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Sample records for brillouin theorem

  1. Separated-pair independent particle model and the generalized Brillouin theorem: ab initio calculations on the dissociation of polyatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed to optimize the separated-pair independent particle (SPIP) wave function; it is a special case of the separated-pair theory obtained by using two-term natural expansions of the geminals. The orbitals are optimized by a theory based on the generalized Brillouin theorem and iterative configuration interaction (CI) calculations in the space of the SPIP function and its single excitations. The geminal expansion coefficients are optimized by serial 2 x 2 CI calculations. Formulas are derived for the matrix elements. An algorithm to implement the method is presented, and the work needed to evaluate the molecular integrals is discussed. (auth)

  2. Poncelet's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Flatto, Leopold

    2009-01-01

    Poncelet's theorem is a famous result in algebraic geometry, dating to the early part of the nineteenth century. It concerns closed polygons inscribed in one conic and circumscribed about another. The theorem is of great depth in that it relates to a large and diverse body of mathematics. There are several proofs of the theorem, none of which is elementary. A particularly attractive feature of the theorem, which is easily understood but difficult to prove, is that it serves as a prism through which one can learn and appreciate a lot of beautiful mathematics. This book stresses the modern appro

  3. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W; Thompson, Jonathan V; Traverso, Andrew J; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  4. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  5. Collective stimulated Brillouin backscatter

    CERN Document Server

    Lushnikov, Pavel M

    2007-01-01

    We develop the statistical theory of the stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) instability of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. Instability is collective because it does not depend on the dynamics of isolated speckles of laser intensity, but rather depends on averaged beam intensity. We identify convective and absolute instability regimes. Well above the incoherent threshold the coherent instability growth rate is recovered. The threshold of convective instability is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility (NIF) designs although current NIF bandwidth is not large enough to insure dominance of collective instability and suggests lower instability threshold due to speckle contribution. In contrast, we estimate that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be larg...

  6. Collective stimulated Brillouin scatter

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, Alexander O; Rose, Harvey A

    2011-01-01

    We develop a statistical theory of stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new collective regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. We identify two contributions to BSBS convective instability increment. The first is collective with intensity threshold independent of the laser correlation time and controlled by diffraction. The second is independent of diffraction, it grows with increase of the correlation time and does not have an intensity threshold. The instability threshold is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility (NIF). We also find that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be large enough to allow additional suppression of BSBS.

  7. Perspectives on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    This collection of papers describes research that goes into detail on some of the more important issues in the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering. This perspective describes the earliest years of the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with key developments that have led to this technically and physically rich field of today’s nonlinear optics. Stimulated Brillouin has a profound effect in optical fiber communications, initially discovered by its limit on the transmitted power. By controlling SBS in fibers and making use of its phase conjugation properties in both fibers and bulk media, a wide range of applications have been enabled. Today ring Brillouin lasers in fibers, whispering gallery modes and in photonic integrated circuits provide optical delay lines and switches, pulse shapers and components for increasingly complex and important optical systems.

  8. Frege's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Frege's Theorem collects eleven essays by Richard G Heck, Jr, one of the world's leading authorities on Frege's philosophy. The Theorem is the central contribution of Gottlob Frege's formal work on arithmetic. It tells us that the axioms of arithmetic can be derived, purely logically, from a single principle: the number of these things is the same as the number of those things just in case these can be matched up one-to-one with those. But that principle seems so utterlyfundamental to thought about number that it might almost count as a definition of number. If so, Frege's Theorem shows that a

  9. SELECTION OF BRILLOUIN SHIFT DISCRIMINATOR FOR BRILLOUIN LIDAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 刘智深

    2002-01-01

    For the measurement of vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea using laser excited Brillouin scattering, a high-resolution measurement of Brillouin frequency shift is required. In this work, a molecular absorption cell was selec ted as the frequency shift discriminator and several kinds of absorption gases were tri ed. It was found that the strong line (#1095) of 127I2 at 18783.3297 cm-1 and two absorption lines of 129I2 located at the two sides of the #1095 line of 127 I2 could be used as frequency shift discriminator to detect the changes of the Brillouin frequency s hift. This selection is the best one within the range from 532.0131 nm to 532.5154 nm. But it is not perfect and there is a lot of work to do before its practical application.

  10. SELECTION OF BRILLOUIN SHIFT DISCRIMINATOR FOR BRILLOUIN LIDAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 刘智深

    2002-01-01

    For the measurement of vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea using laser excited Brillouin scattering, a high-resolution measurement of Brillouin frequency shift is required. In this work, a molecular absorption cell was selected as the frequency shift discriminator and several kinds of absorption gases were tried. It was found that the strong line ( # 1095) of 127 I2 at 18783. 3297 cm-1 and two absorption lines of 129 I2 located at the two sides of the # 1095 line of 127 I2 could be used as frequency shift discriminator to detect the changes of the Brillouin frequency shift. This selection is the best one within the range from 532.0131 run to 532.5154 nm. But it is not perfect and there is a lot of work to do before its practical application.

  11. Brillouin precursors in Debye media

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the formation of Brillouin precursors in Debye media. We point out that the precursors are only visible at propagation distances such that the impulse response of the medium is essentially determined by the frequency-dependence of its absorption and is practically Gaussian. By simple convolution, we then obtain explicit analytical expressions of the transmitted waves generated by reference incident waves, distinguishing precursor and main signal by physical arguments. These expressions are in good agreement with the signals obtained in numerical or real experiments performed on water and explain some features of these signals that remained mysterious or unnoticed. In addition, we show quite generally that the shape of the Brillouin precursor appearing alone at large enough propagation distance and the law giving its amplitude as a function of this distance do not depend on the precise form of the incident wave but only on its integral properties. The incidence of a static conductivity o...

  12. Brillouin scattering self-cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, O.; Jarschel, P. F.; Espinel, Y. A. V.; Cordeiro, C. M. B.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Wiederhecker, G. S.; Dainese, P.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction between light and acoustic phonons is strongly modified in sub-wavelength confinement, and has led to the demonstration and control of Brillouin scattering in photonic structures such as nano-scale optical waveguides and cavities. Besides the small optical mode volume, two physical mechanisms come into play simultaneously: a volume effect caused by the strain-induced refractive index perturbation (known as photo-elasticity), and a surface effect caused by the shift of the optical boundaries due to mechanical vibrations. As a result, proper material and structure engineering allows one to control each contribution individually. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the perfect cancellation of Brillouin scattering arising from Rayleigh acoustic waves by engineering a silica nanowire with exactly opposing photo-elastic and moving-boundary effects. This demonstration provides clear experimental evidence that the interplay between the two mechanisms is a promising tool to precisely control the photon-phonon interaction, enhancing or suppressing it.

  13. Brillouin Scattering Self-Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Florez, Omar; Espinel, Yovanny A V; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; Alegre, Thiago P Mayer; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Dainese, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between light and acoustic phonons is strongly modified in sub-wavelength confinement, and has led to the demonstration and control of Brillouin scattering in photonic structures such as nano-scale optical waveguides and cavities. Besides the small optical mode volume, two physical mechanisms come into play simultaneously: a volume effect caused by the strain induced refractive index perturbation (known as photo-elasticity), and a surface effect caused by the shift of the optical boundaries due to mechanical vibrations. As a result proper material and structure engineering allows one to control each contribution individually. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the perfect cancellation of Brillouin scattering by engineering a silica nanowire with exactly opposing photo-elastic and moving-boundary effects. This demonstration provides clear experimental evidence that the interplay between the two mechanisms is a promising tool to precisely control the photon-phonon interaction, enhancin...

  14. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov-Maxwell system.A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma.It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light,as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction.The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period.The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade,which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures.For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation,higher-harmonic generation and wave-wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter.In addition,stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light.

  15. Zonas de Brillouin del grafito

    OpenAIRE

    A. Velázquez-Arriaga; P. Rosendo-Francisco; J. López-Lemus

    2009-01-01

    La celda unitaria de un cristal de grafito se analiza usando el principio básico de oscilador armónico. Para este propósito, consideramos a los átomos que conforman la celda unitaria hexagonal unidos por pequeños resortes. Se establece la ecuación de movimiento de dicha celda para obtener la frecuencia normal de vibración del sistema (w) en términos del vector de onda (k) y la distancia interatómica. Con estos datos se generan las zonas de Brillouin y se determinan los puntos silla en los con...

  16. Extensions of the Feynman-Hellman theorem and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. Brajamani; Singh, C. A.

    1989-10-01

    Epstein's [Am. J. Phys. 22, 613 (1954)] off-diagonal and higher-order extensions of the Feynman-Hellmann theorem, obtained by using the basic technique of parameter differentiation under the integral sign, are further pursued. Epstein's rederivation of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation expansion is also extended to include the degenerate case. The same approach is also used to obtain the Lennard-Jones-Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory. The quantum virial theorem and its off-diagonal generalization is deduced and its application is illustrated by taking the example of the linear harmonic oscillator. The semiclassical expression for the kinetic energy is obtained directly from the quantization condition.

  17. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J. A.; Wolff, C.; Martijn de Sterke, C.; Lapine, M.; Kuhlmey, B. T.; Poulton, C. G.

    2016-10-01

    We compute the SBS gain for a metamaterial comprising a cubic lattice of dielectric spheres suspended in a background dielectric material. Theoretical methods are presented to calculate the optical, acoustic, and opto-acoustic parameters that describe the SBS properties of the material at long wavelengths. Using the electromagnetic and strain energy densities we accurately characterise the optical and acoustic properties of the metamaterial. From a combination of energy density methods and perturbation theory, we recover the appropriate terms of the photoelastic tensor for the metamaterial. We demonstrate that electrostriction is not necessarily the dominant mechanism in the enhancement and suppression of the SBS gain coefficient in a metamaterial, and that other parameters, such as the Brillouin linewidth, can dominate instead. Examples are presented that exhibit an order of magnitude enhancement in the SBS gain as well as perfect suppression.

  18. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Wolff, C; Lapine, M; Poulton, C G

    2016-01-01

    We compute the SBS gain for a metamaterial comprising a cubic lattice of dielectric spheres suspended in a background dielectric material. Theoretical methods are presented to calculate the optical, acoustic, and opto-acoustic parameters that describe the SBS properties of the material at long wavelengths. Using the electromagnetic and strain energy densities we accurately characterise the optical and acoustic properties of the metamaterial. From a combination of energy density methods and perturbation theory, we recover the appropriate terms of the photoelastic tensor for the metamaterial. We demonstrate that electrostriction is not necessarily the dominant mechanism in the enhancement and suppression of the SBS gain coefficient in a metamaterial, and that other parameters, such as the Brillouin linewidth, can dominate instead. Examples are presented that exhibit an order of magnitude enhancement in the SBS gain as well as perfect suppression.

  19. Brillouin Cooling in a Linear Waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yin-Chung; Bahl, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin scattering is rarely considered as a mechanism that can cause cooling of a material due to the thermodynamic dominance of Stokes scattering in most practical systems. However, it has been shown in experiments on resonators that net phonon annihilation through anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering can be enabled by means of a suitable set of optical and acoustic states. The cooling of traveling phonons in a linear waveguide, on the other hand, could lead to the exciting future prospect of manipulating unidirectional heat fluxes and even the nonreciprocal transport of quantum information via phonons. In this work, we present the first analysis of the conditions under which Brillouin cooling may be achieved in a linear waveguide. We analyze the three-wave mixing interaction between the optical and acoustic modes that participate in forward Brillouin scattering, and reveal the key regimes of operation for the process. Our calculations indicate that measurable cooling may occur in state-of-the-art systems whe...

  20. Guided-wave Brillouin scattering in air

    CERN Document Server

    Renninger, William H; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Here we identify a new form of optomechanical coupling in gas-filled hollow-core fibers. Stimulated forward Brillouin scattering is observed in air in the core of a photonic bandgap fiber. A single resonance is observed at 35 MHz, which corresponds to the first excited axial-radial acoustic mode in the air-filled core. The linewidth and coupling strengths are determined by the acoustic loss and electrostrictive coupling in air, respectively. A simple analytical model, refined by numerical simulations, is developed that accurately predicts the Brillouin coupling strength and frequency from the gas and fiber parameters. Since this form of Brillouin coupling depends strongly on both the acoustic and dispersive optical properties of the gas within the fiber, this new type of optomechanical interaction is highly tailorable. These results allow for forward Brillouin spectroscopy in dilute gases, could be useful for sensing and will present a power and noise limitation for certain applications.

  1. Vorticity, Stokes' Theorem and the Gauss's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Vorticity is a property of the flow of any fluid and moving fluids acquire properties that allow an engineer to describe that particular flow in greater detail. It is important to recognize that mere motion alone does not guarantee that the air or any fluid has vorticity. Vorticity is one of four important quantities that define the kinematic properties of any fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. However, the divergence theorem is a mathematical statement of the physical fact that, in the absence of the creation or destruction of matter, the density within a region of space can change only by having it flow into, or away from the region through its boundary. This is also known as Gauss's Theorem. It should also be noted that there are many useful extensions of Gauss's Theorem, including the extension to include surfaces of discontinuity in V. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. Integral (Surface) [(DEL X V)] . dS = Integral (Contour) [V . dx] In this paper, the author outlines and stresses the importance of studying and teaching these mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. References Arfken, G. "Gauss's Theorem." 1.11 in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 57-61, 1985. Morse, P. M. and Feshbach, H. "Gauss's Theorem." In Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 37-38, 1953. Eric W. Weisstein. "Divergence Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DivergenceTheorem.html

  2. Lagrange Theorem for polygroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza sedighi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available So far?, ?isomorphism theorems in hyperstructure were proved for different structures of polygroups?, ?hyperrings and etc?. ?In this paper?, ?the polygroups properties is studied with the introduction of a suitable equivalence relation?. ?We show that the above relation is strongly regular?. ?Our main purpose in the paper is investigating Lagrang theorem and other expressing of isomorphism theorems for polygroups?.

  3. Exploiting the locality of periodic subsystem density-functional theory: efficient sampling of the Brillouin zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-12-01

    In order to approximately satisfy the Bloch theorem, simulations of complex materials involving periodic systems are made {{n}\\text{k}} times more complex by the need to sample the first Brillouin zone at {{n}\\text{k}} points. By combining ideas from Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) and orbital-free DFT, for which no sampling is needed due to the absence of waves, subsystem DFT offers an interesting middle ground capable of sizable theoretical speedups against Kohn-Sham DFT. By splitting the supersystem into interacting subsystems, and mapping their quantum problem onto separate auxiliary Kohn-Sham systems, subsystem DFT allows an optimal topical sampling of the Brillouin zone. We elucidate this concept with two proof of principle simulations: a water bilayer on Pt[1 1 1]; and a complex system relevant to catalysis—a thiophene molecule physisorbed on a molybdenum sulfide monolayer deposited on top of an α-alumina support. For the latter system, a speedup of 300% is achieved against the subsystem DTF reference by using an optimized Brillouin zone sampling (600% against KS-DFT).

  4. The asymmetric sandwich theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the asymmetric sandwich theorem, a generalization of the Hahn-Banach theorem. As applications, we derive various results on the existence of linear functionals that include bivariate, trivariate and quadrivariate generalizations of the Fenchel duality theorem. Most of the results are about affine functions defined on convex subsets of vector spaces, rather than linear functions defined on vector spaces. We consider both results that use a simple boundedness hypothesis (as in Rockafellar's version of the Fenchel duality theorem) and also results that use Baire's theorem (as in the Robinson-Attouch-Brezis version of the Fenchel duality theorem). This paper also contains some new results about metrizable topological vector spaces that are not necessarily locally convex.

  5. High quality tunable Brillouin optoelectronic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mahmoud H.; Hassan, Kamel M. M.; Abouelatta, Mohamed; Afifi, Abdelrahman E.

    2016-09-01

    An optical scheme to improve the quality of an RF signal is proposed. The 6 dB linewidth is reduced to sub hertz and the low frequency noise below 1 KHz is reduced about 10 dB. The scheme utilizes a Brillouin-semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) ring laser fitted with an RF intensity modulator and an APD detector. The experimental results show cavity modes with FSR of 30.57 KHz due to Brillouin fiber length of 6.6 km and 6 dB bandwidth of 780 mHz typical of Brillouin lasers. The gain of the SOA balances out most of the losses in the ring mainly that due to the RF modulator. The modulated optical signal beats at the APD. The optical loop acts as a cavity filter to the RF signal. A jitter in the cavity resonances due to temperature variations is completely eliminated from the output beat signal. There is a 10 dB increase in the phase noise at the FSR frequency and its harmonics. The setup is tested with signals generated by different sources and to frequencies up to 10 GHz, the limit of the APD. Sources with RF linewidth less than the optical FSR produces one output mode with sub-hertz line width. For larger line width signals more than one RF frequency is produced, separated by the FSR, each showing the Brillouin linewidth.

  6. On a theorem of Arvanitakis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Arvanitakis established recently a theorem which is a common generalization of Michael's convex selection theorem and Dugundji's extension theorem. In this note we provide a short proof of a more general version of Arvanitakis' result.

  7. Neutron Brillouin scattering in dense fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkerk, P. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); FINGO Collaboration

    1997-04-01

    Thermal neutron scattering is a typical microscopic probe for investigating dynamics and structure in condensed matter. In contrast, light (Brillouin) scattering with its three orders of magnitude larger wavelength is a typical macroscopic probe. In a series of experiments using the improved small-angle facility of IN5 a significant step forward is made towards reducing the gap between the two. For the first time the transition from the conventional single line in the neutron spectrum scattered by a fluid to the Rayleigh-Brillouin triplet known from light-scattering experiments is clearly and unambiguously observed in the raw neutron data without applying any corrections. Results of these experiments are presented. (author).

  8. Brillouin Optomechanics in Coupled Silicon Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Espinel, Yovanny A V; Luiz, Gustavo O; Alegre, Thiago P M; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous control of optical and mechanical waves has enabled a range of fundamental and technological breakthroughs, from the demonstration of ultra-stable frequency reference devices to the exploration of the quantum-classical boundaries in laser-cooling experiments. More recently, such an opto-mechanical interaction has been observed in integrated nano-waveguides and microcavities in the Brillouin regime, where short-wavelength mechanical modes scatters light at several GHz. Here we engineer coupled optical microcavities spectra to enable a low threshold excitation of mechanical travelling-wave modes through backward stimulated Brillouin scattering. Exploring the backward scattering we propose microcavity designs supporting super high frequency modes ($\\sim25$ GHz) an large optomechanical coupling rates ($g_0/2\\pi \\sim 50$ kHz).

  9. Electron Gyro-Harmonic Effects on Ionospheric Stimulated Brillouin Scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-21

    identification of metallic ions of meteoric origin in the E layer, because the composi- tion of the lower ionosphere can be altered by meteorite ablation ...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and resonant phenomena are well known in the context of laser fusion, fiber optics...stimulated Brillouin scatter Report Title Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and resonant phenomena are well known in the context of laser fusion

  10. To string together six theorems of physics by Pythagoras theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, H Y

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we point out that there are at lest six theorems in physics sharing common virtue of Pythagoras theorem, so that it is possible to string these theorems together with the Pythagoras theorem for physics teaching, the six theorems are Newton's three laws of motion, universal gravitational force, Coulomb's law, and the formula of relativistic dynamics. Knowing the internal relationships between them, which have never been clearly revealed by other author, will benefit the logic of physics teaching.

  11. On the Equivalence of Weyl Theorem and Generalized Weyl Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. BERKANI

    2007-01-01

    We know that an operator T acting on a Banach space satisfying generalized Weyl's theorem also satisfies Weyl's theo rem. Conversely we show that if all isolated eigenvalues of T are poles of its resolvent and if T satisfies Weyl's theorem, then it also satisfies generalized Weyl's theorem. We give also a similar result for the equivalence of a-Weyl's theorem and generalized a-Weyl's theorem. Using these results, we study the case of polaroid operators, and in particular paranormal operators.

  12. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  13. Coincidence Point Theorems, Intersection Theorems and Saddle Point Theorems on FC-spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO YONG-JIE; YIN ZHE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first give the definitions of finitely continuous topological space and FC-subspace generated by some set, and obtain coincidence point theorem, whole intersection theorems and Ky Fan type matching theorems, and finally discuss the existence of saddle point as an application of coincidence point theorem.

  14. Acoustic profilometry within polymers as performed by Brillouin microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctuary, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL) at the Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg, Departement des Sciences, Laboratoire 1.19, 162a avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Bactavatchalou, Ravi [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Mueller, Ulrich [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Possart, W [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Pharmazie und Werkstoffwissenschaften 8.15, Gebaeude 22, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Alnot, P [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), UMR 7040-C.N.R.S, Universite de Nancy I, Bd des Aiguillettes, B.P. 239 F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Krueger, J K [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2003-11-07

    Using high performance Brillouin spectroscopy we present a new technique, which enables us to perform acoustic microscopy with a spatial resolution of about 1 {mu}m. This technique, called Brillouin microscopy, is tested on several bulk- and film-like polymer samples.

  15. Short-Pulse Amplification by Strongly-Coupled Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Matthew R; Mikhailova, Julia M; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2016-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of strongly-coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering as a mechanism for the plasma-based amplification of sub-picosecond pulses. In particular, we use fluid theory and particle-in-cell simulations to compare the relative advantages of Raman and Brillouin amplification over a broad range of achievable parameters.

  16. Failure of relativistic codes in the non-relativistic limit: the role of Brillouin configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Indelicato, P J; Desclaux, J P

    2004-01-01

    In the present letter we solve a long standing problem with relativistic calculations done with the widely used Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock Method. We show, using Relativistic Many-Body Perturbation Theory (RMBPT), how even for relatively high-$Z$, relaxation or correlation causes the non-relativistic limit of states of different total angular momentum but identical orbital angular momentum to have different energies. We identify the role of single excitations obeying to Brillouin's theorem in this problem. We show that with large scale calculations in which this problem is properly treated, we can reproduce very accurately recent high-precision measurements in F-like Ar, and turn then into precise test of QED

  17. Tailorable Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Heedeuk; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A; Olsson, Roy H; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    While nanoscale modal confinement radically enhances a variety of nonlinear light-matter interactions within silicon waveguides, traveling-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering nonlinearities have never been observed in silicon nanophotonics. Through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides, we demonstrate tailorable traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanophotonic silicon waveguides for the first time, yielding 3000 times stronger forward SBS responses than any previous waveguide system. Simulations reveal that a coherent combination of electrostrictive forces and radiation pressures are responsible for greatly enhanced photon-phonon coupling at nano-scales. Highly tailorable Brillouin nonlinearities are produced by engineering the structure of a membrane-suspended waveguide to yield Brillouin resonances from 1 to 18 GHz through high quality-factor (>1000) phonon modes. Such wideband and tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon photonics could enable practical real...

  18. Quantification of plaque stiffness by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Pedrigi, Ryan; Krams, Rob; Török, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous Brillouin scattering is an inelastic scattering process arising from inherent thermal density fluctuations, or acoustic phonons, propagating in a medium. Over the last few years, Brillouin spectroscopy has shown great potential to become a reliable non-invasive diagnostic tool due to its unique capability of retrieving viscoelastic properties of materials such as strain and stiffness. The detection of the weak scattered light, in addition to the resolution of the Brillouin peaks (typically shifted by few GHz from the central peak) represent one of the greatest challenges in Brillouin. The recent development of high sensitivity CCD cameras has brought Brillouin spectroscopy from a point sampling technique to a new imaging modality. Furthermore, the application of Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) etalons has dramatically reduced insertion loss simultaneously allowing fast (myocardial infarction yet it is not currently possible to credibly assess its stiffness due to lack of suitable methods.

  19. Dynamics of ultra-long Brillouin fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiadi, Andrei A.; Lobach, Ivan; Mégret, Patrice

    2013-02-01

    We report on experimental studies of random lasing realized in optical fibers with the use of Brillouin amplification and Rayleigh backscattering employed as a distributed feedback instead of a cavity mirror. In our experiment 25-km-long high quality standard telecom single-mode fiber was employed for Rayleigh reflection uniformly distributed over all fiber length. We have observed a clear competition between a classical Brillouin scattering and Brillouin lasing. Presence of extended fluctuation-free fragments in the recorded oscilloscope traces highlights Stokes power statistics typical for laser radiation rather than for Brillouin process. The results of the experiments are in a perfect agreement with the model of Brillouin - Rayleigh cooperative process in long fibers.

  20. ON RANGE DECOMPOSITION THEOREMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴利生

    1990-01-01

    We prove the following theorems.Theorem 1.Suppose f:X→Y is a closed map.X is a ωγ and β space,then Y=Y0∪(∪n=1∞Yn),where f-1(y) is countably compact for each y ∈Y0 and Yn is closed discrete in Y for each n≥1,Theorem 2-3:Suppose f:X→Y is a closed map,X is stratifable space,then Y=Y0 ∪(∪n=1∞Yn),where f-1(y) is compact for each y∈Y0 and Yn is closed discrete in Y for each n≥1.

  1. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  2. Goldstone theorem revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Kartavtsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    According to the Goldstone theorem a scalar theory with a spontaneously broken global symmetry contains strictly massless states. In this letter we identify a loophole in the current-algebra proof of the theorem. Therefore, the question whether in models with Mexican hat potential the tangential excitations are strictly massless or are just almost massless as compared to the radial ones remains open. We also argue that mass of the tangential excitations approaches zero even if the symmetry is not spontaneously broken but a combination of the field components invariant under the symmetry transformations acquires a large vacuum expectation value.

  3. Spatial fluctuation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Espigares, Carlos; Redig, Frank; Giardinà, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    For non-equilibrium systems of interacting particles and for interacting diffusions in d-dimensions, a novel fluctuation relation is derived. The theorem establishes a quantitative relation between the probabilities of observing two current values in different spatial directions. The result is a consequence of spatial symmetries of the microscopic dynamics, generalizing in this way the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem related to the time-reversal symmetry. This new perspective opens up the possibility of direct experimental measurements of fluctuation relations of vectorial observables.

  4. Virial Theorem and Scale Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the virial theorem, which is useful in classical, quantum, and statistical mechanics. Two types of derivations of this theorem are presented and the relationship between the two is explored. (BT)

  5. $Local^{3}$ Index Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Teleman, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    $Local^{3}$ Index Theorem means $Local(Local(Local \\;Index \\; Theorem)))$. $Local \\; Index \\; Theorem$ is the Connes-Moscovici local index theorem \\cite{Connes-Moscovici1}, \\cite{Connes-Moscovici2}. The second "Local" refers to the cyclic homology localised to a certain separable subring of the ground algebra, while the last one refers to Alexander-Spanier type cyclic homology. The Connes-Moscovici work is based on the operator $R(A) = \\mathbf{P} - \\mathbf{e}$ associated to the elliptic pseudo-differential operator $A$ on the smooth manifold $M$, where $\\mathbf{P}$, $\\mathbf{e}$ are idempotents, see \\cite{Connes-Moscovici1}, Pg. 353. The operator $R(A)$ has two main merits: it is a smoothing operator and its distributional kernel is situated in an arbitrarily small neighbourhood of the diagonal in $M \\times M$. The operator $R(A)$ has also two setbacks: -i) it is not an idempotent (and therefore it does not have a genuine Connes-Chern character); -ii) even if it were an idempotent, its Connes-Chern character ...

  6. Multivariate irregular sampling theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we prove a Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type inequality for multivariate entire functions of exponential type with non-equidistant spaced sampling points. And from this result,we establish a multivariate irregular Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon type sampling theorem.

  7. Definable davies' theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Weiss, W.

    2009-01-01

    We prove the following descriptive set-theoretic analogue of a theorem of R. 0. Davies: Every σ function f:ℝ × ℝ → ℝ can be represented as a sum of rectangular Σ functions if and only if all reals are constructible. © Instytut Matematyczny PAN, 2009....

  8. Certified Kruskal's Tree Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sternagel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first formalization of Kurskal's tree theorem in aproof assistant. The Isabelle/HOL development is along the lines of Nash-Williams' original minimal bad sequence argument for proving the treetheorem. Along the way, proofs of Dickson's lemma and Higman's lemma, as well as some technical details of the formalization are discussed.

  9. Rediscovering Schreinemakers' Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathurst, Bruce

    1983-01-01

    Schreinemakers' theorem (arrangement of curves around an invariant point), derived from La Chatelier's principle, can be rediscovered by students asked to use the principle when solving a natural problem such as "How does diluting a mineral/fluid alter shape of a pressure/temperature diagram?" Background information and instructional…

  10. Multivariate irregular sampling theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN GuangGui; FANG GenSun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund type inequality for multivariate entire functions of exponential type with non-equidistant spaced sampling points. And from this result, we establish a multivariate irregular Whittaker-Kotelnikov-Shannon type sampling theorem.

  11. Tutte's spring theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    We present a short proof of the theorem of Tutte that every planar 3-connected graph has a drawing in the plane such that every vertex which is not on the outer cycle is the barycenter of its neighbors. Moreover, this holds for any prescribed representation of the outer cycle. (C) 2004 Wiley Peri...

  12. Gödel's Theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, D. van

    2008-01-01

    The following pages make form a new chapter for the book Logic and Structure. This chapter deals with the incompleteness theorem, and contains enough basic material for the treatment of the required notions of computability, representability and the like. This chapter will appear in the next edition

  13. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  14. Automated Discovery of Inductive Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    McCasland, Roy; Bundy, Alan; Serge, Autexier

    2007-01-01

    Inductive mathematical theorems have, as a rule, historically been quite difficult to prove – both for mathematics students and for auto- mated theorem provers. That said, there has been considerable progress over the past several years, within the automated reasoning community, towards proving some of these theorems. However, little work has been done thus far towards automatically discovering them. In this paper we present our methods of discovering (as well as proving) inductive theorems, ...

  15. The Second Noether Theorem on Time Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Natália Martins

    2013-01-01

    We extend the second Noether theorem to variational problems on time scales. As corollaries we obtain the classical second Noether theorem, the second Noether theorem for the $h$ -calculus and the second Noether theorem for the $q$ -calculus.

  16. Pick's Theorem: What a Lemon!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    Pick's theorem can be used in various ways just like a lemon. This theorem generally finds its way in the syllabus approximately at the middle school level and in fact at times students have even calculated the area of a state considering its outline with the help of the above theorem.

  17. An Extension of Sobolev's Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sobolev's Theorem is the most fundamental theorem in the theory of Invariant Cubature Formulas (ICFs). In this paper, a quantitative structure is established for the classical ICFs. Enlightened by this structure, the author generalizes the concept of ICFs and extends the Sobolev's Theorem to the case of generalized ICFs. Several illustrative examples are given.

  18. Generalized no-broadcasting theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Howard; Barrett, Jonathan; Leifer, Matthew; Wilce, Alexander

    2007-12-14

    We prove a generalized version of the no-broadcasting theorem, applicable to essentially any nonclassical finite-dimensional probabilistic model satisfying a no-signaling criterion, including ones with "superquantum" correlations. A strengthened version of the quantum no-broadcasting theorem follows, and its proof is significantly simpler than existing proofs of the no-broadcasting theorem.

  19. Virial theorem and hypervirial theorem in a spherical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yan; Chen Jingling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang Fulin, E-mail: flzhang@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: chenjl@nankai.edu.cn [Physics Department, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-09-09

    The virial theorem in the one- and two-dimensional spherical geometry are presented in both classical and quantum mechanics. Choosing a special class of hypervirial operators, the quantum hypervirial relations in the spherical spaces are obtained. With the aid of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem, these relations can be used to formulate a perturbation theorem without wavefunctions, corresponding to the hypervirial-Hellmann-Feynman theorem perturbation theorem of Euclidean geometry. The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and two-dimensional Coulomb system in the spherical spaces are given as two sample examples to illustrate the perturbation method. (paper)

  20. Narrow linewidth Brillouin laser based on chalcogenide photonic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kabakova, Irina V; Choi, Duk-Yong; Debbarma, Sukhanta; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Stephen J; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of a narrow linewidth, waveguide-based Brillouin laser which is enabled by large Brillouin gain of a chalcogenide chip. The waveguides are equipped with vertical tapers for low loss coupling. Due to optical feedback for the Stokes wave, the lasing threshold is reduced to 360 mW, which is 5 times lower than the calculated single-pass Brillouin threshold for the same waveguide. The slope efficiency of the laser is found to be 30% and the linewidth of 100 kHz is measured using a self-heterodyne method.

  1. Cascaded forward Brillouin scattering to all Stokes orders

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Steel, Michael J; Poulton, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Inelastic scattering processes such as Brillouin scattering can often function in cascaded regimes and this is likely to occur in certain integrated opto-acoustic devices. We develop a Hamiltonian formalism for cascaded Brillouin scattering valid for both quantum and classical regimes. By regarding Brillouin scattering as the interaction of a single acoustic envelope and a single optical envelope that covers all Stokes and anti-Stokes orders, we obtain a compact model that is well suited for numerical implementation, extension to include other optical nonlinearities or short pulses, and application in the quantum-optics domain. We then theoretically analyze intra-mode forward Brillouin scattering (FBS) for arbitrary waveguides with and without optical dispersion. In the absence of optical dispersion, we find an exact analytical solution. With a perturbative approach, we furthermore solve the case of weak optical dispersion. Our work leads to several key results on intra-mode FBS. For negligible dispersion, we...

  2. Simple asymptotic forms for Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    We examine from a physical viewpoint the classical problem of the propagation of a causal optical field in a dense Lorentz-medium when the propagation distance is such that the medium is opaque in a broad spectral region including the frequency of the optical carrier. The transmitted signal is then reduced to the celebrated precursors of Sommerfeld and Brillouin, well separated in time. In these conditions, we obtain explicit analytical expressions of the first (Sommerfeld) precursor, which only depend on the nature and the importance of the initial discontinuity of the incident field, and we show that the second (Brillouin) precursor has a Gaussian or Gaussian-derivative shape, depending whether the time-integral (algebraic area) of the incident field differs or not from zero. We demonstrate that the Brillouin precursor that has been actually observed in a Debye medium at decimetric wavelengths is also Gaussian. We complete these results by establishing a more general expression of the Brillouin precursor in...

  3. Ultralow-threshold cascaded Brillouin microlaser for tunable microwave generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changlei; Che, Kaijun; Cai, Zhiping; Liu, Shuai; Gu, Guoqiang; Chu, Chengxu; Zhang, Pan; Fu, Hongyan; Luo, Zhengqian; Xu, Huiying

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an ultralow-threshold cascaded Brillouin microlaser for tunable microwave generation in a high-Q silica microsphere resonator. The threshold of the Brillouin microlaser is as low as 8 μW, which is close to the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the fifth-order Stokes line with a frequency shift up to 55 GHz is achieved with a coupled pump power of less than 0.6 mW. Benefiting from resonant wavelength shifts driven by thermal dynamics in the microsphere, we further realized tunable microwave signals with tuning ranges of 40 MHz at an 11 GHz band and 20 MHz at a 22 GHz band. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first attempt for tunable microwave source based on the whispering-gallery-mode Brillouin microlaser. Such a tunable microwave source from a cascaded Brillouin microlaser could find significant applications in aerospace, communication engineering, and metrology.

