marketable yield of bell pepper 'Margarita' reduced 6.3% for each unitary increase of ECs above 2.6 dS m-1 (threshold salinity and the results suggest that in hydroponic system, the reduction of marketable yield with increasing ECs is promoted by reduction of the number of fruits per plant instead of a reduction of fruit mean weight.

  19. Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1989-12-01

    This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection of field producing and injection data. Phase 1--Geologic, reservoir

  20. Impact of the brine from a desalination plant on a shallow seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica) meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacia, Esperança; Invers, Olga; Manzanera, Marta; Ballesteros, Enric; Romero, Javier

    2007-05-01

    Although seawater desalination has increased significantly over recent decades, little attention has been paid to the impact of the main by-product (hypersaline water: brine) on ecosystems. In the Mediterranean, potentially the most affected ecosystems are meadows of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica. We studied the effect of brine on a shallow P. oceanica meadow exposed to reverse osmosis brine discharge for more than 6 years. P. oceanica proved to be very sensitive to both eutrophication and high salinities derived from the brine discharge. Affected plants showed high epiphyte load and nitrogen content in the leaves, high frequencies of necrosis marks, low total non-structural carbohydrates and low glutamine synthetase activity, compared to control plants. However, there was no indication of extensive decline of the affected meadow. This is probably due to its very shallow situation, which results in high incident radiation as well as fast dilution and dispersion of the brine plume.

  1. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah AW. Ali, Abdul Jabbar N. Khalifa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  2. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Marwah A.W.; Jabbar N. Khalifa, Abdul [Nahrain University, College of Engineering, Jadiriya, P.O. Box 64040, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  3. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first...... to illustrate the necessity of experimental measurements of the two properties at high pressures. An experimental method for measuring high pressure CO2 solubility in NaCl brine was then developed. With the method, CO2 solubilities in 0, 1, and 5m NaCl brines were measured at 323, 373, and 413K from 5 to 40MPa....... The corresponding density data at the same conditions were also measured. For solubility, two models used in the Eclipse simulator were tested: the correlations of Chang et al. and the Søreide and Whitson equation of state (EoS) model. The latter model was modified to improve its performance for high salinity brine...

  4. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of white brined cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments.

  5. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  6. Tungsten toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Mark L; Sheppard, Paul R; Witten, Brandon L

    2012-04-05

    There is emerging evidence that tungsten has toxic health effects. We summarize the recent tungsten toxicity research in this short review. Tungsten is widely used in many commercial and military applications because it has the second highest melting temperature of any element. Consequently, it is important to elucidate the potential health effects of tungsten.

  7. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  8. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  9. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  10. Economic Data Collection for Gulf of Mexico South Atlantic Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Economic Survey of Federal Gulf and Atlantic Shrimp Permit Holders collects data about operating expenses and costs of owning and maintaining shrimp...

  11. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  12. Permeability to brine of crushed salt rock for waste isolation, considering long-term pressure variation of overlying strata and dissolution processes. Final report; Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten von Steinsalzversatz gegenueber Laugen unter Beruecksichtigung von zeitlich veraenderlichen Ueberlagerungsdruecken und Loesungsvorgaengen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, H. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Conen, O. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Haefner, F.; Bruck, J. v. der [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It cannot be excluded that there will be ingress of brines to underground isolation plants for nuclear and chemical toxic wastes. The transport mechanisms in the waste repository are much determined by the perviousness of the backfilling and the sealing material used after waste emplacement in salt rock mine shafts. The critical quantity is the permeability, both for inflow of brine into the bedded waste areas, and for contaminated brine squeeze-out mechanisms. The project research work was to establish the mass transfer parameters for calculating the transport mechanisms in backfilled and sealed shafts. Using near-reality simulation of conditions, the time-dependent influence of pressure variations of overlying strata, humidity and salt/brine interactions on the permeability was examined and quantified. (orig./CB) [German] In Endlagern fuer nukleare und chemotoxische Abfaelle im Salinar kann der Zutritt von Laugen nicht prinzipiell ausgeschlossen werden. Die Transportvorgaenge innerhalb des Endlagers werden wesentlich von der Durchlaessigkeit der Versatzmaterialien und der Verschluesse bestimmt. Die bestimmende Groesse, sowohl fuer den Laugenzufluss in die Einlagerungsbereiche als auch fuer das Auspressen kontaminierter Lauge aus dem Endlager, ist dabei die Permeabilitaet. Ziel der hier vorgestellten Arbeiten war es, Stofftransportparameter fuer die Berechnung von Ausbreitungsvorgaengen in den verfuellten Bereichen eines salinaren Endlagers bereitzustellen. Unter Simulation realitaetsnaher Bedingungen wurde der Einfluss von zeitabhaengigem Ueberlagerungsdruck (Gebirgsdruck), Feuchte und die Wechselwirkung von Salz/Lauge auf das Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten untersucht und quantifiziert. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates.

  14. Rice versus Shrimp Production in Thailand: Is There Really a Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    MEKHORA, Thamrong; McCann, Laura M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Shrimp farming in Thailand has had disastrous effects on the environment in the past, which has prompted a government ban on shrimp production in inland areas. However, a new low-salinity shrimp farming system has developed that seems to have fewer disease and environmental problems than previous systems but competes with rice production for land and water resources. The present study found that shrimp farming exhibits increasing returns to scale and is much more profitable than rice farming,...

  15. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management.

  16. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  17. Comparison of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazite and zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yusheng; LIU Dunyi; JIAN Ping

    2004-01-01

    Monazite dating is an important technique in geochronological studies. However, monazite U-Pb dating by SHRIMP is much less popular than zircon in geochronological applications. This paper compares the results of SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazites and zircons separated from two granite samples, indicating that monazite SHRIMP U-Pb dating at the Beijing SHRIMP Centre is feasible and provides identical results within error.

  18. Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Chatin, Fabienne; Geiller, Magali; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    1999-10-01

    Many of the deep basins filled by hot brines in the Red Sea have not been investigated since their discovery in the early 1970s. Twenty years later, in September 1992, six of these deeps were revisited. The temperature and salinity of the Suakin, Port Sudan, Chain B, and Nereus deeps ranged from 23.25 to 44.60°C and from 144 to 270‰. These values were approximately the same in 1972, indicating that the budget of heat and salt was quite balanced. We measured strong gradients of properties in the transition zone between brines and overlying seawater. The contribution of salinity to the density gradient was more than one order of magnitude higher than the opposite contribution of temperature across the seawater-brine interface. Therefore the interface was extemely stable, and the transfer of properties across it was considered to be controlled mostly by molecular diffusion. We calculate that the diffusional transport of salt from the brines to seawater cannot affect significantly the salinity of the brines over a 20 year period, which agrees with the observations. The brine pools can persist for centuries with no salt input. Therefore, the persisence of brines does not correspond to a steady balance between diffusional loss and continuous input of hydrothermal solutions. Deeps that experience only episodical hydrothermal brine supplies may persist for a long time with salt inherited from past inputs. The theoretical loss of heat by diffusion from the brine to seawater was higher than the observed decrease in temperature of the brine pool during the 20 year period of observation. We calculated that the heat flux out of the pools into the overlying seawater was compensated by a heat flux into the pools of about 250-600 mW/m 2. This range of values corresponds to bottom heat flow values that have been reported earlier for the axial zone of the Red Sea. In contrast to the other brine pools, the temperature and salinity of the Valdivia Deep brine increased by 4.1°C and

  19. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  20. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...