  4. On-chip Inter-modal Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kittlaus, Eric A; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin interactions mediate nonlinear coupling between photons and acoustic phonons through an optomechanical three-wave interaction. Though these nonlinearities were previously very weak in silicon photonic systems, the recent emergence of new optomechanical waveguide structures have transformed Brillouin processes into one of the strongest and most tailorable on-chip nonlinear interactions. New technologies based on Brillouin couplings have formed a basis for amplification, filtering, and nonreciprocal signal processing techniques. In this paper, we demonstrate strong guided-wave Brillouin scattering between light fields guided in distinct spatial modes of a silicon waveguide for the first time. This inter-modal coupling creates dispersive symmetry breaking between Stokes and anti-Stokes processes, permitting single-sideband amplification and wave dynamics that permit near-unity power conversion. Combining these physics with integrated mode-multiplexers enables novel device topologies and elim...

  5. The holographic F theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The F theorem states that, for a unitary three dimensional quantum field theory, the F quantity defined in terms of the partition function on a three sphere is positive, stationary at fixed point and decreases monotonically along a renormalization group flow. We construct holographic renormalization group flows corresponding to relevant deformations of three-dimensional conformal field theories on spheres, working to quadratic order in the source. For these renormalization group flows, the F quantity at the IR fixed point is always less than F at the UV fixed point, but F increases along the RG flow for deformations by operators of dimension $3/2 < \\Delta < 5/2$. Therefore the strongest version of the F theorem is in general violated.

  6. Some Approximation Theorems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Rao

    2003-02-01

    The general theme of this note is illustrated by the following theorem: Theorem 1. Suppose is a compact set in the complex plane and 0 belongs to the boundary . Let $\\mathcal{A}(K)$ denote the space of all functions on such that is holomorphic in a neighborhood of and (0) = 0. Also for any given positive integer , let $\\mathcal{A}(m, K)$ denote the space of all such that is holomorphic in a neighborhood of and $f(0) = f'(0) = \\cdots = f^{(m)}(0) = 0$. Then $\\mathcal{A}(m, K)$ is dense in $\\mathcal{A}(K)$ under the supremum norm on provided that there exists a sector $W = \\{re^{i}; 0 ≤ r ≤ , ≤ ≤ \\}$ such that $W \\cap K = \\{0\\}$. (This is the well-known Poincare's external cone condition).} We present various generalizations of this result in the context of higher dimensions replacing holomorphic with harmonic.

  7. Archimedes' famous-theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Gouin, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Comments on Archimedes' theorem about sphere and cylinder; In his treatise addressed to Dositheus of Pelusium, Archimedes of Syracuse obtained the result of which he was the most proud: a sphere has two-thirds the volume of its circumscribing cylinder. At his request a sculpted sphere and cylinder were placed on his tomb near Syracuse. Usually, it is admitted that to find this formula, Archimedes used a half polygon inscribed in a semicircle; then he performed rotations of these two figures t...

  8. Silhouette-Slice Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    with standard expressions of spherical trigonometry is sinr)0 = cos0 sini//0 (4.37) which is consistent with the results obtained previously with...theorems for discrete transforms. However, sampling questions inlroduce difficult obstacles in the develop- ment of a discrete theory. First, sampling...additional obstacle to discrete represen- tations of the CT. An example of qualitative predication of the shape of silhouettes with the Silhouette-Slice

  9. Sandwich classification theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Stepanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present note arises from the author's talk at the conference ``Ischia Group Theory 2014''. For subgroups FleN of a group G denote by Lat(F,N the set of all subgroups of N , containing F . Let D be a subgroup of G . In this note we study the lattice LL=Lat(D,G and the lattice LL ′ of subgroups of G , normalized by D . We say that LL satisfies sandwich classification theorem if LL splits into a disjoint union of sandwiches Lat(F,N G (F over all subgroups F such that the normal closure of D in F coincides with F . Here N G (F denotes the normalizer of F in G . A similar notion of sandwich classification is introduced for the lattice LL ′ . If D is perfect, i.,e. coincides with its commutator subgroup, then it turns out that sandwich classification theorem for LL and LL ′ are equivalent. We also show how to find basic subroup F of sandwiches for LL ′ and review sandwich classification theorems in algebraic groups over rings.

  10. Broadband Brillouin Scatter from CO2-Laser-Target Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, G. R.; Grek, B.; Johnston, T. W.; Pépin, H.; Church, P.; Lavigne, P.; Martin, F.; Décoste, R.

    1982-05-01

    Light scattered near the incident wavelength from CO2 laser-solid target interactions in oblique incidence shows the spectral signature of Brillouin scattering both in the backward and in the near specular directions. This instability is apparently seeded by broadband scatter from the critical density surface and then amplified in the underdense plasma. 60% of the incident light is scattered, and the Brillouin contribution to total scatter may be large if the source is also large.

  11. Sources of noise in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers

    OpenAIRE

    Urricelqui Polvorinos, Javier; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough study of the different sources of noise affecting Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers (BOTDA), providing a deep insight into the understanding of the fundamental limitations of this kind of sensors. Analytical and experimental results indicate that the noise source ultimately fixing the sensor performance depends basically on the fiber length and the input pump-probe powers. Thus, while the phase-to-intensity noise conversion induced by stimulated Brillouin ...

  12. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550~nm in barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode (WGM) mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from $8.2$ GHz up to $49$ GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF$_2$ resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics.

  13. Transfinite Approximation of Hindman's Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Beiglböck, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Hindman's Theorem states that in any finite coloring of the integers, there is an infinite set all of whose finite sums belong to the same color. This is much stronger than the corresponding finite form, stating that in any finite coloring of the integers there are arbitrarily long finite sets with the same property. We extend the finite form of Hindman's Theorem to a "transfinite" version for each countable ordinal, and show that Hindman's Theorem is equivalent to the appropriate transfinite approximation holding for every countable ordinal. We then give a proof of Hindman's Theorem by directly proving these transfinite approximations.

  14. The Non-Signalling theorem in generalizations of Bell's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, J.; Grössing, G.

    2014-04-01

    Does "epistemic non-signalling" ensure the peaceful coexistence of special relativity and quantum nonlocality? The possibility of an affirmative answer is of great importance to deterministic approaches to quantum mechanics given recent developments towards generalizations of Bell's theorem. By generalizations of Bell's theorem we here mean efforts that seek to demonstrate the impossibility of any deterministic theories to obey the predictions of Bell's theorem, including not only local hidden-variables theories (LHVTs) but, critically, of nonlocal hidden-variables theories (NHVTs) also, such as de Broglie-Bohm theory. Naturally, in light of the well-established experimental findings from quantum physics, whether or not a deterministic approach to quantum mechanics, including an emergent quantum mechanics, is logically possible, depends on compatibility with the predictions of Bell's theorem. With respect to deterministic NHVTs, recent attempts to generalize Bell's theorem have claimed the impossibility of any such approaches to quantum mechanics. The present work offers arguments showing why such efforts towards generalization may fall short of their stated goal. In particular, we challenge the validity of the use of the non-signalling theorem as a conclusive argument in favor of the existence of free randomness, and therefore reject the use of the non-signalling theorem as an argument against the logical possibility of deterministic approaches. We here offer two distinct counter-arguments in support of the possibility of deterministic NHVTs: one argument exposes the circularity of the reasoning which is employed in recent claims, and a second argument is based on the inconclusive metaphysical status of the non-signalling theorem itself. We proceed by presenting an entirely informal treatment of key physical and metaphysical assumptions, and of their interrelationship, in attempts seeking to generalize Bell's theorem on the basis of an ontic, foundational

  15. Abelian theorems for Whittaker transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial and final value Abelian theorems for the Whittaker transform of functions and of distributions are obtained. The Abelian theorems are obtained as the complex variable of the transform approaches 0 or ∞ in absolute value inside a wedge region in the right half plane.

  16. Morley’s Trisector Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Morley’s trisector theorem states that “The points of intersection of the adjacent trisectors of the angles of any triangle are the vertices of an equilateral triangle” [10]. There are many proofs of Morley’s trisector theorem [12, 16, 9, 13, 8, 20, 3, 18]. We follow the proof given by A. Letac in [15].

  17. A Time scales Noether's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Anerot, Baptiste; Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    We prove a time scales version of the Noether's theorem relating group of symmetries and conservation laws. Our result extends the continuous version of the Noether's theorem as well as the discrete one and corrects a previous statement of Bartosiewicz and Torres in \\cite{BT}.

  18. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…

  19. Theorem of Mystery: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Real, Francis

    2008-01-01

    While the author was searching the web, he came across an article by Michael Keyton of IMSA (Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy) called "Theorems of mystery". The phrase is Keyton's own, and he defines such a theorem as "a result that has considerable structure with minimal hypotheses." The simplest of his 10 examples is one that many…

  20. Photonic-phononic orbital angular momentum in Brillouin parametric conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhihan; Mu, Chunyuan; Li, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a fundamental photonic degree of freedom, showed by Allen and co-workers. Its most attractive feature is an inherently infinite dimensionality, which in recent years has obtained several ground-breaking demonstrations for high information-density communication and processing, both in classical and quantum. Here, by seeking the reason for photonic OAM non-conservation in stimulated Brillouin amplification, we report the first demonstration of the evolution law for OAM in Brillouin process. The parameter of OAM can conveniently transfer between the phonons and different polarized photons due to the photonic spin angular momentum conservation. Our results have revealed a parametric conversion mechanism of Brillouin process for Photonic-phononic OAM, demonstrated the role of phononic OAM and the vortex acoustic wave in this process, and suggested this mechanism may find important applications in OAM-based information communication and processing.

  1. Phase-locking in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Büttner, Thomas F S; Steel, M J; Hudson, Darren D; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a complex nonlinear optical process that results in the generation of several optical waves that are frequency shifted by an acoustic resonance frequency. Four-wave mixing (FWM) between these Brillouin shifted optical waves can create an equally spaced optical frequency comb with a stable spectral phase, i.e. a Brillouin frequency comb (BFC). Here, we investigate phase-locking of the spectral components of BFCs, considering FWM interactions arising from the Kerr-nonlinearity as well as from coupling by the acoustic field. Deriving for the first time the coupled-mode equations that include all relevant nonlinear interactions, we examine the contribution of the various nonlinear processes to phase-locking, and show that different regimes can be obtained that depend on the length scale on which the field amplitudes vary.

  2. Phase-locking in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Poulton, Christopher G.; Steel, M. J.; Hudson, Darren D.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-02-01

    Cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering is a complex nonlinear optical process that results in the generation of several optical waves that are frequency shifted by an acoustic resonance frequency. Four-wave mixing (FWM) between these Brillouin shifted optical waves can create an equally spaced optical frequency comb with a stable spectral phase, i.e. a Brillouin frequency comb (BFC). Here, we investigate phase-locking of the spectral components of BFCs, considering FWM interactions arising from the Kerr-nonlinearity as well as from coupling by the acoustic field. Deriving for the first time the coupled-mode equations that include all relevant nonlinear interactions, we examine the contribution of the various nonlinear processes to phase-locking, and show that different regimes can be obtained that depend on the length scale on which the field amplitudes vary.

  3. Temperature sensing based on a Brillouin fiber microwave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. P.; Gan, J. L.; Xu, S. H.; Yang, Z. M.

    2013-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser used for microwave generation. Based on this configuration, temperature sensing has been realized. The dual-frequency Brillouin lasing is generated independently from two pieces of fiber cascaded within one ring resonator. Microwave generation is acquired as the beat signal of the dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser, with the beat frequency being linearly proportional to the temperature difference of the two fiber sections. In the experiment, the temperature coefficient of frequency shift is 1.015 ± 0.001 MHz °C-1. The temperature can be precisely measured by acquiring the frequency of the microwave generator, and this new configuration provides a promising application for temperature sensing.

  4. Some Theorems on Generalized Basic Hypergeometric Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Wadhwa

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper the author has established two theorems on generalized hypergeometric functions. In each theorem a numerator differs from a denominator by a positive integer. These theorems were further used to prove some theorems on the sums of Kampe de Feriet functions. Here, we have established the theorems which are the basic analogues of the theorems proved in the earlier paper.

  5. Combinatorial Reciprocity Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A common theme of enumerative combinatorics is formed by counting functions that are polynomials evaluated at positive integers. In this expository paper, we focus on four families of such counting functions connected to hyperplane arrangements, lattice points in polyhedra, proper colorings of graphs, and $P$-partitions. We will see that in each instance we get interesting information out of a counting function when we evaluate it at a \\emph{negative} integer (and so, a priori the counting function does not make sense at this number). Our goals are to convey some of the charm these "alternative" evaluations of counting functions exhibit, and to weave a unifying thread through various combinatorial reciprocity theorems by looking at them through the lens of geometry, which will include some scenic detours through other combinatorial concepts.

  6. Towards the Carpenter's Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Argerami, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Let M be a II_1 factor, A a masa in M and E the unique conditional expectation on A. Under some technical assumptions on the inclusion of A in M, which hold true for any semiregular masa of a separable factor, we show that for every discrete a in the positive part of the unit ball of A it is possible to find a projection p in M such that E(p)=a$. We also show an example of a diffuse operator x in A such that there exists a projection q in M with E(q)=x. These results show a new family of instances of a conjecture by Kadison, the so-called ``Carpenter's Theorem''.

  7. Brillouin spectroscopy of clotting dynamics in a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-02-01

    Keys to successful treatment of disease include early diagnosis and timely treatment. It is hypothesized that early clotting events may contribute to a pro-thrombotic state that exacerbates atherothrombotic vascular disease. Brillouin spectroscopy involves inelastic coupling of light with phonons and enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this work, we apply Brillouin spectroscopy to a model fibrinogen-thrombin clotting system with the goal of measuring clotting dynamics at the microscale and providing characterization that is not possible with standard rheometric techniques. Here, the clotting dynamics of the model clotting system are measured at various fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations.

  8. High-pressure Brillouin scattering in a simple molecular system

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, H

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in high-pressure in situ Brillouin spectroscopy of a simple molecular system are reviewed by demonstrating experimental and analytical methods for the study of acoustic velocities in any direction, adiabatic elastic constants, and elastic anisotropy. Detailed applications to solid argon (Ar) are presented, at pressures up to 70 GPa in a diamond anvil cell, using recently developed approaches that combine the method of in situ Brillouin spectroscopy, for a single crystal of Ar up to 4 GPa, and the envelope method applied to both longitudinal acoustic and transverse acoustic modes, for recrystallized Ar between 4 and 70 GPa.

  9. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  10. Complex integration and Cauchy's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, GN

    2012-01-01

    This brief monograph by one of the great mathematicians of the early twentieth century offers a single-volume compilation of propositions employed in proofs of Cauchy's theorem. Developing an arithmetical basis that avoids geometrical intuitions, Watson also provides a brief account of the various applications of the theorem to the evaluation of definite integrals.Author G. N. Watson begins by reviewing various propositions of Poincaré's Analysis Situs, upon which proof of the theorem's most general form depends. Subsequent chapters examine the calculus of residues, calculus optimization, the

  11. Limit theorem and uniqueness theorem of backward stochastic differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Long

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a limit theorem for solutions of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). By this limit theorem, this paper proves that, under the standard assumption g(t,y,0)≡0, the generator g of a BSDE can be uniquely determined by the corresponding g-expectation εg; this paper also proves that if a filtration consistent expectation ε can be represented as a g-expectation εg, then the corresponding generator g must be unique.

  12. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  13. Cascaded forward Brillouin scattering to all Stokes orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, C.; Stiller, B.; Eggleton, B. J.; Steel, M. J.; Poulton, C. G.

    2017-02-01

    Inelastic scattering processes such as Brillouin scattering can often function in cascaded regimes and this is likely to occur in certain integrated opto-acoustic devices. We develop a Hamiltonian formalism for cascaded Brillouin scattering valid for both quantum and classical regimes. By regarding Brillouin scattering as the interaction of a single acoustic envelope and a single optical envelope that covers all Stokes and anti-Stokes orders, we obtain a compact model that is well suited for numerical implementation, extension to include other optical nonlinearities or short pulses, and application in the quantum-optics domain. We then theoretically analyze intra-mode forward Brillouin scattering (FBS) for arbitrary waveguides with and without optical dispersion. In the absence of optical dispersion, we find an exact analytical solution. With a perturbative approach, we furthermore solve the case of weak optical dispersion. Our work leads to several key results on intra-mode FBS. For negligible dispersion, we show that cascaded intra-mode FBS results in a pure phase modulation and discuss how this necessitates specific experimental methods for the observation of fiber-based and integrated FBS. Further, we discuss how the descriptions that have been established in these two classes of waveguides connect to each other and to the broader context of cavity opto-mechanics and Raman scattering. Finally, we draw an unexpected striking similarity between FBS and discrete diffraction phenomena in waveguide arrays, which makes FBS an interesting candidate for future research in quantum-optics.

  14. Cardioids and Morley's Trisector Theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brinkhuis (Jan); van de Craats, J.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA self-contained account of Morley's own proof of his celebrated trisector theorem is given. This makes this elegant and almost forgotten fragment of analytic Euclidean geometry more accessible to modern readers

  15. Statistics, Causality and Bell's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Bell's (1964) theorem is popularly supposed to establish the non-locality of quantum physics as a mathematical-physical theory. Building from this, observed violation of Bell's inequality in experiments such as that of Aspect and coworkers (1982) is popularly supposed to provide empirical proof of non-locality in the real world. This paper reviews recent work on Bell's theorem, linking it to issues in causality as understood by statisticians. The paper starts with a new proof of a strong (finite sample) version of Bell's theorem which relies only on elementary arithmetic and (counting) probability. This proof underscores the fact that Bell's theorem tells us that quantum theory is incompatible with the conjunction of three cherished and formerly uncontroversial physical principles, nicknamed here locality, realism, and freedom. The first, locality, is obviously connected to causality: causal influences need time to propagate spatially. Less obviously, the other two principles, realism and freedom, are also fo...

  16. The Second Noether Theorem on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka B. Malinowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the second Noether theorem to variational problems on time scales. As corollaries we obtain the classical second Noether theorem, the second Noether theorem for the h-calculus and the second Noether theorem for the q-calculus.

  17. The second Noether theorem on time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Martins, Natália

    2014-01-01

    We extend the second Noether theorem to variational problems on time scales. Our result provides as corollaries the classical second Noether theorem, the second Noether theorem for the $h$-calculus and the second Noether theorem for the $q$-calculus.

  18. The Kolmogorov-Riesz compactness theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Hanche-Olsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    We show that the Arzela-Ascoli theorem and Kolmogorov compactness theorem both are consequences of a simple lemma on compactness in metric spaces. Their relation to Helly's theorem is discussed. The paper contains a detailed discussion on the historical background of the Kolmogorov compactness theorem.

  19. Local virial and tensor theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leon

    2011-11-17

    We show that for any wave function and potential the local virial theorem can always be satisfied 2K(r) = r·ΔV by choosing a particular expression for the local kinetic energy. In addition, we show that for each choice of local kinetic energy there are an infinite number of quasi-probability distributions which will generate the same expression. We also consider the local tensor virial theorem.

  20. Optical coherent detection Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensor based on orthogonal polarization diversity reception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muping Song; Bin Zhao; Xianmin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    In Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensor, using optical coherent detection to detect Brillouin scattering optical signal is a good method, but there exists the polarization correlated detection problem. A novel detecting scheme is presented and demonstrated experimentally, which adopts orthogonal polarization diversity reception to resolve the polarization correlated detection problem. A laser is used as pump and reference light sources, a microwave electric-optical modulator (EOM) is adopted to produce frequency shift reference light, a polarization controller is used to control the polarization of the reference light which is changed into two orthogonal polarization for two adjacent acquisition periods. The Brillouin scattering light is coherently detected with the reference light, and the Brillouin scattering optical signal is taken out based on Brillouin frequency shift. After electronic processing, better Brillouin distributed sensing signal is obtained. A 25-km Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensor is achieved.

  1. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millette P. A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP from the Uncertainty Theorem of Fourier Transform theory demonstrates that the HUP arises from the dependency of momentum on a wave number that exists at the quantum level. It also establishes that the HUP is purely a relationship between the effective widths of Fourier transform pairs of variables (i.e. conjugate variables. We note that the HUP is not a quantum mechanical measurement principle per se. We introduce the Quantum Mechanical equivalent of the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem of Fourier Transform theory, and show that it is a better principle to describe the measurement limitations of Quantum Mechanics. We show that Brillouin zones in Solid State Physics are a manifestation of the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem at the quantum level. By comparison with other fields where Fourier Transform theory is used, we propose that we need todiscern between measurement limitations and inherent limitations when interpreting the impact of the HUP on the nature of the quantum level. We further propose that while measurement limitations result in our perception of indeterminism at the quantum level, there is no evidence that there are any inherent limitations at the quantum level, based on the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem

  2. Fixed-point-like theorems on subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Cornet

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove a fixed-point-like theorem for multivalued mappings defined on the finite Cartesian product of Grassmannian manifolds and convex sets. Our result generalizes two different kinds of theorems: the fixed-point-like theorem by Hirsch et al. (1990 or Husseini et al. (1990 and the fixed-point theorem by Gale and Mas-Colell (1975 (which generalizes Kakutani's theorem (1941.

  3. Ferromagnetism beyond Lieb's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natanael C.; Mendes-Santos, Tiago; Paiva, Thereza; Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Scalettar, Richard T.

    2016-10-01

    The noninteracting electronic structures of tight-binding models on bipartite lattices with unequal numbers of sites in the two sublattices have a number of unique features, including the presence of spatially localized eigenstates and flat bands. When a uniform on-site Hubbard interaction U is turned on, Lieb proved rigorously that at half-filling (ρ =1 ) the ground state has a nonzero spin. In this paper we consider a "CuO2 lattice" (also known as "Lieb lattice," or as a decorated square lattice), in which "d orbitals" occupy the vertices of the squares, while "p orbitals" lie halfway between two d orbitals; both d and p orbitals can accommodate only up to two electrons. We use exact determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations to quantify the nature of magnetic order through the behavior of correlation functions and sublattice magnetizations in the different orbitals as a function of U and temperature; we have also calculated the projected density of states, and the compressibility. We study both the homogeneous (H) case, Ud=Up , originally considered by Lieb, and the inhomogeneous (IH) case, Ud≠Up . For the H case at half-filling, we found that the global magnetization rises sharply at weak coupling, and then stabilizes towards the strong-coupling (Heisenberg) value, as a result of the interplay between the ferromagnetism of like sites and the antiferromagnetism between unlike sites; we verified that the system is an insulator for all U . For the IH system at half-filling, we argue that the case Up≠Ud falls under Lieb's theorem, provided they are positive definite, so we used DQMC to probe the cases Up=0 ,Ud=U and Up=U ,Ud=0 . We found that the different environments of d and p sites lead to a ferromagnetic insulator when Ud=0 ; by contrast, Up=0 leads to to a metal without any magnetic ordering. In addition, we have also established that at density ρ =1 /3 , strong antiferromagnetic correlations set in, caused by the presence of one fermion on each

  4. Nambu-Goldstone theorem and spin-statistics theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    On December 19-21 in 2001, we organized a yearly workshop at Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in Kyoto on the subject of “Fundamental Problems in Field Theory and their Implications”. Prof. Yoichiro Nambu attended this workshop and explained a necessary modification of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem when applied to non-relativistic systems. At the same workshop, I talked on a path integral formulation of the spin-statistics theorem. The present essay is on this memorable workshop, where I really enjoyed the discussions with Nambu, together with a short comment on the color freedom of quarks.

  5. Extreme temperature sensing using brillouin scattering in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Fellay, Alexandre

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in silica-based optical fibers may be considered from two different and complementary standpoints. For a physicist, this interaction of light and pressure wave in a material, or equivalently in quantum theory terms between photons and phonons, gives some glimpses of the atomic structure of the solid and of its vibration modes. For an applied engineer, the same phenomenon may be put to good use as a sensing mechanism for distributed measurements, thanks to the dependence of the scattered light on external parameters such as the temperature, the pressure or the strain applied to the fiber. As far as temperature measurements are concerned, Brillouin-based distributed sensors have progressively gained wide recognition as efficient systems, even if their rather high cost still restricts the number of their applications. Yet they are generally used in a relatively narrow temperature range around the usual ambient temperature; in this domain, the frequency of the scattered light incre...

  6. Stability of Brillouin Flow in Slow-Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoffrey; Wong, Patrick; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Hoff, Brad

    2016-10-01

    For the first time, we include a slow-wave structure (SWS) to study the stability of Brillouin flow in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. The resonant interaction of the SWS circuit mode and the corresponding smooth-bore diocotron-like mode is found to be the dominant cause for instability, overwhelming the intrinsic negative (positive) mass property of electrons in the inverted (conventional) magnetron geometry. It severely restricts the wavenumber for instability to the narrow range in which the cold tube frequency of the SWS is within a few percent of the corresponding smooth bore diocotron-like mode in the Brillouin flow. This resonant interaction is absent in a smooth bore magnetron. Work supported by ONR N00014-13-1-0566 and N00014-16-1-2353, AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0097, and L-3 Communications Electron Device Division.

  7. A high-efficiency Brillouin fiber ring laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingping Zhang; Shuling Hu; Shuying Chen; Yuanhong Yang; Chunxi Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A high-efficiency Brillouin fiber ring laser is demonstrated using the standard single-mode fiber.The laser exhibits a 3.6-mW threshold.The output power is 22 mW with 40-nlW pump power,and the maximum optical-to-optical efficiency is 55%. The output is single wavelength with a 3-dB linewidth of 5 MHz,and the interval of center frequency between the laser and the pump light is 11 GHz (0.088 nm).It is shown that the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of ring resonator is lower and the energy transfer efficiency is higher than those in fiber.

  8. A Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer for ultraviolet wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Ziyu; van Duijn, Eric-Jan; Ubachs, Wim; 10.1063/1.4721272

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer for the measurement of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering line profiles at ultraviolet wavelengths from gas phase molecules has been developed, employing a high-power frequency-stabilized UV laser with narrow bandwidth (2 MHz). The UV light from a frequency-doubled titanium:sapphire laser is further amplified in an enhancement cavity, delivering a 5 Watt UV-beam propagating through the interaction region inside a scattering cell. The design of the RB-scattering cell allows for measurements at gas pressures in the range 0-4 bar and at stably controlled temperatures from -30 to 70 degree Celsius. A scannable Fabry-Perot analyzer with instrument resolution of 232 MHz probes the Rayleigh-Brillouin profiles. Measurements on N2 and SF6 gases demonstrate the high signal-to-noise ratio achievable with the instrument, at the 1% level at the peak amplitude of the scattering profile.

  9. Brillouin microspectroscopy of nanostructured biomaterials: photonics assisted tailoring mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Jaiswal, Manish K.; Chitrakar, Chandani; Thakur, Teena; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    Developing new biomaterials is essential for the next-generation of materials for bioenergy, bioelectronics, basic biology, medical diagnostics, cancer research, and regenerative medicine. Specifically, recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. The physical properties of nanocomposite biomaterials, including elasticity and viscosity, play key roles in controlling cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. Conventional mechanical tests, including uniaxial compression and tension, dynamic mechanical analysis and shear rheology, require mechanical forces to be directly exerted onto the sample and therefore may not be suitable for in situ measurements or continuous monitoring of mechanical stiffness. In this study, we employ spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy as a viscoelasticity-specific probing technique. We utilized a Brillouin spectrometer to characterize biomaterial's microscopic elasticity and correlated those with conventional mechanical tests (e.g., rheology).

  10. Fluctuation theorems for quantum processes

    CERN Document Server

    Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Zanardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present fluctuation theorems and moment generating function equalities for generalized thermodynamic observables and quantum dynamics described by completely positive trace preserving (CPTP) maps, with and without feedback control. Our results include the quantum Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorem, and clarify the special role played by the thermodynamic work and thermal equilibrium states in previous studies. We show that unitality replaces micro-reversibility as the condition for the physicality of the reverse process in our fluctuation theorems. We present an experimental application of our theory to the problem of extracting the system-bath coupling magnitude, which we do for a system of pairs of coupled superconducting flux qubits undergoing quantum annealing.

  11. Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory in open electromagnetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Muljarov, E A; Zimmermann, R; 10.1209/0295-5075/92/50010

    2012-01-01

    A Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory is developed for open electromagnetic systems which are characterised by discrete resonant states with complex eigenenergies. Since these states are exponentially growing at large distances, a modified normalisation is introduced that allows a simple spectral representation of the Green's function. The perturbed modes are found by solving a linear eigenvalue problem in matrix form. The method is illustrated on exactly solvable one- and three-dimensional examples being, respectively, a dielectric slab and a microsphere.

  12. Reduced Brillouin backscatter in CO2 laser-target interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, A.; Offenberger, A. A.; Karttunen, S. J.

    1981-02-01

    A substantially reduced Brillouin reflection has been found for CO2 laser-irradiated high-density gas targets. In contrast to the high reflectivity (60%) previously observed for underdense hydrogen plasma, total backscatter (stimulated plus specular) is found to peak at 30% for incident intensity 5 times 10 to the twelfth W per square centimeter and decrease thereafter to 18% at 10 to the thirteenth W per square centimeter. The ponderomotive effects are postulated to account for these observations.

  13. Self-pulsation threshold of Raman amplified Brillouin fiber cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J R; Pedersen, M E V; Rottwitt, K

    2009-08-31

    An implicit equation for the oscillation threshold of stimulated Brillouin scattering from Raman amplified signals in fibers with external feedback is derived under the assumption of no depletion. This is compared to numerical investigations of Raman amplification schemes showing good agreement for high reflectivities. For low reflectivities and high attenuation or long fibers, the assumption of no depletion is shown not to be valid. In these cases the effects of the depletion on the self-pulsation is examined.

  14. Self-pulsation threshold of Raman amplified Brillouin fiber cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    An implicit equation for the oscillation threshold of stimulated Brillouin scattering from Raman amplified signals in fibers with external feedback is derived under the assumption of no depletion. This is compared to numerical investigations of Raman amplification schemes showing good agreement...... for high reflectivities. For low reflectivities and high attenuation or long fibers, the assumption of no depletion is shown not to be valid. In these cases the effects of the depletion on the self-pulsation is examined....

  15. All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science. PMID:23549159

  16. Brillouin optical time-domain analysis for geotechnical monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Zeni; L. Picarelli; B. Avolio; A. Coscetta; R. Papa; G. Zeni; C. Di Maio; R. Vassallo; A. Minardo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show some recent experimental applications of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) based sensors for geotechnical monitoring. In particular, how these sensors can be applied to detecting early movements of soil slopes by the direct embedding of suitable fiber cables in the ground is presented. Furthermore, the same technology can be used to realize innovative inclinometers, as well as smart foundation anchors.

  17. Polarization-dependent phase locking in stimulated Brillouin scattering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X; Falk, J

    1993-10-20

    Measurements of the mutual coherence of the output beams from a seeded, two-pump-beam, stimulated Brillouin scattering system are reported. Mutual coherence depends on the relative polarizations of the pump beams and the seed beam. A seed beam can phase-lock the Stokes outputs even if the pump beams are orthogonally polarized. Four-wave mixing is responsible for this phase locking.

  18. Transformation optics simulation method for stimulated Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Zecca, Roberto; Smith, David R; Larouche, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We develop a novel approach to enable the full-wave simulation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and related phenomena in a frequency-domain, finite-element environment. The method uses transformation optics techniques to implement a time-harmonic coordinate transform that reconciles the different frames of reference used by electromagnetic and mechanical finite-element solvers. We show how this strategy can be successfully applied to bulk and guided systems, comparing the results with the predictions of established theory.

  19. What is the Brillouin Zone of an Anisotropic Photonic Crystal?

    CERN Document Server

    Sivarajah, P; Ofori-Okai, B K; Nelson, K A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in relation to a photonic crystal fabricated in an optically anisotropic material is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In experiment, we used femtosecond laser pulses to excite THz polaritons and image their propagation in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. We directly measured the dispersion relation inside PhCs and observed that the lowest bandgap expected to form at the BZ boundary forms inside the BZ in the anisotropic lithium niobate PhC. Our analysis shows that in an anisotropic material the BZ - defined as the Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice - is no longer bounded by Bragg planes and thus does not conform to the original definition of the BZ by Brillouin. We construct an alternative Brillouin zone defined by Bragg planes and show its utility in identifying features of the dispersion bands. We show that for an anisotropic 2D PhC without dispersion, the Bragg plane BZ can be constructed by applying the Wigne...

  20. A Stokes theorem for everyone

    CERN Document Server

    Pasicki, Lech

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the Stokes theorem are known. More advanced of them require complicated mathematical machinery to be formulated which discourages the users. Our theorem is sufficiently simple to suit the handbooks and yet it is pretty general, as we assume the differential form to be continuous on a compact set F(A) and C1 "inside" while F(A) is built of "bricks" and its inner part is a C1 manifold. There is no problem of orientability and the integrals under consideration are convergent. The proof is based on integration by parts and inner approximation.

  1. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.

  2. Improvement of Hartman's linearization theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Jinlin(史金麟)

    2003-01-01

    Hartman's linearization theorem tells us that if matrix A has no zero real part and f(x) isbounded and satisfies Lipchitz condition with small Lipchitzian constant, then there exists a homeomorphismof Rn sending the solutions of nonlinear system x' = Ax + f(x) onto the solutions of linear system x' = Ax.In this paper, some components of the nonlinear item f(x) are permitted to be unbounded and we provethe result of global topological linearization without any special limitation and adding any condition. Thus,Hartman's linearization theorem is improved essentially.

  3. Green's Theorem for Sign Data

    OpenAIRE

    Louis M. Houston

    2012-01-01

    Sign data are the signs of signal added to noise. It is well known that a constant signal can be recovered from sign data. In this paper, we show that an integral over variant signal can be recovered from an integral over sign data based on the variant signal. We refer to this as a generalized sign data average. We use this result to derive a Green's theorem for sign data. Green's theorem is important to various seismic processing methods, including seismic migration. Results in this paper ge...

  4. The truncated Second Main Theorem and uniqueness theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first establish a truncated Second Main Theorem for algebraically nondegenerate holomorphic mappings from the complex plane into a complex projective variety V intersecting hypersurfaces. We then prove some uniqueness results for meromorphic mappings. The result of Demailly about a partial solution to the Fujita’s conjecture is used.

  5. High-extinction VIPA-based Brillouin spectroscopy of turbid biological media

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Antonio; Shao, Peng; Yun, Seok Hyun; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin microscopy has recently emerged as powerful technique to characterize the mechanical properties of biological tissue, cell and biomaterials. However, the potential of Brillouin microscopy is currently limited to transparent samples, because Brillouin spectrometers do not have sufficient spectral extinction to reject the predominant non-Brillouin scattered light of turbid media. To overcome this issue, we developed a spectrometer composed of a two VIPA stages and a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer. The Fabry-Perot etalon acts as an ultra-narrow band-pass filter for Brillouin light with high spectral extinction and low loss. We report background-free Brillouin spectra from Intralipid solutions and up to 100 microns deep within chicken muscle tissue.

  6. Signal Processing for Fibre-optic Distributed Sensing Techniques Employing Brillouin Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shang-hui; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    As fibre optic distributed scattering sensing systems are providing innovative solutions for the monitoring of large structures, Brillouin-based distributed scattering sensing techniques represent a new physical approach for structures health monitoring, which seems extremely promising and is receiving most attentions. This paper comprehensively presents some methods of signal interrogation for fibre optic Brillouin-based distributed scattering sensing technology, especially establishes an accurate Pseudo-Voigt model of Brillouin gain spectrum and gives some results on spectrum analysis and data processing.

  7. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we prove that the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... of the vector field in a tubular shell around the given surface. The intuitive appeal of the divergence theorem is thus applied to bootstrap a corresponding intuition for Stokes' theorem. The two stated classical theorems are (like the fundamental theorem of calculus) nothing but shadows of the general version...... to above. Our proof that Stokes' theorem follows from Gauss' divergence theorem goes via a well known and often used exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together...

  8. Von Laue's theorem and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Changbiao

    2012-01-01

    Von Laue's theorem is strictly proved in detail to clarify confusions in textbook and literature. This theorem is used to analyze the classical electron and the static electric field confined in a finite region of space.

  9. A normal form theorem around symplectic leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.N.; Marcut, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    We prove the Poisson geometric version of the Local Reeb Stability (from foliation theory) and of the Slice Theorem (from equivariant geometry), which is also a generalization of Conn’s linearization theorem.

  10. Angle Defect and Descartes' Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Rene Descartes lived from 1596 to 1650. His contributions to geometry are still remembered today in the terminology "Descartes' plane". This paper discusses a simple theorem of Descartes, which enables students to easily determine the number of vertices of almost every polyhedron. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  11. JACKSON'S THEOREM FOR COMPACT GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Vaezi; S. F. Rzaev

    2002-01-01

    In this article we consider the generalized shift operator defined by(Sh.f)(g) = ∫Gf (tut-1g)dton compact group G and by help of this operator we define "Spherical" modulus of continuity. So we proveStechkin and Jackson type theorems.

  12. LUROTH'S THEOREM IN DIFFERENTIAL FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiaoshan; XU Tao

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a constructive proof of Liroth's theorem in differentialcase. We also give a method to find the inversion maps for general differential rationalparametric equations. As a consequence, we prove that a differential rational curve alwayshas a set of proper parametric equations.

  13. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  14. GENERALIZED RECIPROCAL THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宝连

    2002-01-01

    Generalized reciprocal theorems of non-coupled and coupled systems , which are valid for two deformed bodies with different constitutive relations are established by generalizing the idea of Betti ' s reciprocal theorem. When the constitutive relations of the two deformed bodies are all alike and linear elastic, the generalized reciprocal theorem of non-coupled systems just becomes Betti' s . Meanwhile, the generalized reciprocal theorems are applied to simulate calculations in elasticity.

  15. Ordering in mechanical geometry theorem proving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波¥

    1997-01-01

    Ordering in mechanical geometry theorem proving is studied from geometric viewpoint and some new ideas are proposed. For Thebault’s theorem which is the most difficult theorem that has ever been proved by Wu’ s method, a very simple proof using Wu’s method under a linear order is discovered.

  16. A definability theorem for first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  17. A note on generalized Weyl's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zguitti, H.

    2006-04-01

    We prove that if either T or T* has the single-valued extension property, then the spectral mapping theorem holds for B-Weyl spectrum. If, moreover T is isoloid, and generalized Weyl's theorem holds for T, then generalized Weyl's theorem holds for f(T) for every . An application is given for algebraically paranormal operators.

  18. On Brayton and Moser's missing stability theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Brayton and Moser proved three theorems concerning the stability of nonlinear electrical circuits. The applicability of each theorem depends on three different conditions on the type of admissible nonlinearities in circuit. Roughly speaking, this means that the theorems apply to

  19. The de Finetti theorem for test spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Leifer, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    We prove a de Finetti theorem for exchangeable sequences of states on test spaces, where a test space is a generalization of the sample space of classical probability theory and the Hilbert space of quantum theory. The standard classical and quantum de Finetti theorems are obtained as special cases. By working in a test space framework, the common features that are responsible for the existence of these theorems are elucidated. In addition, the test space framework is general enough to imply a de Finetti theorem for classical processes. We conclude by discussing the ways in which our assumptions may fail, leading to probabilistic models that do not have a de Finetti theorem.

  20. The de Finetti theorem for test spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Jonathan [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Leifer, Matthew [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: j.barrett@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: matt@mattleifer.info

    2009-03-15

    We prove a de Finetti theorem for exchangeable sequences of states on test spaces, where a test space is a generalization of the sample space of classical probability theory and the Hilbert space of quantum theory. The standard classical and quantum de Finetti theorems are obtained as special cases. By working in a test space framework, the common features that are responsible for the existence of these theorems are elucidated. In addition, the test space framework is general enough to imply a de Finetti theorem for classical processes. We conclude by discussing the ways in which our assumptions may fail, leading to probabilistic models that do not have a de Finetti theorem.

  1. Multiwavelet sampling theorem in Sobolev spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to establish the multiwavelet sampling theorem in Sobolev spaces. Sampling theorem plays a very important role in digital signal communication. The most classical sampling theorem is Shannon sampling theorem, which works for bandlimited signals. Recently, sampling theorems in wavelets or multiwavelets subspaces are extensively studied in the literature. In this paper, we firstly propose the concept of dual multiwavelet frames in dual Sobolev spaces (H s (R) , H-s (R)). Then we construct a special class of dual multiwavelet frames, from which the multiwavelet sampling theorem in Sobolev spaces is obtained. That is, for any f ∈ H s (R) with s > 1/2, it can be exactly recovered by its samples. Especially, the sampling theorem works for continuous signals in L 2 (R), whose Sobolev exponents are greater than 1 /2.

  2. The relativistic virial theorem and scale invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The virial theorem is related to the dilatation properties of bound states. This is realized, in particular, by the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the relativistic virial theorem, in terms of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We construct a Hamiltonian formulation of dilatations in which the relativistic virial theorem naturally arises as the condition of stability against dilatations. A bound state becomes scale invariant in the ultrarelativistic limit, in which its energy vanishes. However, for very relativistic bound states, scale invariance is broken by quantum effects and the virial theorem must include the energy-momentum tensor trace anomaly. This quantum field theory virial theorem is directly related to the Callan-Symanzik equations. The virial theorem is applied to QED and then to QCD, focusing on the bag model of hadrons. In massless QCD, according to the virial theorem, 3/4 of a hadron mass corresponds to quarks and gluons and 1/4 to the trace anomaly.

  3. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-11-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  4. Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum in special relativistic hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perciante, A L; Garcia-Colin, L S; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we calculate the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum for a relativistic simple fluid according to three different versions available for a relativistic approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics. An outcome of these calculations is that Eckart's version predicts that such spectrum does not exist. This provides an argument to question its validity. The remaining two results, which differ one from another, do provide a finite form for such spectrum. This raises the rather intriguing question as to which of the two theories is a better candidate to be taken as a possible version of relativistic nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The answer will clearly require deeper examination of this problem.

  5. The Rayleigh-Brillouin Spectrum in Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    García-Perciante, A L; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum for a relativistic simple fluid according to three different versions available for a relativistic approach to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. An outcome of these calculations is that Eckart's version predicts that such spectrum does not exist. This provides an argument to question its validity. The remaining two results, which differ one from another, do provide a finite form for such spectrum. This raises the rather intriguing question as to which of the two theories is a better candidate to be taken as a possible version of relativistic non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The answer will clearly require deeper examination of this problem.

  6. Stimulated Brillouin scattering enhancement in silicon inverse opal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M J A; de Sterke, C Martijn; Lapine, M; Kuhlmey, B T; Poulton, C G

    2016-01-01

    Silicon is an ideal material for on-chip applications, however its poor acoustic properties limit its performance for important optoacoustic applications, particularly for Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). We theoretically show that silicon inverse opals exhibit a strongly improved acoustic performance that enhances the bulk SBS gain coefficient by more than two orders of magnitude. We also design a waveguide that incorporates silicon inverse opals and which has SBS gain values that are comparable with chalcogenide glass waveguides. This research opens new directions for opto-acoustic applications in on-chip material systems.

  7. Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering in Binary Gas Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Ziyu; van de Water, Willem; Marques, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurements are performed on spectral lineshapes of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in mixtures of the noble gases Ar and Kr, with He. Admixture of a light He atomic fraction results in marked changes of the spectra, although in all experiments He is merely a spectator atom: it affects the relaxation of density fluctuations of the heavy constituent, but its contribution to the scattered light intensity is negligibly small. The results are compared to a theory for the spectral lineshape without adjustable parameters, yielding excellent agreement for the case of binary mono-atomic gases, signifying a step towards modeling and understanding of light scattering in more complex molecular media.

  8. Zonas de Brillouin de los grupos de capa

    OpenAIRE

    García Santos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    La base de datos de las zonas de Brillouin de los grupos de capa del Bilbao Crystallographic Server incluye tablas de vectores de onda y figuras que forman la base para la clasificación de las representaciones de los grupos de capa. Las propiedades de simetría de los vectores de onda se determinan por los llamados grupos del espacio recíproco y esta clasificación se compara con la que recoge el libro “Character Tables and Compatibility Relations of The Eighty Layer Groups and Seventeen Plane ...

  9. Navier Stokes Theorem in Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2005-12-01

    In a paper presented at the 2004 AGU International Conference, the author outlined and stressed the importance of studying and teaching certain important mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. In an article entitled "Corrections to Fluid Dynamics" R. F. Streater, (Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 10, 3-30, 2003.) proposes a kinetic model of a fluid in which five macroscopic fields, the mass, energy, and three components of momentum, are conserved. The dynamics is constructed using the methods of statistical dynamics, and results in a non-linear discrete-time Markov chain for random fields on a lattice. In the continuum limit he obtains a non-linear coupled parabolic system of field equations, showing a correction to the Navier-Stokes equations. In 2001, David Hoff published an article in Journees Equations aux derivees partielles. (Art. No. 7, 9 p.). His paper is entitled : Dynamics of Singularity Surfaces for Compressible Navier-Stokes Flows in Two Space Dimensions. In his paper, David Hoff proves the global existence of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible, barotropic flow in two space dimensions with piecewise smooth initial data. These solutions remain piecewise smooth for all time, retaining simple jump discontinuities in the density and in the divergence of the velocity across a smooth curve, which is convected with the flow. The strengths of these discontinuities are shown to decay exponentially in time

  10. Brillouin Lasing with a CaF_2 Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering with both pump and Stokes beams in resonance with whispering gallery modes of an ultra high Q CaF_2 resonator is demonstrated for the first time. The resonator is pumped with 1064 nm light and has a Brillouin lasing threshold of 3.5 microwatt. Potential applications include optical generation of microwaves and sensitive gyros.

  11. Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron

    2010-01-01

    In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.

  12. ANDRAGOGY OF DEVELOPMENT: BASIC THEOREMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Teslinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents criticism of the state of scientific knowledge about adult education and provides the reasons for the choice of directions of its development.Methods. The approach to the substantiation of directions of development of andragogy includes aspectual analysis of scientific rhetoric of adult education; summarizing the symptoms and causes of the problems of educational practice examples of education managers; the analysis of the status of andragogy as a scientific paradigm; a conceptual analysis of the key theses of the modern synthesis of andragogy and the provisions for developmental adult education.Results and scientific novelty. Four theorems are formulated that specify the complete set of propositions about a developmental approach to adult education. These theorems are presented as a scientific hypothesis about the features of the approach. The theorems are proved, and the substantiation of the conditions of emergence of the adult education of educational properties is described. The idea of adult education as a developing culture is in the centre of reasoning. It is shown that the assertions of theorems form the conceptual core of the scientific branches in adult education – andragogy of development. The effect of the practical interpretation of its provisions is disclosed.Practical significance. Disclosed meanings and recommendations may be oriented to developers of educational systems and media for adults while creating the developmental components. These references will help to overcome the evident trend information of adult education to the "pulling" them up to continually outdated standards, and to give it the look of a truly developing technology.

  13. An improvement of Papadakis' theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhihua; MU Lehua; ZHANG Peixuan

    2004-01-01

    There exist many orthonormal wavelets which cannot be derived by multiresolution analysis (MRA) with a single scaling function.In 2000,Papadakis announced that any orthonormal wavelet is derived by a generalized MRA with countable scaling functions at most.We improve Papadakis' theorem and find that for any othonormal wavelet,the least number of the corresponding scaling functions is just the essential supremum of the dimension function of the orthonormal wavelet.Moreover,we construct directly the fewest scaling functions.

  14. A Miniaturisation of Ramsey's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, Michiel; Weiermann, Andreas

    We approximate the strength of the infinite Ramsey Theorem by iterating a finitary version. This density principle, in the style of Paris, together with PA will give rise to a first-order theory which achieves a lot of the strength of ACA0 and the original infinitary version. To prove our result, we use a generalisation of the results by Bigorajska and Kotlarski about partitioning α-large sets.

  15. Compactness theorems of fuzzy semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship among diverse fuzzy semantics vs. the corresponding logic consequence operators has been analyzed systematically. The results that compactness and logical compactness of fuzzy semantics are equivalent to compactness and continuity of the logic consequence operator induced by the semantics respectively have been proved under certain conditions. A general compactness theorem of fuzzy semantics have been established which says that every fuzzy semantics defined on a free algebra with members corresponding to continuous functions is compact.

  16. Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zheng-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theor...

  17. Software Reliability through Theorem Proving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G.K. Murthy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving software reliability of mission-critical systems is widely recognised as one of the major challenges. Early detection of errors in software requirements, designs and implementation, need rigorous verification and validation techniques. Several techniques comprising static and dynamic testing approaches are used to improve reliability of mission critical software; however it is hard to balance development time and budget with software reliability. Particularly using dynamic testing techniques, it is hard to ensure software reliability, as exhaustive testing is not possible. On the other hand, formal verification techniques utilise mathematical logic to prove correctness of the software based on given specifications, which in turn improves the reliability of the software. Theorem proving is a powerful formal verification technique that enhances the software reliability for missioncritical aerospace applications. This paper discusses the issues related to software reliability and theorem proving used to enhance software reliability through formal verification technique, based on the experiences with STeP tool, using the conventional and internationally accepted methodologies, models, theorem proving techniques available in the tool without proposing a new model.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(3, pp.314-317, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1527

  18. Single Brillouin frequency shifted S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in ring cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A. H.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Shahimin, M. M.; Wahid, M. H. A.; Anwar, Nur Elina; Alahmed, Zeyad A.; Chyský, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is focusing on simulation and analyzing of S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser performance utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in ring cavity. Raman amplifier-average power model is employed for signal amplification. This laser system is operates in S-band wavelength region due to vast demanding on transmitting the information. Multi-wavelength fiber lasers based on hybrid Brillouin-Raman gain configuration supported by Raman scattering effect have attracted significant research interest due to its ability to produced multi-wavelength signals from a single light source. In multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber, single mode fiber is utilized as the nonlinear gain medium. From output results, 90% output coupling ratio has ability to provide the maximum average output power of 43 dBm at Brillouin pump power of 20 dBm and Raman pump power of 14 dBm. Furthermore, multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier is capable of generated 7 Brillouin Stokes signals at 1480 nm, 1510 nm and 1530 nm.

  19. On Krasnoselskii's Cone Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Kam Kwong

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem for cone maps and its many generalizations have been successfully applied to establish the existence of multiple solutions in the study of boundary value problems of various types. In the first part of this paper, we revisit the Krasnoselskii theorem, in a more topological perspective, and show that it can be deduced in an elementary way from the classical Brouwer-Schauder theorem. This viewpoint also leads to a topology-theoretic generalization of the theorem. In the second part of the paper, we extend the cone theorem in a different direction using the notion of retraction and show that a stronger form of the often cited Leggett-Williams theorem is a special case of this extension.

  20. The classical version of Stokes' Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... of the vector field in a tubular shell around the given surface. The two stated classical theorems are (like the fundamental theorem of calculus) nothing but shadows of the general version of Stokes' theorem for differential forms on manifolds. The main points in the present paper, however, is firstly...... exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together with a 'fattening' technique for surfaces and the inverse function theorem....

  1. The Helmholtz theorem and retarded fields

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Textbooks frequently use the Helmholtz theorem to derive expressions for the electrostatic and magnetostatic fields but they do not usually apply this theorem to derive expressions for the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, even when there is no formal objection to doing so because the proof of the theorem does not involve time derivatives but only spatial derivatives. Here we address the question as to whether the Helmholtz theorem is useful to derive expressions for the fields of Maxwell's equations. We show that when this theorem is applied to Maxwell's equations we obtain instantaneous expressions of the electric and magnetic fields, which are formally correct but of little practical usefulness. We then discuss two generalizations of the theorem which are shown to be useful to derive the retarded fields.

  2. The Helmholtz theorem and retarded fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Textbooks frequently use the Helmholtz theorem to derive expressions for electrostatic and magnetostatic fields but they do not usually apply this theorem to derive expressions for time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, even when there is no formal objection to doing so because the proof of the theorem does not involve time derivatives but only spatial derivatives. Here we address the question as to whether the Helmholtz theorem is useful in deriving expressions for the fields of Maxwell’s equations. We show that when this theorem is applied to Maxwell’s equations we obtain instantaneous expressions of the electric and magnetic fields, which are formally correct but of little practical usefulness. We then discuss two generalizations of the theorem which are shown to be useful in deriving the retarded fields.

  3. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  4. Inverting the central limit theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Navascues, Miguel; Villanueva, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The central limit theorem states that the sum of N independently distributed n-tuples of real variables (subject to appropriate normalization) tends to a multivariate gaussian distribution for large N. Here we propose to invert this argument: given a set of n correlated gaussian variables, we try to infer information about the structure of the discrete microscopic probability distributions whose convolution generated such a macroscopic behavior. The techniques developed along the article are applied to prove that the classical description of certain macroscopic optical experiments is infinitely more complex than the quantum one.

  5. A History of the Central Limit Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the history of the central limit theorem and related probabilistic limit theorems from about 1810 through 1950. In this context the book also describes the historical development of analytical probability theory and its tools, such as characteristic functions or moments. The central limit theorem was originally deduced by Laplace as a statement about approximations for the distributions of sums of independent random variables within the framework of classical probability, which focused upon specific problems and applications. Making this theorem an autonomous mathematical

  6. A generalised Sylvester-Gallai Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Pretorius

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We give an algorithmic proof for the contrapositive of the following theorem that has recently been proved by the authors:Let S be a finite set of points in the plane, with each point coloured red, blue or with both colours. Suppose that for any two distinct points A and B in S sharing a colour k, there is a third point in S which has (inter alia the colour different from k and is collinear with A and B. Then all the points in S are collinear.This theorem is a generalization of both the Sylvester-Gallai Theorem and the Motzkin-Rabin Theorem.

  7. Bit-Blasting ACL2 Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Swords

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactive theorem proving requires a lot of human guidance. Proving a property involves (1 figuring out why it holds, then (2 coaxing the theorem prover into believing it. Both steps can take a long time. We explain how to use GL, a framework for proving finite ACL2 theorems with BDD- or SAT-based reasoning. This approach makes it unnecessary to deeply understand why a property is true, and automates the process of admitting it as a theorem. We use GL at Centaur Technology to verify execution units for x86 integer, MMX, SSE, and floating-point arithmetic.

  8. A generalized preimage theorem in global analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jipu

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ma Jipu, (1.2) inverses of operators between Banach spaces and conjugacy theorem, Chinese Annals of Math., B, 1999, 20(1): 57.[2]Ma Jipu, Rank theorem of operators between Banach spaces, Science in China, Ser. A, 2000, 43(1): 1.[3]Ma Jipu, Local conjugacy theorem, rank theorems in advenced calculus and a generalized principle constructing Banach manifolds, Science in China, Ser. A, 2000, 43(12): 1233.[4]Zeidler, A. E., Nonlinear Function Analysis and Its Applications, IV: Applications to Mathematical Physics, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

  9. The matching theorems and coincidence theorems for generalized R-KKM mapping in topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we present some new matching theorems with open cover and closed cover by using the generalized R-KKM theorems [L. Deng, X. Xia, Generalized R-KKM theorem in topological space and their applications, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 285 (2003) 679-690] in the topological spaces with property (H). As applications, some coincidence theorems are established in topological spaces. Our results extend and generalize some known results.

  10. An elementary derivation of the quantum virial theorem from Hellmann-Feynman theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    İpekoğlu, Y.; Turgut, S.

    2016-07-01

    A simple proof of the quantum virial theorem that can be used in undergraduate courses is given. The proof proceeds by first showing that the energy eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian remain invariant under a scale transformation. Then invoking the Hellmann-Feynman theorem produces the final statement of the virial theorem.

  11. A Poncelet theorem for lines

    CERN Document Server

    Vallès, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to prove a Poncelet type theorem for a line configuration on the complex projective. More precisely, we say that a polygon with 2n sides joining 2n vertices A1, A2,..., A2n is well inscribed in a configuration Ln of n lines if each line of the configuration contains exactly two points among A1, A2, ..., A2n. Then we prove : "Let Ln be a configuration of n lines and D a smooth conic in the complex projective plane. If it exists one polygon with 2n sides well inscribed in Ln and circumscribed around D then there are infinitely many such polygons. In particular a general point in Ln is a vertex of such a polygon." We propose an elementary proof based on Fr\\'egier's involution. We begin by recalling some facts about these involutions. Then we explore the following question : When does the product of involutions correspond to an involution? It leads to Pascal theorem, to its dual version proved by Brianchon, and to its generalization proved by M\\"obius.

  12. Distributed hot-wire anemometry based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Michael T V; Brown, Anthony W; Colpitts, Bruce G

    2012-07-02

    A distributed hot-wire anemometer based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis is presented. The anemometer is created by passing a current through a stainless steel tube fibre bundle and monitoring Brillouin frequency changes in the presence of airflow. A wind tunnel is used to provide laminar airflow while the device response is calibrated against theoretical models. The sensitivity equation for this anemometer is derived and discussed. Airspeeds from 0 m/s to 10 m/s are examined, and the results show that a Brillouin scattering based distributed hot-wire anemometer is feasible.

  13. A new approach to measure the ocean temperature using Brillouin lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Zhiwei Lü; Yongkang Dong; Weiming He

    2006-01-01

    @@ An approach of lidar measurements of ocean temperature through measuring the spectral linewidth of the backscattered Brillouin lines is presented. An empirical equation for the temperature as a function of Brillouin linewidth and salinity is derived. Theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The equation also reveals the dependence of the temperature on the salinity and Brillouin linewidth.It is shown that the uncertainty of the salinity has very little impact on the temperature measurement.The uncertainty of this temperature measurement methodology is approximately 0.02 ℃.

  14. ESTIMATION OF SOUNDING ABILITY OF A BRILLOUIN LIDAR IN THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea can be measured by using laser excited Brillouin scattering. In this paper the dependence of the accuracy of sound speed measurement on the accuracy of the Brillouin shift measurement is analyzed. We calculated the maximum detecting depths of sound speed to an accuracy of 1 m/s by lidar with different laser pulse energy, platform altitude, telescope aperture and lidar effective attenuation coefficient. The estimation of sounding ability in the East China Sea is made in some stations. These data can be used in the design of Brillouin Lidar for the China Sea.

  15. Quantum Rabi model in the Brillouin zone with ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Simone; Rico, Enrique; Sabin, Carlos; Ockenfels, Till; Koch, Johannes; Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin; Solano, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The quantum Rabi model describes the interaction between a two-level quantum system and a single bosonic mode. We propose a method to perform a quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model, introducing an implementation of the two-level system provided by the occupation of Bloch bands in the first Brillouin zone by ultracold atoms in tailored optical lattices. The effective qubit interacts with a quantum harmonic oscillator implemented in an optical dipole trap. Our realistic proposal allows one to experimentally investigate the quantum Rabi model for extreme parameter regimes, which are not achievable with natural light-matter interactions. When the simulated wave function exceeds the validity region of the simulation, we identify a generalized version of the quantum Rabi model in a periodic phase space.

  16. Brillouin scattering studies of isotopic effects in solid ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte, H.; Penney, R.; Breckon, S. W.; Clouter, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of high resolution Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to determine the adiabatic elastic constants and the elasto-optic coupling (Pockels) coefficient ratios of oriented single crystals of (solid I) ND3 at temperatures near the gas-liquid-solid triple point. The values of the elastic constants at 196.0 K are C11=83.3, C12=44.0, and C44=49.6 (in units of kbar) with an estimated absolute uncertainty of ±2%. The values of the elasto-optic coefficient ratios are P12/P11=0.90 and P44/P11=0.16 for ND3 and 0.89 and 0.16 for NH3, respectively. Other than that expected from the mass ratio, no significant isotopic differences are evident.

  17. Brillouin resonance broadening due to structural variations in nanoscale waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of structural variations (that is slowly varying geometry aberrations and internal strain fields) on the resonance width and shape of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nanoscale waveguides. We find that they lead to an inhomogeneous resonance broadening through two distinct mechanisms: firstly, the acoustic frequency is directly influenced via mechanical nonlinearities; secondly, the optical wave numbers are influenced via the opto-mechanical nonlinearity leading to an additional acoustic frequency shift via the phase-matching condition. We find that this second mechanism is proportional to the opto-mechanical coupling and, hence, related to the SBS-gain itself. It is absent in intra-mode forward SBS, while it plays a significant role in backward scattering. In backward SBS increasing the opto-acoustic overlap beyond a threshold defined by the fabrication tolerances will therefore no longer yield the expected quadratic increase in overall Stokes amplification. Our results can be tra...

  18. Bunching of temporal cavity solitons via forward Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erkintalo, Miro; Jang, Jae K; Coen, Stéphane; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of bunching dynamics with temporal cavity solitons in a continuously-driven passive fibre resonator. Specifically, we excite a large number of ultrafast cavity solitons with random temporal separations, and observe in real time how the initially random sequence self-organizes into regularly-spaced aggregates. To explain our experimental observations, we develop a simple theoretical model that allows long-range acoustically-induced interactions between a large number of temporal cavity solitons to be simulated. Significantly, results from our simulations are in excellent agreement with our experimental observations, strongly suggesting that the soliton bunching dynamics arise from forward Brillouin scattering. In addition to confirming prior theoretical analyses and unveiling a new cavity soliton self-organization phenomenon, our findings elucidate the manner in which sound interacts with large ensembles of ultrafast pulses of light.

  19. Dynamical Chern-Simons Theory in the Brillouin Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Biao; Vafa, Farzan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Berry connection is conventionally defined as a static gauge field in the Brillouin zone. Here we show that for three-dimensional (3d) time-reversal invariant superconductors, a generalized Berry gauge field behaves as a dynamical fluctuating field of a Chern-Simons gauge theory. The gapless nodal lines in the momentum space play the role of Wilson loop observables, while their linking and knot invariants modify the gravitational theta angle. This angle induces a topological gravitomagnetoelectric effect where a temperature gradient induces a rotational energy flow. We also show how topological strings may be realized in the 6 dimensional phase space, where the physical space defects play the role of topological D-branes.

  20. Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Baynes, Frederick; Cole, Daniel; Quinlan, Franklyn; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry; Papp, Scott; Diddams, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Ultralow noise, yet tunable lasers are a revolutionary tool in precision spectroscopy, displacement measurements at the standard quantum limit, and the development of advanced optical atomic clocks. Further applications include LIDAR, coherent communications, frequency synthesis, and precision sensors of strain, motion, and temperature. While all applications benefit from lower frequency noise, many also require a laser that is robust and compact. Here, we introduce a dual-microcavity laser that leverages one chip-integrable silica microresonator to generate tunable 1550 nm laser light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and a second microresonator for frequency stabilization of the SBS light. This configuration reduces the fractional frequency noise to $7.8\\times10^{-14} 1/\\sqrt{Hz}$ at 10 Hz offset, which is a new regime of noise performance for a microresonator-based laser. Our system also features terahertz tunability and the potential for chip-level integration. We demonstrate the utility of our du...

  1. Coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering as a flow diagnostic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graul, J. S.; Lilly, T. C. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Broadband coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) was used to measure translational gas temperatures for nitrogen at the ambient pressure of 0.8 atm using a purpose-built Fabry-Perot etalon spectrometer. Temperatures derived from the CRBS spectral analysis were compared with experimentally-measured temperatures, and were found to be, on average, within 2% of the experimentally-measured value. Axial flow velocities from a double jet at a pressure ratio of 0.38 were also measured by looking at the Doppler shift of the CRBS line shape. With recent developments in chirped laser technology and the capacity of CRBS to simultaneously provide thermodynamic and bulk flow information, the CRBS line shape acquisition and analysis technique presented here may allow for future time-resolved, characterization of aerospace flows.

  2. DSMC simulation of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2016-11-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra (RBS) in dilute gas mixtures have been simulated by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). Different noble gas binary mixtures have been considered and the spectra have been simulated adopting the hard sphere collision model. It is suggested that DSMC simulations can be used in the interpretation of light scattering experiments in place of approximate kinetic models. Actually, the former have a firmer physical ground and can be readily extended to treat gas mixtures of arbitrary complexity. The results obtained confirm the capability of DSMC to predict experimental spectra and clears the way towards the simulation of polyatomic gas mixtures of interest for actual application (notably, air) where tractable kinetic model equations are still lacking.

  3. High Pressure Brillouin Scattering in the Fragile Glass Former Cumene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Tim; Oliver, William

    2012-02-01

    In recent years full-spectrum analysis in light-scattering has been utilized to explore the liquid-glass transition at variable temperature and ambient pressure. In this study we present temperature- and pressure-dependent Brillouin scattering results for the fragile glass-former cumene. Both equal-angle forward scattering and depolarized backscattering geometries are used, and high pressures are attained by the use of a diamond anvil cell mounted in a custom temperature-controlled housing. Opening up the variable pressure regime to full-spectrum analysis will allow more stringent tests of mode-coupling theory as well as greater insight into the behavior of glass-forming systems.

  4. Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchi, S.; Gubbiotti, G.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.

    2017-02-01

    Magnonic crystals, materials with periodic modulation of their magnetic properties, represent the magnetic counterpart of photonic, phononic and plasmonic crystals, and have been largely investigated in recent years because of the possibility of using spin waves as a new means for carrying and processing information over a very large frequency bandwidth. Here, we review recent Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals consisting of single- and bi-component arrays of interacting magnetic dots or antidot lattices. In particular, we discuss the principal properties of the magnonic band diagram of such systems, with emphasis given to its dependence on both magnetic and the geometrical parameters. Thanks to the possibility of tailoring their band structure by means of several degrees of freedom, planar magnonic crystals offer a good opportunity to design an innovative class of nanoscale microwave devices.

  5. Thermal Brillouin noise observed in silicon optomechanical waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laer, Raphaël; Baets, Roel; Van Thourhout, Dries; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering was recently observed in nanoscale silicon waveguides. Surprisingly, thermally-driven photon-phonon conversion in these structures had not yet been reported. Here, we inject an optical probe in a suspended silicon waveguide and measure its phase fluctuations at the output. We observe mechanical resonances around 8 GHz with a scattering efficiency of $10^{-5} \\, \\text{m}^{-1}$ and a signal-to-noise ratio of 2. The observations are in agreement with a theory of noise in these waveguides as well as with stimulated measurements. Our scheme may simplify measurements of mechanical signatures in nanoscale waveguides and is a step towards a better grasp of thermal noise in these new continuum optomechanical systems.

  6. A New Type of Singularity Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Senovilla, José M M

    2007-01-01

    A new type of singularity theorem, based on spatial averages of physical quantities, is presented and discussed. Alternatively, the results inform us of when a spacetime can be singularity-free. This theorem provides a decisive observational difference between singular and non-singular, globally hyperbolic, open cosmological models.

  7. Abel's theorem in the noncommutative case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberger, Frank

    2004-03-01

    We define noncommutative binary forms. Using the typical representation of Hermite we prove the fundamental theorem of algebra and we derive a noncommutative Cardano formula for cubic forms. We define quantized elliptic and hyperelliptic differentials of the first kind. Following Abel we prove Abel's theorem.

  8. Double soft theorem for perturbative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-09-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan [1], we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  9. Interpolation theorems on weighted Lorentz martingale spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper several interpolation theorems on martingale Lorentz spaces are given.The proofs are based on the atomic decompositions of martingale Hardy spaces over weighted measure spaces.Applying the interpolation theorems,we obtain some inequalities on martingale transform operator.

  10. A note on the tolerated Tverberg theorem

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we give an asymptotically tight bound for the tolerated Tverberg Theorem when the dimension and the size of the partition are fixed. To achieve this we study certain partitions of order-type homogeneous sets and use a generalization of the Erd\\H{o}s-Szekeres theorem.

  11. A New Fixed Point Theorem and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fixed point theorem is established under the setting of a generalized finitely continuous topological space (GFC-space without the convexity structure. As applications, a weak KKM theorem and a minimax inequalities of Ky Fan type are also obtained under suitable conditions. Our results are different from known results in the literature.

  12. THE EXISTENCE THEOREM OF OPTIMAL GROWTH MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Liutang; Peng Xianze

    2005-01-01

    This paper proves a general existence theorem of optimal growth theory. This theorem is neither restricted to the case of a constant technology progress, nor stated in terms of mathematical conditions which have no direct economic interpretation and moreover, are difficult to apply.

  13. On the Hausdorff-Young theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Nasserddine, W

    2005-01-01

    Let $G_{mn}=ax + b$ be the matricial group of a local field. The Hausdorff-Young theorem for $G_{11}$ was proved by Eymard-Terp in 1978. We will establish here the Hausdorff-Young theorem for $G_{nn}$ for all $n \\in \\mathbb{N}$.

  14. Euler and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duham, William

    1991-01-01

    The complexity of the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra makes it inaccessible to lower level students. Described are more understandable attempts of proving the theorem and a historical account of Euler's efforts that relates the progression of the mathematical process used and indicates some of the pitfalls encountered. (MDH)

  15. The Euler Line and Nine-Point-Circle Theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Frank M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the Euler line theorem and the nine-point-circle theorem which emphasize transformations and the power of functions in a geometric concept. Presents definitions and proofs of theorems. (ASK)

  16. Generalized fluctuation theorems for classical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, G S

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuation theorems have a very special place in the study of non equilibrium dynamics of physical systems. The form in which it is used most extensively is the Gallavoti-Cohen Fluctuation Theorem which is in terms of the distribution of the work $p(W)/p(-W)=\\exp(\\alpha W)$. We derive the general form of the fluctuation theorems for an arbitrary Gaussian Markov process and find conditions when the parameter $\\alpha$ becomes a universal parameter $1/kT$. As an application we consider fluctuation theorems for classical cyclotron motion of an electron in a parabolic potential. The motion of the electron is described by four coupled Langevin equations and thus is non-trivial. The generalized theorems are equally valid for non-equilibrium steady states.

  17. Pointwise ergodic theorems beyond amenable groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Lewis

    2011-01-01

    We prove pointwise and maximal ergodic theorems for probability measure preserving actions of any countable group, provided it admits an essentially free, weakly mixing amenable action of stable type III_r for some r >0. Our approach is based on the following two principles. First, it is possible to generalize the ergodic theory of measure-preserving actions of amenable groups to include probability-measure-preserving amenable equivalence relations. Second, it is possible to reduce the proof of ergodic theorems for actions of a general group to the proof of ergodic theorems in an associated measure-preserving amenable equivalence relation, provided the group admits an amenable action with the properties stated above. The general ergodic theorems established here are used in a sequel paper to prove mean and pointwise ergodic theorems for arbitrary Gromov-hyperbolic groups.

  18. Enhanced multiwavelength generation in Brillouin fiber laser with pump noise suppression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alimi, A. W.; Cholan, N. A.; Yaacob, M. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    A new multiwavelength Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) that provides a large number of Stokes lines with improved optical signal-to-noise ratio has been proposed and demonstrated. The BFL cavity is only formed by a nonlinear fiber loop mirror (NOLM) with 500 m long highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The BFL with improved performance is based on the suppression of the Brillouin pump noise floor utilizing a narrow tunable bandpass filter. The generation of Stokes lines covering up to a 33.67 nm wavelength range is achieved by setting the Brillouin pump signal within the HNLF’s zero dispersion wavelength and with power of 250 mW. This is owing to the combination of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing effect in the NOLM structure.

  19. System optimization of a long-range Brillouin-loss-based distributed fiber sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongkang; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2010-09-20

    We report a high-performance 25 km Brillouin-loss-based distributed fiber sensor through optimizing system parameters. First, the Brillouin spectrum distortion and measurement error induced by the excess amplification on probe pulse are investigated, and the results indicate that a low continuous-wave pump power is essential to decrease the measurement error. Then an optimal pulse pair is determined through the differential Brillouin gain evolution along the entire sensing fiber in a differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time domain analysis. Using dispersion-shifted fiber to allow a high-power probe pulse, we realize a 25 km sensing range with a spatial resolution of 30 cm and a strain accuracy of ±20 με, which we believe is the best performance in such a length, to the best of our knowledge.

  20. Brillouin spectroscopy as a new method of screening for increased CSF total protein during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of pronounced clinical significance, especially in the developing world. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is essential, and no single test can provide a conclusive diagnosis. It is well established that elevated total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with bacterial meningitis. Brillouin spectroscopy is a widely used optical technique for noninvasive determination of the elastic moduli of materials. We found that elevated protein levels in CSF alter the fluid elasticity sufficiently to be measurable by Brillouin spectroscopy, with model healthy and diseased fluids distinguishable to marked significance (P = 0.014), which increases with sample concentration by dialysis. Typical raw output of a 2-stage VIPA Brillouin spectrometer: inelastically scattered Brillouin peaks (arrows) and elastically scattered incident radiation (center cross).

  1. Dual Raman-Brillouin Microscope for Chemical and Mechanical Characterization and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Andrew J; Thompson, Jonathan V; Steelman, Zachary A; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-08-01

    We present a unique confocal microscope capable of measuring the Raman and Brillouin spectra simultaneously from a single spatial location. Raman and Brillouin scattering offer complementary information about a material's chemical and mechanical structure, respectively, and concurrent monitoring of both of these spectra would set a new standard for material characterization. We achieve this by applying recent innovations in Brillouin spectroscopy that reduce the necessary acquisition times to durations comparable to conventional Raman spectroscopy while attaining a high level of spectral accuracy. To demonstrate the potential of the system, we map the Raman and Brillouin spectra of a molded poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel sample in cyclohexane to create two-dimensional images with high contrast at microscale resolutions. This powerful tool has the potential for very diverse analytical applications in basic science, industry, and medicine.

  2. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Dad, R. C. [Government P G College, Mandsaur (M P) (India); Ghosh, S. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain, (M P) (India)

    2015-07-31

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  3. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly magnetized plasma with variably charged dust particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourabh Bal; M Bose

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated analytically the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of an electromagnetic wave in non-dissipative weakly magnetized plasma in the presence of dust particles with variable charge.

  4. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  5. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  6. Broadband Brillouin scatter from CO/sub 2/-laser--target interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchel, G.R.; Grek, B.; Johnston, T.W.; Pepin, H.; Church, P.; Lavigne, P.; Martin, F.; Decoste, R.

    1982-05-24

    Light scattered near the incident wavelength from CO/sub 2/ laser--solid target interactions in oblique incidence shows the spectral signature of Brillouin scattering both in the backward and in the near specular directions. This instability is apparently seeded by broadband scatter from the critical density surface and then amplified in the underdense plasma. 60% of the incident light is scattered, and the Brillouin contribution to total scatter may be large if the source is also large.

  7. First numerical experiences with overlap fermions based on the Brillouin kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Durr, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Numerical experiences are reported with overlap fermions which employ the Brillouin action as a kernel. After discussing the dispersion relations of both the kernel and the resulting chiral action, some of the physics features are addressed on quenched backgrounds. We find that the overlap with Brillouin kernel is much better localized than the overlap with Wilson kernel. Also a preliminary account is given of the cost of the formulation, in terms of CPU time and memory.

  8. Posterior Probability and Fluctuation Theorem in Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2009-12-01

    A generalization of fluctuation theorems in stochastic processes is proposed. The new theorem is written in terms of posterior probabilities, which are introduced via Bayes’ theorem. In conventional fluctuation theorems, a forward path and its time reversal play an important role, so that a microscopically reversible condition is essential. In contrast, the microscopically reversible condition is not necessary in the new theorem. It is shown that the new theorem recovers various theorems and relations previously known, such as the Gallavotti-Cohen-type fluctuation theorem, the Jarzynski equality, and the Hatano-Sasa relation, when suitable assumptions are employed.

  9. Investigation on the effect of EDFA location in ring cavity Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2009-07-06

    We have investigated the characteristics of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with variation of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) locations in a ring cavity configuration. Three possible locations of the EDFA in the laser cavity have been studied. The experimental results show that the location of EDFA plays vital role in determining the output power and the tuning range. Besides the Erbium gain, Brillouin gain also contributes to the performance of the BEFL. By placing the EDFA next to the Brillouin gain medium (dispersion compensating fiber), the Brillouin pump signal is amplified thereby generating higher intensities of Brillouin Stokes line. This efficient process suppresses the free running self-lasing cavity modes from oscillating in cavity as a result of higher Stokes laser power and thus provide a wider tuning range. At the injected Brillouin pump power of 1.6 mW and the maximum 1480 nm pump power of 135 mW, the maximum Stokes laser power of 25.1 mW was measured and a tuning range of 50 nm without any self-lasing cavity modes was obtained.

  10. Widely tunable linear-cavity multiwavelength fiber laser with distributed Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ajiya; M. H. Al-Mansoori; M. A. Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a multiple wavelength Brillouin/erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity configuration. The laser cavity is made up of a fiber loop mirror on one end of the resonator and a virtual mirror generated from the distributed stimulated Brillouin scattering effect on the other end. Due to the weak reflectivity provided by the virtual mirror, self-lasing cavity modes are completely suppressed from the laser cavity. At Brillouin pump and 1480-nm pump powers of 2 and 130 mW, respectively, 11 channels of the demonstrated laser with an average total power of 7.13 dBm can freely be tuned over a span of 37-nm wavelength from 1530 to 1567 nm.%@@ We demonstrate a multiple wavelength Brillouin/erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity configuration.The laser cavity is made up of a fiber loop mirror on one end of the resonator and a virtual mirror generated from the distributed stimulated Brillouin scattering effect on the other end.Due to the weak reflectivity provided by the virtual mirror, self-lasing cavity modes are completely suppressed from the laser cavity.At Brillouin pump and 1480-nm pump powers of 2 and 130 mW, respectively, 11 channels of the demonstrated laser with an average total power of 7.13 dBm can freely be tuned over a span of 37-nm wavelength from 1530 to 1567 nm.

  11. The pointwise Hellmann-Feynman theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carfì

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study from a topological point of view the Hellmann-Feynman theorem of Quantum Mechanics. The goal of the paper is twofold: On one hand we emphasize the role of the strong topology in the classic version of the theorem in Hilbert spaces, for what concerns the kind of convergence required on the space of continuous linear endomorphisms, which contains the space of (continuous observables.On the other hand we state and prove a new pointwise version of the classic Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This new version is not yet present in the literature and follows the idea of A. Bohm concerning the topology which is desiderable to use in Quantum Mechanics. It is indeed out of question that this non-trivial new version of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem is the ideal one - for what concerns the continuous observables on Hilbert spaces, both from a theoretical point of view, since it is the strongest version obtainable in this context - we recall that the pointwise topology is the coarsest one compatible with the linear structure of the space of continuous observables -, and from a practical point of view, because the pointwise topology is the easiest to use among topologies: it brings back the problems to the Hilbert space topology. Moreover, we desire to remark that this basic theorem of Quantum Mechanics, in his most desiderable form, is deeply interlaced with two cornerstones of Functional Analysis: the Banach-Steinhaus theorem and the Baire theorem.

  12. Existence theorems for ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Francis J

    2007-01-01

    Theorems stating the existence of an object-such as the solution to a problem or equation-are known as existence theorems. This text examines fundamental and general existence theorems, along with the Picard iterants, and applies them to properties of solutions and linear differential equations.The authors assume a basic knowledge of real function theory, and for certain specialized results, of elementary functions of a complex variable. They do not consider the elementary methods for solving certain special differential equations, nor advanced specialized topics; within these restrictions, th

  13. Haag's theorem in renormalised quantum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Klaczynski, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    We review a package of no-go results in axiomatic quantum field theory with Haag's theorem at its centre. Since the concept of operator-valued distributions in this framework comes very close to what we believe canonical quantum fields are about, these results are of consequence to quantum field theory: they suggest the seeming absurdity that this highly victorious theory is incapable of describing interactions. We single out unitarity of the interaction picture's intertwiner as the most salient provision of Haag's theorem and critique canonical perturbation theory to argue that renormalisation bypasses Haag's theorem by violating this very assumption.

  14. Effective randomness, strong reductions and Demuth's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Bienvenu, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    We study generalizations of Demuth's Theorem, which states that the image of a Martin-L\\"of random real under a tt-reduction is either computable or Turing equivalent to a Martin-L\\"of random real. We show that Demuth's Theorem holds for Schnorr randomness and computable randomness (answering a question of Franklin), but that it cannot be strengthened by replacing the Turing equivalence in the statement of the theorem with wtt-equivalence. We also provide some additional results about the Turing and tt-degrees of reals that are random with respect to some computable measure.

  15. Performance of the distributed Brillouin sensor: Benefits and penalties due to pump depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, Fabien

    Disaster prevention in civil infrastructures requires the use of techniques that allow temperature and strain measurements in real time over lengths of a few meters to tens of kilometres. The distributed Brillouin sensor (DBS) technique has the advantage to combine all these characteristics. The sensing mechanism of the DBS involves the interaction of two counter-propagating lightwaves, the Stokes and the pump, in an optical fibre. Spatial information is obtained through time domain analysis. The sensing data are recorded from the measurement of the pump depletion. We explore the benefits and the drawbacks of this approach and show that there is a power range for which the sensing performances are optima. To achieve that goal, Brillouin fibre generator (BFG) and amplifier (BFA) were studied leading to the derivation of a threshold definition for the BFA, which is the configuration of the DBS. Within that context, numerical and analytical models describing the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction are introduced and validated experimentally. Even if pump depletion is carefully controlled, the Brillouin spectrum shape, and hence the sensor performance, still depend on the sensing parameters such as power, pulse and fibre characteristics. We use a signal processing method grounded in the physics of Brillouin scattering. An analytical approximation, valid for the optimum sensing region, reconstructs the Brillouin spectrum distribution from input sensing parameters and measured data. These data are obtained with a spectrum analysis methodology, based on three original tools: the Rayleigh equivalent criterion, the lengthstress diagram, and the spectrum form factors. This methodology has been successfully used on experimental spectra. The DBS and the signal processing approach were then used to monitor the structural changes in steel pipes and in a composite column, all subjected to heavy loads. The DBS measured the strain distribution of those structures

  16. Microresonator Brillouin Laser Stabilization Using a Microfabricated Rubidium Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Leopardi, Holly F; Fortier, Tara M; Quinlan, Frank; Kitching, John; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    We frequency stabilize the output of a miniature stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) laser to rubidium atoms in a microfabricated cell to realize a laser system with frequency stability at the $10^{-11}$ level over seven decades in averaging time. In addition, our system has the advantages of robustness, low cost and the potential for integration that would lead to still further miniaturization. The SBS laser operating at 1560 nm exhibits a spectral linewidth of 820 Hz, but its frequency drifts over a few MHz on the 1 hour timescale. By locking the second harmonic of the SBS laser to the Rb reference, we reduce this drift by a factor of $10^3$ to the level of a few kHz over the course of an hour. For our combined SBS and Rb laser system, we measure a frequency noise of $4\\times10^4$ $Hz^2/Hz$ at 10 Hz offset frequency which rapidly rolls off to a level of 0.2 $Hz^2/Hz$ at 100 kHz offset. The corresponding Allan deviation is $\\leq2\\times10^{-11}$ for averaging times spanning $10^{-4}$ to $10^3$ s. By optical...

  17. Simulation of guided wave propagation near numerical Brillouin zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Packo, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Attractive properties of guided waves provides very unique potential for characterization of incipient damage, particularly in plate-like structures. Among other properties, guided waves can propagate over long distances and can be used to monitor hidden structural features and components. On the other hand, guided propagation brings substantial challenges for data analysis. Signal processing techniques are frequently supported by numerical simulations in order to facilitate problem solution. When employing numerical models additional sources of errors are introduced. These can play significant role for design and development of a wave-based monitoring strategy. Hence, the paper presents an investigation of numerical models for guided waves generation, propagation and sensing. Numerical dispersion analysis, for guided waves in plates, based on the LISA approach is presented and discussed in the paper. Both dispersion and modal amplitudes characteristics are analysed. It is shown that wave propagation in a numerical model resembles propagation in a periodic medium. Consequently, Lamb wave propagation close to numerical Brillouin zone is investigated and characterized.

  18. Security Theorems via Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Guttman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A model-theoretic approach can establish security theorems for cryptographic protocols. Formulas expressing authentication and non-disclosure properties of protocols have a special form. They are quantified implications for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi. Models (interpretations for these formulas are *skeletons*, partially ordered structures consisting of a number of local protocol behaviors. *Realized* skeletons contain enough local sessions to explain all the behavior, when combined with some possible adversary behaviors. We show two results. (1 If phi is the antecedent of a security goal, then there is a skeleton A_phi such that, for every skeleton B, phi is satisfied in B iff there is a homomorphism from A_phi to B. (2 A protocol enforces for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi iff every realized homomorphic image of A_phi satisfies psi. Hence, to verify a security goal, one can use the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer CPSA (TACAS, 2007 to identify minimal realized skeletons, or "shapes," that are homomorphic images of A_phi. If psi holds in each of these shapes, then the goal holds.

  19. Index theorems for quantum graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fulling, S A; Wilson, J H

    2007-01-01

    In geometric analysis, an index theorem relates the difference of the numbers of solutions of two differential equations to the topological structure of the manifold or bundle concerned, sometimes using the heat kernels of two higher-order differential operators as an intermediary. In this paper, the case of quantum graphs is addressed. A quantum graph is a graph considered as a (singular) one-dimensional variety and equipped with a second-order differential Hamiltonian H (a "Laplacian") with suitable conditions at vertices. For the case of scale-invariant vertex conditions (i.e., conditions that do not mix the values of functions and of their derivatives), the constant term of the heat-kernel expansion is shown to be proportional to the trace of the internal scattering matrix of the graph. This observation is placed into the index-theory context by factoring the Laplacian into two first-order operators, H =A*A, and relating the constant term to the index of A. An independent consideration provides an index f...

  20. A generalized preimage theorem in global analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of locally fine point and generalized regular valueof a C1 map between Banach spaces were carried over C1 map between Banach manifolds. Hence the preimage theorem, a principle constructing Banach manifolds in global analysis, is generalized.

  1. The virial theorem for nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2009-09-15

    We show that the virial theorem provides a useful simple tool for approximating nonlinear problems. In particular, we consider conservative nonlinear oscillators and obtain the same main result derived earlier from the expansion in Chebyshev polynomials. (letters and comments)

  2. Transformation groups and the virial theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, N.G. van

    1972-01-01

    A generalization of Noether's result for classical mechanics is given, which shows that the virial theorem is related to an invariance property of the Lagrange function. Two examples are discussed in detail.

  3. Rank theorems of operators between Banach spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Let E and F be Banach spaces, and B( E, F) all of bounded linear operators on E into F. Let T0 ∈ B( E, F) with an outer inverse T0# ∈ B( F, E). Then a characteristic condition of S= (I + T0# ( T- T0))-1 T0# with T∈ B( E, F) and || T0# ( T- T0) || < 1, being a generalized inverse of T, is presented, and hence, a rank theorem of operators on E into F is established (which generalizes the rank theorem of matrices to Banach spaces). Consequently, an improved finite rank theorem and a new rank theorem are deduced. These results will be very useful to nonlinear functional analysis.

  4. Rank theorems of operators between Banach spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Let E and F be Banach spaces, and B(E,F) all of bounded linear operators on E into F. Let T0∈B(E,F) with an outer inverse T#0∈B(F,E). Then a characteristic condition of S=(I+T#0(T-T0))-1T#0 with T∈B(E,F) and ‖T#0(T-T0)‖<1, being a generalized inverse of T, is presented, and hence, a rank theorem of operators on E into F is established (which generalizes the rank theorem of matrices to Banach spaces). Consequently, an improved finite rank theorem and a new rank theorem are deduced. These results will be very useful to nonlinear functional analysis.

  5. Affine and Projective Tree Metric Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Harel, Matan; Pachter, Lior

    2011-01-01

    The tree metric theorem provides a combinatorial four point condition that characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from pairwise compatible split systems. A similar (but weaker) four point condition characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from circular split systems (Kalmanson metrics). The tree metric theorem was first discovered in the context of phylogenetics and forms the basis of many tree reconstruction algorithms, whereas Kalmanson metrics were first considered by computer scientists, and are notable in that they are a non-trivial class of metrics for which the traveling salesman problem is tractable. We present a unifying framework for these theorems based on combinatorial structures that are used for graph planarity testing. These are (projective) PC-trees, and their affine analogs, PQ-trees. In the projective case, we generalize a number of concepts from clustering theory, including hierarchies, pyramids, ultrametrics and Robinsonian matrices, and the theorems that relate them. As with tree metric...

  6. Dimensional analysis beyond the Pi theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2017-01-01

    Dimensional Analysis and Physical Similarity are well understood subjects, and the general concepts of dynamical similarity are explained in this book. Our exposition is essentially different from those available in the literature, although it follows the general ideas known as Pi Theorem. There are many excellent books that one can refer to; however, dimensional analysis goes beyond Pi theorem, which is also known as Buckingham’s Pi Theorem. Many techniques via self-similar solutions can bound solutions to problems that seem intractable. A time-developing phenomenon is called self-similar if the spatial distributions of its properties at different points in time can be obtained from one another by a similarity transformation, and identifying one of the independent variables as time. However, this is where Dimensional Analysis goes beyond Pi Theorem into self-similarity, which has represented progress for researchers. In recent years there has been a surge of interest in self-similar solutions of the First ...

  7. Two No-Go Theorems on Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Tada, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We study lattice superconductors such as attractive Hubbard models. As is well known, Bloch's theorem asserts absence of persistent current in ground states and equilibrium states for general fermion systems. While the statement of the theorem is true, we can show that the theorem cannot exclude possibility of a surface persistent current. Such a current can be stabilized by boundary magnetic fields which do not penetrate into the bulk region of a superconductor, provided emergence of massive photons, i.e., Meissner effect. Therefore, we can expect that a surface persistent current is realized for a ground/equilibrium state in the sense of stability against local perturbations. We also apply Elitzur's theorem to superconductors at finite temperatures. As a result, we prove absence of symmetry breaking of the global U(1) phase of electrons for almost all gauge fixings. These observations suggest that the nature of superconductivity is the emergence of massive photons rather than the symmetry breaking of the U(...

  8. The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered o...... we apply the key instrumental concepts and verify the various steps towards this alternative proof of the divergence theorem....

  9. Sahoo- and Wayment-Type Integral Mean Value Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Aydin; Cakmak, Devrim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, by using Rolle's theorem, we establish some results related to the mean value theorem for integrals. Our results are different from the set of integral mean value theorems which are given by Wayment ["An integral mean value theorem", Math. Gazette 54 (1970), pp. 300-301] and Sahoo ["Some results related to the integral mean value…

  10. A New GLKKM Theorem and Its Application to Abstract Economies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Kai-ting

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a new GLKKM theorem in L-convex spaces is established.As applications,a new fixed point theorem and a maximal element theorem are obtained in Lconvex spaces.Finally,equilibrium existence theorems for abstract economies and qualitative games in L-convex spaces are yielded.

  11. Herbrand's theorem and non-Euclidean geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Michael; Boutry, Pierre; Narboux, Julien

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We use Herbrand's theorem to give a new proof that Eu- clid's parallel axiom is not derivable from the other axioms of first-order Euclidean geometry. Previous proofs involve constructing models of non- Euclidean geometry. This proof uses a very old and basic theorem of logic together with some simple properties of ruler-and-compass constructions to give a short, simple, and intuitively appealing proof.

  12. Type Theory, Computation and Interactive Theorem Proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    in type theory . Harper and student Kuen-Bang Hou developed a machine-checked proof of the equivalence of group actions and cov- ering spaces in...Track 2: Interactive theorem proving and au- tomated reasoning 3.1 Homotopy type theory Avigad participated in the Univalent Foundations Program at IAS...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0071 TYPE THEORY , COMPUTATION AND INTERACTIVE THEOREM PROVING Jeremy Avigad CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Final Report 09/01/2015

  13. Transversality theorems for the weak topology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In his 1979 paper Trotman proves, using the techniques of the Thom transversality theorem, that under some conditions on the dimensions of the manifolds under consideration, openness of the set of maps transverse to a stratification in the strong (Whitney) topology implies that the stratification is $(a)$-regular. Here we first discuss the Thom transversality theorem for the weak topology and then give a similiar kind of result for the weak topology, under very weak hypotheses. Recently sever...

  14. The large deviations theorem and ergodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Rongbao [School of Finance, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2007-12-15

    In this paper, some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems are studied. For a continuous map f from a compact metric space X into itself, we show that if f satisfies the large deviations theorem then it is topologically ergodic. Moreover, we introduce the topologically strong ergodicity, and prove that if f is a topologically strongly ergodic map satisfying the large deviations theorem then it is sensitively dependent on initial conditions.

  15. Double Soft Theorem for Perturbative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  16. On the Coleman-Hill theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A; Paranjape, M B; Khare, Avinash; MacKenzie, R; Paranjape, M B

    1994-01-01

    The Coleman-Hill theorem prohibits the appearance of radiative corrections to the topological mass (more precisely, to the parity-odd part of the vacuum polarization tensor at zero momentum) in a wide class of abelian gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions. We re-express the theorem in terms of the effective action rather than in terms of the vacuum polarization tensor. The theorem so restated becomes somewhat stronger: a known exception to the theorem, spontaneously broken scalar Chern-Simons electrodynamics, obeys the new non-renormalization theorem. Whereas the vacuum polarization {\\sl does} receive a one-loop, parity-odd correction, this does not translate to a radiative contribution to the Chern-Simons term in the effective action. We also point out a new situation, involving scalar fields and parity-odd couplings, which was overlooked in the original analysis, where the conditions of the theorem are satisfied and where the topological mass does, in fact, get a radiative correction.

  17. Mental Constructions for The Group Isomorphism Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Mena-Lorca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The group isomorphism theorem is an important subject in any abstract algebra undergraduate course; nevertheless, research shows that it is seldom understood by students. We use APOS theory and propose a genetic decomposition that separates it into two statements: the first one for sets and the second with added structure. We administered a questionnaire to students from top Chilean universities and selected some of these students for interviews to gather information about the viability of our genetic decomposition. The students interviewed were divided in two groups based on their familiarity with equivalence relations and partitions. Students who were able to draw on their intuition of partitions were able to reconstruct the group theorem from the set theorem, while those who stayed on the purely algebraic side could not. Since our approach to learning this theorem was successful, it may be worthwhile to gather data while teaching it the way we propose here in order to check how much the learning of the group isomorphism theorem is improved. This approach could be expanded to other group homomorphism theorems provided further analysis is conducted: going from the general (e.g., sets to the particular (e.g., groups might not always the best strategy, but in some cases we may just be turning to more familiar settings.

  18. The modified Poynting theorem and the concept of mutual energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shuang-ren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Xingang; Yang, Xintie

    2015-01-01

    The Poynting theorem is generalized to the modified Poynting theorem. In the modified Poynting theorem the electromagnetic field is superimposition of different electromagnetic fields including the field of retarded potential and advanced potential. The media epsilon (permittivity) and mu (permeability) can also be different in the different fields. The concept of mutual energy is introduced which is the difference between the total energy and self-energy. Using the modified Poynting theorem with the concept of the mutual energy the modified mutual energy theorem is derived. Applying time-offset transform and time integral to the modified mutual energy theorem, the time-correlation modified mutual energy theorem is obtained. Assume there are only two fields which are retarded potential, and there is only one media, the modified time-correlation energy theorem becomes the time-correlation energy theorem, which is also referred as the time-correlation reciprocity theorem. Assume there are two electromagnetic fi...

  19. Coincidence Theorems with Applications to Minimax Inequalities, Section Theorem, Best Approximation and Multiobjective Games in Topological Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei DENG; Ming Ge YANG

    2006-01-01

    Some new coincidence theorems involving admissible set-valued mappings are proved in general noncompact topological spaces. As applications, some new minimax inequalities, section theorem, best approximation theorem, existence theorems of weighted Nash equilibria and Pareto equilibria for multiobjective games are given in general topological spaces.

  20. Limit Theorems For Closed Queuing Networks With Excess Of Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsiashvili, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper limit theorems for closed queuing networks with excess of servers are formulated and proved. First theorem is a variant of the central limit theorem and is proved using classical results of V.I. Romanovskiy for discrete Markov chains. Second theorem considers a convergence to chi square distribution. These theorems are mainly based on an assumption of servers excess in queuing nodes.

  1. Small-scale self-focusing of 200 ps laser pulses in Brillouin amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hang; Wang, Yu-Lei; Lü, Zhi-Wei; Zheng, Zhen-Xing

    2015-09-01

    Brillouin amplification is a new method to obtain high power hundred-picosecond laser pulses for shock ignition. The laser pulse’s intensity can be amplified to 10 GW/cm2 through this method. In order to determine the near-field quality, the relationship between the Brillouin amplification gain and the B integral in the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) energy transfer process was studied, and numerical simulations and calculations were carried out to explain the process. For achieving an output intensity of 10 GW/cm2 under the condition that the effect of small-scale self-focusing is insignificant in the Brillouin amplification, the influence of the configuration parameters on the Brillouin amplification and the B integral was investigated. The results showed that the 10 GW/cm2 high power output can be obtained by optimizing the intensities of the pump and Stokes light and choosing an appropriate SBS medium. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61378007 and 61138005) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. HIT. IBRSEM. A. 201409).

  2. Brillouin scattering, piezobirefringence, and dispersion of photoelastic coefficients of CdS and ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkowicz, R.; Skettrup, Torben

    1975-01-01

    We have measured the dispersion of the Brillouin scattering from acoustoelectrical domains in CdS and ZnO. These spectra are compared with the birefringence spectra obtained by applying uniaxial stress. The resonant cancellation of the Brillouin scattering occurs at the spectral position of the i......We have measured the dispersion of the Brillouin scattering from acoustoelectrical domains in CdS and ZnO. These spectra are compared with the birefringence spectra obtained by applying uniaxial stress. The resonant cancellation of the Brillouin scattering occurs at the spectral position...... of the isotropic point of the stress-induced birefringence. From these spectra it is concluded that the Brillouin scattering in CdS and ZnO is determined by elasto-optic effects alone. The spectra of some of the photoelastic coefficients have been determined. A model dielectric constant is derived where both....... It is found that the exchange interaction between the excitons may change the values of the photoelastic coefficients in ZnO about 10%....

  3. Characterization of Brillouin fiber generator and amplifier for optimized working condition of distributed sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, Fabien; Bao, Xiaoyi; Snoddy, Jeff; Li, Yun; Chen, Liang

    2009-06-01

    The Brillouin fiber amplifier (BFA) has been used in Brillouin optical time and frequency domain analyzer based sensors. For BFA based distributed sensor the optimized working condition is to have the highest Brillouin gain, i.e., highest SNR, which avoids high pump depletion induced gain saturation. We have found that the optimum working condition for distributed sensor system is associated with the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold for BFA, which can be experimentally determined with Stokes power inflexion and/or Stokes spectrum linewidth minimum methods. This threshold depends on both pump and probe power instead of just the pump power as in Brillouin fiber generator (BFG), as well as on sensing length as confirmed by our experimental results and theoretical simulation. This was achieved by introducing the concept of absorption coefficient of the sensing medium defined as the ratio of the total output power to the total input power. We find that the medium absorption is minimized when input Stokes power is an order of magnitude lower than BFA threshold. This minimum is a signature of the balance between maximum Stokes gain and pump depletion which is also the reason why Stokes spectrum linewidth goes through a minimum.

  4. Stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced phase noise in an interferometric fiber sensing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Meng Zhou; Zhou Hui-Juan; Luo Hong

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced phase noise is harmful to interferometric fiber sensing systems. Thelocalized fluctuating model is used to study the intensity noise caused by the stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode fiber.The phase noise structure is analyzed for an interferometric fiber sensing system,and an unbalanced Michelson interferometer with an optical path difference of 1 m,as well as the phase-generated carrier technique,is used to measure the phase noise.It is found that the phase noise is small when the input power is below the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold,increases dramatically at first and then gradually becomes fiat when the input power is above the threshold,which is similar to the variation in relative intensity noise.It can be inferred that the increase in phase noise is mainly due to the broadening of the laser linewidth caused by stimulated Brillouin scattering,which is verified through linewidth measurements in the absence and presence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering.

  5. The Hellmann–Feynman theorem, the comparison theorem, and the envelope theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Semay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The envelope theory is a convenient method to compute approximate solutions for bound state equations in quantum mechanics. It is shown that these approximate solutions obey a kind of Hellmann–Feynman theorem, and that the comparison theorem can be applied to these approximate solutions for two ordered Hamiltonians.

  6. Local conjugacy theorem, rank theorems in advanced calculus and a generalized principle for constructing Banach manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Applications of locally fine property for operators are further developed. Let E and F be Banach spaces and f: be C1 nonlinear map, where U (x0) is an open set containing point x0∈E. With the locally fine property for Frechet derivatives f′(x) and generalized rank theorem for f′(x), a local conjugacy theorem, i.e. a characteristic condition for f being conjugate to f′(x0) near x0,is proved. This theorem gives a complete answer to the local conjugacy problem. Consequently, several rank theorems in advanced calculus are established, including a theorem for C1 Fredholm map which has been so far unknown. Also with this property the concept of regular value is extended, which gives rise to a generalized principle for constructing Banach submanifolds.

  7. Local conjugacy theorem, rank theorems in advanced calculus and a generalized principle for constructing Banach manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马吉溥

    2000-01-01

    Applications of locally fine property for operators are further developed. Let E and F be Banach spaces and f: U( x0) E—→F be C1 nonlinear map, where U (x0) is an open set containing point x0∈ E. With the locally fine property for Frechet derivatives f’ (x) and generalized rank theorem for f ’( x), a local conjugacy theorem, i. e. a characteristic condition for f being conjugate to f (x0) near x0,is proved. This theorem gives a complete answer to the local conjugacy problem. Consequently, several rank theorems in advanced calculus are established, including a theorem for C1 Fredholm map which has been so far unknown. Also with this property the concept of regular value is extended, which gives rise to a generalized principle for constructing Banach submanifolds.

  8. Seven-year-long crack detection monitoring by Brillouin-based fiber optic strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Michio

    2015-03-01

    As an optical fiber is able to act as a sensing medium, a Brillouin-based sensor provides continuous strain information along an optical fiber. The sensor has been used in a wide range of civil engineering applications because no other tool can satisfactorily detect discontinuity such as a crack. Cracking generates a local strain change on the embedded optical fiber, thus Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (BOCDA), which offers a high spatial resolution by stimulated Brillouin scattering, is expected to detect a fine crack on concrete structures. The author installed the surface-mounted optical fiber on a concrete deck and periodically monitored strain distribution for seven years. This paper demonstrates how a BOCDA-based strain sensor can be employed to monitor cracks in a concrete surface. Additionally, focusing on another advantage of the sensor, the natural frequency of the deck is successfully measured by dynamic strain history.

  9. Generalized fluctuation theorems for classical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2015-11-01

    The fluctuation theorem has a very special place in the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of physical systems. The form in which it is used most extensively is the Gallavoti-Cohen fluctuation theorem which is in terms of the distribution of the work p (W )/p (-W )=exp(α W ) . We derive the general form of the fluctuation theorems for an arbitrary multidimensional Gaussian Markov process. Interestingly, the parameter α is by no means universal, hitherto taken for granted in the case of linear Gaussian processes. As a matter of fact, conditions under which α does become a universal parameter 1 /K T are found to be rather restrictive. As an application we consider fluctuation theorems for classical cyclotron motion of an electron in a parabolic potential. The motion of the electron is described by four coupled Langevin equations and thus is nontrivial. The generalized theorems are equally valid for nonequilibrium steady states and could be especially important in the presence of anisotropic diffusion.

  10. Ergodic theorem, ergodic theory, and statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Calvin C

    2015-02-17

    This perspective highlights the mean ergodic theorem established by John von Neumann and the pointwise ergodic theorem established by George Birkhoff, proofs of which were published nearly simultaneously in PNAS in 1931 and 1932. These theorems were of great significance both in mathematics and in statistical mechanics. In statistical mechanics they provided a key insight into a 60-y-old fundamental problem of the subject--namely, the rationale for the hypothesis that time averages can be set equal to phase averages. The evolution of this problem is traced from the origins of statistical mechanics and Boltzman's ergodic hypothesis to the Ehrenfests' quasi-ergodic hypothesis, and then to the ergodic theorems. We discuss communications between von Neumann and Birkhoff in the Fall of 1931 leading up to the publication of these papers and related issues of priority. These ergodic theorems initiated a new field of mathematical-research called ergodic theory that has thrived ever since, and we discuss some of recent developments in ergodic theory that are relevant for statistical mechanics.

  11. WEYL'S TYPE THEOREMS AND HYPERCYCLIC OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.H. M. Rashid

    2012-01-01

    For a bounded operator T acting on an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space H,we prove the following assertions: (i) If T or T* ∈ SC,then generalized aBrowder's theorem holds for f(T) for every f ∈ Hol(σ(T)).(ii) If T or T* ∈ HC has topological uniform descent at all λ ∈ iso(σ(T)),then generalized Weyl's theorem holds for f(T) for every f ∈ Hol(σ(T)).(iii) If T ∈ HC has topological uniform descent at all λ ∈ E(T),then T satisfies generalized Weyl's theorem.(iv) Let T ∈ HC.If T satisfies the growth condition Gd(d ≥ 1),then generalized Weyl's theorem holds for f(T) for every f ∈ Hol(σ(T)).(v) If T ∈ SC,then,f(σSBF-+ (T)) =σSBF-+ (f(T)) for all f ∈ Hol(σ(T)).(vi) Let T be a-isoloid such that T* ∈ HC.If T - λI has finite ascent at every λ ∈ Ea(T)and if F is of finite rank on H such that TF =FT,then T + F obeys generalized a-Weyl's theorem.

  12. Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barukčić, Ilija

    2012-12-01

    In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.

  13. Characterization of red blood cells (RBCs) using dual Brillouin/Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body's tissues and organs. Red blood cell mechanical properties are altered in a number of diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and malaria. Additionally, mechanically modified red blood cell ghosts are being considered as a long-term, biocompatible carrier for drug delivery and for blood analyte sensing. Brillouin spectroscopy enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this report, Brillouin spectroscopy is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts.

  14. Brillouin-scattering measurements of the acoustic absorption coefficient in liquid CS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, R. W.; Detenbeck, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    High-resolution Brillouin spectra were recorded for light scattered at small angles from liquid CS2. The use of a single-mode He-Ne laser, locked in frequency to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, permitted measurements of line widths of the order of 10 MHz for frequencies in the range 300-1000 MHz. These measurements extend previous Brillouin line-width measurements at higher frequencies into the region where relaxation effects are dominant and connect the optical measurements with lower-frequency acoustical data.

  15. Diagnostic techniques for photonic materials based on Raman and Brillouin spectroscopies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mattarelli; M. Ferrari; Y. Jestin; G. Nunzi Conti; S. Pelli; G.C. Righini; S.Caponi; A. Chiappini; M. Montagna; E. Moser; F. Rossi; C.Tosello; C. Armellini; A. Chiasera

    2007-01-01

    The elastic and vibrational properties of a material, bulk or planar waveguide, are studied by Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy to follow the process of nanocrystals growth in glass-ceramics. The nanoparticles cause the appearance, in the low frequency Raman spectrum, of characteristic peaks, whose position depends on the size of the crystals. At the same time, sharp crystal peaks, due to optical phonons, appear in the Raman spectra, allowing the determination of the nucleated phase, and a frequency shift of the Brillouin peaks is observed.

  16. Essential criteria for efficient pulse amplification via Raman and Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Trines, R M G M; Webb, E; Vieira, J; Fiuza, F; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Sadler, J; Ratan, N; Ceurvorst, L; Kasim, M F; Tabak, M; Froula, D; Haberberger, D; Norreys, P A; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R

    2016-01-01

    Raman and Brillouin amplification are two schemes for amplifying and compressing short laser pulses in plasma. Analytical models have already been derived for both schemes, but the full consequences of these models are little known or used. Here, we present new criteria that govern the evolution of the attractor solution for the seed pulse in Raman and Brillouin amplification, and show how the initial laser pulses need to be shaped to control the properties of the final amplified seed and improve the amplification efficiency.

  17. Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on-insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabalis, Christopher J.; Hill, Jeff T.; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    2016-10-01

    We numerically study silicon waveguides on silica showing that it is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI) material system. Thin waveguides, or fins, exhibit geometrically softened mechanical modes at gigahertz frequencies with phase velocities below the Rayleigh velocity in glass, eliminating acoustic radiation losses. We propose slot waveguides on glass with telecom optical frequencies and strong radiation pressure forces resulting in Brillouin gains on the order of 500 and 50 000 W-1m-1 for backward and forward Brillouin scattering, respectively.

  18. Controllable optical delay line using a Brillouin optical fiber ring laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongkang Dong; Zhiwei Lü; Qiang Li; Wei Gao

    2006-01-01

    A controllable optical delay line using a Brillouin optical fiber ring laser is demonstrated and a large timedelay is obtained by cascading two optical fiber segments. In experiment, a single-mode Brillouin opticalfiber ring laser is used to provide Stokes wave as probe wave. We achieve a maximum tunable time delayof 61 ns using two cascading optical fiber segments, about 1.5 times of the input probe pulse width of 40ns. In the meantime, a considerable pulse broadening is observed, which agrees well with the theoreticalprediction based on linear theory.

  19. Performance Analysis of Temperature and Strain Simultaneous Measurement System Based on Heterodyne Detection of Brillouin Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Sheng Zhang; Yong-Qian Li; Shuo Zhang; Li-Juan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Microwave heterodyne detection can be used to measure the temperature and strain distribution along a fiber with high accuracy in a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) system. This method involves simultaneous measurement of Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering in fiber, and scanning of Briliouin spectrum to obtain the desired information. This paper presents a simultaneous measurement system of temperature and strain based on microwave detection and analyzed the system performances such as measurement accuracy, dynamic range, and spatial resolution theoretically. The analysis shows that the system can achieve a temperature resolution of 1℃ and a strain resolution of 100 με.

  20. Brillouin precursor waveforms pertaining to UWB noise radar signals propagating through dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, M.; Alejos, A. V.

    2011-06-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating through causal, linear, and lossy dispersive media (soil, foliage, plasma, water, biological tissue, etc.), experience frequency-dependent attenuation and phase distortion. This has assumed significant importance for systems operating with ultrawideband (UWB) spectrum. This paper analyzes the dynamical evolution of UWB noise radar signals through dispersive media. The effects on the signal propagation due to the evolution of the Brillouin precursor through dispersive media are discussed. The evolving waveforms are then compared with the Brillouin precursor due to rectangular sine-modulated deterministic signals. The advantages of random noise waveforms through dispersive media are also discussed.

  1. Causality, Bell's theorem, and Ontic Definiteness

    CERN Document Server

    Henson, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Bell's theorem shows that the reasonable relativistic causal principle known as "local causality" is not compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics. It is not possible maintain a satisfying causal principle of this type while dropping any of the better-known assumptions of Bell's theorem. However, another assumption of Bell's theorem is the use of classical logic. One part of this assumption is the principle of "ontic definiteness", that is, that it must in principle be possible to assign definite truth values to all propositions treated in the theory. Once the logical setting is clarified somewhat, it can be seen that rejecting this principle does not in any way undermine the type of causal principle used by Bell. Without ontic definiteness, the deterministic causal condition known as Einstein Locality succeeds in banning superluminal influence (including signalling) whilst allowing correlations that violate Bell's inequalities. Objections to altering logic, and the consequences for operational and...

  2. Some Limit Theorems in Geometric Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeh Lam; Yao-hui Zheng; Yuan-lin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Geometric process (GP) was introduced by Lam[4,5], it is defined as a stochastic process {Xn, n =1, 2,...} for which there exists a real number a > 0, such that {an-1Xn, n = 1, 2,...} forms a renewal process (RP). In this paper, we study some limit theorems in GP. We first derive the Wald equation for GP and then obtain the limit theorems of the age, residual life and the total life at t for a GP. A general limit theorem for Sn with a > 1 is also studied. Furthermore, we make a comparison between GP and RP, including the comparison of their limit distributions of the age, residual life and the total life at t.

  3. Bayes' theorem: scientific assessment of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Rutten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is based on experience and this is a scientific procedure if we follow Bayes' theorem. Unfortunately this is not the case at the moment. Symptoms are added to our materia medica based on absolute occurrence, while Bayes theorem tells us that this should be based on relative occurrence. Bayes theorem can be applied on prospective research, but also on retrospective research and consensus based on a large number of cases. Confirmation bias is an important source of false data in experience based systems like homeopathy. Homeopathic doctors should become more aware of this and longer follow-up of cases could remedy this. The existing system of adding symptoms to our materia medica is obsolete.

  4. ``Bloch wave'' modification of stimulated Raman by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, E. S.; Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B.

    2013-03-01

    Using the reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method, we study the coupling of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (BSBS) in regimes where the reflectivity involves the nonlinear behavior of particles trapped in the daughter plasma waves. The temporal envelope of a Langmuir wave (LW) obeys a Schrödinger equation where the potential is the periodic electron density fluctuation resulting from an ion-acoustic wave (IAW). The BSRS-driven LWs in this case have a Bloch wave structure and a modified dispersion due to the BSBS-driven spatially periodic IAW, which includes frequency band gaps at kLW˜kIAW/2˜k0 (kLW, kIAW, and k0 are the wave number of the LW, IAW, and incident pump electromagnetic wave, respectively). This band structure and the associated Bloch wave harmonic components are distinctly observed in RPIC calculations of the electron density fluctuation spectra and this structure may be observable in Thomson scatter. Bloch wave components grow up in the LW spectrum, and are not the result of isolated BSRS. Self-Thomson scattered light from these Bloch wave components can have forward scattering components. The distortion of the LW dispersion curve implies that the usual relationship connecting the frequency shift of the BSRS-scattered light and the density of origin of this light may become inaccurate. The modified LW frequency results in a time-dependent frequency shift that increases as the IAW grows, detunes the BSRS frequency matching condition, and reduces BSRS growth. A dependence of the BSRS reflectivity on the IAW Landau damping results because this damping determines the levels of IAWs. The time-dependent reflectivity in our simulations is characterized by bursts of sub-picosecond pulses of BSRS alternating with multi-ps pulses of BSBS, and BSRS is observed to decline precipitously as soon as SBS begins to grow from low levels. In strong BSBS regimes, the Bloch wave effects in BSRS are

  5. Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Speziale, S.

    2008-10-01

    The single crystal elastic constants Cij and the shear and adiabatic bulk modulus of a natural portlandite (Ca(OH)2) crystal were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The elastic constants, expressed in GPa, are: C11 = 102.0(± 2.0), C12 = 32.1(± 1.0), C13 = 8.4(± 0.4), C14 = 4.5(± 0.2), C33 = 33.6(± 0.7), C44 = 12.0(± 0.3), C66 = (C11-C12)/2 = 35.0(± 1.1), where the numbers in parentheses are 1σ standard deviations. The Reuss bounds of the adiabatic bulk and shear moduli are K0S = 26.0(± 0.3) GPa and G0 = 17.5(± 0.4) GPa, respectively, while the Voigt bounds of these moduli are K0S = 37.3(± 0.4) GPa and G0 = 24.4(± 0.3) GPa. The Reuss and Voigt bounds for the aggregate Young\\'s modulus are 42.8(± 1.0) GPa and 60.0(± 0.8) GPa respectively, while the aggregate Poisson\\'s ratio is equal to 0.23(± 0.01). Portlandite exhibits both large compressional elastic anisotropy with C11/C33 = 3.03(± 0.09) equivalent to that of the isostructural hydroxide brucite (Mg(OH)2), and large shear anisotropy with C66/C44 = 2.92(± 0.12) which is 11% larger than brucite. The comparison between the bulk modulus of portlandite and that of lime (CaO) confirms a systematic linear relationship between the bulk moduli of brucite-type simple hydroxides and the corresponding NaCl-type oxides. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generalizations of the Abstract Boundary singularity theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Whale, Ben E; Scott, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    The Abstract Boundary singularity theorem was first proven by Ashley and Scott. It links the existence of incomplete causal geodesics in strongly causal, maximally extended spacetimes to the existence of Abstract Boundary essential singularities, i.e., non-removable singular boundary points. We give two generalizations of this theorem: the first to continuous causal curves and the distinguishing condition, the second to locally Lipschitz curves in manifolds such that no inextendible locally Lipschitz curve is totally imprisoned. To do this we extend generalized affine parameters from $C^1$ curves to locally Lipschitz curves.

  7. A Noether Theorem for Markov Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Baez, John C

    2012-01-01

    Noether's theorem links the symmetries of a quantum system with its conserved quantities, and is a cornerstone of quantum mechanics. Here we prove a version of Noether's theorem for Markov processes. In quantum mechanics, an observable commutes with the Hamiltonian if and only if its expected value remains constant in time for every state. For Markov processes that no longer holds, but an observable commutes with the Hamiltonian if and only if both its expected value and standard deviation are constant in time for every state.

  8. Spectral mapping theorems a bluffer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Written by an author who was at the forefront of developments in multi-variable spectral theory during the seventies and the eighties, this guide sets out to describe in detail the spectral mapping theorem in one, several and many variables. The basic algebraic systems – semigroups, rings and linear algebras – are summarised, and then topological-algebraic systems, including Banach algebras, to set up the basic language of algebra and analysis. Spectral Mapping Theorems is written in an easy-to-read and engaging manner and will be useful for both the beginner and expert. It will be of great importance to researchers and postgraduates studying spectral theory.

  9. Central Limit Theorem for Nonlinear Hawkes Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lingjiong

    2012-01-01

    Hawkes process is a self-exciting point process with clustering effect whose jump rate depends on its entire past history. It has wide applications in neuroscience, finance and many other fields. Linear Hawkes process has an immigration-birth representation and can be computed more or less explicitly. It has been extensively studied in the past and the limit theorems are well understood. On the contrary, nonlinear Hawkes process lacks the immigration-birth representation and is much harder to analyze. In this paper, we obtain a functional central limit theorem for nonlinear Hawkes process.

  10. Limit theorems for fragmentation processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we extend two limit theorems which were recently obtained for fragmentation processes to such processes with immigration. More precisely, in the setting with immigration we consider a limit theorem for the process counted with a random characteristic as well as the asymptotic behaviour of an empirical measure associated with the stopping line corresponding to the first blocks, in their respective line of descent, that are smaller than a given size. In addition, we determine the asymptotic decay rate of the size of the largest block in a homogeneous fragmentation process with immigration. The techniques used to proves these results are based on submartingale arguments.

  11. Pauli and the spin-statistics theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Duck, Ian M

    1997-01-01

    This book makes broadly accessible an understandable proof of the infamous spin-statistics theorem. This widely known but little-understood theorem is intended to explain the fact that electrons obey the Pauli exclusion principle. This fact, in turn, explains the periodic table of the elements and their chemical properties. Therefore, this one simply stated fact is responsible for many of the principal features of our universe, from chemistry to solid state physics to nuclear physics to the life cycle of stars.In spite of its fundamental importance, it is only a slight exaggeration to say that

  12. Jarzynski's theorem for lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Jarzynski's theorem is a well-known equality in statistical mechanics, which relates fluctuations in the work performed during a non-equilibrium transformation of a system, to the free-energy difference between two equilibrium states. In this article, we extend Jarzynski's theorem to lattice gauge theory, and present examples of applications for two challenging computational problems, namely the calculation of interface free energies and the determination of the equation of state. We conclude with a discussion of further applications of interest in QCD and in other strongly coupled gauge theories, in particular for the Schroedinger functional and for simulations at finite density using reweighting techniques.

  13. Lp-inverse theorem for modified beta operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Jain

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a converse theorem for the linear combinations of modified beta operators whose weight function is the Baskakov operators. To prove our inverse theorem, we use the technique of linear approximating method, namely, Steklov mean.

  14. Application of the residue theorem to bilateral hypergeometric series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Chu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the residue theorem to bilateral hypergeometric series identities is systematically reviewed by exemplifying three classes of summation theorems due to Dougall (1907, Jackson (1949, 1952 and Slater-Lakin (1953.

  15. A duality theorem of crossed coproduct for Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栓宏

    1995-01-01

    A duality theorem for Hopf crossed coproduct is proved. This theorem plays a role similar to that appearing in the work of Koppinen (which generalized the corresponding results of group grraded ring).

  16. An existence theorem for Volterra integrodifferential equations with infinite delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Izsak

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Schauder's fixed point theorem, we prove an existence theorem for Volterra integrodifferential equations with infinite delay. As an appplication, we consider an $n$ species Lotka-Volterra competitive system.

  17. A Note on a Broken-Cycle Theorem for Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinks Martin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whitney’s Broken-cycle Theorem states the chromatic polynomial of a graph as a sum over special edge subsets. We give a definition of cycles in hypergraphs that preserves the statement of the theorem there

  18. Adiabatic limits,vanishing theorems and the noncommutative residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we compute the adiabatic limit of the scalar curvature and prove several vanishing theorems by taking adiabatic limits.As an application,we give a Kastler-Kalau-Walze type theorem for foliations.

  19. A Dual of the Compression-Expansion Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual of the fixed point theorems of compression and expansion of functional type as well as the original Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem. The multi-valued situation is also discussed.

  20. All solid-state diode pumped Nd:YAG MOPA with stimulated Brillouin phase conjugate mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, H.L.; Godfried, H.P.; Witteman, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) a 1 kHz diode-pumped Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) chain with a Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Phase Conjugate mirror is designed and operated. A small Brewster angle Nd:YAG slab (2 by 2 by 20 mm) is side pumped with 200 μ

  1. An L-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with switchable frequency spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefang; Hu, Kongwen; Wei, Yizhen; Bi, Meihua; Yang, Guowei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel L-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser consisting of two ring cavities is proposed and demonstrated. The frequency spacing can be switched, corresponding to the single and double Brillouin frequency shifts, by toggling the optical switch. Under a 980 nm pump power of 600 mw, and a Brillouin pump power of 4 mW and wavelength of 1599.4 nm, up to 16 Stokes signals with a frequency spacing of 0.089 nm and 5 Stokes signals with double spacing of 0.178 nm are generated. A wavelength tunability of 15 nm (1593 nm  -  1608 nm) is realized for both frequency spacings. The fluctuation of Stokes signals for both single and double Brillouin spacing regimes in the proposed setup is less than 1.5 dB throughout a 30 min time span.

  2. Nonlinear Evolutions of Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering Processes in Partially Stripped-Ion Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡业民; 胡希伟

    2001-01-01

    Numerical analyses for the nonlinear evolutions of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) processes are given. Various effects of the second- and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities on the SRS and SBS processes are studied. The nonlinear evolutions of SRS and SBS processes are atfected more efficiently than their linear growth rates by the nonlinear susceptibility.

  3. The performance analysis of distributed Brillouin corrosion sensors for steel reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Zhao, Xuefeng; Kong, Xianglong; Zhang, Pinglei; Cui, Yanjun; Sun, Changsen

    2013-12-27

    The Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA)-based optical fiber method has been proposed to measure strain variations caused by corrosion expansion. Spatial resolutions of 1 m can be achieved with this kind of Brillouin sensor for detecting the distributed strain. However, when the sensing fiber is wound around the steel rebar in a number of circles in a range of several meters, this spatial resolution still has limitations for corrosion monitoring. Here, we employed a low-coherent fiber-optic strain sensor (LCFS) to survey the performance of Brillouin sensors based on the fact that the deformation measured by the LCFS equals the integral of the strains obtained from Brillouin sensors. An electrochemical accelerated corrosion experiment was carried out and the corrosion expansion was monitored by both BOTDA and the LCFS. Results demonstrated that the BOTDA can only measure the expansion strain of about 1,000 με, which was generated by the 18 mm steel rebar corrosion, but, the LCFS had high sensitivity from the beginning of corrosion to the destruction of the structure, and no obvious difference in expansion speed was observed during the acceleration stage of the corrosion developed in the reinforced concrete (RC) specimens. These results proved that the BOTDA method could only be employed to monitor the corrosion inside the structure in the early stage.

  4. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, M C

    1982-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.

  5. Dependence of Brillouin frequency shift on water absorption ratio in polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Kazunari; Koike, Kotaro; Hayashi, Neisei; Koike, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-06-01

    We studied the dependence of the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) on the water-absorption ratio in poly(methyl methacrylate)-based polymer optical fibers (POFs) to clarify the effect of the humidity on POF-based Brillouin sensors. The BFS, deduced indirectly using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, decreased monotonically as the water absorption ratio increased, mainly because of the decrease in the Young's modulus. For the same water absorption ratio, the BFS change was larger at a higher temperature. The maximal BFS changes (absolute values) at 40, 60, and 80 °C were 158, 285, and 510 MHz, respectively (corresponding to the temperature changes of ˜9 °C, ˜16 °C, and ˜30 °C). Thus, some countermeasure against the humidity is indispensable in implementing strain/temperature sensors based on Brillouin scattering in POFs, especially at a higher temperature. On the other hand, Brillouin-based distributed humidity sensors might be developed by exploiting the BFS dependence on water absorption in POFs.

  6. Brillouin scattering study of the ferroelectric phase transition in tris-sarcosine calcium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikita, Tomoyuki; Schnackenberg, Paul; Schmidt, V. Hugo

    1985-01-01

    Brillouin spectra from longitudinal phonons in ferroelectric tris-sarcosine calcium chloride propagating along [100], [010], and [001] have been measured as functions of temperature. Large anomalies were found in the Brillouin shift and linewidth in the [100] and [001] phonons. These anomalies are interpreted as arising from the linear coupling of the polarization and the phonons. From the temperature where the linewidth is maximum, the relaxation time of the polarization fluctuations is estimated to be τ=3.1×10-12/(Tc-T) sec, where Tc is the ferroelectric transition temperature. We also observed anomalies in Brillouin shift and linewidth of the [010] phonons which propagate along the ferroelectric b axis. These anomalies are interpreted as coming from electro- strictive coupling. The energy-relaxation time was estimated to be τE=2.5×10-10/(T-Tc) sec in the paraelectric phase and τE=1.0×10-9/(Tc-T) sec in the ferroelectric phase, by comparing our Brillouin results with those of the ultrasonic measurements.

  7. Student Research Project: Goursat's Other Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In an elementary undergraduate abstract algebra or group theory course, a student is introduced to a variety of methods for constructing and deconstructing groups. What seems to be missing from contemporary texts and syllabi is a theorem, first proved by Edouard Jean-Baptiste Goursat (1858-1936) in 1889, which completely describes the subgroups of…

  8. Answering Junior Ant's "Why" for Pythagoras' Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pask, Colin

    2002-01-01

    A seemingly simple question in a cartoon about Pythagoras' Theorem is shown to lead to questions about the nature of mathematical proof and the profound relationship between mathematics and science. It is suggested that an analysis of the issues involved could provide a good vehicle for classroom discussions or projects for senior students.…

  9. Crum's Theorem for `Discrete' Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu

    2009-01-01

    In one-dimensional quantum mechanics, or the Sturm-Liouville theory, Crum's theorem describes the relationship between the original and the associated Hamiltonian systems, which are iso-spectral except for the lowest energy state. Its counterpart in `discrete' quantum mechanics is formulated algebraically, elucidating the basic structure of the discrete quantum mechanics, whose Schr\\"odinger equation is a difference equation.

  10. Stokes' theorem, volume growth and parabolicity

    CERN Document Server

    Valtorta, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    We present some new Stokes'type theorems on complete non-compact manifolds that extend, in different directions, previous work by Gaffney and Karp and also the so called Kelvin-Nevanlinna-Royden criterion for (p-)parabolicity. Applications to comparison and uniqueness results involving the p-Laplacian are deduced.

  11. Generalized Friedland's theorem for C0-semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Dariusz; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan

    2008-07-01

    Friedland's characterization of bounded normal operators is shown to hold for infinitesimal generators of C0-semigroups. New criteria for normality of bounded operators are furnished in terms of Hamburger moment problem. All this is achieved with the help of the celebrated Ando's theorem on paranormal operators.

  12. An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Tod, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We analyse conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem.

  13. Agreement Theorems in Dynamic-Epistemic Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degremont, Cedric; Roy, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces Agreement Theorems to dynamic-epistemic logic. We show first that common belief of posteriors is sufficient for agreement in epistemic-plausibility models, under common and well-founded priors. We do not restrict ourselves to the finite case, showing that in countable structure

  14. Lagrange’s Four-Square Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watase Yasushige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a formalized proof of the so-called “the four-square theorem”, namely any natural number can be expressed by a sum of four squares, which was proved by Lagrange in 1770. An informal proof of the theorem can be found in the number theory literature, e.g. in [14], [1] or [23].

  15. 1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness res...

  16. Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.

  17. On the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamashita

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem is extended to functions of class PL in the sense of E. F. Beckenbach and T. Radó, with a more precise expression of the absolute constant in the inequality. As applications we deduce some results on hyperbolic Hardy classes in terms of the non-Euclidean hyperbolic distance in the unit disk.

  18. The central limit theorem and chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Ying-xuan

    2009-01-01

    Let X be a compact metric space and f : X → X be a continuous map. This paper studies some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems.It is shown that if f satisfies the central limit theorem, then f is topologically ergodic and f is sensitively dependent on initial conditions if and only if f is neither minimal nor equicontinuous.

  19. A Generalized Krein-Rutman Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A generalized Krein-Rutman theorem for a strongly positive bounded linear operator whose spectral radius is larger than essential spectral radius is established: the spectral radius of the operator is an algebraically simple eigenvalue with strongly positive eigenvector and other eigenvalues are less than the spectral radius.

  20. A non-archimedean Montel's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles; Trucco, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    We prove a version of Montel's theorem for analytic functions over a non-archimedean complete valued field. We propose a definition of normal family in this context, and give applications of our results to the dynamics of non-archimedean entire functions.

  1. The Fundamental Theorems of Interval Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Emden, M. H.; Moa, B.

    2007-01-01

    Expressions are not functions. Confusing the two concepts or failing to define the function that is computed by an expression weakens the rigour of interval arithmetic. We give such a definition and continue with the required re-statements and proofs of the fundamental theorems of interval arithmetic and interval analysis. Revision Feb. 10, 2009: added reference to and acknowledgement of P. Taylor.

  2. A cosmological no-hair theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, C M; Chris M Chambers; Ian G Moss

    1994-01-01

    A generalisation of Price's theorem is given for application to Inflationary Cosmologies. Namely, we show that on a Schwarzschild--de Sitter background there are no static solutions to the wave or gravitational perturbation equations for modes with angular momentum greater than their intrinsic spin.

  3. Multiplier theorems for special Hermite expansions on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震球; 郑维行

    2000-01-01

    The weak type (1,1) estimate for special Hermite expansions on Cn is proved by using the Calderon-Zygmund decomposition. Then the multiplier theorem in Lp(1 < p < ω ) is obtained. The special Hermite expansions in twisted Hardy space are also considered. As an application, the multipli-ers for a certain kind of Laguerre expansions are given in Lp space.

  4. JACKSON‘S THEOREM FOR COMPACT GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Vaezi; S.F.Rzaev

    2002-01-01

    In this article we consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf)(g)=∫Gf(tut-1g)dt on compact group G and by help of this operator we define “Spherical” modulus of continuity.So we prove Stechkin and Jackson type theorems.

  5. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

  6. SOME REFINEMENTS OF ENESTROM-KAKEYA THEOREM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Aziz; B.A.Zargar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present certain interesting refinements of a well-known Enestrom-Kakeya theorem in the theory of distribution of zeros of polynomials which among other things also improve upon some results of Aziz and Mohammad, Govil and Rehman and others.

  7. Nash-Williams’ cycle-decomposition theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We give an elementary proof of the theorem of Nash-Williams that a graph has an edge-decomposition into cycles if and only if it does not contain an odd cut. We also prove that every bridgeless graph has a collection of cycles covering each edge at least once and at most 7 times. The two results...

  8. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values.

  9. Automated theorem proving theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2001-01-01

    As the 21st century begins, the power of our magical new tool and partner, the computer, is increasing at an astonishing rate. Computers that perform billions of operations per second are now commonplace. Multiprocessors with thousands of little computers - relatively little! -can now carry out parallel computations and solve problems in seconds that only a few years ago took days or months. Chess-playing programs are on an even footing with the world's best players. IBM's Deep Blue defeated world champion Garry Kasparov in a match several years ago. Increasingly computers are expected to be more intelligent, to reason, to be able to draw conclusions from given facts, or abstractly, to prove theorems-the subject of this book. Specifically, this book is about two theorem-proving programs, THEO and HERBY. The first four chapters contain introductory material about automated theorem proving and the two programs. This includes material on the language used to express theorems, predicate calculus, and the rules of...

  10. A non-differentiable Noether's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Jacky; Greff, Isabelle

    2011-02-01

    In the framework of the nondifferentiable embedding of Lagrangian systems, defined by Cresson and Greff [non-dierentiable embedding of lagrangian systems and partial dierential equations. Preprint Max-Plank-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Leipzig 16, 26 (2010)], we prove a Noether's theorem based on the lifting of one-parameter groups of diffeomorphisms.

  11. Some Generalizations of Jungck's Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to generalize the Jungck's fixed point theorem for commuting mappings by mean of the concepts of altering distance functions and compatible pair of mappings, as well as, by using contractive inequalities of integral type and contractive inequalities depending on another function.

  12. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  13. Generalization of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, J.G., E-mail: esteve@unizar.e [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Biocomputacion y Fisica de Sistemas complejos (BIFI), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Falceto, Fernando [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Biocomputacion y Fisica de Sistemas complejos (BIFI), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia Canal, C. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and IFLP-CONICET (Argentina)

    2010-01-25

    The well-known Hellmann-Feynman theorem of quantum mechanics connected with the derivative of the eigenvalues with respect to a parameter upon which the Hamiltonian depends, is generalized to include cases in which the domain of definition of the Hamiltonian of the system also depends on that parameter.

  14. Generalizations of Brandl's theorem on Engel length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S. G.; Wong, K. B.; Wong, P. C.

    2013-04-01

    Let n Engel cycle generated by g and h. The length of the Engel cycle is m-n. A group G is said to have Engel length r, if all the length of the Engel cycles in G divides r. In this paper we discuss the Brandl's theorem on Engel length and give some of its generalizations.

  15. A simpler derivation of the coding theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Lomnitz, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    A simple proof for the Shannon coding theorem, using only the Markov inequality, is presented. The technique is useful for didactic purposes, since it does not require many preliminaries and the information density and mutual information follow naturally in the proof. It may also be applicable to situations where typicality is not natural.

  16. Norton's theorem for batch routing queueing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bause, Falko; Boucherie, Richard J.; Buchholz, Peter

    2001-01-01

    This paper shows that the aggregation and decomposition result known as Norton’s theorem for queueing networks can be extended to a general class of batch routing queueing networks with product-form solution that allows for multiple components to simultaneously release and receive (batches of) custo

  17. Nonempty intersection theorems in topological spaces with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min FANG; Nan-jing HUANG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we establish some new nonempty intersection theorems for generalized L-KKM mappings and prove some new fixed point theorems for set-valued mappings under suitable conditions in topological spaces.As applications,an existence theorem for an equilibrium problem with lower and upper bounds and two existence theorems for a quasi-equilibrium problem with lower and upper bounds are obtained in topological spaces.Our results generalize some known results in the literature.

  18. Two Theorems on Calculating the Relative Entropy of Entanglement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng-Jun; ZHANG Yong-De; WU Qiang

    2001-01-01

    We present two theorems on calculating the relative entropy of entanglement. Theorem 1 is an extension of Vedral and Plenio's theorem (Phys. Rev. A 57 (1998) 1619) for pure states, which is useful for calculating the relative entropy of entanglement for all pure states as well as for a class of mixed states. Theorem 2 gives the relative entropy of entanglement for any bipartite state whose tripartite purification has two separable reduced bipartite states.

  19. Ehrenfest theorem, Galilean invariance and nonlinear Schr"odinger equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kälbermann, G

    2003-01-01

    Galilean invariant Schr"odinger equations possessing nonlinear terms coupling the amplitude and the phase of the wave function can violate the Ehrenfest theorem. An example of this kind is provided. The example leads to the proof of the theorem: A Galilean invariant Schr"odinger equation derived from a lagrangian density obeys the Ehrenfest theorem. The theorem holds for any linear or nonlinear lagrangian.

  20. Applications of square-related theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2014-04-01

    The square centre of a given square is the point of intersection of its two diagonals. When two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre, there are in general four diagonals that go through the same square centre. The Two Squares Theorem developed in this paper summarizes some nice theoretical conclusions that can be obtained when two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre. These results provide the theoretical basis for two of the constructions given in the book of H.S. Hall and F.H. Stevens , 'A Shorter School Geometry, Part 1, Metric Edition'. In page 134 of this book, the authors present, in exercise 4, a practical construction which leads to a verification of the Pythagorean theorem. Subsequently in Theorems 29 and 30, the authors present the standard proofs of the Pythagorean theorem and its converse. In page 140, the authors present, in exercise 15, what amounts to a geometric construction, whose verification involves a simple algebraic identity. Both the constructions are of great importance and can be replicated by using the standard equipment provided in a 'geometry toolbox' carried by students in high schools. The author hopes that the results proved in this paper, in conjunction with the two constructions from the above-mentioned book, would provide high school students an appreciation of the celebrated theorem of Pythagoras. The diagrams that accompany this document are based on the free software GeoGebra. The author formally acknowledges his indebtedness to the creators of this free software at the end of this document.

  1. Proof of the Ergodic Theorem and the H-Theorem in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    von Neumann, John

    2010-01-01

    It is shown how to resolve the apparent contradiction between the macroscopic approach of phase space and the validity of the uncertainty relations. The main notions of statistical mechanics are re-interpreted in a quantum-mechanical way, the ergodic theorem and the H-theorem are formulated and proven (without "assumptions of disorder"), followed by a discussion of the physical meaning of the mathematical conditions characterizing their domain of validity.

  2. A Simple Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Averaging Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    The connection between single phase transport phenomena and multiphase transport phenomena is easily accomplished by means of the spatial averaging theorem. Although different routes to the theorem have been used, this paper provides a route to the averaging theorem that can be used in undergraduate classes. (JN)

  3. A remark on Kov\\'acs' vanishing theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Fujino, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    We give an alternative proof of Kov\\'acs' vanishing theorem. Our proof is based on the standard arguments of the minimal model theory. We do not need the notion of Du Bois pairs. We reduce Kov\\'acs' vanishing theorem to the well-known relative Kawamata--Viehweg--Nadel vanishing theorem.

  4. ON COLLECTIVELY FIXED POINT THEOREMS ON FC-SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjie Piao

    2010-01-01

    Based on a KKM type theorem on FC-space,some new fixed point theorems for Fan-Browder type are established,and then some collectively fixed point theorems for a family of Φ-maps defined on product space of FC-spaees are given.These results generalize and improve many corresponding results.

  5. The Interpretability of Inconsistency: Feferman's Theorem and Related Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an exposition of Feferman's Theorem concerning the interpretability of inconsistency and of further insights directly connected to this result. Feferman's Theorem is a strengthening of the Second Incompleteness Theorem. It says, in metaphorical paraphrase, that it is not just the case

  6. High-resolution long-reach distributed Brillouin sensing based on combined time-domain and correlation-domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elooz, David; Antman, Yair; Levanon, Nadav; Zadok, Avi

    2014-03-24

    A new scheme for distributed Brillouin sensing of strain and temperature in optical fibers is proposed, analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The technique combines between time-domain and correlation-domain analysis. Both Brillouin pump and signal waves are repeatedly co-modulated by a relatively short, high-rate phase sequence, which introduces Brillouin interactions in a large number of discrete correlation peaks. In addition, the pump wave is also modulated by a single amplitude pulse, which leads to a temporal separation between the generation of different peaks. The Brillouin amplification of the signal wave at individual peak locations is resolved in the time domain. The technique provides the high spatial resolution and long range of unambiguous measurement offered by correlation-domain Brillouin analysis, together with reduced acquisition time through the simultaneous interrogation of a large number of resolution points. In addition, perfect Golomb codes are used in the phase modulation of the two waves instead of random sequences, in order to reduce noise due to residual, off-peak Brillouin interactions. The principle of the method is supported by extensive numerical simulations. Using the proposed scheme, the Brillouin gain spectrum is mapped experimentally along a 400 m-long fiber under test with a spatial resolution of 2 cm, or 20,000 resolution points, with only 127 scans per choice of frequency offset between pump and signal. Compared with corresponding phase-coded, Brillouin correlation domain analysis schemes with equal range and resolution, the acquisition time is reduced by a factor of over 150. A 5 cm-long hot spot, located towards the output end of the pump wave, is properly identified in the measurements. The method represents a significant advance towards practical high-resolution and long range Brillouin sensing systems.

  7. Causarum Investigatio and the Two Bell's Theorems of John Bell

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, Howard M

    2015-01-01

    "Bell's theorem" can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the joint assumptions of Locality and Predetermination. His 1976 theorem is their incompatibility with the single property of Local Causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with the assumption of Local Causality, even if not by that name. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not. Hence, the earlier and later theorems suggest quite different conclusions, embraced by operationalists and realists, respectively. The key issue is whether Locality or Local Causality is the appropriate notion emanating from Relativistic Causality, and this rests on one's basic notion of causation. For operationalists the appropriate notion is what is here called the Principle of Agent-Causation, while for realists it is Reichenbach's Principle of common cause. By...

  8. Parameterized quantum field theory without Haag's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Seidewitz, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Under the normal assumptions of quantum field theory, Haag's theorem states that any field unitarily equivalent to a free field must itself be a free field. Unfortunately, the derivation of the Dyson series perturbation expansion relies on the use of the interaction picture, in which the interacting field is unitarily equivalent to the free field but must still account for interactions. Thus, the traditional perturbative derivation of the scattering matrix in quantum field theory is mathematically ill defined. Nevertheless, perturbative quantum field theory is currently the only practical approach for addressing scattering for realistic interactions, and it has been spectacularly successful in making empirical predictions. This paper explains this success by showing that quantum field theory can be formulated, using an invariant, fifth path parameter in addition to the usual four position parameters, in such a way that Haag's theorem no longer applies, but such that the Dyson perturbation expansion for the sc...

  9. De Finetti theorems for easy quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Banica, Teodor; Speicher, Roland

    2009-01-01

    We study sequences of noncommutative random variables which are invariant under "quantum transformations" coming from an orthogonal quantum group satisfying the "easiness" condition axiomatized in our previous paper. For 10 easy quantum groups, we obtain de Finetti type theorems characterizing the joint distribution of any infinite, quantum invariant sequence. In particular, we give a new and unified proof of the classical results of de Finetti and Freedman for the easy groups S_n, O_n, which is based on the combinatorial theory of cumulants. We also recover the free de Finetti theorem of K\\"ostler and Speicher, and the characterization of operator-valued free semicircular families due to Curran. We consider also finite sequences, and prove an approximation result in the spirit of Diaconis and Freedman.

  10. A noncommutative extended de Finetti theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Köstler, Claus

    2008-01-01

    The extended de Finetti theorem characterizes exchangeable infinite random sequences as conditionally i.i.d. and shows that the apparently weaker distributional symmetry of spreadability is equivalent to exchangeability. Our main result is a noncommutative version of this theorem. In contrast to the classical result of Ryll-Nadzewski, exchangeability turns out to be stronger than spreadability for infinite noncommutative random sequences. Out of our investigations emerges noncommutative conditional independence in terms of a von Neumann algebraic structure closely related to Popa's notion of commuting squares and K\\"ummerer's generalized Bernoulli shifts. Our main result is applicable to classical probability, quantum probability, in particular free probability, braid group representations and Jones subfactors.

  11. H-theorem in quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovik, G. B.; Lebedev, A. V.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Suslov, M. V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing entropy.

  12. Noether theorem for {mu}-symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicogna, Giampaolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B Pontecorvo 3, 50127 Pisa (Italy); Gaeta, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Milano, via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2007-09-28

    We give a version of Noether theorem adapted to the framework of {mu}-symmetries; this extends to such case recent work by Muriel, Romero and Olver in the framework of {lambda}-symmetries, and connects {mu}-symmetries of a Lagrangian to a suitably modified conservation law. In some cases this '{mu}-conservation law' actually reduces to a standard one; we also note a relation between {mu}-symmetries and conditional invariants. We also consider the case where the variational principle is itself formulated as requiring vanishing variation under {mu}-prolonged variation fields, leading to modified Euler-Lagrange equations. In this setting, {mu}-symmetries of the Lagrangian correspond to standard conservation laws as in the standard Noether theorem. We finally propose some applications and examples.

  13. H-theorem in quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovik, G B; Lebedev, A V; Sadovskyy, I A; Suslov, M V; Vinokur, V M

    2016-09-12

    Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing entropy.

  14. Wigner-Eckart theorem for induced symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, D.J. (Texas A and M University, Galveston (USA). Department of Marine Sciences); Seligman, T.H. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica)

    1982-01-01

    A unified treatment is given for all group-theoretic problems arising from the evaluation of matrix elements involving operators and states of induced symmetries. To achieve this general treatment two group-theoretic theorems are proven, the first characterizing recoupling coefficients between different symmetry adaptation schemes, and the second making a double coset factorization of a group algebraic matrix basis element. A number of problems previously discussed in the literature, including the conventional Wigner-Eckart theorem and more recent double coset expansions of matrix elements, are realized as special cases in the present treatment. These results entail two new types of recoupling coefficients, namely DC coefficients and 3-symmetry symbols, so that some of their properties are indicated.

  15. Locomotion in complex fluids: Integral theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The biological fluids encountered by self-propelled cells display complex microstructures and rheology. We consider here the general problem of low-Reynolds number locomotion in a complex fluid. {Building on classical work on the transport of particles in viscoelastic fluids,} we demonstrate how to mathematically derive three integral theorems relating the arbitrary motion of an isolated organism to its swimming kinematics {in a non-Newtonian fluid}. These theorems correspond to three situations of interest, namely (1) squirming motion in a linear viscoelastic fluid, (2) arbitrary surface deformation in a weakly non-Newtonian fluid, and (3) small-amplitude deformation in an arbitrarily non-Newtonian fluid. Our final results, valid for a wide-class of {swimmer geometry,} surface kinematics and constitutive models, at most require mathematical knowledge of a series of Newtonian flow problems, and will be useful to quantity the locomotion of biological and synthetic swimmers in complex environments.

  16. An Equivalent Gauge and the Equivalence Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    I describe a novel covariant formulation of massive gauge theories in which the longitudinal polarization vectors do not grow with the energy. Therefore in the present formalism, differently from the ordinary one, the energy and coupling power-counting is completely transparent at the level of individual Feynman diagrams, with obvious advantages both at the conceptual and practical level. Since power-counting is transparent, the high-energy limit of the amplitudes involving longitudinal particles is immediately taken, and the Equivalence Theorem is easily demonstrated at all orders in perturbation theory. Since the formalism makes the Equivalence Theorem self-evident, and because it is based on a suitable choice of the gauge, we can call it an "Equivalent Gauge".

  17. Multideviations: The hidden structure of Bell's theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Fogel, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Specification of the strongest possible Bell inequalities for arbitrarily complicated physical scenarios -- any number of observers choosing between any number of observables with any number of possible outcomes -- is currently an open problem. Here I provide a new set of tools, which I refer to as "multideviations", for finding and analyzing these inequalities for the fully general case. In Part I, I introduce the multideviation framework and then use it to prove an important theorem: the Bell distributions can be generated from the set of joint distributions over all observables by deeming specific degrees of freedom unobservable. In Part II, I show how the theorem provides a new method for finding tight Bell inequalities. I then specify a set of new tight Bell inequalities for arbitrary event spaces -- the "even/odd" inequalities -- which have a straightforward interpretation when expressed in terms of multideviations. The even/odd inequalities concern degrees of freedom that are independent of those invol...

  18. Generalized Sampling Theorem for Bandpass Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokes Ales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of an unknown continuously defined function from the samples of the responses of linear time-invariant (LTI systems sampled by the th Nyquist rate is the aim of the generalized sampling. Papoulis (1977 provided an elegant solution for the case where is a band-limited function with finite energy and the sampling rate is equal to times cutoff frequency. In this paper, the scope of the Papoulis theory is extended to the case of bandpass signals. In the first part, a generalized sampling theorem (GST for bandpass signals is presented. The second part deals with utilizing this theorem for signal recovery from nonuniform samples, and an efficient way of computing images of reconstructing functions for signal recovery is discussed.

  19. Generalized Sampling Theorem for Bandpass Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokes, Ales

    2006-12-01

    The reconstruction of an unknown continuously defined function[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] from the samples of the responses of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] linear time-invariant (LTI) systems sampled by the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]th Nyquist rate is the aim of the generalized sampling. Papoulis (1977) provided an elegant solution for the case where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a band-limited function with finite energy and the sampling rate is equal to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] times cutoff frequency. In this paper, the scope of the Papoulis theory is extended to the case of bandpass signals. In the first part, a generalized sampling theorem (GST) for bandpass signals is presented. The second part deals with utilizing this theorem for signal recovery from nonuniform samples, and an efficient way of computing images of reconstructing functions for signal recovery is discussed.

  20. Fluctuation theorem for constrained equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Thomas; Dorfman, J. Robert

    2006-02-01

    We discuss the fluctuation properties of equilibrium chaotic systems with constraints such as isokinetic and Nosé-Hoover thermostats. Although the dynamics of these systems does not typically preserve phase-space volumes, the average phase-space contraction rate vanishes, so that the stationary states are smooth. Nevertheless, finite-time averages of the phase-space contraction rate have nontrivial fluctuations which we show satisfy a simple version of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, complementary to the usual fluctuation theorem for nonequilibrium stationary states and appropriate to constrained equilibrium states. Moreover, we show that these fluctuations are distributed according to a Gaussian curve for long enough times. Three different systems are considered here: namely, (i) a fluid composed of particles interacting with Lennard-Jones potentials, (ii) a harmonic oscillator with Nosé-Hoover thermostatting, and (iii) a simple hyperbolic two-dimensional map.

  1. Single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghui; Zhang, Xuping; Hu, Junhui; Xia, Lan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally. In the filter, the multiwavelength Brillouin comb generated from the laser is used as the filter taps. The Brillouin comb is with the feature of quasi-Gaussian continuous distribution, which can ensure the filter realizes single-passband characteristic. The baseband response is suppressed effectively with the help of phase modulation. The single-passband filter has an out-of-band rejection of 25 dB. By adjusting the Brillouin multiwavelengh, the 3-dB bandwidth and the center frequency of the filter can be changed.

  2. Distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor with centimeter spatial resolution by coherent probe-pump technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Bao, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yidun; Ravet, Fabien; Chen, Liang

    2005-05-01

    We present a sensing principle of the distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor by coherent probe-pump technique that offers a new method to achieve centimeter spatial resolution with high frequency resolution. A combination of continuous wave (cw) and pulse source as the probe (Stokes) beam and cw laser as the pump beam have resulted in stronger Brillouin interaction of Stokes and pump inside the pulse-length in the form of cw-pump and pulse-pump interactions. We find that the coherent portion inside the pulse-length of these two interactions due to the same phase has a very high Brillouin amplification. The Brillouin profile originating from the coherent interaction of pulse-pump with cw-pump results in high temperature and strain accuracy with centimeter resolution, which has been verified by successfully detecting 1.5 cm out-layer crack on an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable.

  3. Optimization of output coupling ratio on the performance of a ring-cavity Brillouin-erbium fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Saripan, M Iqbal; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi

    2009-09-20

    The operation of a single-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) system with a Brillouin pump preamplified technique for different output coupling ratios in a ring cavity is experimentally demonstrated. The characteristics of Brillouin Stokes power and tunability were investigated in this research. The efficiency of the BEFL operation was obtained at an optimum output coupling ratio of 95%. By fixing the Brillouin pump wavelength at 1550 nm while its power was set at 1.6 mW and the 1480 pump power was set to its maximum value of 135 mW, the Brillioun Stokes power was found to be 28.7 mW. The Stokes signal can be tuned within a range of 60 nm from 1520 to 1580 nm without appearances of the self-lasing cavity modes in the laser system.

  4. Simultaneous DOA estimation based on Kolmogorov's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Nájar Martón, Montserrat; Lagunas Hernandez, Miguel A.

    1993-01-01

    The design of a new architecture for signal processing, based on the Kolmogorov's theorem (1957), is addressed. This architecture is applied to solve the problem of source separation. Particularly, an adaptive algorithm is proposed to separate simultaneously all the unknown impinging sources on an aperture of sensors. The implemented framework is composed of two different stages: the first one is the inhibition stage, which turns the problem of estimating simultaneous DOAs (directions of arri...

  5. Hildebrandt's theorem for the essential spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Bračič

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a variant of Hildebrandt's theorem which asserts that the convex hull of the essential spectrum of an operator \\(A\\ on a complex Hilbert space is equal to the intersection of the essential numerical ranges of operators which are similar to \\(A\\. As a consequence, it is given a necessary and sufficient condition for zero not being in the convex hull of the essential spectrum of \\(A\\.

  6. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  7. Theorems for Asymptotic Safety of Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We classify the weakly interacting fixed points of general gauge theories coupled to matter and explain how the competition between gauge and matter fluctuations gives rise to a rich spectrum of high- and low-energy fixed points. The pivotal role played by Yukawa couplings is emphasized. Necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic safety of gauge theories are also derived, in conjunction with strict no go theorems. Implications for phase diagrams of gauge theories and physics beyond the Standard Model are indicated.

  8. Resource Adaptive Agents in Interactive Theorem Proving

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a resource adaptive agent mechanism which supports the user in interactive theorem proving. The mechanism uses a two layered architecture of agent societies to suggest appropriate commands together with possible command argument instantiations. Experiments with this approach show that its effectiveness can be further improved by introducing a resource concept. In this paper we provide an abstract view on the overall mechanism, motivate the necessity of an appropriate resource concept and discuss its realization within the agent architecture.

  9. Reciprocity Theorems for Ab Initio Force Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, C; Mele, E J; Rappe, A M; Lewis, Steven P.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for calculating ab initio interatomic forces which scales quadratically with the size of the system and provides a physically transparent representation of the force in terms of the spatial variation of the electronic charge density. The method is based on a reciprocity theorem for evaluating an effective potential acting on a charged ion in the core of each atom. We illustrate the method with calculations for diatomic molecules.

  10. Bell's theorem without inequalities and without alignments

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2003-01-01

    A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities is presented which exhibits three remarkable properties: (a) reduced local states are immune to collective decoherence, (b) local setups do not need to be aligned, since the required perfect correlations are achieved for any local rotation of the local setups, and (c) local measurements require only individual measurements on the qubits. Indeed, it is shown that this proof is essentially the only one which fulfils (a), (b), and (c).

  11. On the equivalence theorem for integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melikyan, A; Rivelles, V O

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the equivalence theorem for integrable systems using two formulations of the Alday-Arutyunov-Frolov model. We show that the S-matrix is invariant under the field transformation which reduces the non-linear Dirac brackets of one formulation into the standard commutation relations in the second formulation. We also explain how to perform the direct diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian by constructing the states corresponding to self-adjoint extensions.

  12. Hyperplane arrangements and Lefschetz's hyperplane section theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    The Lefschetz hyperplane section theorem asserts that a complex affine variety is homotopy equivalent to a space obtained from its generic hyperplane section by attaching some cells. The purpose of this paper is to give an explicit description of attaching maps of these cells for the complement of a complex hyperplane arrangement defined over real numbers. The cells and attaching maps are described in combinatorial terms of chambers. We also discuss the cellular chain complex with coefficient...

  13. Bezout's theorem and Cohen-Macaulay modules

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We define very proper intersections of modules and projective subschemes. It turns out that equidimensional locally Cohen-Macaulay modules intersect very properly if and only if they intersect properly. We prove a Bezout theorem for modules which meet very properly. Furthermore, we show for equidimensional subschemes $X$ and $Y$: If they intersect properly in an arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay subscheme of positive dimension then $X$ and $Y$ are arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay. The module version...

  14. Carnot's theorem and Szil\\'ard engine

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Liangsuo; Huang, Suyi; Jin, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between Carnot engine and Szil\\'ard engine was discussed. By defining the available information about the temperature difference between two heat reservoirs, the Carnot engine was found to have a same physical essence with Szil\\'ard engine: lossless conversion of available information. Thus, a generalized Carnot's theorem for wider scope of application can be described as "all the available information is 100% coded into work".

  15. Volume Integral Theorem for Exotic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong; Kumar, K. B. Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    We answer an important question in general relativity about the volume integral theorem for exotic matter by suggesting an exact integral quantifier for matter violating Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). It is checked against some well known static, spherically symmetric traversable wormhole solutions of general relativity with a sign reversed kinetic term minimally coupled scalar field. The improved quantifier is consistent with the principle that traversable wormholes can be supported ...

  16. The "Nernst Theorem" and Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wald, R M

    1997-01-01

    The Nernst formulation of the third law of ordinary thermodynamics (often referred to as the ``Nernst theorem'') asserts that the entropy, $S$, of a system must go to zero (or a ``universal constant'') as its temperature, $T$, goes to zero. This assertion is commonly considered to be a fundamental law of thermodynamics. As such, it seems to spoil the otherwise perfect analogy between the ordinary laws of thermodynamics and the laws of black hole mechanics, since rotating black holes in general relativity do not satisfy the analog of the ``Nernst theorem''. The main purpose of this paper is to attempt to lay to rest the ``Nernst theorem'' as a law of thermodynamics. We consider a boson (or fermion) ideal gas with its total angular momentum, $J$, as an additional state parameter, and we analyze the conditions on the single particle density of states, $g(\\epsilon,j)$, needed for the Nernst formulation of the third law to hold. (Here, $\\epsilon$ and $j$ denote the single particle energy and angular momentum.) Alt...

  17. Haag's Theorem and Parameterized Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidewitz, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    ``Haag's theorem is very inconvenient; it means that the interaction picture exists only if there is no interaction''. In traditional quantum field theory (QFT), Haag's theorem states that any field unitarily equivalent to a free field must itself be a free field. But the derivation of the Dyson series perturbation expansion relies on the use of the interaction picture, in which the interacting field is unitarily equivalent to the free field, but which must still account for interactions. So, the usual derivation of the scattering matrix in QFT is mathematically ill defined. Nevertheless, perturbative QFT is currently the only practical approach for addressing realistic scattering, and it has been very successful in making empirical predictions. This success can be understood through an alternative derivation of the Dyson series in a covariant formulation of QFT using an invariant, fifth path parameter in addition to the usual four position parameters. The parameterization provides an additional degree of freedom that allows Haag's Theorem to be avoided, permitting the consistent use of a form of interaction picture in deriving the Dyson expansion. The extra symmetry so introduced is then broken by the choice of an interacting vacuum.

  18. Detrimental Effect Elimination of Laser Frequency Instability in Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer by Using Self-Heterodyne Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqian Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful method for eliminating the detrimental effect of laser frequency instability on Brillouin signals by employing the self-heterodyne detection of Rayleigh and Brillouin scattering is presented. From the analysis of Brillouin scattering spectra from fibers with different lengths measured by heterodyne detection, the maximum usable pulse width immune to laser frequency instability is obtained to be about 4 µs in a self-heterodyne detection Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR system using a broad-band laser with low frequency stability. Applying the self-heterodyne detection of Rayleigh and Brillouin scattering in BOTDR system, we successfully demonstrate that the detrimental effect of laser frequency instability on Brillouin signals can be eliminated effectively. Employing the broad-band laser modulated by a 130-ns wide pulse driven electro-optic modulator, the observed maximum errors in temperatures measured by the local heterodyne and self-heterodyne detection BOTDR systems are 7.9 °C and 1.2 °C, respectively.

  19. Photonic crystal fiber-based multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser with dual-pass amplification configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Parvizi; S. W. Harun; N. M. Ali; N. S. Shahabuddin; H. Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    @@ A simple technique for achieving a stable, room temperature and multi-wavelength lasing with narrow linewidth is demonstrated using Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) with a 100-m-long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in conjunction with a dual-pass configuration. A broadband fiber Bragg grating (FBG) operating in the C-band region is incorporated at the end side of the setup to allow a dual-pass operation. The proposed BFL can operate at any wavelength depending on the Brillouin pump wavelength and the FBG's reflection region used. With a Brillouin pump (BP) of 15.7 dBm, approximately 7 Stokes and 4 anti-Stokes lines are obtained with a line spacing of 0.08 nm.%A simple technique for achieving a stable, room temperature and multi-wavelength lasing with narrow linewidth is demonstrated using Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) with a 100-m-long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in conjunction with a dual-pass configuration. A broadband fiber Bragg grating (FBG) operating in the C-band region is incorporated at the end side of the setup to allow a dual-pass operation. The proposed BFL can operate at any wavelength depending on the Brillouin pump wavelength and the FBG's reflection region used. With a Brillouin pump (BP) of 15.7 dBm, approximately 7 Stokes and 4 anti-Stokes lines are obtained with a line spacing of 0.08 nm.

  20. Four theorems on the psychometric function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A May

    Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is

  1. Phase-locking in Multi-Frequency Brillouin Oscillator via Four Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Buettner, Thomas F S; Hudson, Darren D; Pant, Ravi; Poulton, Christopher G; Judge, Alexander C; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and Kerr-nonlinear four wave-mixing (FWM) are among the most important and widely studied nonlinear effects in optical fibres. At high powers SBS can be cascaded producing multiple Stokes waves spaced by the Brillouin frequency shift. Here, we investigate the complex nonlinear interaction of the cascade of Stokes waves, generated in a Fabry-Perot chalcogenide fibre resonator through the combined action of SBS and FWM. We demonstrate the existence of parameter regimes, in which pump and Stokes waves attain a phase-locked steady state. Real-time measurements of 40ps pulses with 8GHz repetition rate are presented, confirming short-and long-term stability. Numerical simulations qualitatively agree with experiments and show the significance of FWM in phase-locking of pump and Stokes waves. Our findings can be applied for the design of novel picosecond pulse sources with GHz repetition rate for optical communication systems.

  2. Production of petawatt laser pulses of picosecond duration via Brillouin amplification of nanosecond laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Kathryn; Alves, Paulo; Fiuza, Frederico; Speirs, David; Bingham, Robert; Cairns, Alan; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis; Norreys, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Raman amplification in plasma is a potential route for the production of petawatt pulses of picosecond duration at 351 nm [Trines et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 105002 (2011)]. In this paper we show, through analytic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, that similar results can also be obtained through Brillouin amplification of a short seed laser beam off a long pump beam at moderate intensity. Scaling laws governing the optimal parameter space for pump beam, seed beam and plasma will be derived using a self-similar model for Brillouin scattering, and verified via simulations. A comparison with Raman scattering will be made, to determine which scheme is most suitable for a range of laser-plasma configurations.

  3. Unified approach to cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering and frequency-comb generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mark; Winful, Herbert G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a unified approach to cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering and frequency-comb generation in which the multitude of interacting pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes optical fields is described by a single forward wave and a single backward wave at a single carrier frequency. The envelopes of these two waves are modulated through coupling to a single acoustic oscillation and through four-wave mixing. Starting from a single pump field, we observe the emergence of a comb of frequencies as the intensity is increased. The set of three differential equations derived here is sufficient to describe the generation of any number of Brillouin sidebands in oscillator systems that would have required hundreds of coupled equations in the standard approach. We test this approach on some published experiments and find excellent agreement with the results.

  4. High speed data encryption and decryption using stimulated Brillouin scattering effect in optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Weisheng

    2011-11-01

    A novel all-optical encryption/decryption method based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect in optical fiber is proposed for the first time. The operation principle is explained in detail and the encryption and decryption performance is experimentally evaluated. The encryption keys could be the SBS gain amplitude, bandwidth, central wavelength and spectral shape, which are configurable and flexibly controlled by the users. We experimentally demonstrate the SBS encryption/decryption process of a 10.86-Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data by using both phase-modulated and current-dithered Brillouin pumps for proof-of-concept. Unlike the traditional optical encryption methods of chaotic communications and optical code-division-multiplexing access (OCDMA), the SBS based encryption/decryption technique can directly upgrade the current optical communication system to a secure communication system without changing the terminal transceivers, which is completely compatible with the current optical communication systems.

  5. Pressure and temperature dependences of the acoustic behaviors of biocompatible silk studied by using Brillouin spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Wan; Ryeom, Junho; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Chan Hum; Park, Jaehoon; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang Joo

    2016-07-01

    The elastic properties of a biocompatible silk film were investigated under temperature and pressure variations by using Brillouin spectroscopy. The Brillouin frequency shift decreased monotonically upon heating and showed a sudden change at the glass transition temperature. The existence of water molecules in the film increased the longitudinal modulus by approximately 10% and induced a relaxation peak in the hypersonic damping at ~60 ◦ C. The pressure dependences of the sound velocities of the longitudinal and the transverse acoustic modes and the refractive index were determined for the first time at pressures up to ~15.5 GPa. All these properties increased upon compression; these changes indicated that the free volume in the silk film collapsed at a pressure of about 3 GPa.

  6. Distributed Temperature and Strain Discrimination with Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Rayleigh Backscatter in an Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Bao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed optical fiber sensor with the capability of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain is proposed using a large effective area non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (LEAF with sub-meter spatial resolution. The Brillouin frequency shift is measured using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA with differential pulse-width pair technique, while the spectrum shift of the Rayleigh backscatter is measured using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR. These shifts are the functions of both temperature and strain, and can be used as two independent parameters for the discrimination of temperature and strain. A 92 m measurable range with the spatial resolution of 50 cm is demonstrated experimentally, and accuracies of ±1.2 °C in temperature and ±15 με in strain could be achieved.

  7. Photonic crystal fibre Brillouin laser based on Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Dan; Yang Dong-Xiao; Shen Guo-Feng; Zhang Xian-Min

    2008-01-01

    A photonic crystal fibre Brillouin laser based on fibre Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity is presented. A highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibre 25 m in length is used as Brillouin gain medium and fibre Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity is chosen in order to enhance the laser conversion efficiency and suppress the higher-order Stokes waves. The laser reaches the threshold at input power of 35 mW, and the experimental laser conversion efficiency achieves 18% of the input power of 140 mW and does not show higher-order Stokes waves. A photonic crystal fibre BriUouin laser withshorter fibre length and lower threshold is experimentally realized.

  8. Modeling the effects of laser-beam smoothing on filamentation and stimulated Brillouin backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R.L.; Kaiser, T.B.; Lasinski, B.F. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Using the three-dimensional code (F3D), the authors compute the filamentation and backscattering of laser light. The results show that filamentation can be controlled and stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) can be reduced by using random phase plates (RPP) and small f-numbers or smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) with large bandwidth. An interesting result is that, for uniform plasmas, the SBBS amplification takes place over several laser axial coherence lengths (coherence length = speckle length).

  9. Reduction of Guided Acoustic Wave Brillouin Scattering in Photonic Crystal Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Elser, D; Gloeckl, O; Korn, A; Leuchs, G; Lorenz, S; Marquardt, C; Marquardt, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Guided Acoustic Wave Brillouin Scattering (GAWBS) generates phase and polarization noise of light propagating in glass fibers. This excess noise affects the performance of various experiments operating at the quantum noise limit. We experimentally demonstrate the reduction of GAWBS noise in a photonic crystal fiber in a broad frequency range using cavity sound dynamics. We compare the noise spectrum to the one of a standard fiber and observe a roughly 10-fold noise reduction in the frequency range up to 200 MHz.

  10. Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors for steel reinforced concrete structures using a fiber optic coil winding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Gong, Peng; Qiao, Guofu; Lu, Jie; Lv, Xingjun; Ou, Jinping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring.

  11. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Suppression in Fiber Amplifiers via Chirped Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    1.55-µm diode laser at 1014 Hz/s using a phase-locked loop and a fiber -optic Michelson interferometer (9). The chirp has now been extended to 5×1015...diode lasers. By incorporating a fiber interferometer , the technique has been extended to chirp a (single) laser diode at 1015 Hz/s in an extremely...Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Suppression in Fiber Amplifiers via Chirped Diode Lasers by Jeffrey O. White, George Rakuljic, and Carl E

  12. Local analysis of stimulated Brillouin interaction in installed fiber optics cables

    OpenAIRE

    Nikles, M.; Thévenaz, Luc; Salina, P.; Robert, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Brillouin gain spectrum measurement along an optical fiber has recently gained a lot of interests owing to its potentiality for strain monitoring in installed telecom cables. The purpose of the paper is to show that this potentiality is now effective, since field measurements of installed fiber optics cables currently in operation are demonstrated. A portable instrument has been developed, based on an original experimental configuration developed in our Institute which is briefly described

  13. Remote-sensing gas measurements with coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakis, A.; Shneider, M. N.; Stratton, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    We measure the coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) signal integral as a function of the recorded gas pressure in He, Co2, SF6, and air, and we confirm the already established quadratic dependence of the signal on the gas density. We propose the use of CRBS as an effective diagnostic for the remote measurement of gas' density (pressure) and temperature, as well as polarizability, for gases of known composition.

  14. Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation for Dynamic Systems with Kinetic Coupling in Entangled State Representations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洪义

    2002-01-01

    We study the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation for dynamic systems with kinetic couplings inentangled state representations. The result shows that the kinetic coupling will affect the position of classicalturning points where the condition of using the WKB approximation breaks down. The modified WKB approx-imation formula is derived in the entangled state representation, for example, the common eigenvector of therelative coordinate and the total momentum of two particles. The corresponding Bohr-Sommerfeld quantizationrule is also derived.

  15. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a Silicon nanowire

    CERN Document Server

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the first functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip SBS gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  16. Temporal characterization of a multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambin Iezzi, Victor; Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Loranger, Sébastien; Kabakova, Irina V.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides the first detailed temporal characterization of a multi-wavelength-Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) by measuring the optical intensity of the individual frequency channels with high temporal resolution. It is found that the power in each channel is highly unstable due to the excitation of several cavity modes for typical conditions of operation. Also provided is the real-time measurements of the MWBEFL output power for two configurations that were previously reported to emit phase-locked picosecond pulse trains, concluded from their autocorrelation measurements. Real-time measurements reveal a high degree of instability without the formation of a stable pulse train. Finally, we model the MWBEFL using coupled wave equations describing the evolution of the Brillouin pump, Stokes and acoustic waves in the presence of stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the optical Kerr effect. A good qualitative consistency between the simulation and experimental results is evident, in which the interference signal at the output shows strong instability as well as the chaotic behavior due to the dynamics of participating pump and Stokes waves.

  17. Study on forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in a backward pumped fiber Raman amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaixuan Zhang(张在宣); Dawei Fang(方达伟); Songlin Zhuang(庄松林); Laixiao Li(李来晓); Dan Geng(耿丹); Bizhi Dai(戴碧智); Yongxing Jin(金永兴); Honglin Liu(刘红林); Insoo S.Kim; Jianfeng Wang(王剑锋); Xiaobiao Wu(吴孝彪)

    2004-01-01

    Strong multi-order forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) has been observed in the backward pumped S-band distributed fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) with tunable narrow signal source (less than 100 MHz) when the pump power of FRA reached the SBS threshold. This does not obey the theory that only weak backward SBS lines exist according to the conservation of energy and momentum and the wave vector selected rule. This is because the sound waveguide characteristic weakens the wave vector rule, and the forward transmitted sound waveguide Brillouin scattering lines are generated and amplified in FRA.When the pump power is further increased, 11 orders of SBS lines and comb-like profile are observed. For the excited line, the frequency is 197.2296 THz and the power is 0 dBm. The even order SBS lines are stronger than odd order SBS lines, the power of the 2nd and 4th order SBS lines is 1.75 dBm, which is 16 dB higher than that of the 1st and 3rd order SBS lines. The odd order SBS lines are named BrillouinRayleigh scattering lines.

  18. Brillouin spectroscopy reveals changes in muscular viscoelasticity in Drosophila POMT mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Baker, Ryan; Panin, Vladislav M.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-03-01

    Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that induce weakness in skeletal muscle and cause progressive muscle degeneration. The muscular mechanical properties (i.e., viscoelasticity), however, have not been thoroughly examined before and after MD. On the other hand, Brillouin spectroscopy (BS) provides a non-invasive approach to probing the local sound speed within a small volume. Moreover, recent advances in background-free Brillouin spectroscopy enable investigators to imaging not only transparent samples, but also turbid ones. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of muscles while employing Drosophila model of dystroglycanopathies, human congenital muscular dystrophies resulting from abnormal glycosylation of alphadystroglycan. Specifically, we analyzed larval abdominal muscles of Drosophila with mutations in protein Omannosyltransferase (POMT) genes. As a comparison, we have also examined muscular tissues dissected from wildtype Drosophila. The Brillouin spectra were obtained by a background free VIPA (virtually imaged phased array) spectrometer described in the previous report. As a reference, the Raman spectra were also acquired for each test. Our current results indicated that POMT defects cause changes in muscle elasticity, which suggests that muscular dystrophy conditions may be also associated with abnormalities in muscle elastic properties.

  19. Single-crystal Brillouin spectroscopy with CO{sub 2} laser heating and variable q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin S.; Bass, Jay D. [Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zhu, Gaohua [Materials Research Department, Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We describe a Brillouin spectroscopy system integrated with CO{sub 2} laser-heating and Raman spectroscopic capabilities. Temperature is determined by measurements of the grey-body thermal radiation emitted by the hot sample, with the system response calibrated relative to a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. High-pressure laser-heating Brillouin scattering measurements of acoustic velocities on liquid water and ice compressed in a diamond-anvil cell were performed at temperatures up to 2500 ± 150 K at high pressure. Single-crystal laser-heating Brillouin measurements were made on the (111) plane of San Carlos olivine at ∼13 GPa, 1300 ± 200 K. The pressure as measured by ruby fluorescence is shown to be within ±0.5 GPa of the pressure on the olivine sample during laser heating when KCl and KBr are used as pressure-transmitting media. In addition, the system is designed for continuously variable scattering angles from forward scattering (near 0° scattering angle) up to near back scattering (∼141°). This novel setup allows us to probe a wide range of wave vectors q for investigation of phonon dispersion on, for example, crystals with large unit cells (on the scale of hundreds of nm)

  20. Brillouin-scattering determination of the acoustic properties and their pressure dependence for three polymeric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lewis L.; Orler, E. Bruce; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Ahart, Muhtar; Hemley, Russell J.

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic properties of three polymer elastomers, a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (Sylgard® 184), a cross-linked terpolymer poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol), and a segmented thermoplastic poly(ester urethane) copolymer (Estane® 5703), have been measured from ambient pressure to approximately 12GPa by using Brillouin scattering in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. The Brillouin-scattering technique is a powerful tool for aiding in the determination of equations of state for a variety of materials, but to date has not been applied to polymers at pressures exceeding a few kilobars. For the three elastomers, both transverse and longitudinal acoustic modes were observed, though the transverse modes were observed only at elevated pressures (>0.7GPa) in all cases. From the Brillouin frequency shifts, longitudinal and transverse sound speeds were calculated, as were the C11 and C12 elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratios, and their respective pressure dependencies. P-V isotherms were then constructed, and fit to several empirical/semiempirical equations of state to extract the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative for each material. Finally, the lack of shear waves observed for any polymer at ambient pressure, and the pressure dependency of their appearance is discussed with regard to instrumental and material considerations.

  1. Fluctuation theorem for out-of-time-ordered correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Nicole Yunger

    2016-01-01

    The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) diagnoses quantum chaos and the scrambling of quantum information via the spread of entanglement. The OTOC encodes forward and reverse evolutions and has deep connections with the flow of time. So do fluctuation theorems such as Jarzynski's Equality, derived in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. I unite these two powerful, seemingly disparate tools by deriving a fluctuation theorem for the OTOC. The fluctuation theorem is analogous to Jarzynski's Equality. The theorem's left-hand side equals the OTOC. The right-hand side implies a platform-nonspecific protocol for experimentally measuring the OTOC in an indirect manner fundamentally different from existing proposals. Time evolution need not be reversed in any trial. The theorem opens holography, condensed matter, and quantum information to new insights from fluctuation theorems and vice versa.

  2. The implicit function theorem history, theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2003-01-01

    The implicit function theorem is part of the bedrock of mathematics analysis and geometry. Finding its genesis in eighteenth century studies of real analytic functions and mechanics, the implicit and inverse function theorems have now blossomed into powerful tools in the theories of partial differential equations, differential geometry, and geometric analysis. There are many different forms of the implicit function theorem, including (i) the classical formulation for Ck functions, (ii) formulations in other function spaces, (iii) formulations for non-smooth function, (iv) formulations for functions with degenerate Jacobian. Particularly powerful implicit function theorems, such as the Nash-Moser theorem, have been developed for specific applications (e.g., the imbedding of Riemannian manifolds). All of these topics, and many more, are treated in the present volume. The history of the implicit function theorem is a lively and complex store, and intimately bound up with the development of fundamental ideas in a...

  3. Inconsistency of Carnot's theorem's proof by R. Clausius

    CERN Document Server

    Ihnatovych, V

    2013-01-01

    R. Clausius proved Carnot's theorem basing on postulate "Heat cannot, of itself, pass from a colder to a hotter body". Alexander Gukhman demonstrated that Carnot's theorem can be proved based on the postulate "Heat cannot, of itself, pass from a hotter to a colder body". He concluded that Carnot's theorem does not follow from Clausius' postulate. The following paper gives a detailed justification of Gukhman's derivation.

  4. Logic for computer science foundations of automatic theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Gallier, Jean H

    2015-01-01

    This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in fir

  5. Virial Theorem for a Class of Quantum Nonlinear Harmonic Oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪红; 郭军义; 李艳

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the Virial Theorem based on a class of quantum nonlinear harmonic oscillators is presented.This relationship has to do with parameter λ and ?/?λ,where the λ is a real number.When λ=0,the nonlinear harmonic oscillator naturally reduces to the usual quantum linear harmonic oscillator,and the Virial Theorem also reduces to the usual Virial Theorem.

  6. On the linearization theorem for proper Lie groupoids

    CERN Document Server

    Crainic, Marius

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the linearization theorems for proper Lie groupoids around general orbits (statements and proofs). In the the fixed point case (known as Zung's theorem) we give a shorter and more geometric proof, based on a Moser deformation argument. The passing to general orbits (Weinstein) is given a more conceptual interpretation: as a manifestation of Morita invariance. We also clarify the precise conditions needed for the theorem to hold (which often have been misstated in the literature).

  7. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  8. A new proof of Doob's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Moritz

    2011-01-01

    We prove that every bounded, positive, irreducible, stochastically continuous semigroup on the space of bounded, measurable functions which is strong Feller, consists of kernel operators and possesses an invariant measure converges pointwise. This differs from Doob's theorem in that we do not require the semigroup to be Markovian and request a fairly weak kind of irreducibility. In addition, we elaborate on the various notions of kernel operators in this context, show the stronger result that the adjoint semigroup converges strongly and discuss as an example diffusion equations on rough domains. The proofs are based on the theory of positive semigroups and do not use probability theory.

  9. Lifespan theorem for constrained surface diffusion flows

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, James; Williams, Graham; 10.1007/s00209-010-0720-7

    2012-01-01

    We consider closed immersed hypersurfaces in $\\R^{3}$ and $\\R^4$ evolving by a class of constrained surface diffusion flows. Our result, similar to earlier results for the Willmore flow, gives both a positive lower bound on the time for which a smooth solution exists, and a small upper bound on a power of the total curvature during this time. By phrasing the theorem in terms of the concentration of curvature in the initial surface, our result holds for very general initial data and has applications to further development in asymptotic analysis for these flows.

  10. Central limit theorems under special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Ian W

    2015-04-01

    Several relativistic extensions of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution have been proposed, but they do not explain observed lognormal tail-behavior in the flux distribution of various astrophysical sources. Motivated by this question, extensions of classical central limit theorems are developed under the conditions of special relativity. The results are related to CLTs on locally compact Lie groups developed by Wehn, Stroock and Varadhan, but in this special case the asymptotic distribution has an explicit form that is readily seen to exhibit lognormal tail behavior.

  11. Stone's representation theorem in fuzzy topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Yingming(刘应明); ZHANG; Dexue(张德学)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a complete solution to the problem of Stone's repesentation theorem in fuzzy topology is given for a class of completely distributive lattices. Precisely, it is proved that if L is a frame such that 0 ∈ L is a prime or 1 ∈ L is a coprime, then the category of distributive lattices is dually equivalent to the category of coherent L-locales and that if L is moreover completely distributive, then the category of distributive lattices is dually equivalent to the category of coherent stratified L-topological spaces.

  12. Jackson's Theorem on Bounded Symmetric Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhi WANG; Guang Bin REN

    2007-01-01

    Polynomial approximation is studied on bounded symmetric domain Ω in C n for holo-morphic function spaces X ,such as Bloch-type spaces,Bergman-type spaces,Hardy spaces,Ω algebra and Lipschitz space.We extend the classical Jackson ’s theorem to several complex variables:E k f,X ) ω (1 /k,f,X ),where E k f,X )is the deviation of the best approximation of f ∈X by polynomials of degree at mostk with respect to the X -metric and ω (1/k,f,X )is the corresponding modulus of continuity.

  13. Adiabatic theorems for generators of contracting evolutions

    CERN Document Server

    Avron, J E; Graf, G M; Grech, P

    2011-01-01

    We develop an adiabatic theory for generators of contracting evolution on Banach spaces. This provides a uniform framework for a host of adiabatic theorems ranging from unitary quantum evolutions through quantum evolutions of open systems generated by Lindbladians all the way to classically driven stochastic systems. In all these cases the adiabatic evolution approximates, to lowest order, the natural notion of parallel transport in the manifold of instantaneous stationary states. The dynamics in the manifold of instantaneous stationary states and transversal to it have distinct characteristics: The former is irreversible and the latter is transient in a sense that we explain. Both the gapped and gapless cases are considered. Some applications are discussed.

  14. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  15. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  16. Paraconsistent Probabilities: Consistency, Contradictions and Bayes’ Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bueno-Soler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first steps towards constructing a paraconsistent theory of probability based on the Logics of Formal Inconsistency (LFIs. We show that LFIs encode very naturally an extension of the notion of probability able to express sophisticated probabilistic reasoning under contradictions employing appropriate notions of conditional probability and paraconsistent updating, via a version of Bayes’ theorem for conditionalization. We argue that the dissimilarity between the notions of inconsistency and contradiction, one of the pillars of LFIs, plays a central role in our extended notion of probability. Some critical historical and conceptual points about probability theory are also reviewed.

  17. On Clifford's theorem for singular curves

    CERN Document Server

    Franciosi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Let C be a 2-connected Gorenstein curve either reduced or contained in a smooth algebraic surface and let S be a subcanonical cluster (i.e. a 0-dim scheme such that the space H^0(C, I_S K_C) contains a generically invertible section). Under some general assumptions on S or C we show that h^0(C, I_S K_C) <= p_a(C) - deg (S)/2 and if equality holds then either S is trivial, or C is honestly hyperelliptic or 3-disconnected. As a corollary we give a generalization of Clifford's theorem for reduced curves.

  18. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J M M Senovilla

    2007-07-01

    Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

  19. Number systems and the Chinese Remainder Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    van de Woestijne, Christiaan E

    2011-01-01

    A well-known generalisation of positional numeration systems is the case where the base is the residue class of $x$ modulo a given polynomial $f(x)$ with coefficients in (for example) the integers, and where we try to construct finite expansions for all residue classes modulo $f(x)$, using a suitably chosen digit set. We give precise conditions under which direct or fibred products of two such polynomial number systems are again of the same form. The main tool is a general form of the Chinese Remainder Theorem. We give applications to simultaneous number systems in the integers.

  20. APPROXIMATE SAMPLING THEOREM FOR BIVARIATE CONTINUOUS FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守志; 程正兴; 唐远炎

    2003-01-01

    An approximate solution of the refinement equation was given by its mask, and the approximate sampling theorem for bivariate continuous function was proved by applying the approximate solution. The approximate sampling function defined uniquely by the mask of the refinement equation is the approximate solution of the equation, a piece-wise linear function, and posseses an explicit computation formula. Therefore the mask of the refinement equation is selected according to one' s requirement, so that one may controll the decay speed of the approximate sampling function.

  1. Theorem proving support in programming language semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertot, Yves

    2007-01-01

    We describe several views of the semantics of a simple programming language as formal documents in the calculus of inductive constructions that can be verified by the Coq proof system. Covered aspects are natural semantics, denotational semantics, axiomatic semantics, and abstract interpretation. Descriptions as recursive functions are also provided whenever suitable, thus yielding a a verification condition generator and a static analyser that can be run inside the theorem prover for use in reflective proofs. Extraction of an interpreter from the denotational semantics is also described. All different aspects are formally proved sound with respect to the natural semantics specification.

  2. A Formal Proof Of The Riesz Representation Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Narkawicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formal proof of the Riesz representation theorem in the PVS theorem prover. The Riemann Stieltjes integral was defined in PVS, and the theorem relies on this integral. In order to prove the Riesz representation theorem, it was necessary to prove that continuous functions on a closed interval are Riemann Stieltjes integrable with respect to any function of bounded variation. This result follows from the equivalence of the Riemann Stieltjes and Darboux Stieltjes integrals, which would have been a lengthy result to prove in PVS, so a simpler lemma was proved that captures the underlying concept of this integral equivalence. In order to prove the Riesz theorem, the Hahn Banach theorem was proved in the case where the normed linear spaces are the continuous and bounded functions on a closed interval. The proof of the Riesz theorem follows the proof in Haaser and Sullivan's book Real Analysis. The formal proof of this result in PVS revealed an error in textbook's proof. Indeed, the proof of the Riesz representation theorem is constructive, and the function constructed in the textbook does not satisfy a key property. This error illustrates the ability of formal verification to find logical errors. A specific counterexample is given to the proof in the textbook. Finally, a corrected proof of the Riesz representation theorem is presented.

  3. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem and quantum tunneling with dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, K

    1998-01-01

    We suggest to take the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of Callen and Welton as a basis to study quantum dissipative phenomena (such as macroscopic quantum tunneling) in a manner analogous to the Nambu-Goldstone theorem for spontaneous symmetry breakdown. It is shown that the essential physical contents of the Caldeira-Leggett model such as the suppression of quantum coherence by Ohmic dissipation are derived from general principles only, namely, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and unitarity and causality (i.e., dispersion relations), without referring to an explicit form of the Lagrangian. An interesting connection between quantum tunneling with Ohmic dissipation and the Anderson's orthogonality theorem is also noted.

  4. Generalizations of the Nash Equilibrium Theorem in the KKM Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sehie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial KKM principle for an abstract convex space is an abstract form of the classical KKM theorem. In this paper, we derive generalized forms of the Ky Fan minimax inequality, the von Neumann-Sion minimax theorem, the von Neumann-Fan intersection theorem, the Fan-type analytic alternative, and the Nash equilibrium theorem for abstract convex spaces satisfying the partial KKM principle. These results are compared with previously known cases for -convex spaces. Consequently, our results unify and generalize most of previously known particular cases of the same nature. Finally, we add some detailed historical remarks on related topics.

  5. Generalizations of the Nash Equilibrium Theorem in the KKM Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehie Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial KKM principle for an abstract convex space is an abstract form of the classical KKM theorem. In this paper, we derive generalized forms of the Ky Fan minimax inequality, the von Neumann-Sion minimax theorem, the von Neumann-Fan intersection theorem, the Fan-type analytic alternative, and the Nash equilibrium theorem for abstract convex spaces satisfying the partial KKM principle. These results are compared with previously known cases for G-convex spaces. Consequently, our results unify and generalize most of previously known particular cases of the same nature. Finally, we add some detailed historical remarks on related topics.

  6. Fluctuation theorem in dynamical systems with quenched disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drocco, Jeffrey; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate that the fluctuation theorem of Gallavotti and Cohen can be used to characterize far from equilibrium dynamical nonthermal systems in the presence of quenched disorder where strong fluctuations or crackling noise occur. By observing the frequency of entropy-destroying trajectories, we show that the theorem holds in specific dynamical regimes near the threshold for motion, indicating that these systems might be ideal candidates for understanding what types of nonthermal fluctuations could be used in constructing generalized fluctuation theorems. We also discuss how the theorem could be tested with global or local probes in systems such as superconducting vortices, magnetic domain walls, stripe phases, Coulomb glasses and earthquake models.

  7. Cosmological singularity theorems and splitting theorems for N-Bakry-Émery spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Eric; Wylie, William

    2016-02-01

    We study Lorentzian manifolds with a weight function such that the N-Bakry-Émery tensor is bounded below. Such spacetimes arise in the physics of scalar-tensor gravitation theories, including Brans-Dicke theory, theories with Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction, and low-energy approximations to string theory. In the "pure Bakry-Émery" N = ∞ case with f uniformly bounded above and initial data suitably bounded, cosmological-type singularity theorems are known, as are splitting theorems which determine the geometry of timelike geodesically complete spacetimes for which the bound on the initial data is borderline violated. We extend these results in a number of ways. We are able to extend the singularity theorems to finite N-values N ∈ (n, ∞) and N ∈ (-∞, 1]. In the N ∈ (n, ∞) case, no bound on f is required, while for N ∈ (-∞, 1] and N = ∞, we are able to replace the boundedness of f by a weaker condition on the integral of f along future-inextendible timelike geodesics. The splitting theorems extend similarly, but when N = 1, the splitting is only that of a warped product for all cases considered. A similar limited loss of rigidity has been observed in a prior work on the N-Bakry-Émery curvature in Riemannian signature when N = 1 and appears to be a general feature.

  8. Cosmological singularity theorems and splitting theorems for N-Bakry-Émery spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolgar, Eric, E-mail: ewoolgar@ualberta.ca [Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G1 (Canada); Wylie, William, E-mail: wwylie@syr.edu [215 Carnegie Building, Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We study Lorentzian manifolds with a weight function such that the N-Bakry-Émery tensor is bounded below. Such spacetimes arise in the physics of scalar-tensor gravitation theories, including Brans-Dicke theory, theories with Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction, and low-energy approximations to string theory. In the “pure Bakry-Émery” N = ∞ case with f uniformly bounded above and initial data suitably bounded, cosmological-type singularity theorems are known, as are splitting theorems which determine the geometry of timelike geodesically complete spacetimes for which the bound on the initial data is borderline violated. We extend these results in a number of ways. We are able to extend the singularity theorems to finite N-values N ∈ (n, ∞) and N ∈ (−∞, 1]. In the N ∈ (n, ∞) case, no bound on f is required, while for N ∈ (−∞, 1] and N = ∞, we are able to replace the boundedness of f by a weaker condition on the integral of f along future-inextendible timelike geodesics. The splitting theorems extend similarly, but when N = 1, the splitting is only that of a warped product for all cases considered. A similar limited loss of rigidity has been observed in a prior work on the N-Bakry-Émery curvature in Riemannian signature when N = 1 and appears to be a general feature.

  9. Coincidence theorem and existence theorems of solutions for a system of Ky Fan type minimax inequalities in FC-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua He

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Let $I$ be any index set. By using some existence theorems of maximal elements for a family of set-valued mappings involving a better admissible set-valued mapping under noncompact setting of $FC$-spaces, we first present some nonempty intersection theorems for a family $\\{G_{i}\\}_{i\\in I}$ in a product space of $FC$-spaces. Next we give a coincidence theorem and a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem. Finally, as applications, some equilibrium existence theorems for a system of generalized vector equilibrium problems are proved in product $FC$-space, some existence theorems of solutions for a system of Ky Fan type minimax inequalities involving a family of $G_{\\cal B}$-majorized mappings defined on the product space of $FC$-space are also obtained. Our results improve and generalize some recent results.

  10. Birth of a theorem a mathematical adventure

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    This man could plainly do for mathematics what Brian Cox has done for physics" (Sunday Times). What goes on inside the mind of a rock-star mathematician? Where does inspiration come from? With a storyteller's gift, Cedric Villani takes us on a mesmerising journey as he wrestles with a new theorem that will win him the most coveted prize in mathematics. Along the way he encounters obstacles and setbacks, losses of faith and even brushes with madness. His story is one of courage and partnership, doubt and anxiety, elation and despair. We discover how it feels to be obsessed by a theorem during your child's cello practise and throughout your dreams, why appreciating maths is a bit like watching an episode of Columbo, and how sometimes inspiration only comes from locking yourself away in a dark room to think. Blending science with history, biography with myth, Villani conjures up an inimitable cast of characters including the omnipresent Einstein, mad genius Kurt Godel, and Villani's personal hero, John Nash. Bir...

  11. De Finetti Theorem on the CAR Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismale, Vitonofrio; Fidaleo, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend the De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self-containing interest.

  12. De Finetti theorem on the CAR algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Crismale, Vito

    2012-01-01

    The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self--containing interest.

  13. Bell's theorem, inference, and quantum transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A. J. M.

    1990-04-01

    Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian inference. Assuming the result of a spin measurement on a particle is governed by a causal variable internal (hidden, “local”) to the particle, one learns about it by making a spin measurement; thence about the internal variable of a second particle correlated with the first; and from there predicts the probabilistic result of spin measurements on the second particle. Such predictions are violated by experiment: locality/causality fails. The statistical nature of the observations rules out signalling; acausal, superluminal, or otherwise. Quantum mechanics is irrelevant to this reasoning, although its correct predictions of experiment imply that it has a nonlocal/acausal interpretation. Cramer's new transactional interpretation, which incorporates this feature by adapting the Wheeler-Feynman idea of advanced and retarded processes to the quantum laws, is advocated. It leads to an invaluable way of envisaging quantum processes. The usual paradoxes melt before this, and one, the “delayed choice” experiment, is chosen for detailed inspection. Nonlocality implies practical difficulties in influencing hidden variables, which provides a very plausible explanation for why they have not yet been found; from this standpoint, Bell's theorem reinforces arguments in favor of hidden variables.

  14. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic—scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are “random environment” settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic—scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark’s law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)—in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes—and present “randomized counterparts” to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  15. A vector bundle proof of Poncelet theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Vallès, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the town of Saratov where he was prisonner, Poncelet, continuing the work of Euler and Steiner on polygons simultaneously inscribed in a circle and circumscribed around an other circle, proved the following generalization : "Let C and D be two smooth conics in the projective complex plane. If D passes through the n(n-1)/2 vertices of a complete polygon with n sides tangent to C then D passes through the vertices of infinitely many such polygons." According to Marcel Berger this theorem is the nicest result about the geometry of conics. Even if it is, there are few proofs of it. To my knowledge there are only three. The first proof, published in 1822 and based on infinitesimal deformations, is due to Poncelet. Later, Jacobi proposed a new proof based on finite order points on elliptic curves; his proof, certainly the most famous, is explained in a modern way and in detail by Griffiths and Harris. In 1870 Weyr proved a Poncelet theorem in space (more precisely for two quadrics) that implies the one above whe...

  16. On the inversion of Fueter's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Baohua; Kou, Kit Ian; Qian, Tao; Sabadini, Irene

    2016-10-01

    The well known Fueter theorem allows to construct quaternionic regular functions or monogenic functions with values in a Clifford algebra defined on open sets of Euclidean space R n + 1, starting from a holomorphic function in one complex variable or, more in general, from a slice hyperholomorphic function. Recently, the inversion of this theorem has been obtained for odd values of the dimension n. The present work extends the result to all dimensions n by using the Fourier multiplier method. More precisely, we show that for any axially monogenic function f defined in a suitable open set in R n + 1, where n is a positive integer, we can find a slice hyperholomorphic function f → such that f =Δ (n - 1) / 2 f →. Both the even and the odd dimensions are treated with the same, viz., the Fourier multiplier, method. For the odd dimensional cases the result obtained by the Fourier multiplier method coincides with the existing result obtained through the pointwise differential method.

  17. [A Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Feature Extraction Based on Flies Optimization Algorithm with Adaptive Mutation and Generalized Regression Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-jun; Liu, Wen-zhe; Fu, Xing-hu; Bi, Wei-hong

    2015-10-01

    According to the high precision extracting characteristics of scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time domain reflection optical fiber sensing system, this paper proposes a new algorithm based on flies optimization algorithm with adaptive mutation and generalized regression neural network. The method takes advantages of the generalized regression neural network which has the ability of the approximation ability, learning speed and generalization of the model. Moreover, by using the strong search ability of flies optimization algorithm with adaptive mutation, it can enhance the learning ability of the neural network. Thus the fitting degree of Brillouin scattering spectrum and the extraction accuracy of frequency shift is improved. Model of actual Brillouin spectrum are constructed by Gaussian white noise on theoretical spectrum, whose center frequency is 11.213 GHz and the linewidths are 40-50, 30-60 and 20-70 MHz, respectively. Comparing the algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt fitting method based on finite element analysis, hybrid algorithm particle swarm optimization, Levenberg-Marquardt and the least square method, the maximum frequency shift error of the new algorithm is 0.4 MHz, the fitting degree is 0.991 2 and the root mean square error is 0.024 1. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has good fitting degree and minimum absolute error. Therefore, the algorithm can be used on distributed optical fiber sensing system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflection, which can improve the fitting of Brillouin scattering spectrum and the precision of frequency shift extraction effectively.

  18. Leaning on Socrates to Derive the Pythagorean Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew; Carr, Alistair

    2010-01-01

    The one theorem just about every student remembers from school is the theorem about the side lengths of a right angled triangle which Euclid attributed to Pythagoras when writing Proposition 47 of "The Elements". Usually first met in middle school, the student will be continually exposed throughout their mathematical education to the formula b2 +…

  19. Generalizations of Karp's theorem to elastic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuong, Ha-Duong

    Karp's theorem states that if the far field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle in R2 is invariant under the group of rotations, then the scatterer is a circle. The theorem is generalized to the elastic scattering problems and the axisymmetric scatterers in R3.

  20. A note on the weighted Khintchine-Groshev Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Yusupova, Tatiana

    Let W(m,n;ψ−−) denote the set of ψ1,…,ψn-approximable points in Rmn. The classical Khintchine-Groshev theorem assumes a monotonicity condition on the approximating functions ψ−−. Removing monotonicity from the Khintchine-Groshev theorem is attributed to different authors for different cases of m...

  1. An Algebraic Proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1

    CERN Document Server

    Whale, Ben

    2009-01-01

    In his 1973 paper Quillen proved a resolution theorem for the K-Theory of an exact category; his proof was homotopic in nature. By using the main result of a paper by Nenashev, we are able to give an algebraic proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1 of an exact category.

  2. Yan Theorem in L∞ with Applications to Asset Pricing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We prove an L∞ version of the Yan theorem and deduce from it a necessary condition for the absence of free lunches in a model of financial markets, in which asset prices are a continuous Rd valued process and only simple investment strategies are admissible. Our proof is based on a new separation theorem for convex sets of finitely additive measures.

  3. A simple proof of Renner's exponential de Finetti theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Vidick, Thomas; Yuen, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We give a simple proof of the exponential de Finetti theorem due to Renner. Like Renner's proof, ours combines the post-selection de Finetti theorem, the Gentle Measurement lemma, and the Chernoff bound, but avoids virtually all calculations, including any use of the theory of types.

  4. Discovering Theorems in Abstract Algebra Using the Software "GAP"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Russell D.; Rainbolt, Julianne G.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional abstract algebra course typically consists of the professor stating and then proving a sequence of theorems. As an alternative to this classical structure, the students could be expected to discover some of the theorems even before they are motivated by classroom examples. This can be done by using a software system to explore a…

  5. A Hamiltonian KAM theorem for bundles of Lagrangean tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, HW; Cushman, RH; Fasso, F; Dumortier, F; Broer, H; Mawhin, J; Vanderbauwhede, A; Lunel, SV

    2005-01-01

    The classical KAM theorem deals with Lagrangean invariant tori in nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems. The stability formulation of the KAM theorem states that, when restricting to a large measure Diophantine "Cantor set" of such tori, the integrable approximation is smoothly conjugate to the near

  6. A q-analogue of the four functions theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Demetres

    2009-01-01

    In this article we give a proof of a q-analogue of the celebrated four functions theorem. This analogue was conjectured by Bjorner and includes as special cases both the four functions theorem and also Bjorner's q-analogue of the FKG inequality.

  7. N(o)ther-type theorem of piecewise algebraic curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang

    2004-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic curve is a generalization of the classical algebraic curve.This paper describes the improvement of the Nother-type theorem of piecewise algebraic curves on the star region.Moreover,the Nother-type theorem of piecewise algebraic curves on the cross-cut partition is discussed.

  8. Noether's theorem of a rotational relativistic variable mass system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建会; 赵嵩卿

    2002-01-01

    Noether's theory of a rotational relativistic variable mass system is studied. Firstly, Jourdain's principle of therotational relativistic variable mass system is given. Secondly, on the basis of the invariance of the Jourdain's principleunder the infinitesimal transformations of groups, Noether's theorem and its inverse theorem of the rotational relativisticvariable mass system are presented. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  9. Sufficient Condition for Validity of Quantum Adiabatic Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to give a sufficient condition of guaranteeing the validity of the proof of the quantum adiabatic theorem. The new sufficient condition can clearly remove the inconsistency and the counterexample of the quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408].

  10. An integral Riemann-Roch theorem for surface bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ib Henning

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles.......This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles....

  11. The Non-countable Summation Type Hahn-Schur Theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUETong-fu; HUJian-hua; CHOMin-hyung

    2005-01-01

    The classical countable summation type Hahn-Schur theorem is a famous result in summation theory and measure theory. An interesting problem is whether the theorem can be generalized to non-countable summation case? In this paper, we show that the answer is true.

  12. AN EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jicheng; He Wei

    2007-01-01

    An existence theorem of maximal elements for an L*-majorized correspondence de-fined on a non-paracompact H-space is established. As applications of the result, an equilibrium existence theorem for a non-paracompact generalized game in H-spaces with infinitely many players and with L*-majorized correspondences is given.

  13. The Anosov theorem for flat generalized Hantzsche-Wendt manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekimpe, K.; De Rock, B.; Malfait, W.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we prove that N( f)=| L( f)| for any continuous map f on a given orientable flat generalized Hantzsche-Wendt manifold. This is the analogue of a theorem of Anosov for continuous maps on nilmanifolds. We also show that the theorem always fails in the non-orientable case.

  14. The Structure Theorem for Complete Intersections of Grade 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh-Jin Kang; Hyoung J. Ko

    2005-01-01

    Serre showed that a Gorenstein ideal of grade 2 is a complete intersection, and Buchsbaum and Eisenbud proved a structure theorem for Gorenstein ideals of grade 3. It is found that a certain complete matrix defines a perfect ideal K3(f).As an application,we present a structure theorem for complete intersections of grade 4.

  15. THE KILLING FORMS AND DECOMPOSITION THEOREMS OF LIE SUPERTRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhixue; Jia Peipei

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the Killing form of a Lie supertriple system (LSTS) and that of its imbedding Lie superalgebra (LSA) are investigated, and a unique decomposition theorem for a quasiclassical LSTS with trivial center is established by means of the parallel decomposition theorem for a quasiclassical LSA.

  16. FIXED POINTS THEOREMS IN MULTI-METRIC SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu I. Calmutchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to give some general methods inthe fixed point theory for mappings of general topological spaces. Using the notions of the multi-metric space and of the E-metric space, we proved the analogous of several classical theorems: Banach fixed point principle, Theorems of Edelstein, Meyers, Janos etc.

  17. An ideal topology type convergent theorem on scale effect algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JunDe; ZHOU XuanChang; Minhyung CHO

    2007-01-01

    The famous Antosik-Mikusinski convergent theorem on the Abel topological groups has very extensive applications in measure theory, summation theory and other analysis fields. In this paper, we establish the theorem on a class of effect algebras equipped with the ideal topology. This paper shows also that the ideal topology of effect algebras is a useful topology in studying the quantum logic theory.

  18. Computer Algebra Systems and Theorems on Real Roots of Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Anthony Y.; Manthey, Joseph L.; Ward, Kim Y.

    2010-01-01

    A computer algebra system is used to derive a theorem on the existence of roots of a quadratic equation on any bounded real interval. This is extended to a cubic polynomial. We discuss how students could be led to derive and prove these theorems. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. On Euler's Theorem for Homogeneous Functions and Proofs Thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykodi, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Euler's theorem for homogenous functions is useful when developing thermodynamic distinction between extensive and intensive variables of state and when deriving the Gibbs-Duhem relation. Discusses Euler's theorem and thermodynamic applications. Includes six-step instructional strategy for introducing the material to students. (Author/JN)

  20. The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria

    2011-01-01

    useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.

  1. Mann Iteration of Weak Convergence Theorems in Banach Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-gen Hu; Jin-ping Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by using Mann's iteration process we will establish several weak convergence theorems for approximating a fixed point of κ-strictly pseudocontractive mappings with respect to p in p-uniformly convex Banach spaces. Our results answer partially the open question proposed by Marino and Xu, and extend Reich's theorem from nonexpausive mappings to κ-strict pseudocontractive mappings.

  2. Linear Strategy for Boolean Ring Based Theorem Proving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinzhao; LIU Zhuojun

    2000-01-01

    Two inference rules are discussed in boolean ring based theorem proving, and linear strategy is developed. It is shown that both of them are complete for linear strategy. Moreover, by introducing a partial ordering on atoms, pseudo O-linear and O-linear strategies are presented. The former is complete, the latter, however, is complete for clausal theorem proving.

  3. COMPARISON THEOREM OF BACKWARD DOUBLY STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to deriving a comparison theorem of solutions to backward doubly stochastic differential equations driven by Brownian motion and backward It-Kunita integral. By the application of this theorem, we give an existence result of the solutions to these equations with continuous coefficients.

  4. Generalization of Bombieri’s theorem and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林家发; 展涛

    1995-01-01

    By using the so-called Hooley-Huxley Contour and zero density estimates for Dirichlet L-function, Bombieri’s theorem is established for a class of arithmetic functions whose generating functions satisfy certain analytic conditions. As applications of our theorem, the mean value estimates of L-functions and the distribution of integers representable as sums of two squares are discussed.

  5. Note on two theorems in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D.; Gallavotti, G.

    1999-09-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the difference between a theorem derived by Evans and Searles in 1994 on the statistics of trajectories in phase space and a theorem proved by the authors in 1995 on the statistics of fluctuations on phase space trajectory segments in a nonequilibrium stationary state.

  6. A note on the homomorphism theorem for hemirings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Olson

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental homomorphism theorem for rings is not generally applicable in hemiring theory. In this paper, we show that for the class of N-homomorphism of hemirings the fundamental theorem is valid. In addition, the concept of N-homomorphism is used to prove that every hereditarily semisubtractive hemiring is of type (K.

  7. Nonlinear Contractive Conditions for Coupled Cone Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Wei-Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some new coupled fixed point theorems for various types of nonlinear contractive maps in the setting of quasiordered cone metric spaces which not only obtain several coupled fixed point theorems announced by many authors but also generalize them under weaker assumptions.

  8. Level reduction and the quantum threshold theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferis, Panagiotis (Panos)

    Computers have led society to the information age revolutionizing central aspects of our lives from production and communication to education and entertainment. There exist, however, important problems which are intractable with the computers available today and, experience teaches us, will remain so even with the more advanced computers we can envision for tomorrow.Quantum computers promise speedups to some of these important but classically intractable problems. Simulating physical systems, a problem of interest in a diverse range of areas from testing physical theories to understanding chemical reactions, and solving number factoring, a problem at the basis of cryptographic protocols that are used widely today on the internet, are examples of applications for which quantum computers, when built, will offer a great advantage over what is possible with classical computer technology.The construction of a quantum computer of sufficient scale to solve interesting problems is, however, especially challenging. The reason for this is that, by its very nature, operating a quantum computer will require the coherent control of the quantum state of a very large number of particles. Fortunately, the theory of quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation gives us confidence that such quantum states can be created, can be stored in memory and can also be manipulated provided the quantum computer can be isolated to a sufficient degree from sources of noise.One of the central results in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation, the quantum threshold theorem shows that a noisy quantum computer can accurately and efficiently simulate any ideal quantum computation provided that noise is weakly correlated and its strength is below a critical value known as the quantum accuracy threshold. This thesis provides a simpler and more transparent non-inductive proof of this theorem based on the concept of level reduction. This concept is also used in proving the

  9. Photonic methods of millimeter-wave generation based on Brillouin fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, R. K.; Al-Raweshidy, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    In optical communication link, generation and delivering millimeter-wave (mm-waves) in radio over fiber (RoF) systems has limitation due to fiber non-linearity effects. To solve this problem, photonic methods of mm-wave generation based on characterizations of Brillouin fiber laser are proposed in this work for the first time. Three novel photonic approaches for mm-wave generation methods based on Brillouin fiber laser and phase modulator are proposed and demonstrated by simulation. According to our theoretical analysis and simulation, mm-waves with frequency up to 80 GHz and good signal to noise ratio (SNR) up to 90 dB are generated by new and cost effective methods of generation that make them suitable for applications of the fifth generation (5G) networks. The proposed configurations increase the stability and the quality of the mm-wave generation system by using a single laser source as a pump wave and the fiber non-linearity effects are reduced. A key advantage of this research is that proposed a number of very simple generation methods and cost effective which only use standard components of optical telecommunications. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) effect that exists in the optical fiber is studied with the characterization of phase modulator. An all optically stable mm-wave carriers are achieved successfully in the three different methods with different frequencies from 20 GHz up to 80 GHz. Simulation results show that all these carriers have low phase noise, good SNR ranging between 60 and 90 dB and tuning capability in comparison with previous methods reported. This makes them suitable for mm-wave transmission in RoF systems to transmit data in the next generation networks.

  10. A most compendious and facile quantum de Finetti theorem

    CERN Document Server

    König, R; Koenig, Robert; Mitchison, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    In its most basic form, the finite quantum de Finetti theorem states that the reduced k-partite density operator of an n-partite symmetric state can be approximated by a convex combination of k-fold product states. Variations of this result include Renner's "exponential" approximation by "almost-product" states, a theorem which deals with certain triples of representations of the unitary group, and D'Cruz et al.'s result for infinite-dimensional systems. We show how these theorems follow from a single, general de Finetti theorem for representations of symmetry groups, each instance corresponding to a particular choice of symmetry group and representation of that group. This gives some insight into the nature of the set of approximating states, and leads to some new results, including an exponential theorem for infinite-dimensional systems.

  11. Soft Photon and Graviton Theorems in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Elvang, Henriette; Naculich, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Extensions of the photon and graviton soft theorems are derived in 4d local effective field theories with massless particles of arbitrary spin. We prove that effective operators can result in new terms in the soft theorems at subleading order for photons and subsubleading order for gravitons. The new soft terms are unique and we provide a complete classification of all local operators responsible for such modifications. We show that no local operators can modify the subleading soft graviton theorem. The soft limits are taken in a manifestly on-locus manner using a complex double deformation of the external momenta. In addition to the new soft theorems, the resulting master formula yields consistency conditions such as the conservation of electric charge, the Einstein equivalence principle, supergravity Ward identities, and the Weinberg-Witten theorem.

  12. The virial theorem for the polarizable continuum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammi, R., E-mail: roberto.cammi@unipr.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, I-43100 Parma (Italy)

    2014-02-28

    The electronic virial theorem is extended to molecular systems within the framework of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to describe solvation effects. The theorem is given in the form of a relation involving the components of the energy (kinetic and potential) of a molecular solute and its electrostatic properties (potential and field) at the boundary of the cavity in the continuum medium. The virial theorem is also derived in the presence of the Pauli repulsion component of the solute-solvent interaction. Furthermore, it is shown that these forms of the PCM virial theorem may be related to the virial theorem of more simple systems as a molecule in the presence of fixed point charges, and as an atom in a spherical box with confining potential.

  13. The virial theorem for the Polarizable Continuum Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammi, R

    2014-02-28

    The electronic virial theorem is extended to molecular systems within the framework of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to describe solvation effects. The theorem is given in the form of a relation involving the components of the energy (kinetic and potential) of a molecular solute and its electrostatic properties (potential and field) at the boundary of the cavity in the continuum medium. The virial theorem is also derived in the presence of the Pauli repulsion component of the solute-solvent interaction. Furthermore, it is shown that these forms of the PCM virial theorem may be related to the virial theorem of more simple systems as a molecule in the presence of fixed point charges, and as an atom in a spherical box with confining potential.

  14. Reduced Brillouin scattering from multiline CO2 laser interaction with a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, R.; Fedosejevs, R.; Offenberger, A. A.

    1982-08-01

    Experimental verification of reduced stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is reported for multiline CO2 laser radiation interacting with high-density plasma. For long-pulse (40-nsec) irradiation SBS was observed to decrease from 15% to a negligible level when the spectrum of the incident laser pulse was changed from 1 to 2 or more well-separated frequencies. Results for both long- and short-pulse multiline laser conditions are in general accord with the expected behavior for varying Δωγ0, where Δω is the frequency separation and γ0 is the homogeneous growth rate.

  15. Pressure dependence of acoustic anomalies of polydimethylsiloxane studied by Brillouin spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seonhyeop [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 200-702, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Hyeon, E-mail: hwangko@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 200-702, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaehoon [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang Joo [4-2-2, Agency for Defense Development, P.O. Box 35, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The acoustic properties of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer was investigated as a function of pressure by using a multi-pass Fabry–Perot interferometer and a diamond anvil cell. Pressure dependence of the sound velocity, the Brillouin linewidth, and the refractive index was determined up to ~8.7 GPa. Acoustic properties exhibited a crossover behavior at approximately 1 GPa, which was attributed to the complete collapse of the free volume content in this polymer. The refractive index increased from 1.46 at ambient condition to ~1.63 at 8.67 GPa, which reflected the corresponding increase in density.

  16. Analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering in multi-mode fiber by numerical solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 陈军

    2003-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers is described by a theoretical model and numerical analysis. The results showed that, for an optical fiber pumped by a laser beam with ns-order-pulse width and kW-order peak-power, SBS reflectivity tends to saturate when the fiber length exceeds a limit, named "effective fiber length". Using small core-diameter and long enough fiber, the SBS reflectivity level could be raised but is limited by optical damage of the entrance surface of the fiber. Therefore, just a small dynamic range can be obtained.

  17. A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke

    2008-03-01

    We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.

  18. Distributed Strain Measurement along a Concrete Beam via Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Bernini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural strain measurement of tension and compression in a 4 m long concrete beam was demonstrated with a distributed fiber-optic sensor portable system based on Brillouin scattering. Strain measurements provided by the fiber-optic sensor permitted to detect the formation of a crack in the beam resulting from the external applied load. The sensor system is valuable for structural monitoring applications, enabling the long-term performance and health of structures to be efficiently monitored.

  19. Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulator in soliton pulse compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Lü; Taorong Gong; Ming Chen; Muguang Wang; Tangjun Li; Genxiang Chen; Shuisheng Jian

    2009-01-01

    A phase modulator is employed in the scheme of soliton pulse compression with dispersion shifted fiber (DSF). Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect, as a negative influence here, can be dramatically suppressed after optical phase modulation. The experimental result shows that the launched power required for high-order soliton pulse compression has been significantly increased by 11 dB under the condition of 100-MHz phase modulation. Accordingly, the experiment of picosecond pulse compression generated from electro-absorption sampling window (EASW) has also been implemented.

  20. Triple-resonant Brillouin light scattering in magneto-optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Haigh, J A; Ramsay, A J; Ferguson, A J

    2016-01-01

    An enhancement in Brillouin light scattering of optical photons with magnons is demonstrated in magneto-optical whispering gallery mode resonators tuned to a triple resonance point. This occurs when both the input and output optical modes are resonant with those of the whispering gallery resonator, with a separation given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. The identification and excitation of specific optical modes allows us to gain a clear understanding of the mode-matching conditions. A selection rule due to wavevector matching leads to an intrinsic single-sideband excitation. Strong suppression of one sideband is essential for one-to-one frequency mapping in coherent optical-to-microwave conversion.

  1. High-pressure acoustic properties of glycerol studied by Brillouin spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min-Seok; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang Joo

    2015-12-01

    Acoustic properties of glycerol was investigated in a wide pressure range from ambient pressure to 30.9 GPa by using a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer and a diamond anvil cell. Pressure dependences of the sound velocity and the Brillouin linewidth showed substantial changes at low pressures below ~4 GPa. This was attributed to the coupling between the main structural relaxation process and the longitudinal acoustic waves. The pressure dependence of the refractive index and the density of glycerol could be obtained by using two scattering geometries and the Lorentz-Lorenz relation.

  2. High-pressure acoustic properties of glycerol studied by Brillouin spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Min-Seok [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Hyeon, E-mail: hwangko@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang Joo [Agency for Defense Development, 4-2-2, P.O. Box 35, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Acoustic properties of glycerol was investigated in a wide pressure range from ambient pressure to 30.9 GPa by using a multi-pass Fabry–Perot interferometer and a diamond anvil cell. Pressure dependences of the sound velocity and the Brillouin linewidth showed substantial changes at low pressures below ~4 GPa. This was attributed to the coupling between the main structural relaxation process and the longitudinal acoustic waves. The pressure dependence of the refractive index and the density of glycerol could be obtained by using two scattering geometries and the Lorentz–Lorenz relation.

  3. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  4. Assessing the effect of a high-fat diet on rodents' adipose tissue using Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Gobbell, Cassidy; Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-lipid diet on elasticity of adipose tissue. We employed dual Raman/Brillouin microspectroscopy to analyze brown and white adipose tissues obtained from adult rats. The rats were divided into two groups, one of which received a high-fat feed, while the other served as a control. We hypothesized that the changes in the elasticity of adipose tissues between the two groups can be successfully assessed using Brillouin spectroscopy. We found that the brown adipose tissue possessed a lesser Brillouin shift than the white adipose within each group and that the elastic modulus of both adipose tissues increases in the high-fat diet group. The Raman spectra provided supplementary chemical information and indicated an increase in the lipid-to-protein ratio in the brown adipose, but not in the white adipose.

  5. Multi-parameter sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in inverse-parabolic graded-index fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Ren, Meiqi; Lu, Yang; Lu, Ping; Lu, Ping; Bao, Xiaoyi; Wang, Lixian; Messaddeq, Younès; LaRochelle, Sophie

    2016-03-15

    We propose a unique multi-parameter optical fiber sensor based on intramodal stimulated Brillouin scattering of higher-order acoustic modes in inverse-parabolic graded-index fiber (IPGIF) without a mode converter. Both optical modes and acoustic modes guided in the IPGIF are characterized and demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Simulation analysis shows that the multi-peak feature in the Brillouin gain spectrum of the IPGIF is attributed to the couplings between the guided optical mode and the higher-order acoustic modes. Thanks to the distinct acoustic properties of the peaks induced by the sharp refractive index profile of the IPGIF, the different temperature and strain dependences of the first three Brillouin peaks enable the discrimination of the temperature and strain at an accuracy of 0.85°C and 17.4 με.

  6. Dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser for optical generation of tunable low-noise radio frequency/microwave frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jihong; Staines, Sean; Jiang, Shibin

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach, i.e., a cw dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser pumped by two independent single-frequency Er-doped fiber lasers, for the generation of tunable low-noise rf/microwave optical signals. Its inherent features of both linewidth narrowing effect in a Brillouin fiber cavity and common mode noise cancellation between two laser modes sharing a common cavity allow us to achieve high frequency stability without using a supercavity. Beat frequency of the dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser can be tuned from tens of megahertz up to 100 GHz by thermally tuning the wavelengths of the two pump lasers with tuning sensitivity of approximately 1.4 GHz/ degrees C. Allan variance measurements show the beat signals have the hertz-level frequency stability.

  7. Courcelle's Theorem - A Game-Theoretic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kneis, Joachim; Rossmanith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Courcelle's Theorem states that every problem definable in Monadic Second-Order logic can be solved in linear time on structures of bounded treewidth, for example, by constructing a tree automaton that recognizes or rejects a tree decomposition of the structure. Existing, optimized software like the MONA tool can be used to build the corresponding tree automata, which for bounded treewidth are of constant size. Unfortunately, the constants involved can become extremely large - every quantifier alternation requires a power set construction for the automaton. Here, the required space can become a problem in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel, direct approach based on model checking games, which avoids the expensive power set construction. Experiments with an implementation are promising, and we can solve problems on graphs where the automata-theoretic approach fails in practice.

  8. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy’s baryonic diameter D 0 —namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time—is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction f D M times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale λ 0 ≈ 3 ± 2 kpc.

  9. Steinitz theorems for simple orthogonal polyhedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eppstein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We define a simple orthogonal polyhedron to be a three-dimensional polyhedron with the topology of a sphere in which three mutually-perpendicular edges meet at each vertex.By analogy to Steinitz's theorem characterizing the graphs of convex polyhedra, we find graph-theoretic characterizations of three classes of simple orthogonal polyhedra: corner polyhedra, which can be drawn by isometric projection in the plane with only one hidden vertex, xyz polyhedra, in which each axis-parallel line through a vertex contains exactly one other vertex, and arbitrary simple orthogonal polyhedra. In particular, the graphs of xyz polyhedra are exactly the bipartite cubic polyhedral graphs, and every bipartite cubic polyhedral graph with a 4-connected dual graph is the graph of a corner polyhedron. Based on our characterizations we find efficient algorithms for constructing orthogonal polyhedra from their graphs.

  10. An entropic view of Pickands' theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Bercher, J -F

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that distributions arising in Renyi-Tsallis maximum entropy setting are related to the Generalized Pareto Distributions (GPD) that are widely used for modeling the tails of distributions. The relevance of such modelization, as well as the ubiquity of GPD in practical situations follows from Balkema-De Haan-Pickands theorem on the distribution of excesses (over a high threshold). We provide an entropic view of this result, by showing that the distribution of a suitably normalized excess variable converges to the solution of a maximum Tsallis entropy, which is the GPD. This highlights the relevance of the so-called Tsallis distributions in many applications as well as some relevance to the use of the corresponding entropy.

  11. What price the spin–statistics theorem?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E C G Sudarshan; I M Duck

    2003-10-01

    We examine a number of recent proofs of the spin–statistics theorem. All, of course, get the target result of Bose–Einstein statistics for identical integral spin particles and Fermi–Dirac statistics for identical half-integral spin particles. It is pointed out that these proofs, distinguished by their purported simple and intuitive kinematic character, require assumptions that are outside the realm of standard quantum mechanics. We construct a counterexample to these non-dynamical kinematic ‘proofs’ to emphasize the necessity of a dynamical proof as distinct from a kinematic proof. Sudarshan’s simple non-relativistic dynamical proof is briefly described. Finally, we make clear the price paid for any kinematic ‘proof’.

  12. A Theorem on Grid Access Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ZhiWei(徐志伟); BU GuanYing(卜冠英)

    2003-01-01

    The current grid security research is mainly focused on the authentication of grid systems. A problem to be solved by grid systems is to ensure consistent access control. This problem is complicated because the hosts in a grid computing environment usually span multiple autonomous administrative domains. This paper presents a grid access control model, based on asynchronous automata theory and the classic Bell-LaPadula model. This model is useful to formally study the confidentiality and integrity problems in a grid computing environment. A theorem is proved, which gives the necessary and sufficient conditions to a grid to maintain confidentiality.These conditions are the formalized descriptions of local (node) relations or relationship between grid subjects and node subjects.

  13. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2015-01-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the work of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  14. The Recursion Theorem and Infinite Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Arnold W

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use the Recursion Theorem to show the existence of various infinite sequences and sets. Our main result is that there is an increasing sequence e_0, e_1, e_2 .. such that W_{e_n}={e_{n+1}} for every n. Similarly, we prove that there exists an increasing sequence such that W_{e_n}={e_{n+1},e_{n+2},...} for every n. We call a nonempty computably enumerable set A self-constructing if W_e=A for every e in A. We show that every nonempty computable enumerable set which is disjoint from an infinite computable set is one-one equivalent to a self-constructing set

  15. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  16. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-05-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  17. Some Generalizations of Fedorchuk Duality Theorem -- II

    CERN Document Server

    Dimov, Georgi Dobromirov

    2007-01-01

    As it was shown in the first part of this paper, there exists a duality between the category DSkeLC (introduced there) and the category SkeLC of locally compact Hausdorff spaces and continuous skeletal maps. We describe here the subcategories of the category DSkeLC which are dually equivalent to the following eight categories: all of them have as objects the locally compact Hausdorff spaces and their morphisms are, respectively, the injective (respectively, surjective) continuous skeletal maps, the injective (resp., surjective) open maps, the injective (resp., surjective) skeletal perfect maps, the injective (resp., surjective) open perfect maps. The particular cases of these theorems for the full subcategories of the last four categories having as objects all compact Hausdorff spaces are formulated and proved. The DSkeLC-morphisms which are LCA-embeddings and the dense homeomorphic embeddings are characterized through their dual morphisms. For any locally compact space X, a description of the frame of all op...

  18. On a curvature-statistics theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: Manuel.Calixto@upct.es

    2008-08-15

    The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature ({kappa} = {+-}1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.

  19. Oscillation and the mean ergodic theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Avigad, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Let B be a uniformly convex Banach space, let T be a nonexpansive linear operator, and let A_n x denote the ergodic average (1/n) sum_{i 0, the sequence has only finitely many fluctuations greater than epsilon. Drawing on calculations by Kohlenbach and Leustean, we provide a uniform bound on the number of fluctuations that depends only on rho := || x || / epsilon and a modulus, eta, of uniform convexity for B. Specifically, we show that the sequence of averages (A_n x) has O(rho^2 log rho * eta(1/(8 rho))^{-1})-many epsilon-fluctuations, and if B is a Hilbert space, the sequence has O(rho^3 log rho)-many epsilon-fluctuations. The proof is fully explicit, providing a remarkably uniform, quantitative, and constructive formulation of the mean ergodic theorem.

  20. Weak Convergence Theorems for Nonself Mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong-quan; Guo Wei-ping; Ji You-qing

    2015-01-01

    Let E be a real uniformly convex and smooth Banach space, and K be a nonempty closed convex subset of E with P as a sunny nonexpansive retrac-tion. Let T1, T2 : K → E be two weakly inward nonself asymptotically nonexpan-sive mappings with respect to P with a sequence {k(i)n } ⊂ [1,∞) (i = 1, 2), and F := F (T1)∩F (T2) = ∅. An iterative sequence for approximation common fixed points of the two nonself asymptotically nonexpansive mappings is discussed. If E has also a Fr´echet differentiable norm or its dual E∗ has Kadec-Klee property, then weak convergence theorems are obtained.

  1. Primitive Near-rings-Some Structure Theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerhard Wendt

    2007-01-01

    We show that any zero symmetric 1-primitive near-ring with descending chain condition on left ideals can be described as a centralizer near-ring in which the multipli-cation is not the function composition but sandwich multiplication.This result follows from a more general structure theorem on 1-primitive near-rings with multiplicative right identity,not necessarily having a chain condition on left ideals.We then use our results to investigate more closely the multiplicative semigroup of a 1-primitive near-ring.In par-ticular,we show that the set of regular elements forms a right ideal of the multiplicative semigroup of the near-ring.

  2. No-Hair Theorem for Weak Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that there exists a class of pulsars, called weak pulsars, for which the large-scale magnetosphere, and hence the gamma-ray emission, are independent of the detailed pattern of plasma production. The weak pulsar magnetosphere and its gamma-ray emission are uniquely determined by just three parameters: spin, dipole, and the spin-dipole angle. We calculate this supposedly unique pulsar magnetosphere in the axisymmetric case. The magnetosphere is found to be very close to (although interestingly not fully identical with) the magnetosphere we have previously calculated, explaining the phenomenological success of the old calculation. We offer only a highly tentative proof of this "Pulsar No-Hair Theorem". Our analytics, while convincing in its non-triviality, is incomplete, and counts only as a plausibility argument. Our numerics, while complete, is dubious. The plasma flow in the weak pulsar magnetosphere turns out to be even more intricate than what we have previously proposed: some particles, aft...

  3. PBR theorem and Einstein's quantum hole argument

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2013-01-01

    This note discusses the latest hot topic: Quantum states: ontic or epistemic? and the PBR theorem. Upon reading Einstein's views on quantum incompleteness in publications or in his correspondence after 1935 (the EPR paradox), one gets a very intense feeling of deja-vu. Einstein presents a quantum hole argument, which somewhat reminds of the hole argument in his 1914 "Entwurf" general theory of relativity. In their paper, PBR write the following: "an important step towards the derivation of our result is the idea that the quantum state is physical if distinct quantum states correspond to non-overlapping distributions for [the set of possible physical states that a system can be in]", and they then refer to Einstein's argument and views.

  4. If 1+1=2 then the Pythagorean theorem holds, or one more proof of the oldest theorem of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru HORVÁTH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pythagorean theorem is one of the oldest theorems of mathematics. It gained during the time a central position and even today it continues to be a source of inspiration. In this note we try to give a proof which is based on a hopefully new approach. Our treatment will be as intuitive as it can be.

  5. Generalizations of some Zero Sum Theorems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M N Chintamani; B K Moriya

    2012-02-01

    Given an abelian group of order , and a finite non-empty subset of integers, the Davenport constant of with weight , denoted by $D_A(G)$, is defined to be the least positive integer such that, for every sequence $(x_1,\\ldots,x_t)$ with $x_i\\in G$, there exists a non-empty subsequence $(x_{j_1},\\ldots,x_{j_l})$ and $a_i\\in A$ such that $\\sum^l_{i=1}a_ix_{j_i}=0$. Similarly, for an abelian group of order $n,E_A(G)$ is defined to be the least positive integer such that every sequence over of length contains a subsequence $(x_{j_1},\\ldots,x_{j_n})$ such that $\\sum^n_{i=1}a_ix_{j_i}=0$, for some $a_i\\in A$. When is of order , one considers to be a non-empty subset of $\\{1,\\ldots,n-1\\}$. If is the cyclic group $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$, we denote $E_A(G)$ and $D_A(G)$ by $E_A(n)$ and $D_A(n)$ respectively. In this note, we extend some results of Adhikari et al(Integers 8(2008) Article A52) and determine bounds for $D_{R_n}(n)$ and $E_{R_n}(n)$, where $R_n=\\{x^2:x\\in(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^∗\\}$. We follow some lines of argument from Adhikari et al(Integers 8 (2008) Article A52) and use a recent result of Yuan and Zeng (European J. Combinatorics 31 (2010) 677–680), a theorem due to Chowla (Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) 2 (1935) 242–243) and Kneser’s theorem (Math. Z.58(1953) 459–484;66(1956) 88–110;61(1955) 429–434).

  6. Cosmological singularity theorems and splitting theorems for N-Bakry-Emery spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Woolgar, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We study Lorentzian manifolds with a weight function such that the $N$-Bakry-\\'Emery tensor is bounded below. Such spacetimes arise in the physics of scalar-tensor gravitation theories, including Brans-Dicke theory, theories with Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction, and low-energy approximations to string theory. In the "pure Bakry-\\'Emery" $N= \\infty$ case with $f$ uniformly bounded above and initial data suitably bounded, cosmological-type singularity theorems are known, as are splitting theorems which determine the geometry of timelike geodesically complete spacetimes for which the bound on the initial data is borderline violated. We extend these results in a number of ways. We are able to extend the singularity theorems to finite $N$-values $N\\in (n,\\infty)$ and $N\\in (-\\infty,1]$. In the $N\\in (n,\\infty)$ case, no bound on $f$ is required, while for $N\\in (-\\infty,1]$ and $N= \\infty$, we are able to replace the boundedness of $f$ by a weaker condition on the integral of $f$ along future-inextendible timel...

  7. Generalizing the Converse to Pascal's Theorem via Hyperplane Arrangements and the Cayley-Bacharach Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Traves, Will

    2011-01-01

    Using a new point of view inspired by hyperplane arrangements, we generalize the converse to Pascal's Theorem, sometimes called the Braikenridge-Maclaurin Theorem. In particular, we show that if 2k lines meet a given line, colored green, in k triple points and if we color the remaining lines so that each triple point lies on a red and blue line then the points of intersection of the red and blue lines lying off the green line lie on a unique curve of degree k-1. We also use these ideas to extend a second generalization of the Braikenridge-Maclaurin Theorem, due to M\\"obius. Finally we use Terracini's Lemma and secant varieties to show that this process constructs a dense set of curves in the space of plane curves of degree d, for degrees d <= 5. The process cannot produce a dense set of curves in higher degrees. The exposition is embellished with several exercises designed to amuse the reader.

  8. THE MEAN VALUE THEOREM AND CONVERSE THEOREM OF ONE CLASS THE FOURTH-ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    同小军; 同登科; 陈绵云

    2001-01-01

    For the formal presentation about the definite problems of ultra-hyperbolic equations, the famous Asgeirsson mean value theorem has answered that Cauchy problems are ill-posed to ultra-hyperbolic partial differential equations of the second-order. So it is important to develop Asgeirsson mean value theorem. The mean value of solution for the higher order equation has been discussed primarily and has no exact result at present. The mean value theorem for the higher order equation can be deduced and satisfied generalized biaxial symmetry potential equation by using the result of Asgeirsson mean value theorem and the properties of derivation and integration. Moreover, the mean value formula can be obtained by using the regular solutions of potential equation and the special properties of Jacobi polynomials. Its converse theorem is also proved. The obtained results make it possible to discuss on continuation of the solutions and well posed problem.

  9. Precise Determination of Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Using a Virtually Imaged Phase Array (VIPA) Spectrometer and Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-08-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging tool for microscopic optical imaging as it allows noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic properties of materials. The use of atomic-molecular absorption cells as ultra-narrow notch filters allows acquisition of Brillouin spectra from turbid samples despite their strong elastic scattering. However, such systems alter the shapes of the Brillouin lines, making the precise determination of the Brillouin shift difficult. In this report, we propose a simple method for analyzing the Brillouin spectrum using a customized least-square fitting algorithm. The absorption spectrum induced by the atomic-molecular cell was taken into consideration. The capability of the method is confirmed by processing experimental spectroscopic data from the pure water at different temperatures. The accuracy of the measurements of ±1 MHz spectral line shift is experimentally demonstrated.

  10. Theoretical demonstration of Brillouin lasing effect in racetrack resonators based on germanium waveguides in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2016-01-15

    In this Letter, we present a theoretical investigation of integrated racetrack Brillouin lasers based on germanium waveguides that are buried in silicon nitride and operate at a wavelength of 4 μm. General design equations in a steady-state regime have been carried out to determine the threshold power and the emitted Stokes power as a function of the resonance mismatch and coupling factor. The pulling effect as induced by the Brillouin gain dispersion and the pushing effects originated by SPM and XPM effects have been accurately investigated to predict the lasing frequency.

  11. Raman-assisted Brillouin optical time-domain analysis with sub-meter resolution over 100 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Vinuesa, X; Martin-Lopez, S; Corredera, P; Gonzalez-Herraez, M

    2012-05-21

    Sub-meter resolution in long-distance Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) cannot be trivially achieved due to several issues including: resolution-uncertainty trade-offs, self-phase modulation, fiber attenuation, depletion, etc. In this paper we show that combining Raman assistance, differential pulse-width pair (DPP) measurements and a novel numerical de-noising procedure, we could obtain sub-meter resolution Brillouin optical time-domain analysis over a range of 100 km. We successfully demonstrate the detection of a 0.5 meter hot-spot in the position of worst contrast along the fiber.

  12. Spatial structure and coherence properties of Brillouin scatter from CO2 laser-target interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, G. R.; Grek, B.; Johnston, T. W.; Pépin, H.; Church, P.; Martin, F.

    1982-05-01

    The spatial structure and coherence properties of 10.6-μm light scattered from CO2 laser-target interactions in oblique incidence show many unexpected features. It is found that the Brillouin backscatter is neither a phase conjugate nor a ray retrace of the incident beam. Rather, it shows a preference for scattering directions other than those exactly antiparallel to the incident beam, apparently related to the angular distribution of the scattering source and also of the plasma corona that serves as the Brillouin amplifying medium. As well, the backscatter phasefront is strongly perturbed with respect to the incident phasefront. This is an indication of turbulence in the corona and/or memory of the structure in the source that is then amplified. Small-scale structures seen in the reimaged backscatter are due to phase perturbation and cannot be simply interpreted as geometric images of a (filamented) source. The phasefront of light that is scattered obliquely from the plasma is much more coherent.

  13. Bandwidth-tunable narrowband rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-09-22

    We propose a rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber with bandwidth tuning from 50 MHz to 4 GHz at less than 15-MHz resolution. The rectangular shape of the filter is precisely achieved utilizing digital feedback control of the comb-like pump spectral lines. The passband ripple is suppressed to ~1 dB by mitigating the nonlinearity influences of the comb-like pump lines generated in electrical and optical components and fibers. Moreover a fiber with a single Brillouin peak is employed to further reduce the in-band ripple and the out-of-band SBS gain at the same time. Finally, we analyze the noise performance of the filter at different bandwidth cases and demonstrate the system performance of the proposed filter with 2.1-GHz bandwidth and 19-dB gain by amplifying a 2-GHz orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal with quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) on each subscriber.

  14. Stability of Brillouin flow in the presence of slow-wave structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.; Wong, P.; Hoff, B.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2016-09-01

    Including a slow-wave structure (SWS) on the anode in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron, we systematically study the linear stability of Brillouin flow, which is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. The analytic treatment is fully relativistic and fully electromagnetic, and it incorporates the equilibrium density profile, flow profile, and electric field and magnetic field profiles in the linear stability analysis. Using parameters similar to the University of Michigan's recirculating planar magnetron, the numerical data show that the resonant interaction of the vacuum circuit mode and the corresponding smooth-bore diocotron-like mode is the dominant cause for instability. This resonant interaction is far more important than the intrinsic negative (positive) mass property of electrons in the inverted (conventional) magnetron geometry. It is absent in either the smooth-bore magnetron or under the electrostatic assumption, one or both of which was almost always adopted in prior analytical formulation. This resonant interaction severely restricts the wavenumber for instability to the narrow range in which the cold tube frequency of the SWS is within a few percent of the corresponding smooth bore diocotron-like mode in the Brillouin flow.

  15. Attometer resolution spectral analysis based on polarization pulling assisted Brillouin scattering merged with heterodyne detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-10-05

    Spectral analysis is essential for measuring and monitoring advanced optical communication systems and the characterization of active and passive devices like amplifiers, filters and especially frequency combs. Conventional devices have a limited resolution or tuning range. Therefore, the true spectral shape of the signal remains hidden. In this work, a small part of the signal under test is preselected with help of the polarization pulling effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering where all unwanted spectral components are suppressed. Subsequently, this part is analyzed more deeply through heterodyne detection. Thereby, the local oscillator is generated from a narrow linewidth fiber laser which acts also as pump wave for Brillouin scattering. By scanning the pump wave together with the local oscillator through the signal spectrum, the whole signal is measured. The method is tunable over a broad wavelength range, is not affected by unwanted mixing products and utilizes a conventional narrow bandwidth photo diode. First proof of concept experiments show the measurement of the power spectral density function with a resolution in the attometer or lower kilohertz range at 1550 nm.

  16. Phase-locking and Pulse Generation in Multi-Frequency Brillouin Oscillator via Four Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Kabakova, Irina V.; Hudson, Darren D.; Pant, Ravi; Poulton, Christopher G.; Judge, Alexander C.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for pulsed all-fibre lasers with gigahertz repetition rates for applications in telecommunications and metrology. The repetition rate of conventional passively mode-locked fibre lasers is fundamentally linked to the laser cavity length and is therefore typically ~10-100 MHz, which is orders of magnitude lower than required. Cascading stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nonlinear resonators, however, enables the formation of Brillouin frequency combs (BFCs) with GHz line spacing, which is determined by the acoustic properties of the medium and is independent of the resonator length. Phase-locking of such combs therefore holds a promise to achieve gigahertz repetition rate lasers. The interplay of SBS and Kerr-nonlinear four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear resonators has been previously investigated, yet the phase relationship of the waves has not been considered. Here, we present for the first time experimental and numerical results that demonstrate phase-locking of BFCs generated in a nonlinear waveguide cavity. Using real-time measurements we demonstrate stable 40 ps pulse trains with 8 GHz repetition rate based on a chalcogenide fibre cavity, without the aid of any additional phase-locking element. Detailed numerical modelling, which is in agreement with the experimental results, highlight the essential role of FWM in phase-locking of the BFC.

  17. A systematic study of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in air, N2 and O2 gases

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments in air, N2 and O2 have been performed for a wide range of temperatures and pressures at a wavelength of 403 nm and at a 90 degrees scattering angle. Measurements of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral scattering profile were conducted at high signal-to-noise ratio for all three species, yielding high-quality spectra unambiguously showing the small differences between scattering in air, and its constituents N2 and O2. Comparison of the experimental spectra with calculations using the Tenti S6 model, developed in 1970s based on linearized kinetic equations for molecular gases, demonstrates that this model is valid to high accuracy. After previous measurements performed at 366 nm, the Tenti S6 model is here verified for a second wavelength of 403 nm. Values for the bulk viscosity for the gases are derived by optimizing the model to the measurements. It is verified that the bulk viscosity parameters obtained from previous experiments at 366 nm, are valid for wavel...

  18. Study on two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering system with mixture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Wuliji; L(U) ZhiWei; LI Qiang; BA DeXin; HE WeiMing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method of choosing mixture medium in two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) system to improve the system performance is proposed. The Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) of mixture medium varies with the mixing ratio and thus the difference of the BFS between the two cells can be eliminated. The two-cell SBS system with acetone (C3H6O) in its generator cell and mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 in its amplifier cell is investigated. The C3H6O has a high optical break- down threshold and the mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 has a small absorption coefficient and the same BFS as that of C3H6O when the volume fraction of CCl4 is 4%. Compared with two-cell SBS system with the same liquid (C2Cl4) or different liquid (C3H6O and C2Cl4) in generator and amplifier cell, the SBS system with mixture liquid (CCl4/C2Cl4) in amplifier cell and C3H6O in generator cell improves the power-load, energy reflectivity (ER), phase conjugation (PC) fidelity and ER stability.

  19. A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Cole, Daniel C; Coillet, Aurelien; Baynes, Fred N; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultralow-noise microrod-resonator based laser that oscillates on the gain supplied by the stimulated Brillouin scattering optical nonlinearity. Microresonator Brillouin lasers are known to offer an outstanding frequency noise floor, which is limited by fundamental thermal fluctuations. Here, we show experimental evidence that thermal effects also dominate the close-to-carrier frequency fluctuations. The 6-mm diameter microrod resonator used in our experiments has a large optical mode area of ~100 {\\mu}m$^2$, and hence its 10 ms thermal time constant filters the close-to-carrier optical frequency noise. The result is an absolute laser linewidth of 240 Hz with a corresponding white-frequency noise floor of 0.1 Hz$^2$/Hz. We explain the steady-state performance of this laser by measurements of its operation state and of its mode detuning and lineshape. Our results highlight a mechanism for noise that is common to many microresonator devices due to the inherent coupling between intracavity power...

  20. Research on Structural Stress Optical Fiber Testing Technology Based on Brillouin Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xian-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the principle of distributed optical fiber measurement and measurement of axial stress is introduced by analyzing the principle of Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber with a certain power. Making the experimental device, measuring the individual strain model, analyzing the wave shape of the scattered wave, and preliminary understanding of the image characteristics of the stress in the optical fiber Brillouin scattering spectrum. The effect of stress on the different position of the fiber, and the difference between them and the scattering waveform obtained from the stress free action poetry are compared, and the effect of the light pulse on the optical fiber transmission is studied. The results show that the effect of the stress is different in the position of the action, and the effect of the propagation of the pulse light is mainly affected by the Stokes and anti Stokes light scattering. The research can provide reference for distributed optical fiber measurement, and it can promote the application of distributed optical fiber in measuring micro deformation. The innovative point of this study is to use the pulley method to solve the effect of the different position of the same stress in the distribution of optical fiber.